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Sample records for moran rt marchand

  1. marchand-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two-Year Cloud Climatology for the Southern Great Plains Site R. T. Marchand, T. P. Ackerman, and E. E. Clothiaux Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Introduction The addition of the millimeter cloud radar to the suite of instruments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site has provided the necessary observations to produce a cloud climatology. Using algorithms developed by our research group, data from the radar are combined with data from the Belfort ceilometer and

  2. moran-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 A Review of the First Year of Operations of ARM's 8-mm Cloud Profiling Radar at the SGP CART Site K. P. Moran, B. E. Martner, and M. J. Post NOAA-Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program designed the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites to provide researchers with a set of measurements of the state of the

  3. moran-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Processing Techniques Used in the ARM 8-mm Cloud Radars K. P. Moran, R. Lataitis, M. J. Post, B. E. Martner, and D. Welsh National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado D. Strauch Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences Boulder, Colorado K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radars

  4. Department of Energy Reply to Congressman James P. Moran | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reply to Congressman James P. Moran Department of Energy Reply to Congressman James P. Moran Docket No. EO-05-01: Department of Energy Reply to Congressman James P. Moran ...

  5. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT McMoran - FE DKT. NO. 13-26...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    McMoran - FE DKT. NO. 13-26-LNG - ORDER 3290 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT McMoran - FE DKT. NO. 13-26-LNG - ORDER 3290 PDF icon October 2013 PDF icon April 2014 PDF icon ...

  6. Comments from Congressman James P. Moran, 8th District of Virginia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Congressman James P. Moran, 8th District of Virginia Supporting the Comments from the ... Comments from Congressman James P. Moran, 8th District of Virginia Supporting the Comments ...

  7. Comments from Congressman James P. Moran, 8th District of Virginia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting the Comments from the City of Alexandria on PEPCO's Intention to Commence Planned Transmission Outages | Department of Energy from Congressman James P. Moran, 8th District of Virginia Supporting the Comments from the City of Alexandria on PEPCO's Intention to Commence Planned Transmission Outages Comments from Congressman James P. Moran, 8th District of Virginia Supporting the Comments from the City of Alexandria on PEPCO's Intention to Commence Planned Transmission Outages Docket

  8. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Control : SF 6432-RT Title: Standard Terms and Conditions ... Any Contractor personnel who will enter a government site to ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor will ...

  9. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... prior to any attempts to enter a government site as shown ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor shall ... SF 6432-RT Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for ...

  10. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Control : SF 6432-RT Title: Standard Terms and Conditions ... Any Contractor personnel who will enter a government site to ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor shall ...

  11. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RT Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for Acquiring the Services of Sandia Retirees Owner: Procurement Policy & Quality Dept Release Date: 03/2014 Page 1 of 16 Printed copies of this document are uncontrolled. Retrieve latest version electronically. SANDIA CORPORATION SF 6432-RT (3/2014) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR ACQUIRING SERVICES OF SANDIA RETIREES THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE

  12. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RT (04/2015) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR ACQUIRING SERVICES OF SANDIA RETIREES THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY SUPPLEMENTED OR AMENDED IN WRITING IN THE COVER PAGE OR SECTION I. (CTRL+CLICK ON A LINK BELOW TO ADVANCE DIRECTLY TO THAT SECTION) ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS (Ts&Cs) APPLICABLE LAW ASSIGNMENT BANKRUPTCY CANCELLATION OR TERMINATION FOR CONVENIENCE CHANGES

  13. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11/17/15 Page 1 of 16 Printed copies of this document are uncontrolled. Retrieve latest version electronically. SANDIA CORPORATION SF 6432-RT (11/2015) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR ACQUIRING SERVICES OF SANDIA RETIREES THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY SUPPLEMENTED OR AMENDED IN WRITING IN THE COVER PAGE OR SECTION I. (CTRL+CLICK ON A LINK BELOW TO ADVANCE DIRECTLY TO THAT SECTION)

  14. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2002-01-16

    Work associated with Budget Period 1 of the East Binger (Marchand) Unit project is nearing completion. A major aspect of this project is accurate modeling of the performance of horizontal wells. Well EBU 37-3H, the first horizontal well drilled in the unit, was drilled in the second quarter of 2001. After much difficulty establishing economic production from the well, the well was hydraulically fractured in November 2001. Post-treatment production has been very encouraging and is significantly better than a vertical well drilled in a similar setting. International Reservoir Technologies, Inc. has completed the final history match of the pilot area reservoir simulation model, including tuning to the performance of the horizontal well. The model's predicted reservoir pressure gradient between injection and production wells accurately matches observed data from the field, a significant improvement from prior model predictions. The model's predicted gas injection profiles now also more accurately match field data. Work has begun toward evaluating the optimum development scenario with the pilot model. Initially, four scenarios will be evaluated--two involving all horizontal infill wells, one involving all vertical infill wells, and one involving a combination of vertical and horizontal infill wells. The model cases for these scenarios have been defined, and construction of them is underway.

  15. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  16. Experiment vs simulation RT WFNDEC 2014 benchmark: CIVA results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tisseur, D. Costin, M. Rattoni, B. Vienne, C. Vabre, A. Cattiaux, G.; Sollier, T.

    2015-03-31

    The French Atomic Energy Commission and Alternative Energies (CEA) has developed for years the CIVA software dedicated to simulation of NDE techniques such as Radiographic Testing (RT). RT modelling is achieved in CIVA using combination of a determinist approach based on ray tracing for transmission beam simulation and a Monte Carlo model for the scattered beam computation. Furthermore, CIVA includes various detectors models, in particular common x-ray films and a photostimulable phosphor plates. This communication presents the results obtained with the configurations proposed in the World Federation of NDEC 2014 RT modelling benchmark with the RT models implemented in the CIVA software.

  17. V-190: ASUS RT-N66U Router AiCloud Security Bypass Security Issue...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: ASUS RT-N66U Router AiCloud Security Bypass Security Issue V-190: ASUS RT-N66U Router AiCloud Security Bypass Security Issue July 2, 2013 - 12:38am Addthis PROBLEM: ASUS RT-N66U...

  18. Spinal reirradiation after short-course RT for metastatic spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Veninga, Theo; Hoskin, Peter J.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of reirradiation (re-RT) for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression after primary RT with 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy. Methods and Materials: A total of 62 patients, treated with 1 x 8 Gy (n = 34) or 5 x 4 Gy (n = 28) between January 1995 and August 2003, received re-RT for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression. The median time to recurrence was 6 months (range, 2-40 months). Re-RT was performed with 1 x 8 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, n = 34), 5 x 3 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, n = 15), or 5 x 4 Gy (after 1 x 8 Gy, n = 13). The cumulative biologically effective dose (primary RT plus re-RT) was 80-100 Gy{sub 2}. The median follow-up after re-RT was 8 months (range, 2-42 months). Motor function was evaluated up to 6 months after re-RT. Results: After re-RT, 25 patients (40%) showed improvement of motor function, 28 (45%) had no change, and 9 (15%) had deterioration. Of the 16 previously nonambulatory patients, 6 (38%) regained the ability to walk. No second in-field recurrence in the same spinal region was observed after re-RT. The outcome was not significantly influenced by the radiation schedule. Radiation myelopathy was not observed. Conclusions: Spinal re-RT with 1 x 8 Gy, 5 x 3 Gy, or 5 x 4 Gy for in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression appears safe and effective. Myelopathy seems unlikely, if the cumulative biologically effective dose is {<=}100 Gy{sub 2}.

  19. Simulating Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability using PPM hydrodynamics @scale on Roadrunner (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, Paul R; Dimonte, Guy; Rockefeller, Gabriel M; Fryer, Christopher L; Dimonte, Guy; Dai, W; Kares, R. J.

    2011-01-05

    The effect of initial conditions on the self-similar growth of the RT instability is investigated using a hydrodynamics code based on the piecewise-parabolic-method (PPM). The PPM code was converted to the hybrid architecture of Roadrunner in order to perform the simulations at extremely high speed and spatial resolution. This paper describes the code conversion to the Cell processor, the scaling studies to 12 CU's on Roadrunner and results on the dependence of the RT growth rate on initial conditions. The relevance of the Roadrunner implementation of this PPM code to other existing and anticipated computer architectures is also discussed.

  20. WE-G-17A-03: MRIgRT: Quantification of Organ Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanescu, T; Tadic, T; Jaffray, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an MRI-based methodology and tools required for the quantification of organ motion on a dedicated MRI-guided radiotherapy system. A three-room facility, consisting of a TrueBeam 6X linac vault, a 1.5T MR suite and a brachytherapy interventional room, is currently under commissioning at our institution. The MR scanner can move and image in either room for diagnostic and treatment guidance purposes. Methods: A multi-imaging modality (MR, kV) phantom, featuring programmable 3D simple and complex motion trajectories, was used for the validation of several image sorting algorithms. The testing was performed on MRI (e.g. TrueFISP, TurboFLASH), 4D CT and 4D CBCT. The image sorting techniques were based on a) direct image pixel manipulation into columns or rows, b) single and aggregated pixel data tracking and c) using computer vision techniques for global pixel analysis. Subsequently, the motion phantom and sorting algorithms were utilized for commissioning of MR fast imaging techniques for 2D-cine and 4D data rendering. MR imaging protocols were optimized (e.g. readout gradient strength vs. SNR) to minimize the presence of susceptibility-induced distortions, which were reported through phantom experiments and numerical simulations. The system-related distortions were also quantified (dedicated field phantom) and treated as systematic shifts where relevant. Results: Image sorting algorithms were validated for specific MR-based applications such as quantification of organ motion, local data sampling, and 4D MRI for pre-RT delivery with accuracy better than the raw image pixel size (e.g. 1 mm). MR fast imaging sequences were commissioning and imaging strategies were developed to mitigate spatial artifacts with minimal penalty on the image spatial and temporal sampling. Workflows (e.g. liver) were optimized to include the new motion quantification tools for RT planning and daily patient setup verification. Conclusion: Comprehensive methods were developed

  1. SU-E-J-42: Customized Deformable Image Registration Using Open-Source Software SlicerRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaitan, J Cifuentes; Chin, L; Pignol, J; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J; Lasso, A; Pinter, C; Fichtinger, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: SlicerRT is a flexible platform that allows the user to incorporate the necessary images registration and processing tools to improve clinical workflow. This work validates the accuracy and the versatility of the deformable image registration algorithm of the free open-source software SlicerRT using a deformable physical pelvic phantom versus available commercial image fusion algorithms. Methods: Optical camera images of nonradiopaque markers implanted in an anatomical pelvic phantom were used to measure the ground-truth deformation and evaluate the theoretical deformations for several DIR algorithms. To perform the registration, full and empty bladder computed tomography (CT) images of the phantom were obtained and used as fixed and moving images, respectively. The DIR module, found in SlicerRT, used a B-spline deformable image registration with multiple optimization parameters that allowed customization of the registration including a regularization term that controlled the amount of local voxel displacement. The virtual deformation field at the center of the phantom was obtained and compared to the experimental ground-truth values. The parameters of SlicerRT were then varied to improve spatial accuracy. To quantify image similarity, the mean absolute difference (MAD) parameter using Hounsfield units was calculated. In addition, the Dice coefficient of the contoured rectum was evaluated to validate the strength of the algorithm to transfer anatomical contours. Results: Overall, SlicerRT achieved one of the lowest MAD values across the algorithm spectrum, but slightly smaller mean spatial errors in comparison to MIM software (MIM). On the other hand, SlicerRT created higher mean spatial errors than Velocity Medical Solutions (VEL), although obtaining an improvement on the DICE to 0.91. The large spatial errors were attributed to the poor contrast in the prostate bladder interface of the phantom. Conclusion: Based phantom validation, SlicerRT is capable of

  2. Implementation and commissioning of an integrated micro-CT/RT system with computerized independent jaw collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael D.; Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Jung, Jongho A.; Holdsworth, David W.; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 ; Drangova, Maria; Chen, Jeff; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 ; Wong, Eugene; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7; Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To design, construct, and commission a set of computer-controlled motorized jaws for a micro-CT/RT system to perform conformal image-guided small animal radiotherapy.Methods: The authors designed and evaluated a system of custom-built motorized orthogonal jaws, which allows the delivery of off-axis rectangular fields on a GE eXplore CT 120 preclinical imaging system. The jaws in the x direction are independently driven, while the y-direction jaws are symmetric. All motors have backup encoders, verifying jaw positions. Mechanical performance of the jaws was characterized. Square beam profiles ranging from 2 2 to 60 60 mm{sup 2} were measured using EBT2 film in the center of a 70 70 22 mm{sup 3} solid water block. Similarly, absolute depth dose was measured in a solid water and EBT2 film stack 50 50 50 mm{sup 3}. A calibrated Farmer ion chamber in a 70 70 20 mm{sup 3} solid water block was used to measure the output of three field sizes: 50 50, 40 40, and 30 30 mm{sup 2}. Elliptical target plans were delivered to films to assess overall system performance. Respiratory-gated treatment was implemented on the system and initially proved using a simple sinusoidal motion phantom. All films were scanned on a flatbed scanner (Epson 1000XL) and converted to dose using a fitted calibration curve. A Monte Carlo beam model of the micro-CT with the jaws has been created using BEAMnrc for comparison with the measurements. An example image-guided partial lung irradiation in a rat is demonstrated.Results: The averaged random error of positioning each jaw is less than 0.1 mm. Relative output factors measured with the ion chamber agree with Monte Carlo simulations within 2%. Beam profiles and absolute depth dose curves measured from the films agree with simulations within measurement uncertainty. Respiratory-gated treatments applied to a phantom moving with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 5 mm showed improved beam penumbra (80%20%) from 3.9 to 0.8 mm

  3. DOE/SC-ARM-10-032 ARM Climate Research Facility AnnuAl RepoRt - 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10-032 ARM Climate Research Facility AnnuAl RepoRt - 2010 Recovery Act HigHligHts September 2009 * One hundred percent of allocated funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 released to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. October 2009 * Preliminary design reviews successfully completed for new solar spectrometer and Data Management Facility (DMF) upgrades. December 2009 * Preliminary design reviews successfully completed for 18 new radars

  4. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Neil B.; Stein, Nicholas F.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M.; Goodman, Karyn; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves

  5. Ten polymorphic DNA loci, including five in the rat MHC (RT1) region, form a single linkage group on rat chromosome 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remmers, E.F.; Du, Y.; Zha, H.; Goldmuntz, E.A.; Wilder, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    We have described ten markers for polymorphic loci on rat chromosome 20, including five in the rat MHC (RT1) region. These markers formed a single linkage group spanning a recombination distance of 0.40. The markers identified five expressed gene loci - RT1.N1 (thymus leukemia antigen 1), Tnfa (tumor necrosis factor {alpha}), Hspa1 (heat shock protein 70), Ggt1 ({gamma} glutamyl-transferase 1), and Prkacn2 (protein kinase C catalytic subunit binding inhibitor 2), two loci with sequences that are related to expressed genes - RT1.Aw2 (sequence related to a non-RT1A class I {alpha} chain) and Mt21 (sequence related to metallothionein 2), and three anonymous loci - D20Arb548, D20Arb234, and D20Arb249. These polymorphic markers should facilitate mapping studies and genetic monitoring of inbred rat strains. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. SU-E-T-557: Monte Carlo Modeling of Philips RT-250 Orthovoltage Unit for Beam Spectrum Modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynoso, F; Cho, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a Monte Carlo (MC) model of a Phillips RT-250 orthovoltage unit to test various beam spectrum modulation strategies for in vitro/vivo studies. A model of this type would enable the production of unconventional beams from a typical orthovoltage unit for novel therapeutic applications such as gold nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy. Methods: The MCNP5 code system was used to create a MC model of the head of RT-250 and a 30 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3} water phantom. For the x-ray machine head, the current model includes the vacuum region, beryllium window, collimators, inherent filters and exterior steel housing. For increased computational efficiency, the primary x-ray spectrum from the target was calculated from a well-validated analytical software package. Calculated percentage-depth-dose (PDD) values and photon spectra were validated against experimental data from film and Compton-scatter spectrum measurements. Results: The model was validated for three common settings of the machine namely, 250 kVp (0.25 mm Cu), 125 kVp (2 mm Al), and 75 kVp (2 mm Al). The MC results for the PDD curves were compared with film measurements and showed good agreement for all depths with a maximum difference of 4 % around dmax and under 2.5 % for all other depths. The primary photon spectra were also measured and compared with the MC results showing reasonable agreement between the two, validating the input spectra and the final spectra as predicted by the current MC model. Conclusion: The current MC model accurately predicted the dosimetric and spectral characteristics of each beam from the RT-250 orthovoltage unit, demonstrating its applicability and reliability for beam spectrum modulation tasks. It accomplished this without the need to model the bremsstrahlung xray production from the target, while significantly improved on computational efficiency by at least two orders of magnitude. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198.

  7. Measurement of a density profile of a hot-electron plasma in RT-1 with three-chord interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Kawazura, Y.; Nogami, T.; Yamasaki, M.

    2015-02-15

    The electron density profile of a plasma in a magnetospheric dipole field configuration was measured with a multi-chord interferometry including a relativistic correction. In order to improve the accuracy of density reconstruction, a 75 GHz interferometer was installed at a vertical chord of the Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device in addition to previously installed ones at tangential and another vertical chords. The density profile was calculated by using the data of three-chord interferometry including relativistic effects for a plasma consisting of hot and cold electrons generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH). The results clearly showed the effects of density peaking and magnetic mirror trapping in a strongly inhomogeneous dipole magnetic field.

  8. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCR and SDR (if one is identified in the contract,) within 72 hours of the Contractor's learning of the situation. The Contractor shall cooperate with Sandia and provide...

  9. RepoRt B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy and new technologies. It also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by federal hydropower development in the Columbia...

  10. RepoRt B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and develop emergency backup systems. Biological Opinion Under the Endangered Species Act, BPA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and the Bureau of Reclamation...

  11. Austin(2)-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stratus Sensing in the CloudSat Antecedent Validation Experiment (CAVEX99) R. T. Austin, G. L. Stephens, R. F. McCoy, Jr., R. B. McCoy, and S. D. Miller Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado S. M. Sekelsky Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts Introduction The CloudSat Antecedent Validation Experiment (CAVEX99) was one component of the Monterey Coastal Stratus Experiment (MCSE), a multi-experiment study

  12. SF 6432-RT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INFORMATION SECURITYORDER OF PRECEDENCE PAYMENT PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PROGRAM PROHIBITED ... the court and a listing of the contract numbers for which final payment has not been made. ...

  13. SU-E-J-93: Development of Pre-Contoured Human Model Library in DICOM-RT Format for the Epidemiological Study of the Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyakuryal, A; Lee, C; Lee, C; Pelletier, C; Jung, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D beams-eye-view from the conventional simulator. To analyze the outcomes of such treatments for radiation late effects, 3D computational human models are often used in commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs). However, several underlying difficulties such as time-consuming manual delineation procedures of a large number of structures in the model have always limited its applications. Primary objective of this work was to develop a human model library for the epidemiological study by converting 3D-surface model organs to DICOM-RT format (DICOM-RT structure) using an in-house built software. We converted the ICRP reference human models to DICOM-RT models, which can be readily adopted for various dose calculations. Methods: MATLAB based code were utilized to convert the contour drawings extracted in text-format from the 3D graphic-tool, Rhinoceros into DICOM-RT structure format for 50 different organs of each model using a 16GB dual-core processor. The conversion periods were measured for each DICOM-RT models, and the reconstructed structure volumes were validated against the original 3D-surface models in the TPS. Ten reference hybrid whole-body models (8-pediatric and 2-adults) were automatically processed to create DICOM-RT computational human model library. Results: Mean contour conversion period was found to be 580 (N=2) and 394.5 (N=8) seconds for 50 organs in the adult and pediatric models respectively. A good agreement for large organs (NRMSD <1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD <7.7%) was also observed between the original volumes and corresponding DICOM-RT structure volumes of the organs. Conclusion: The ICRP reference human models were converted into DICOM-RT format to support the epidemiological study using a large cohort of conventional radiotherapy patients. Due to its DICOM-compatibility, the library may be implemented to many other different

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - Marchand_ARM_STM_2008_Poster_Classification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    removes the need for most of the cloud parameterizations used in traditional GCMs. This new approach is frequently called a Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF). Here we present a...

  15. Application of real time transient temperature (RT{sup 3}) program on nuclear power plant HVAC analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Y.; Tomlins, V.A.; Haskell, N.L.; Giffels, F.W.

    1996-08-01

    A database oriented technical analysis program (RT) utilizing a lumped parameter model combined with a finite difference method was developed to concurrently simulate transient temperatures in single or multiple room(s)/area(s). Analyses can be seen for postulated design basis events, such as, 10CFR50 Appendix-R, Loss of Coolant Accident concurrent with Loss of Offsite Power (LOCA/LOOP), Station BlackOut (SBO), and normal station operating conditions. The rate of change of the air temperatures is calculated by explicitly solving a series of energy balance equations with heat sources and sinks that have been described. For building elements with heat absorbing capacity, an explicit Forward Time Central Space (FTCS) model of one dimensional transient heat conduction in a plane element is used to describe the element temperature profile. Heat migration among the rooms/areas is considered not only by means of conduction but also by means of natural convection induced by temperature differences through openings between rooms/areas. The program also provides a means to evaluate existing plant HVAC system performance. The performance and temperature control of local coolers/heaters can be also simulated. The program was used to calculate transient temperature profiles for several buildings and rooms housing safety-related electrical components in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants. Results for a turbine building and reactor building in a BWR nuclear power plant are provided here. Specific calculational areas were defined on the basis of elevation, physical barriers and components/systems. Transient temperature profiles were then determined for the bounding design basis events with winter and summer outdoor air temperatures.

  16. TU-F-17A-06: Motion Stability and Dosimetric Impact of Spirometer-Based DIBH-RT of Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, E; Yang, W; Burnison, M; Mirhadi, A; Hakimian, B; Stephen, S; Robert, R; Yue, Y; Sandler, H; Fraass, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer have increased risk of coronary artery disease. Deep Inhalation Breath Hold assisted RT (DIBH-RT) is shown to increase the geometric separation of the target area and heart, reducing cardiac radiation dose. The purposes of this study are to use Cine MV portal images to determine the stability of spirometer-guided DIBH-RT and examine the dosimetric cardiopulmonary impact of this technique. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with left-sided breast cancer were recruited to the IRB-approved study. Free-breathing (FB) and DIBH-CT's were acquired at simulation. Rigid registration of the FB-CT and DIBH-CT was performed using primarily breast tissue. Treatment plans were created for each FB-CT and DIBH-CT using identical paired tangent fields with field-in-field or electronic compensation techniques. Dosimetric evaluation included mean and maximum (Dmax) doses for the left anterior descending artery (LAD), mean heart dose, and left lung V20. Cine MV portal images were acquired for medial and lateral fields during treatment. Analysis of Cine images involved chest wall segmentation using an algorithm developed in-house. Intra- and inter-fractional chest wall motion were determined through affine registration to the first frame of each Cine. Results: Dose to each cardiac structure evaluated was significantly (p<0.001) reduced with the DIBH plans. Mean heart dose decreased from 2.9(0.96.6) to 1.6(0.65.3) Gy; mean LAD dose from 16.6(343.6) to 7.4(1.732.7) Gy; and LAD Dmax from 35.4 (6.153) to 18.4(2.551.2) Gy. No statistically significant reduction was found for the left lung V20. Average AP and SI median chest wall motion (intrafractional) was 0.1 (SD=0.9) and 0.5 (SD=1.1) mm, respectively. Average AP inter-fractional chest wall motion was 2.0 (SD=1.4) mm. Conclusion: Spirometer-based DIBH treatments of the left breast are reproducible both inter- and intra-fractionally, and provide a

  17. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluate the Diurnal Cycle in the Multiscale Modeling Framework Using Satellite and ARM Data Download a printable PDF Submitter: Zhang, Y., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Klein, S., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Zhang, Y, SA Klein, C Liu, B Tian, RT Marchand, JM Haynes, RB McCoy, Y Zhang, and TP Ackerman. 2008. "On the diurnal cycle of deep

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Assessment of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path Using Clear-sky Data Marchand, R.T. and Ackerman, T.P., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The ARM radiometers make measurements at two frequencies. These two measurements are used to infer two quantities, the total column vapor and liquid water. Both microwave emission frequencies respond to both the liquid and vapor, but one channel is more sensitive to vapor (23.8 GHz)

  19. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82 Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan RT Marchand SP Alexander A Protat December 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  20. SU-E-T-213: Initial Experience with VMAT Plan and Delivery Verification Using a DICOM-RT Framework and Linac Delivery Log Files

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R; Pompos, A; Gu, X; Jiang, S; Stojadinovic, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Mobius3D/MobiusFX (M3D/MFX), a commercial DICOM-RT based plan and delivery verification system, was used to compare calculated and delivered volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose distributions using TrueBeam delivery log files (TrajectoryLogs). Methods: M3D/MFX utilizes measured linac commissioning data to generate institution specific beam models for evaluating planned and delivered dose distributions. 30 RapidArc prostate plans and 30 head and neck SmartArc plans were used in this study. For every plan, CT images, contoured structure sets, RT-plan, and RT-dose files were exported to M3D, which recalculated the patients’ planning CT dose distributions using a collapsed-cone-convolutionsuperposition algorithm. MFX utilized the acquired TrajectoryLogs to compute patients’ delivered dose distributions based on actual treatment delivery parameters. The agreement between computed and delivered dose distributions was evaluated utilizing a (3%, 3mm) global 3D-gamma analysis and dose-volume histogram changes for targets and organs at risk. Results: Excellent 3D-gamma agreements were observed for all VMAT plans. On average, for computed and delivered RapidArc and SmartArc plans the gamma passing rates were (99.0%±1.4%) and (96.8%±1.8%), respectively. The average difference for primary target prescription dose percent-coverage between calculated and delivered plans was (− 0.09%±2.52%) for RapidArc and (−2.71%±4.62%) for SmartArc cases. Similarly, the planning target mean dose differences were (1.38%±0.96%) for RapidArc and (1.17%±0.72%) for SmartArc plans. For the prostate plans, the calculated and delivered variations of the maximum dose for a 2cc volume for bladder and rectum were (1.32%±1.26%) and (0.65%±1.44%), respectively. The spinal-cord 2cc maximum dose differences of (3.26%±1.68%) were observed for the SmartArc plans. Conclusions: Clinical quality assurance practice based on linac treatment log files for verification of delivered 3D

  1. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV

  2. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Engineering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fusion Energy Experiments, P-24 Plasma Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory Marchand, Richard (Richard Marchand) - Department of Physics, University of Alberta Marjoribanks, ...

  3. Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora; Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

  4. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Three-Year Cloud Climatology for the Southern Great Plains Site Marchand, R.T. (a), Ackerman, T.P. (a), and Clothiaux, E.E. (b), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (a), Pennsylvania State University (b) Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting In 1999 we presented a poster on radar-derived macrophyscial cloud statistics for the ARM SGP site for the two years 1997 and 1998. This year we extend those results with additional data from 1999. In addition to previous

  5. Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Bartosz; Kus, Andrzej; Birkinshaw, Mark; Wilkinson, Peter E-mail: Mark.Birkinshaw@bristol.ac.uk E-mail: ajk@astro.uni.torun.pl

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by simplified physics. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz.We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect 33{sup +17}{sub ?11} new radio sources brighter than 0.87mJy at 30 GHz in a 1deg{sup 2} field at >5? CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at 3? CL in such a survey. A 60-deg{sup 2} survey, with field coverage of 2{sup 2} beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 ?Jy (at 3? CL), and would detect about 3.4נ10{sup 4} point sources brighter than 1mJy at 5? CL, with confusion causing flux density errors ?<2%(20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources.A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area (? sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly 3נ10{sup 5} radio sources at 5? CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy clusters, in one year of

  6. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR -- EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-08-24

    Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project has been. Recent activities included additional data gathering and project monitoring, plus initiation of work on an SPE paper on the modeling efforts of the project. Early production performance suggests horizontal wells do not provide sufficient additional production over vertical wells to justify their incremental cost. It will take more time to evaluate the impact of the horizontal wells on sweep and ultimate recovery, but it is unlikely that an improvement in recovery will be sufficient to make the overall economic value of horizontal wells greater than the economic value of vertical wells. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Overall response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area has nearly doubled, while gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area has dropped from 60% to 20%. Efforts to further disseminate knowledge gained through this project, by means of technical paper presentations to industry groups, are underway. Project monitoring and technology transfer will be focus areas of Budget Period 3.

  7. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir - East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2006-06-30

    The reservoir characterization and investigation of the benefits of horizontal wells in the East Binger Unit miscible nitrogen flood as been completed. A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. Horizontal and vertical infill wells were drilled and existing producers were converted to injection. Due to successful infill drilling based on the improved flow characterization, more drilling was done than originally planned, and further drilling will occur after the project is completed. Through the drilling of wells and reservoir characterization work, it was determined that poor areal sweep efficiency is the primary factor causing nitrogen cycling and limiting oil recovery. This is in contrast to the perception prior to the initiation of development, which was that gravity segregation was causing poor vertical sweep efficiency. Although not true of all infill wells, most were drilled in areas with little sweep and came online producing gas with much lower nitrogen contents than previously drilled wells in the field and in the pilot area. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells were drilled in the pilot area throughout the project. As previously reported, the benefits of horizontal drilling were found to be insufficient to justify their increased cost. Nitrogen recycle, defined as nitrogen production as a percentage of injection, decreased from 72% prior to initiation of the project to about 25% before rising back to a current rate of 40%. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, increased 60% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas both decreased.

  8. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2002-03-26

    The objective of this project is two-fold. It will demonstrate use of nitrogen as a widely available, cost-effective and environmentally superior injectant for miscible floods. It will also demonstrate the effectiveness of horizontal wellbores in reducing gas breakthrough and cycling. It is expected that the demonstration will lead to implementation of nitrogen injection projects in areas without readily available carbon dioxide sources. Technology transfer will occur throughout the project.

  9. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR--EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-06-03

    Implementation of the work program of Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project is complete. Two additional vertical infill wells were drilled, completed, and brought on production during the reporting period. These were the last two of five wells to be drilled in the pilot area. Additional drilling is planned for Budget Period 3. Overall response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Nitrogen injection into the pilot area had doubled prior to unrelated nitrogen supply problems, while gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area has dropped from 60% to 20%. Meanwhile, pilot area oil production has increased from 300 bpd prior to development to an average of 435 bpd for January through March 2004. March production was the highest at 542 bpd due to the addition of the two new vertical wells. Production performances of the new wells continue to support the current opinion that horizontal wells do not provide sufficient additional production over vertical wells to justify their incremental cost.

  10. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2003-01-31

    Implementation of the work program of Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project continues. Major development work planned for the project includes the drilling of three horizontal production and one vertical injection wells, the conversion of five wells from production to injection service, and the expansion of injection capacity at the nitrogen management facility. Other work items include initiation of project monitoring and continued reservoir simulation. EBU 74G-2, the injection well planned to support the production of EBU 64-3H, has been drilled. Completion was underway at the time of this report. EBU 64-3H was fracture-stimulated during the period, further increasing production from this new horizontal well. Drilling of the final two wells of the pilot project is planned for 2003. Both are planned as horizontal producing wells. Work also began on projects aimed at increasing injection in the pilot area. The project to add compression and increase injection capacity at the nitrogen management facility was initiated, with completion targeted for March 2003. Additional producer-to-injector conversions are expected to be implemented around the same time. The revised history match of the simulation model has been completed, and work has begun to evaluate options with forecast simulations. The quality of the history match is significantly improved over the prior match. The predicted distribution of remaining reserves in the field is significantly changed. Decisions on projects planned for implementation later in Budget Period 2 will be guided by new forecasts.

  11. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir--East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2006-05-18

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 60% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen to about 40%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

  12. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir - East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-06-30

    The DOE-sponsored project at the East Binger Unit is an investigation into the benefits of reservoir characterization and horizontal wells in this particular setting of geologic and recovery method. The geologic setting is a tight (average porosity of 7% and average permeability of less than 1 millidarcy) Pennsylvanian-age sandstone at about 10,000 feet, and the recovery method is a miscible nitrogen flood. The projected oil recovery of the East Binger Unit, prior to the initiation of this project, was about 25%. Gravity segregation of nitrogen and crude oil was believed to be the principal cause of the poor sweep efficiency, and it was envisioned that with horizontal producing wells in the lower portion of the reservoir and horizontal injection wells near the top, the process could be converted from a lateral displacement process to a vertical displacement/gravity assisted process. Through the characterization and field development work completed in Budget Periods 1 and 2, Binger Operations, LLC (BOL) has developed a different interpretation of the sweep problem as well as a different approach to improving recovery. The sweep problem is now believed to be one of an areal nature, due to a combination of natural and hydraulic fracturing. Vertical wells have provided a much better economic return than have the horizontal wells. The natural and hydraulic fracturing manifests itself as a direction of higher permeability, and the flood is being converted to a line drive flood aligned with this orientation. Consistent with this concept, horizontal wells have been drilled along the line of the fracture orientation, such that hydraulic fracturing leads to 'longitudinal' fractures, in line with the wellbore. As such, the hydraulically fractured horizontal wells are not significantly different than hydraulically fractured vertical wells - save for the potential for a much longer fracture face. This Topical Report contains data from new wells, plus new and updated production, pressure, and gas analysis data that was not included in the Topical Report provided at the end of Budget Period 1. The analysis and interpretation of these data are provided in the many technical reports submitted throughout this project.

  13. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR--EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-12-22

    A significant work program has been implemented in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work includes the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area has nearly doubled, while gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area has increased to 23% in recent months, but this is still far below the 58% recycle prior to initiation of the project. Two additional wells--EBU 65-2 and EBU 67-2--were brought on line during this reporting period. EBU 65-2 was successfully sidetracked after encountering thin pay on the edge of the reservoir, and is awaiting conversion to nitrogen injection service. The early performance of EBU 67-2 has been as predicted.

  14. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir--East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2005-09-15

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2004 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, though limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, and has increased 70% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area is now only about 32%, far below the 72% recycle prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Four vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Additional vertical well drilling is planned due to the success of wells drilled to date.

  15. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir -- East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2006-03-23

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 50% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen back to about 42%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

  16. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2003-05-30

    Implementation of the work program of Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project continues. Significant advances with the reservoir simulation model have led to changes in the program. One planned horizontal well location, EBU 44-3H, has been eliminated from the program, and another, EBU 45-3H, has been deferred, and may be replaced by a vertical well or completely eliminated at a future date. A new horizontal well location, EBU 63-2H, has been added. EBU 74G-2, the one new injection well planned for the project, was completed and brought on production. It will be produced for a period of time before converting it to injection. Performance is exceeding expectations. Work also continued on projects aimed at increasing injection in the pilot area. EBU 65-1 was converted to injection service. The project to add compression and increase injection capacity at the nitrogen management facility is nearing completion. Additional producer-to-injector conversions will follow.

  17. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR-EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-02-24

    Implementation of the work program of Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project is progressing and nearing completion. Two of three planned horizontal wells have been drilled and completed. The third horizontal well will be replaced by two vertical wells, both of which will be drilled in early 2004. Based on costs and performances of all new wells, it is believed that, in the setting of the East Binger Unit, the benefits of horizontal wells do not justify the additional cost. In addition to the drilling of new wells, the project also includes conversions of producing wells to injection service. Four wells have now been converted, and injection in the pilot area has doubled. A fifth planned conversion has been removed from the project. Overall response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Gas injection into the pilot area has increased from 4.0 MMscf/d prior to development to 8.0 MMscf/d in November, while gas production has decreased from 4.1 MMscf/d to 3.0 MMscf/d. The nitrogen content of produced gas has dropped from 58% to 45%. This has reduced the nitrogen recycle within the pilot area from 60% to under 20%. Meanwhile, pilot area oil production has increased, from 300 bpd prior to development to over 425 bpd in November 2003. This is down from 600 bopd in September because EBU 63-2H has begun to level off and other wells were temporarily down. This incremental rate will increase with the addition of the two vertical wells.

  18. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  19. additive manufacturuing | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Laboratory engineer Bryan Moran won an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing.Lawrence Livermore Lab engineer Bryan Moran...

  20. NEAC-RT ComLtr 11.1.12

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engineering Physics 1500 Engineering Drive Madison WI 53706 Phone: (608) 263-1646 Fax: (608) 263-7451 www.engr.wisc.edu/ep/ Nuclear Engineering Engineering Physics Engineering Mechanics Astronautics October 3 0, 2 012 To: Dr. R ichard M eserve, N EAC C hair From: NEAC N uclear R eactor T echnology S ubcommittee Re: Initial R eview o f A dvanced R eactor T echnology O ffice On S eptember 2 4 th , 2 012 o ur S ubcommittee m et w ith t he D oE N uclear R eactors Technologies Office (NE---7) s taff.

  1. Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equipment manufacturer for the clean energy industry, currently focused on thin-film solar cell production equipment. Coordinates: 47.506225, 19.06482 Show Map Loading...

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Hour Hour Height (km) Comparison of Microbase, Mace and Marchand Products References: Mace, GG, et al. 2006. "Cloud radiative forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 1. ...

  3. L3:THM.CFD.P3.03 Summary of THM Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary of THM Meeting with EDF Robert Lowrie Los Alamos National Laboratory August 24, 2011 CASL-U-2011-0281-000 CASL-U-2011-0281-000 Summary of THM Meeting with EDF On August 24, 2011, Rob Lowrie (THM FA Lead) met with Olivier Marchand (EDF) at ORNL. Marchand leads R&D efforts at EDF. The focus of this meeting was to begin potential collaborations between CASL and EDF in the area of thermal hydraulics. Marchand went through two presentations on their Saturne [1] and Neptune [2] codes.

  4. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Comparison of the Characteristics of Cirrus from Doppler Radar Measurements at the ARM Sites and the CRYSTAL Field Experiment Laribee-Dowd, K. (a), Mace, G. G. (a), and Marchand,...

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - ARM2008_norfolk.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating Rates and Related Cloud Properties from CloudSat and ARM Observations at Manus Island Zheng Zheng Liu, Roger Liu, Roger Marchand Marchand , and Thomas Ackerman , and Thomas Ackerman University of Washington Sally McFarlane Sally McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2 Motivation * Radiative heating is important * Cloud vertical differential heating affects local convective dynamics * Horizontal differential heating helps to maintain large scale tropical dynamics * Challenge and

  6. WE-B-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Planning II: Cloud Computing in RT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K; Kagadis, G; Xing, L; McNutt, T

    2014-06-15

    As defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Despite the omnipresent role of computers in radiotherapy, cloud computing has yet to achieve widespread adoption in clinical or research applications, though the transition to such on-demand access is underway. As this transition proceeds, new opportunities for aggregate studies and efficient use of computational resources are set against new challenges in patient privacy protection, data integrity, and management of clinical informatics systems. In this Session, current and future applications of cloud computing and distributed computational resources will be discussed in the context of medical imaging, radiotherapy research, and clinical radiation oncology applications. Learning Objectives: Understand basic concepts of cloud computing. Understand how cloud computing could be used for medical imaging applications. Understand how cloud computing could be employed for radiotherapy research.4. Understand how clinical radiotherapy software applications would function in the cloud.

  7. Preliminary ILAW Formulation Algorithm Description, 24590 LAW RPT-RT-04-0003, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2013-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), has contracted with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to design, construct, and commission the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site (DOE 2000). This plant is designed to operate for 40 years and treat roughly 50 million gallons of mixed hazardous high-level waste (HLW) stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The process involves separating the hight-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions through filtration, leaching, Cs ion exchange, and precipitation. Each fraction will be separately vitrified into borosilicate waste glass. This report documents the initial algorithm for use by Hanford WTP in batching LAW and glass-forming chemicals (GFCs) in the LAW melter feed preparation vessel (MFPV). Algorithm inputs include the chemical analyses of the pretreated LAW in the concentrate receipt vessel (CRV), the volume of the MFPV heel, and the compositions of individual GFCs. In addition to these inputs, uncertainties in the LAW composition and processing parameters are included in the algorithm.

  8. Visible Light Absorption of N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using (LR/RT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using (LRRT)-TDDFT and Active Space EOMCCSD Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visible Light Absorption of N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using ...

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This article, which is a condensed version of Martner and Moran (2000), describes a dual-polarization radar method to remedy the insect contamination problem. Only clouds of...

  10. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dual Polarization Observations on an MMCR: Implementation and First Results K. P. Moran, T. Ayers, B. E. Martner, and M. J. Post National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  11. First results of a simultaneous measurement of tritium and 14C...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Mace, Emily K. ; Aalseth, Craig E. ; Day, Anthony R. ; Hoppe, Eric W. ; Keillor, Martin E. ; Moran, James J. ; Panisko, Mark E. ; Seifert, Allen ; Tatishvili, Gocha ; ...

  12. engineering | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Livermore Laboratory engineer Bryan Moran won an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing. Lawrence Livermore Lab ...

  13. DOE/SC-ARM-12-023 ARM Climate Research Facility AnnuAl RepoRt...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Jones stepped into the TWP operations manager role just after the Manus Island site on Papua New Guinea was installed in 1996. He then helped lead the subsequent TWP installations ...

  14. SU-E-T-99: Design and Development of Isocenter Parameter System for CT Simulation Laser Based On DICOM RT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In order to receive DICOM files from treatment planning system and generate patient isocenter positioning parameter file for CT laser system automatically, this paper presents a method for communication with treatment planning system and calculation of isocenter parameter for each radiation field. Methods: Coordinate transformation and laser positioning file formats were analyzed, isocenter parameter was calculated via data from DICOM CT Data and DICOM RTPLAN file. An in-house software-DicomGenie was developed based on the object-oriented program platform-Qt with DCMTK SDK (Germany OFFIS company DICOM SDK) . DicomGenie was tested for accuracy using Philips CT simulation plan system (Tumor LOC, Philips) and A2J CT positioning laser system (Thorigny Sur Marne, France). Results: DicomGenie successfully established DICOM communication between treatment planning system, DICOM files were received by DicomGenie and patient laser isocenter information was generated accurately. Patient laser parameter data files can be used for for CT laser system directly. Conclusion: In-house software DicomGenie received and extracted DICOM data, isocenter laser positioning data files were created by DicomGenie and can be use for A2J laser positioning system.

  15. MHD Structure Analysis by Singular Value Decomposition as a Tool for ECRH RT-Control of Instabilities on FTU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetto, C.; Cirant, S.; Granucci, G.; Lazzaro, E.; Gandini, F.; Esposito, B.

    2009-11-26

    In this work we present the results obtained applying Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) on a Mirnov coil array in FTU discharges where experiments on MHD stabilization or disruption avoidance via ECRH were performed. In these shots the mode analysis has been consolidated off line by means of FFT and SXR-tomography. Although the Mirnov setting was not necessarily optimised, results show that the algorithm based on SVD is able to detect the mode with a precision equal or better than the FFT, while acting on a smaller time interval. The short execution time required, even in the present preliminary form, suggests that this analysis can be a suitable tool to be implemented in a real time control chain.

  16. Magnetic properties of RT2Zn20; R = rare earth, T = Fe, Co, Ru, Os and Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Shuang

    2008-12-15

    It is well known that rare earth intermetallic compounds have versatile, magnetic properties associated with the 4f electrons: a local moment associated with the Hund's rule ground state is formed in general, but a strongly correlated, hybridized state may also appear for specific 4f electronic configuration (eg. for rare earth elements such as Ce or Yb). On the other hand, the conduction electrons in rare earth intermetallic compounds, certainly ones associated with non hybridizing rare earths, usually manifest non-magnetic behavior and can be treated as a normal, non-interacted Fermi liquid, except for some 3d-transition metal rich binary or ternary systems which often manifest strong, itinerant, d electron dominant magnetic behavior. Of particular interest are examples in which the band filling of the conduction electrons puts the system in the vicinity of a Stoner transition: such systems, characterized as nearly or weakly ferromagnet, manifest strongly correlated electronic properties [Moriya, 1985]. For rare earth intermetallic compounds, such systems provide an additional versatility and allow for the study of the behaviors of local moments and hybridized moments which are associated with 4f electron in a correlated conduction electron background.

  17. Department of Defense High Performance Computing Modernization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... CBU-115 separation from F-16 GBU-38 separation from B1B J. Keen, R. Moran, J. Dudley, J. Torres, Lt. J. Babcock, C. Cureton, and T. Eymann, AFSEO, Eglin AFB, FL; B. Jolly, J. ...

  18. engineering

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing.

    Lawrence Livermore Lab engineer Bryan Moran wasn't necessarily...

  19. additive manufacturuing

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing.

    Lawrence Livermore Lab engineer Bryan Moran wasn't necessarily...

  20. SREL Reprint #3117

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Moran, and T. C. Glenn. 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conservation Genetics 2009(10): 935-954...

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modes and the ARSCL VAP New Merge Strategy Kollias, P.(a), Clothiaux, E.E.(b), Miller, M.A.(c), Johnson, K.L.(c), Widener, K.B.(d), and Moran, K.P.(e), CIRESETL,...

  2. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(D6)6831-6864. Kollias, P, EE Clothiaux, BA Albrecht, MA Miller, KP Moran, and KL Johnson. 2005. "The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ...

  3. CX-014013: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Power Burst Facility-622 Moran Project Facility Modifications CX(s) Applied: B1.31Date: 06/29/2015 Location(s): IdahoOffices(s): Nuclear Energy

  4. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Linking to the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) RT3D and MT3DMS Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2007-08-08

    Linkages to the Groundwater Modeling System have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to more realistically assess the risk to the public of radioactive contaminants at NRC-licensed sites. Common software tools presently in use are limited in that they cannot assess contaminant migration through complex natural environments. The purpose of this initiative is to provide NRC with a licensing safety-analysis tool with sufficient power, flexibility, and utility that it can serve as the primary software platform for analyzing the hazards associated with licensing actions at those complex sites at which the traditional tools are inappropriate. As a tool designed to realistically approximate prospective doses to the public, this initiative addresses NRCs safety-performance goal by confirming that licensing actions do not result in undue risk to the public.

  5. Operation and performance of a 350 kW (100 RT) single-effect/double-lift absorption chiller in a district heating network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigler, C.J.; Preissner, M.; Demmel, S.; Hellmann, H.M.; Ziegler, F.F.

    1998-10-01

    The efficiency of combined heat, power, and cold production in total energy systems could be improved significantly if absorption chillers were available that could be driven with limited mass flows of low-temperature hot water. In the case of district heat-driven air conditioning, for example, currently available standard absorption chillers are often not applied because they cannot provide the low hot water return temperature and the specific cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow that are required by many district heating networks. Above all, a drastic increase in the size of the machine (total heat exchanger area) due to low driving temperature differences if of concern in low-temperature applications. A new type of multistage lithium bromide/water absorption chiller has been developed for the summertime operating conditions of district heating networks. It provides large cooling of the district heating water (some 30 K) and large cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow. Two pilot plants of this novel absorption chiller were designed within the framework of a joint project sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF), a consortium of 15 district heating utilities, and two manufacturers. The plants have been operated since summer 1996 in the district heating networks of Berlin and Duesseldorf. This paper describes the concept, installation, and control strategy of the two pilot plants, and it surveys the performance and operating experience of the plants under varying practical conditions.

  6. ackerman-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    One-Year Cloud Climatology for the Southern Great Plains Site T. P. Ackerman, R. T. Marchand, and E. E. Clothiaux Department of Meteorology The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Introduction The addition of the millimeter wave cloud radar (MMCR) to the suite of instruments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site has provided the necessary observations to produce a cloud climatology. Data from the MMCR are currently being combined with data from the Belfort laser

  7. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-Angle Remote Sensing of Cumulus Geometry E. I. Kassianov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington and Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia T. P. Ackerman and R. T. Marchand Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Satellite remote sensing is the major source for statistics of cloud properties; however, accurate and robust methods for extracting both optical and geometrical characteristics of broken clouds have yet to be fully

  8. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Radiative Transfer in Broken Clouds: Validation Tests E. Kassianov, T. P. Ackerman, R. T. Marchand, and M. Ovtchinnikov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction An approach for the stochastic description of the solar radiation transfer through broken fields with the arbitrary horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity have been introduced (Kassianov 2000). Different combinations of the random and maximum cloud overlap can be treated by the suggested approach.

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-Angle Satellite Retrieval of Cumulus Thickness at the ARM TWP Site: Validation Tests E. I. Kassianov, T. P. Ackerman, R. T. Marchand, and M. Ovtchinnikov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Most satellite-based analyses have been conducted using nadir-viewing sensors. The multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), recently launched on the (National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra platform, provides high-resolution measurements of

  10. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieval of Cloud Ice Water Content and Effective Radius Using ARM Cloud Radar Reflectivity and Doppler Velocity R. Marchand, J. Comstock, and S. McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Mace et al. (2002) and Matrosov et al. (2002) have published retrieval algorithms for cirrus microphysics (i.e., ice water content and particle size) based only on radar observed reflectivity (Z) and Doppler velocity (V). These ZV retrievals are attractive in that they

  11. hinkelman-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shortwave Radiative Processes and Cloud Prediction in the Eta Forecast Model L. M. Hinkelman, T. P. Ackerman, and R. T. Marchand Department of Meteorology The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Introduction In an earlier work (Hinkelman et al. 1999), time series of surface flux predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Eta forecast model were evaluated by comparison to measured values from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

  12. An Analysis of Cloud Absorption During

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Cloud Absorption During ARESE II (Spring 2000) D. M. Powell, R. T. Marchand, and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction In early spring 2000, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program researchers held an intensive operational period (IOP) at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This IOP had several objectives, one of which was to was to re-evaluate (with redundant measurements wherever possible) absorption by low-level

  13. An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave

  14. Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MISR, and MODIS Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP, MISR, and MODIS Marchand, Roger Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ackerman, Thomas Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Joint histograms of Cloud Top Height (CTH) and Optical Depth (OD) derived by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are being widely used by the climate modeling community in evaluating global climate models. Similar joint histograms

  15. Cumulus Geometry from Satellite and Surface Data at the ARM TWP Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cumulus Geometry from Satellite and Surface Data at the ARM TWP Site E. I. Kassianov, T. P. Ackerman, and R. T. Marchand Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The multi-angle imaging spectrometer (MISR), a sensor on board the earth observing system (EOS) Terra satellite platform, observes reflected radiation in nine directions with high resolution (~0.275 km). The overall mission of the MISR is to provide continuous, global multi-angle measurements of the

  16. The Secretary of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1,2006 The Honorable James P. Moran U.S. House of Representatives Washington, DC 205 15 Dear Congressman Moran: Thank you for your December 27,2005, letter concerning my December 20,2005, emergency order in the matter of the Mirant Potomac River Generating Station (DOE Docket No. EO-05-01). In your letter, you requested "that all documents and related material, particularly any operational plan covering compliance with the Clean Air Act, should be available for public review and

  17. Microsoft Word - view (3)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 979 - 1002. Kollias, P., E.E. Clothiaux, T.P. Ackerman, B.A. Albrecht, K.B. Widener, K.P. Moran, E.P. Luke, K.L. Johnson, N. Bharadwaj, J.B. Mead, M.A. ...

  18. S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It must deliver energy to fuse pellets of hydrogen a number of times per min- ute and keep ... There, pellets are compressed by X-rays generated by the electromagnetic forces. Made in ...

  19. S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... earth, as opposed to current being driven into conductors entering the mine such as metal ... do some unique studies on rare cell types." ... from agricultural demand, increased ...

  20. S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... & Electric) for up to 1,750 mega- watts (MW) of power, two of the ... cialization of a system called the 'SunCatcher.' ... form of JP-8 and green diesel, along with other ...

  1. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Catch Aerosols in the Act Download a printable PDF Submitter: Wang, M., Nanjing University Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Wang M, S Ghan, X Liu, TS L'Ecuyer, K Zhang, H Morrison, M Ovchinnikov, R Easter, R Marchand, D Chand, Y Qian, and JE Penner. 2012. "Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations." Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L15709, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052204. S-POP derived

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRYSTAL FACE: An Intensive Field Campaign for the Study of Tropical Cirrus Mather, J.H.(a), Mace, G.G.(b), Ackerman, T.P.(a), Comstock, J.M.(a), Flynn, C.J.(a), Widener, K.B.(a), and Marchand, R.T.(a), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (a), University of Utah (b) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting In July of 2002, ARM will take part in CRYSTAL (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers), a joint experiment with NASA for the purpose of

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Stratus Cloud Properties Deduced from Surface, GOES, and Aircraft Data During the March 2000 ARM Cloud IOP Dong, X.(a), Minnis, P.(b), Mace, G.G.(c), Smith, W.L., Jr.(b), Marchand, R.T.(d), and Rapp, A.D.(e), University of North Dakota (a), NASA Langley Research Center (b), University of Utah (c), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (d), AS&M, Inc. (e) Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Low-level stratus cloud microphysical properties

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MICRE) govCampaignsMacquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Campaign Links Science Plan Backgrounder Baseline Instruments and Data Plots Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) 2016.03.01 - 2018.03.31 Lead Scientist : Roger Marchand Abstract Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model

  5. APPENDIX A: Forms and Instructions Form Form R93D-44 Form R93D...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Instructions Form Form R93D-44 Form R93D-03 Form R93D-59 Instructions Form RT94-02 Form RT94-04 Form RT94-0 Form RT94-03 Form RT94-05 Form RT94-06 Instructions Form...

  6. Section 54

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An 8-mm Cloud Profiling Radar for the ARM Program: First Returns K. Moran, M.J. Post, B. Martner, T. Uttal, D. Welsh, D. Merritt National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. Strauch and L. Zhang Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences Boulder, Colorado S. King, T. Glaess and T. Ayers Science and Technology Corporation Hampton, Virginia

  7. MMCR Upgrades: Present Status and Future Plans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MMCR Upgrades: Present Status and Future Plans K. B. Widener and A. S. Koontz Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington K. P. Moran and K. A. Clark National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado C. Chander STC xxxxxxxxx M. A. Miller and K. L. Johnson Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Abstract In September 2003, the Southern Great Plains (SGP) millimeter wave cloud radar (MMCR) was upgraded to a new digital

  8. Microsoft Word - Agencies Publish Final Environmental Impact Statement on Energy Corridor Designation in the West

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Jill Moran, BLM (202) 452-5068 Wednesday, November 26, 2008 Bethany Shively, DOE (202) 586-4940 Joe Walsh, USFS (202) 205-1134 Agencies Publish Final Environmental Impact Statement on Energy Corridor Designation in the West WASHINGTON, DC - Four Federal agencies today released a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Final PEIS) proposing to designate more than 6,000 miles of energy transport corridors on Federal lands in 11 Western States. The Department of

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wave Cloud Radar Upgrades: Review, Status, and Plans K.B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington K.P. Moran National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration- Earth System Research Laboratory-Physical Sciences Division Boulder, Colorado Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program currently operates five millimeter-wave cloud radars (MMCRs) at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, North Slope of Alaska (NSA)

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (RT) (54 Gy locally advanced and 45 Gy postsurgery) and concomitant continuous-infusion 5-fluorouracil (5FU) (200 mgmsup 2d throughout RT). After 4 weeks, patients...

  11. Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL statistical tools have helped create Reliability Technology (RT), which increases the ... Reliability Technology (RT) is a comprehensive reliability engineering system developed by ...

  12. SREL Reprint #3109

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 253 Novel polymorphic microsatellites for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) Lee G. Miles1, Sally R. Isberg1,2, Chris Moran1, Cris Hagen3, and Travis C. Glenn3,4 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Room 513, RMC Gunn Building, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 2Porosus Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 86, Palmerston, NT 0831, Australia 3Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, USA 4Department of Environmental Health Science, University of

  13. QER- Comment of E. Winkler

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I am one of many rejecting the idea of the proposed Kinder Moran pipeline. The people don't want to pay for a multibillionaire's expansion of his fossil fuel kingdom. Also, the methane pollution of this form of energy is not "clean energy." And most importantly it is destructive to the earth and the health of the people. As stewards of the planet, we must do better, and we are doing better, with cleaner and more economical forms of energy. Please, have a conscience and a vision. No fracked gas pipeline expansion.

  14. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOE,J.

    2007-07-08

    Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders.

  15. Conformal Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients With Positive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pre-RT PSA values >0.2 ngmL were significant for distant metastases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for biochemical relapse were higher preoperative and pre-RT PSA values, ...

  16. Physician Beliefs and Practices for Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Ohri, Nitin; Teti, Kristopher G.; Foley, Kathleen A.; Keith, Scott W.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D.; Dicker, Adam P.; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Pizzi, Laura T.; Gomella, Leonard G.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Despite results of randomized trials that support adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer with adverse pathologic features (APF), many clinicians favor selective use of salvage RT. This survey was conducted to evaluate the beliefs and practices of radiation oncologists (RO) and urologists (U) regarding RT after RP. Methods and Materials: We designed a Web-based survey of post-RP RT beliefs and policies. Survey invitations were e-mailed to a list of 926 RO and 591 U. APF were defined as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, or positive surgical margin. Differences between U and RO in adjuvant RT recommendations were evaluated by comparative statistics. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors predictive of adjuvant RT recommendation. Results: Analyzable surveys were completed by 218 RO and 92 U (overallresponse rate, 20%). Adjuvant RT was recommended based on APF by 68% of respondents (78% RO, 44% U, p <0.001). U were less likely than RO to agree that adjuvant RT improves survival and/or biochemical control (p < 0.0001). PSA thresholds for salvage RT were higher among U than RO (p < 0.001). Predicted rates of erectile dysfunction due to RT were higher among U than RO (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, respondent specialty was the only predictor of adjuvant RT recommendations. Conclusions: U are less likely than RO to recommend adjuvant RT. Future research efforts should focus on defining the toxicities of post-RP RT and on identifying the subgroups of patients who will benefit from adjuvant vs. selective salvage RT.

  17. A Contribution to Solve the Problem of the Need for Consolidative Radiotherapy after Intensive Chemotherapy in Advanced Stages of Hodgkin's Lymphoma-Analysis of a Quality Control Program Initiated by the Radiotherapy Reference Center of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eich, Hans Theodor Gossmann, Axel; Engert, Andreas; Kriz, Jan; Bredenfeld, Henning; Hansemann, Katja; Skripnitchenko, Roman; Brillant, Corinne; Pfistner, Beate; Staar, Susanne; Diehl, Volker; Mueller, Rolf-Peter

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The role of radiotherapy (RT) after intensive chemotherapy in patients with advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is still unclear. The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) randomized HD12 trial was designed to test whether consolidative RT in the region of initial bulky disease and of residual disease is necessary after effective chemotherapy. A quality control program based on a multidisciplinary panel of radiation oncologists, radiologists, and medical oncologists who reviewed all patients' staging and restaging imaging was initiated. Methods and Materials: A total of 1661 patients aged 16 to 65 years with HL in Stage IIB (large mediastinal mass and/or E-lesions) or Stage III to IV were randomized from January 1999 to January 2003 according to a factorial design between: 8 esc.BEACOPP + RT (arm A), 8 esc.BEACOPP non-RT (arm B), 4+4BEACOPP + RT (arm C), 4+4BEACOPP non-RT (arm D). Results: In the fifth interim analysis, 1449 patients were eligible for the arm comparison with regard to RT. After a median observation time of 48 months the FFTF rate was 86% and the OS 92%. The FFTF was 95% in the RT arms A+C and 88% in the non-RT arms B+D: no sequential significant difference. One thousand and eighty four patients were evaluated by the panel. The panel defined initial bulky disease in 800 patients and residual disease in 600 patients. The panel recommended continuation of therapy according to the randomization for 934 of 1084 patients and additive RT independently from the randomization arm for 145 of 1084 patients. Conclusions: The study showed that RT can be reduced substantially after effective chemotherapy. However, because of the irradiation of 10% of patients in the non-RT arms, equivalent effectiveness of a non-RT strategy cannot be proved. A substantial limitation of consolidative RT according to expert panel recommendations appears to be possible without reducing effectiveness.

  18. SPARCL1 Expression Increases With Preoperative Radiation Therapy and Predicts Better Survival in Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotti, Angeliki Holmqvist, Annica; Albertsson, Maria; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is expressed in various normal tissues and many types of cancers. The function of SPARCL1 and its relationship to a patient's prognosis have been studied, whereas its relationship to radiation therapy (RT) is not known. Our aim was to investigate the expression of SPARCL1 in rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: The study included 136 rectal cancer patients who were randomized to undergo preoperative RT and surgery (n=63) or surgery alone (n=73). The expression levels of SPARCL1 in normal mucosa (n=29), primary tumor (n=136), and lymph node metastasis (n=35) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumors with RT had stronger SPARCL1 expression than tumors without RT (P=.003). In the RT group, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival than weak expression in patients with stage III tumors, independent of sex, age, differentiation, and margin status (P=.022; RR = 18.128; 95% confidence interval, 1.512-217.413). No such relationship was found in the non-RT group (P=.224). Further analysis of interactions among SPARCL1 expression, RT, and survival showed statistical significance (P=.024). In patients with metastases who received RT, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival compared to weak expression (P=.041) but not in the non-RT group (P=.569). Conclusions: SPARCL1 expression increases with RT and is related to better prognosis in rectal cancer patients with RT but not in patients without RT. This result may help us to select the patients best suited for preoperative RT.

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of radiation therapy-induced microcirculation changes in rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lussanet, Quido G. de . E-mail: qdlu@rdia.azm.nl; Backes, Walter H.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Padhani, Anwar R.; Baeten, Coen I.; Baardwijk, Angela van; Lambin, Philippe; Beets, Geerard L.; Engelshoven, Jos van; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) allows noninvasive evaluation of tumor microvasculature characteristics. This study evaluated radiation therapy related microvascular changes in locally advanced rectal cancer by DCE-MRI and histology. Methods and Materials: Dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI was performed in 17 patients with primary rectal cancer. Seven patients underwent 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy radiation therapy (RT) (long RT) before DCE-MRI and 10 did not. Of these 10, 3 patients underwent five fractions of 5 Gy RT (short RT) in the week before surgery. The RT treated and nontreated groups were compared in terms of endothelial transfer coefficient (K{sup PS}, measured by DCE-MRI), microvessel density (MVD) (scored by immunoreactivity to CD31 and CD34), and tumor cell and endothelial cell proliferation (scored by immunoreactivity to Ki67). Results: Tumor K{sup PS} was 77% (p = 0.03) lower in the RT-treated group. Histogram analyses showed that RT reduced both magnitude and intratumor heterogeneity of K{sup PS} (p = 0.01). MVD was significantly lower (37%, p 0.03) in tumors treated with long RT than in nonirradiated tumors, but this was not the case with short RT. Endothelial cell proliferation was reduced with short RT (81%, p = 0.02) just before surgery, but not with long RT (p > 0.8). Tumor cell proliferation was reduced with both long (57%, p < 0.001) and short RT (52%, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI-derived K{sup PS} values showed significant radiation therapy related reductions in microvessel blood flow in locally advanced rectal cancer. These findings may be useful in evaluating effects of radiation combination therapies (e.g., chemoradiation or RT combined with antiangiogenesis therapy), to account for effects of RT alone.

  20. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Aleman, Berthe; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Ng, Andrea; Ricardi, Umberto; Wirth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  1. Improved Posttreatment Functional Outcome is Associated with Better Survival in Patients Irradiated for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Basic, Hiba; Hoskin, Peter J.; Karstens, Johann H.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential prognostic impact of the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on motor function and of the post-RT ambulatory status on survival in metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients. Methods and Materials: Of 1,852 patients irradiated for MSCC, 778 patients (42%) received short-course RT and 1,074 (58%) received long-course RT. The effect of RT on motor function (improvement vs. no change vs. deterioration) and the ambulatory status after RT (ambulatory vs. nonambulatory) were evaluated with respect to survival. Results: The actuarial survival rate of the entire cohort was 56% at 6 months, 43% at 12 months, and 32% at 24 months. The patients in whom motor function improved after RT had a significantly better 1-year survival rate than those who had no change or deterioration of motor function (75% vs. 40% and 3%, p < 0.001). The 1-year survival rate of the patients who were ambulatory after RT was significantly better than for those who were not ambulatory (63% vs. 4%, p < 0.001). The results were confirmed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The response to RT and the post-RT ambulatory status are important predictors for survival in MSCC patients. This finding can be used by physicians to stratify future studies, plan further therapy, and improve follow-up strategy in these patients.

  2. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Carol L.; Shera, David M.; Lustig, Robert A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18-69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT damage.

  3. External Beam Radiotherapy for Colon Cancer: Patterns of Care

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Emily F., E-mail: dunn@humonc.wisc.ed [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Moody, John S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Moses Cone Regional Cancer Center, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Despite its common and well characterized use in other gastrointestinal malignancies, little is known about radiotherapy (RT) use in nonmetastatic colon cancer in the United States. To address the paucity of data regarding RT use in colon cancer management, we examined the RT patterns of care in this patient population. Methods and Materials: Patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer, diagnosed between 1988 and 2005, were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Univariate and multivariate methods were used to identify factors associated with RT use. Results: On univariate analysis, tumor location, age, sex, race, T stage, N stage, and geographic location were each associated with differences in RT use (all p < 0.01). In general, younger patients, male patients, and patients with more advanced disease were more likely to receive RT. On multivariate analysis, tumor location, age, gender, T and N stage, time of diagnosis and geographic location were significantly associated with RT use (all p < 0.001). Race, however, was not associated with RT use. On multivariate analysis, patients diagnosed in 1988 were 2.5 times more likely to receive RT than those diagnosed in 2005 (p = 0.001). Temporal changes in RT use reflect a responsiveness to evolving evidence related to the therapeutic benefits of adjuvant RT. Conclusions: External beam RT is infrequently used for colon cancer, and its use varies according to patient and tumor characteristics. RT use has declined markedly since the late 1980s; however, it continues to be used for nonmetastatic disease in a highly individualized manner.

  4. Upfront Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Salvage Radiation May Improve Biochemical Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Post-Prostatectomy Rising PSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Joanne W.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Wein, Alan J.; Haas, Naomi B.; Both, Stefan; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The addition of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to definitive external beam radiation therapy (RT) improves outcomes in higher-risk prostate cancer patients. However, the benefit of ADT with salvage RT in post-prostatectomy patients is not clearly established. Our study compares biochemical outcomes in post-prostatectomy patients who received salvage RT with or without concurrent ADT. Methods and Materials: Of nearly 2,000 post-prostatectomy patients, we reviewed the medical records of 191 patients who received salvage RT at University of Pennsylvania between 1987 and 2007. Follow-up data were obtained by chart review and electronic polling of the institutional laboratory database and Social Security Death Index. Biochemical failure after salvage RT was defined as a prostate-specific antigen of 2.0 ng/mL above the post-RT nadir or the initiation of ADT after completion of salvage RT. Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients received salvage RT alone, and 62 patients received combined ADT and salvage RT. Median follow-up was 5.4 years. Patients who received combined ADT and salvage RT were younger, had higher pathologic Gleason scores, and higher rates of seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, and pelvic nodal irradiation compared with patients who received salvage RT alone. Patients who received combined therapy had improved biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) compared with patients who received RT alone (p = 0.048). For patients with pathologic Gleason scores {<=}7, combined RT and ADT resulted in significantly improved bPFS compared to RT alone (p = 0.013). Conclusions: These results suggest that initiating ADT during salvage RT in the post-prostatectomy setting may improve bPFS compared with salvage RT alone. However, prospective randomized data are necessary to definitively determine whether hormonal manipulation should be used with salvage RT. Furthermore, the optimal nature and duration of ADT and the patient subgroups in

  5. Serum Proteome Signature of Radiation Response: Upregulation of Inflammation-Related Factors and Downregulation of Apolipoproteins and Coagulation Factors in Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy—A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widlak, Piotr; Jelonek, Karol; Wojakowska, Anna; Pietrowska, Monika; Polanska, Joanna; Marczak, Łukasz; Miszczyk, Leszek; Składowski, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation affects the proteome of irradiated cells and tissue, yet data concerning changes induced during radiation therapy (RT) in human blood are fragmentary and inconclusive. We aimed to identify features of serum proteome and associated processes involved in response to partial body irradiation during cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) and 20 patients with prostate cancer received definitive intensity modulated RT. Blood samples were collected before RT, just after RT, and 1 month after the end of RT. Complete serum proteome was analyzed in individual samples, using a shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach which allowed identification of approximately 450 proteins. Approximately 100 unique proteins were quantified in all samples after exclusion of immunoglobulins, and statistical significance of differences among consecutive samples was assessed. Processes associated with quantified proteins and their functional interactions were predicted using gene ontology tools. Results: RT-induced changes were marked in the HNSCC patient group: 22 upregulated and 33 downregulated proteins were detected in post-RT sera. Most of the changes reversed during follow-up, yet levels of some proteins remained affected 1 month after the end of RT. RT-upregulated proteins were associated with acute phase, inflammatory response, and complement activation. RT-downregulated proteins were associated with transport and metabolism of lipids (plasma apolipoproteins) and blood coagulation. RT-induced changes were much weaker in prostate cancer patients, which corresponded to differences in acute radiation toxicity observed in both groups. Nevertheless, general patterns of RT-induced sera proteome changes were similar in both of the groups of cancer patients. Conclusions: In this pilot study, we proposed to identify a molecular signature of radiation response, based on specific

  6. Historical Trends in the Use of Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Cancers: 1973-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jairam, Vikram; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut; Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut ; Yu, James B.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess historical trends in the use of radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric cancers over the past 4 decades. Methods: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the 9 original tumor registries (SEER-9) was queried to identify patients aged 0 to 19 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, bone and joint cancer, cancer of the brain and nervous system, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, Wilms tumor, or retinoblastoma from 1973 to 2008. Patients were grouped into 4-year time epochs. The number and percentage of patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment were calculated per epoch by each diagnosis group from 1973 to 2008. Results: RT use for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and retinoblastoma declined sharply from 57%, 57%, and 30% in 1973 to 1976 to 11%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, in 2005 to 2008. Similarly, smaller declines in RT use were also seen in brain cancer (70%-39%), bone cancer (41%-21%), Wilms tumor (75%-53%), and neuroblastoma (60%-25%). RT use curves for Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma were nonlinear with nadirs in 1993 to 1996 at 39% and 19%, respectively. There were minimal changes in RT use for Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia, roughly stable at 72%, 40%, and 11%, respectively. Almost all patients treated with RT were given external beam RT exclusively. However, from 1985 to 2008, treatments involving brachytherapy, radioisotopes, or combination therapy increased in frequency, comprising 1.8%, 4.6%, and 11.9% of RT treatments in brain cancer, soft tissue cancer, and retinoblastoma, respectively. Conclusions: The use of RT is declining over time in 7 of 10 pediatric cancer categories. A limitation of this study is a potential under-ascertainment of RT use in the SEER-9 database including the delayed use of RT.

  7. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Yue; Wang Hesheng; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pan, Charlie; Hussain, Hero; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which

  8. Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications (FARMS)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications ... Radiative transfer (RT) models simulating broadband solar radiation have been widely used ...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... On the Bell-Plesset Effects: The Effects of Uniform Compression and Geometrical Convergence on the Classical Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Epstein, R. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) ...

  10. Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 1. Introduction Numerical cloud models nearly universally employ one-dimensional (1D) treatments of radiative transfer (RT). ...

  11. B R O O K H A V E N L E C T U R E SERIES Symmetry Principles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rt"" Number 50 October 1 3, 1965 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY Associated ... Images are produced from the best available original document. FOREWORD The Brookhaven ...

  12. Forever Fuels Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forever Fuels Ltd Place: Maidenhead, United Kingdom Zip: SL6 8RT Product: Forever Fuels specialises in the distribution and supply of wood pellets for sustainable heating systems....

  13. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature dependence of the helical half-pitch scattering profile. Top: Heating from room temperature (RT) to the B4-phase critical temperature (TC 142 C). The peak...

  14. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Olga A.; Anderson, Robin L.; Russell, Prudence A.; Ashley Cox, R.; Ivashkevich, Alesia; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P.; Jacobs, Daphne H.M.; Smith, Jai; Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E.; Ball, David L.; and others

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using ?-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated ?-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed ?-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies.

  15. Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hesheng; Feng, Mary; Frey, Kirk A.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose–response functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=−0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies

  16. BPA-2011-00157-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in its entirety. No documents were presented at the meeting. l appreciate the oppo rt unity to assist you. Please contact Laura M. Atterbury, FOIAPrivacy Act Specialist, at...

  17. Nazim Bharmal Anthony Slingo Jeff Settle Gary Robinson Helen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the TOA radiances every 15 min from Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB). * Edwards-Slingo RT code used to calculate consistent flux components. * Or, use measurements...

  18. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS...

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    ... to the pressure transducer procurement scope (absolute and differential all included). ... for the control and monitoring of the Current Lead cooling are operated at RT. For cost ...

  19. 2015 Awarded Campaigns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exoplanets Russ Hemley (Carnegie) Asymptotic self-similar RT, RM Dov Shvarts (Israel) Molecular cloud radiative dynamics Marc Pound (Maryland) Nuclear reactions in HED ...

  20. Is Androgen Deprivation Therapy Necessary in All Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated in the Dose Escalation Era?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, Katherine O.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Lee, Andrew K.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Frank, Steven J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adding androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer is unclear; therefore, we assessed the impact of adding ADT to dose-escalated RT on freedom from failure (FFF). Methods: Three groups of men treated with intensity modulated RT or 3-dimensional conformal RT (75.6-78 Gy) from 1993-2008 for prostate cancer were categorized as (1) 326 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone, (2) 218 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ?6 months of ADT, and (3) 274 low-risk patients treated with definitive RT. Median follow-up was 58 months. Recursive partitioning analysis based on FFF using Gleason score (GS), T stage, and pretreatment PSA concentration was applied to the intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 5-year FFF. Results: Based on recursive partitioning analysis, intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were divided into 3 prognostic groups: (1) 188 favorable patients: GS 6, ?T2b or GS 3+4, ?T1c; (2) 71 marginal patients: GS 3+4, T2a-b; and (3) 68 unfavorable patients: GS 4+3 or T2c disease. Hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence in each group were 1.0, 2.1, and 4.6, respectively. When intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were compared to intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ADT, the greatest benefit from ADT was seen for the unfavorable intermediate-risk patients (FFF, 74% vs 94%, respectively; P=.005). Favorable intermediate-risk patients had no significant benefit from the addition of ADT to RT (FFF, 94% vs 95%, respectively; P=.85), and FFF for favorable intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone approached that of low-risk patients treated with RT alone (98%). Conclusions: Patients with favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer did not benefit from the addition of ADT to dose-escalated RT, and their FFF was nearly as good as patients with low-risk disease. In

  1. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Wang, Dian; Haas, Rick L.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Kirsch, David G.; Roberge, David; Salerno, Kilian; Deville, Curtiland; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; O'Sullivan, Brian; Petersen, Ivy A.; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Abrams, Ross A.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  2. Prognostic factors predicting functional outcomes, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival after radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression in breast cancer patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Schulte, Rainer; Hoskin, Peter J.; Poortmans, Philip; Schild, Steven E.; Rudat, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify significant prognostic factors after irradiation of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in 335 breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The potential prognostic factors investigated included involved vertebra, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, performance status, pretreatment ambulatory status, time until motor deficits developed before RT, radiation schedule (shorter-course RT [one fraction of 8 Gy/five fractions of 4 Gy] vs. longer-course RT [10 fractions of 3 Gy/15 fractions of 2.5 Gy/20 fractions of 2 Gy), and the response to RT. Results: On multivariate analysis, better functional outcome was associated with slower development of motor deficits (p <0.001) and being ambulatory before RT (p <0.001). The overall recurrence rate of MSCC was greater if other bone metastases were present (p <0.001) and if shorter-course RT was used (p <0.001). In-field recurrences alone were more frequent after shorter-course RT (p = 0.008). Survival was negatively affected by the presence of visceral metastases (p <0.001), deterioration of motor function after RT (p <0.001), reduced performance status (p <0.001), and the rapid development of motor deficits (p = 0.044). Conclusion: Outcomes and survival after RT for MSCC in breast cancer patients are associated with several prognostic factors. Patients with poor expected survival may be treated with shorter-course RT to keep the overall treatment time short. If survival is expected to be relatively favorable, longer-course RT appears preferable, because it is associated with fewer MSCC recurrences.

  3. Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruheim, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.bruheim@medisin.uio.n [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Guren, Marianne G. [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Alv A. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Balteskard, Lise [University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Fossa, Sophie D. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

  4. Impact of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Before and After Definitive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Apparently Solitary Plasmacytoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Paul J.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail; Seymour, John F.; Prince, H. Miles

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on management of patients with apparently isolated plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a central PET database. They were either candidates for or had received definitive radiation therapy (RT). Results: Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11) or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%). Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site (n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative). Conclusions: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse prognosis.

  5. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  6. The Influence of Radiation Modality and Lymph Node Dissection on Survival in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chino, Junzo P., E-mail: junzo.chino@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Jones, Ellen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Caroline, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Berchuck, Andrew; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Havrilesky, Laura J. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Background: The appropriate uses of lymph node dissection (LND) and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for Stage I endometrial cancer are controversial. We explored the impact of specific RT modalities (whole pelvic RT [WPRT], vaginal brachytherapy [VB]) and LND status on survival. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results dataset was queried for all surgically treated International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I endometrial cancers; subjects were stratified into low, intermediate and high risk cohorts using modifications of Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocol 99 and PORTEC (Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer) trial criteria. Five-year overall survival was estimated, and comparisons were performed via the log-rank test. Results: A total of 56,360 patients were identified: 70.4% low, 26.2% intermediate, and 3.4% high risk. A total of 41.6% underwent LND and 17.6% adjuvant RT. In low-risk disease, LND was associated with higher survival (93.7 LND vs. 92.7% no LND, p < 0.001), whereas RT was not (91.6% RT vs. 92.9% no RT, p = 0.23). In intermediate-risk disease, LND (82.1% LND vs. 76.5% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (80.6% RT vs. 74.9% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with higher survival without differences between RT modalities. In high-risk disease, LND (68.8% LND vs. 54.1% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (66.9% RT vs. 57.2% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with increased survival; if LND was not performed, VB alone was inferior to WPRT (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Both WPRT and VB alone are associated with increased survival in the intermediate-risk group. In the high-risk group, in the absence of LND, only WPRT is associated with increased survival. LND was also associated with increased survival.

  7. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  8. Impact of Adjuvant External-Beam Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Uterine Papillary Serous and Clear Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Anne; Schreiber, David; Rineer, Justin; Choi, Kwang; Rotman, Marvin

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in early-stage high- to intermediate-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma is well established and has been shown to improve locoregional control. Its role in the management of early-stage clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified women with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage Sixth Edition. Stage IA-IIB clear cell carcinoma or UPSC who underwent hysterectomy with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2003. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to compare overall survival (OS) for all patients. Results: We identified 1,333 women of whom 451 had clear cell carcinoma and 882 had UPSC. Of those patients, 775 underwent surgery alone and 558 received adjuvant RT as well. For Stages I-IIB disease, the median OS with surgery alone was 106 months, vs. 151 months with adjuvant RT (p = 0.006). On subgroup analysis, we saw the benefit from adjuvant RT only in Stage IB-C patients. For Stage IB disease, patients undergoing surgery alone had a median OS of 117 months, vs. median survival not reached with the addition of RT (p = 0.006). For Stage IC disease, surgery alone had a median OS of 35 months vs. 120 months with RT (p = 0.001). Although the apparent benefit of RT diminished when measured via multivariate analysis, the impact of RT on survival did show a trend toward significance (hazard ration 0.808, confidence interval 95% 0.651-1.002, p = 0.052) Conclusion: In FIGO Stage IB-C papillary serous and clear cell uterine carcinoma, adjuvant RT seems to play an important role in improving survival.

  9. Short-course radiotherapy is not optimal for spinal cord compression due to myeloma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Hoskin, Peter J.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Schulte, Rainer; Poortmans, Philip; Veninga, Theo; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Obralic, Nermina; Wildfang, Ingeborg; Bahrehmand, Roja; Engenhart-Cabilic, Rita; Schild, Steven E.

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the suitability of short-course radiotherapy (RT) for spinal cord compression (SCC) in myeloma patients. Methods and Materials: Data for 172 myeloma patients irradiated between January 1994 and December 2004 for SCC were retrospectively evaluated. Short-course RT (1 x 8 Gy, 5 x 4 Gy, n = 61) and long-course RT (10 x 3 Gy, 15 x 2.5 Gy, 20 x 2 Gy, n = 111) were compared for functional outcome up to 24 months after RT. In addition, 10 potential prognostic factors were investigated. Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 90 patients (52%). Forty-seven percent of nonambulatory patients regained the ability to walk. Functional outcome was significantly influenced by the time of developing motor deficits before RT. Improvement of motor function was more frequent after long-course RT than after short-course RT: 59% vs. 39% (p = 0.10) at 1 month, 67% vs. 43% (p 0.043) at 6 months, 76% vs. 40% (p = 0.003) at 12 months, 78% vs. 43% (p 0.07) at 18 months, and 83% v 54% (p = 0.33) at 24 months. A subgroup analysis of the long-course RT group demonstrated a similar functional outcome for 10 x 3 Gy when compared with 15 x 2.5 Gy and 20 x 2 Gy. Conclusions: Long-course RT is preferable for SCC in myeloma patients because it resulted in better functional outcome than short-course RT. Treatment with 10 x 3 Gy can be considered appropriate.

  10. Patterns of Practice in Palliative Radiotherapy for Painful Bone Metastases: A Survey in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Shikama, Naoto; Wada, Hitoshi; Harada, Hideyuki; Nozaki, Miwako; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tago, Masao; Oguchi, Masahiko; Uchida, Nobue

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the current patterns of practice in Japan and to investigate factors that may make clinicians reluctant to use single-fraction radiotherapy (SF-RT). Methods and Materials: Members of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) completed an Internet-based survey and described the radiotherapy dose fractionation they would recommend for four hypothetical cases describing patients with painful bone metastasis (BM). Case 1 described a patient with an uncomplicated painful BM in a non-weight-bearing site from non-small-cell lung cancer. Case 2 investigated whether management for a case of uncomplicated spinal BM would be different from that in Case 1. Case 3 was identical with Case 2 except for the presence of neuropathic pain. Case 4 investigated the prescription for an uncomplicated painful BM secondary to oligometastatic breast cancer. Radiation oncologists who recommended multifraction radiotherapy (MF-RT) for Case 2 were asked to explain why they considered MF-RT superior to SF-RT. Results: A total of 52 radiation oncologists from 50 institutions (36% of JROSG institutions) responded. In all four cases, the most commonly prescribed regimen was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. SF-RT was recommended by 13% of respondents for Case 1, 6% for Case 2, 0% for Case 3, and 2% for Case 4. For Case 4, 29% of respondents prescribed a high-dose MF-RT regimen (e.g., 50 Gy in 25 fractions). The following factors were most often cited as reasons for preferring MF-RT: 'time until first increase in pain' (85%), 'incidence of spinal cord compression' (50%), and 'incidence of pathologic fractures' (29%). Conclusions: Japanese radiation oncologists prefer a schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions and are less likely to recommend SF-RT. Most Japanese radiation oncologists regard MF-RT as superior to SF-RT, based primarily on the time until first increase in pain.

  11. In-Born Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Safeguards Use at Gas-Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward,R.; Rosenthal,M.

    2009-07-12

    Global expansion of nuclear power has made the need for improved safeguards measures at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) imperative. One technology under consideration for safeguards applications is Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFIDs). RFIDs have the potential to increase IAEA inspector"s efficiency and effectiveness either by reducing the number of inspection visits necessary or by reducing inspection effort at those visits. This study assesses the use of RFIDs as an integral component of the "Option 4" safeguards approach developed by Bruce Moran, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for a model GCEP [1]. A previous analysis of RFIDs was conducted by Jae Jo, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which evaluated the effectiveness of an RFID tag applied by the facility operator [2]. This paper presents a similar evaluation carried out in the framework of Jo’s paper, but it is predicated on the assumption that the RFID tag is applied by the manufacturer at the birth of the cylinder, rather than by the operator. Relevant diversion scenarios are examined to determine if RFIDs increase the effectiveness and/ or efficiency of safeguards in these scenarios. Conclusions on the benefits offered to inspectors by using in-born RFID tagging are presented.

  12. Sequencing of Local Therapy Affects the Pattern of Treatment Failure and Survival in Children With Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Beltran, Chris; Wu, Shengjie; Sharma, Shelly; Boop, Frederick A.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Wright, Karen D.; Broniscer, Alberto; Kun, Larry E.; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the pattern of treatment failure associated with current therapeutic paradigms for childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with AT/RT of the central nervous system treated at our institution between 1987 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of local failure were correlated with age, sex, tumor location, extent of disease, and extent of surgical resection. Radiotherapy (RT) sequencing, chemotherapy, dose, timing, and volume administered after resection were also evaluated. Results: Thirty-one patients at a median age of 2.3 years at diagnosis (range, 0.45-16.87 years) were enrolled into protocols that included risk- and age-stratified RT. Craniospinal irradiation with focal tumor bed boost (median dose, 54 Gy) was administered to 18 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 16. Ten patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. RT was delayed more than 3 months in 20 patients and between 1 and 3 months in 4; 7 patients received immediate postoperative irradiation preceding high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 48 months, the cumulative incidence of local treatment failure was 37.5% {+-} 9%; progression-free survival was 33.2% {+-} 10%; and OS was 53.5% {+-} 10%. Children receiving delayed RT ({>=}1 month postoperatively) were more likely to experience local failure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, p = 0.007); the development of distant metastases before RT increased the risk of progression (HR 3.49, p = 0.006); and any evidence of disease progressionbefore RT decreased OS (HR 20.78, p = 0.004). Disease progression occurred in 52% (11/21) of children with initially localized tumors who underwent gross total resection, and the progression rate increased proportionally with increasing delay from surgery to RT. Conclusions: Delayed RT is associated with a higher rate of local and metastatic

  13. The Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas by Histology in the United States Population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusthoven, Chad G.; Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Dally, Miranda J.; Barón, Anna E.; Yeh, Norman; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Liu, Arthur K.; Ney, Douglas E.; Damek, Denise M.; Lillehei, Kevin O.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the survival impact of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (RT) for malignant gliomas of glioblastoma (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) histology. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried from 1998 to 2007 for patients aged ≥18 years with high-grade gliomas managed with upfront surgical resection, treated with and without adjuvant RT. Results: The primary analysis totaled 14,461 patients, with 12,115 cases of GBM (83.8%), 1312 AA (9.1%), 718 AO (4.9%), and 316 AOA (2.2%). On univariate analyses, adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS) for GBMs (2-year OS, 17% vs 7%, p<.001), AAs (5-year OS, 38% vs 24%, p<.001), and AOAs (5-year OS, 55% vs 44%, p=.026). No significant differences in OS were observed for AOs (5-year OS, with RT 50% vs 56% without RT, p=.277). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models accounting for extent of resection, age, sex, race, year, marital status, and tumor registry, RT was associated with significantly improved OS for both GBMs (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.50-0.55; P<.001) and AAs (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.68; P<.001) but only a trend toward improved OS for AOAs (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.09; P=.110). Due to the observation of nonproportional hazards, Cox regressions were not performed for AOs. A significant interaction was observed between the survival impact of RT and histology overall (interaction P<.001) and in a model limited to the anaplastic (WHO grade 3) histologies. (interaction P=.024), characterizing histology as a significant predictive factor for the impact of RT. Subgroup analyses demonstrated greater hazard reductions with RT among patients older than median age for both GBMs and AAs (all interaction P≤.001). No significant interactions were observed between RT and extent of resection. Identical patterns of significance were

  14. Patterns of Practice of Palliative Radiotherapy in Africa, Part 1: Bone and Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Vinay Gaye, Papa Macoumba M.Med.; Wahab, Sherif Abdel; Ndlovu, Ntokozo; Ngoma, Twalib; Vanderpuye, Verna; Sowunmi, Anthonia; Kigula-Mugambe, Joseph; Jeremic, Branislav

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To provide data on the pattern of practice of palliative radiotherapy (RT) on the African continent. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed to participants in a regional training course of the International Atomic Energy Agency in palliative cancer care and sent by e-mail to other institutions in Africa. Requested information included both infrastructure and human resources available and the pattern of RT practice for metastatic and locally advanced cancers. Results: Of 35 centers contacted, 24 (68%) completed the questionnaire. Although RT is used by most centers for most metastatic cancers, liver and lung metastases are treated with chemotherapy. Of 23 centers, 14 (61%) had a single RT regimen as an institutional policy for treating painful bone metastases, but only 5 centers (23%) of 23 used 8 Gy in 1 fraction. Brain metastases were being treated by RT to the whole brain to 30 Gy in 10 fractions, either exclusively (n = 13, 56%) or in addition to the use of 20 Gy in 5 fractions (n = 3, 14%). Conclusion: Radiotherapy is a major component of treatment of cancer patients in African countries. There is consensus among few centers for treatment schedules for almost all sites regarding time and dose-fractionation characteristics of RT regimens used and/or indications for the use of RT in this setting.

  15. Are We Appropriately Selecting Therapy For Patients With Cervical Cancer? Longitudinal Patterns-of-Care Analysis for Stage IB-IIB Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Julie A.; Rusthoven, Chad; DeWitt, Peter E.; Davidson, Susan A.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We performed a patterns-of-care analysis evaluating the effects of newer technology and recent research findings on treatment decisions over 26 years to determine whether patients with cervical cancer are being appropriately selected for treatment to optimize the therapeutic ratio. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program from 1983 to 2009. We identified 10,933 women with stage IB-IIB cervical carcinoma. Results: Of the 10,933 subjects identified, 40.1% received surgery, 26.8% received radiation (RT), and 33.1% received surgery plus RT. RT use increased after 2000 compared to prior to 2000, with a corresponding decrease in surgery and surgery plus RT. Among patients with risk factors including tumor size >4 cm, positive parametria, and positive lymph nodes, declining use of surgery plus RT was observed. However, 23% of patients with tumors >4 cm, 20% of patients with positive parametria, and 55% of node-positive patients continued to receive surgery plus RT as of 2009. Factors associated with increased use of surgery plus RT included patient age <50 and node-positive status. Conclusions: In this largest patterns-of-care analysis to date for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, we found a substantial proportion of patients continue to undergo surgery followed by radiation, despite randomized data supporting the use of definitive radiation therapy, with lower morbidity than surgery and radiation.

  16. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kron, Tomas; Willis, David; Link, Emma; Lehman, Margot; Campbell, Gillian; O'Brien, Peter; Chua, Boon

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dosevolume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dosevolume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  17. Nucleotide sequences of three distinct clones coding for rat heavy chain class 1 major hitocompatibility antigens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Stepkowski, S.M.; Tain, L.

    1996-09-01

    Poly(A){sup +} RNAs were isolated from ConconavalinA stimulated splenocytes of BUF (RT1.A{sup b}), PVG (RT1.A{sup c}), or PVG.1U (RT1.A{sup u}) rats, respectively, using a Micro-Fast Track kit. After reverse transcription with a synthetic oligo-d(T) primer (5{sup {prime}}-CAT GAT CGA ATT CAC GCG TCT AGA TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TVN-3{sup {prime}}, V = A+G+C, N = A+T+G+C; Genosys, Woodland, TX), 1.6 kilobase products, which encode the entire MHC class I protein and the 3{sup {prime}} non-translated region including the poly-A tail, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two synthetic oligonucleotide primers (Genosys). The upstream primer (5{sup {prime}}-GTC CGG GWT CTC AGA TGG GG C-3{sup {prime}}, W = A+T) was designed based upon the published rat class I sequences of eight genes: RT1.1{sup a} M31018; rat LW2 gene X70066; RT1.1{sup 1}, L26224 X79719; RT1.A{sup u} X82669, and RT1.Aw3 L40363, RT1.E{sup u} L40365, RT1.C{sup 1} L40362. The downstream primer (5{sup {prime}}) ATG ATC GAA TTC ACG CGT CTA GA-3{sup {prime}} was the portion of the oligo-d(T) primer used for reverse transcription. The purified PCR products were inserted into pCR II cloning vectors (Invitrogen). Automated sequencing of plasmid cDNAs from the positive clones obtained from three repeated PCR amplifications identified by restriction enzyme mapping were reproducible. Comparison between new sequences of the heavy chain class I genes and those available in GenBank. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Multi-Institutional Review of Repeat Irradiation of Chest Wall and Breast for Recurrent Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Andrew O.; Rademaker, Alfred; Kiel, Krystyna D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Croog, Victoria; McCormick, Beryl M.; Hirsch, Arica; Karkar, Ami; Motwani, Sabin B.; Tereffe, Welela; Yu, T.-K.; Sher, David; Silverstein, Joshua; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Kesslering, Christy; Freedman, Gary M.; Small, William

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To review the toxicity and clinical outcomes for patients who underwent repeat chest wall or breast irradiation (RT) after local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 81 patients underwent repeat RT of the breast or chest wall for locally recurrent breast cancer at eight institutions. The median dose of the first course of RT was 60 Gy and was 48 Gy for the second course. The median total radiation dose was 106 Gy (range, 74.4-137.5 Gy). At the second RT course, 20% received twice-daily RT, 54% were treated with concurrent hyperthermia, and 54% received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up from the second RT course was 12 months (range, 1-144 months). Four patients developed late Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. However, 25 patients had follow-up >20 months, and no late Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were noted. No treatment-related deaths occurred. The development of Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity was not associated with any repeat RT variables. The overall complete response rate was 57%. No repeat RT parameters were associated with an improved complete response rate, although a trend was noted for an improved complete response with the addition of hyperthermia that was close to reaching statistical significance (67% vs. 39%, p = 0.08). The 1-year local disease-free survival rate for patients with gross disease was 53% compared with 100% for those without gross disease (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that repeat RT of the chest wall for patients with locally recurrent breast cancer is feasible, because it is associated with acceptable acute and late morbidity and encouraging local response rates.

  19. Postoperative Radiation Therapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Node-Positive Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junqiang; Pan, Jianji; Liu, Jian; Li, Jiancheng; Zhu, Kunshou; Zheng, Xiongwei; Chen, Mingqiang; Chen, Ming; Liao, Zhongxing

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy plus RT (CRT) for the postoperative treatment of node-positive thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC) and to determine the incidence and severity of toxic reactions. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed data from 304 patients who had undergone esophagectomy with 3-field lymph node dissection for TESCC and were determined by postoperative pathology to have lymph node metastasis without distant hematogenous metastasis. Of these patients, 164 underwent postoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin 80 mg/m{sup 2}, average days 1-3, plus paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1; 21-day cycle) plus RT (50 Gy), and 140 underwent postoperative RT alone. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for the CRT and RT groups were 47.4% and 38.6%, respectively (P=.030). The distant metastasis rate, the mixed (regional lymph node and distant) metastasis rate, and the overall recurrence rate were significantly lower in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). However, mild and severe early toxic reactions, including neutropenia, radiation esophagitis, and gastrointestinal reaction, were significantly more common in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). No significant differences in incidence of late toxic reactions were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Our results show that in node-positive TESCC patients, postoperative CRT is significantly more effective than RT alone at increasing the overall survival and decreasing the rates of distant metastasis, mixed metastasis, and overall recurrence. Severe early toxic reactions were more common with CRT than with RT alone, but patients could tolerate CRT.

  20. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai; Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M.; Bentzen, Sren M.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ?66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

  1. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Nagesh, Vijaya; Sundgren, Pia C.; Buchtel, Henry; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Junck, Larry; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line }) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Up-Tack }) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p < .05). The radiation dose correlated with an increase in cingulum {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 and 6 weeks (p < .05). The post-RT changes in verbal recall scores correlated linearly with the late changes in cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} (30 weeks, p < .02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, early cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

  2. TU-C-17A-03: An Integrated Contour Evaluation Software Tool Using Supervised Pattern Recognition for Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Tan, J; Kavanaugh, J; Dolly, S; Gay, H; Thorstad, W; Anastasio, M; Altman, M; Mutic, S; Li, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) contours delineated either manually or semiautomatically require verification before clinical usage. Manual evaluation is very time consuming. A new integrated software tool using supervised pattern contour recognition was thus developed to facilitate this process. Methods: The contouring tool was developed using an object-oriented programming language C# and application programming interfaces, e.g. visualization toolkit (VTK). The C# language served as the tool design basis. The Accord.Net scientific computing libraries were utilized for the required statistical data processing and pattern recognition, while the VTK was used to build and render 3-D mesh models from critical RT structures in real-time and 360° visualization. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for system self-updating geometry variations of normal structures based on physician-approved RT contours as a training dataset. The inhouse design of supervised PCA-based contour recognition method was used for automatically evaluating contour normality/abnormality. The function for reporting the contour evaluation results was implemented by using C# and Windows Form Designer. Results: The software input was RT simulation images and RT structures from commercial clinical treatment planning systems. Several abilities were demonstrated: automatic assessment of RT contours, file loading/saving of various modality medical images and RT contours, and generation/visualization of 3-D images and anatomical models. Moreover, it supported the 360° rendering of the RT structures in a multi-slice view, which allows physicians to visually check and edit abnormally contoured structures. Conclusion: This new software integrates the supervised learning framework with image processing and graphical visualization modules for RT contour verification. This tool has great potential for facilitating treatment planning with the assistance of an automatic contour evaluation module in avoiding

  3. Valproic Acid Use During Radiation Therapy for Glioblastoma Associated With Improved Survival

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Christopher A.; Bishop, Andrew J.; Chang, Maria; Beal, Kathryn; Chan, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Valproic acid (VA) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor taken by patients with glioblastoma (GB) to manage seizures, and it can modulate the biologic effects of radiation therapy (RT). We investigated whether VA use during RT for GB was associated with overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 544 adults with GB were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses were performed to determine the association of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG RPA) class, seizure history, and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and AED use during RT with OS. Results: Seizures before the end of RT were noted in 217 (40%) patients, and 403 (74%) were taking an AED during RT; 29 (7%) were taking VA. Median OS in patients taking VA was 16.9 months (vs 13.6 months taking another AED, P=.16). Among patients taking an AED during RT, OS was associated with VA (P=.047; hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.07), and RTOG RPA class (P<.0001; HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37-1.61). Of the 5 most common AEDs, only VA was associated with OS. Median OS of patients receiving VA and TMZ during RT was 23.9 months (vs 15.2 months for patients taking another AED, P=.26). When the analysis was restricted to patients who received concurrent TMZ, VA use was marginally associated with OS (P=.057; HR, 0.54; 95% CI, −0.09 to 1.17), independently of RTOG RPA class and seizure history. Conclusions: VA use during RT for GB was associated with improved OS, independently of RTOG RPA, seizure history, and concurrent TMZ use. Further studies of treatment that combines HDAC inhibitors and RT are warranted.

  4. Interval Between Hysterectomy and Start of Radiation Treatment Is Predictive of Recurrence in Patients With Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cattaneo, Richard; Hanna, Rabbie K.; Jacobsen, Gordon; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to improve local control in patients with endometrial carcinoma. We analyzed the impact of the time interval between hysterectomy and RT initiation in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board-approved study, we identified 308 patients with endometrial carcinoma who received adjuvant RT after hysterectomy. All patients had undergone hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node evaluation from 1988 to 2010. Patients' demographics, pathologic features, and treatments were compared. The time interval between hysterectomy and the start of RT was calculated. The effects of time interval on recurrence-free (RFS), disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Following univariate analysis, multivariate modeling was performed. Results: The median age and follow-up for the study cohort was 65 years and 72 months, respectively. Eighty-five percent of the patients had endometrioid carcinoma. RT was delivered with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone (29%), pelvic RT alone (20%), or both (51%). Median time interval to start RT was 42 days (range, 21-130 days). A total of 269 patients (74%) started their RT <9 weeks after undergoing hysterectomy (group 1) and 26% started ≥9 weeks after surgery (group 2). There were a total of 43 recurrences. Tumor recurrence was significantly associated with treatment delay of ≥9 weeks, with 5-year RFS of 90% for group 1 compared to only 39% for group 2 (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, RT delay of ≥9 weeks (P<.001), presence of lymphovascular space involvement (P=.001), and higher International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade (P=.012) were independent predictors of recurrence. In addition, RT delay of ≥9 weeks was an independent significant predictor for worse DSS and OS (P=.001 and P=.01, respectively). Conclusions: Delay in administering adjuvant RT after hysterectomy was

  5. Single-Fraction Versus 5-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Limited Survival Prognoses: Results of a Matched-Pair Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rades, Dirk; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Šegedin, Barbara; Perpar, Ana; Conde, Antonio J.; Garcia, Raquel; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Cacicedo, Jon; Rudat, Volker; Schild, Steven E.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: This study compared single-fraction to multi-fraction short-course radiation therapy (RT) for symptomatic metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients with limited survival prognosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients who received 8 Gy × 1 fraction were matched (1:1) to 121 patients treated with 4 Gy × 5 fractions for 10 factors including age, sex, performance status, primary tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, interval between tumor diagnosis and MESCC, pre-RT ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits prior to RT. Endpoints included in-field repeated RT (reRT) for MESCC, overall survival (OS), and impact of RT on motor function. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for in-field reRT for MESCC and OS and with the ordered-logit model for effect of RT on motor function. Results: Doses of 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 4 Gy × 5 fractions were not significantly different with respect to the need for in-field reRT for MESCC (P=.11) at 6 months (18% vs 9%, respectively) and 12 months (30% vs 22%, respectively). The RT regimen also had no significant impact on OS (P=.65) and post-RT motor function (P=.21). OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively, after 8 Gy × 1 fraction versus 25% and 13%, respectively, after 4 Gy × 5 fractions. Improvement of motor function was observed in 17% of patients after 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 23% after 4 Gy × 5 fractions, respectively. Conclusions: There were no significant differences with respect to need for in-field reRT for MESCC, OS, and motor function by dose fractionation regimen. Thus, 8 Gy × 1 fraction may be a reasonable option for patients with survival prognosis of a few months.

  6. Structural transformations in Mn{sub 2}NiGa due to residual stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Sanjay; Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.; Ranjan, R.

    2010-02-22

    Powder x-ray diffraction study of Mn{sub 2}NiGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy shows the existence of a 7M monoclinic modulated structure at room temperature (RT). The structure of Mn{sub 2}NiGa is found to be highly dependent on residual stress. For higher stress, the structure is tetragonal at RT, and for intermediate stress it is 7M monoclinic. However, only when the stress is considerably relaxed, the structure is cubic, as is expected at RT since the martensitic transition temperature is 230 K.

  7. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RT codes via BBHRP L. Oreopoulos (UMBC/GSFC) E. Mlawer, J. Delamere (AER) Tim Shippert (PNNL) Our goal: To learn when and why we succeed or fail to achieve radiative flux closure in BBHRP. Our tools: The BBHRP dataset itself and radiative fluxes calculated as in BBHRP (aka our "shadow" dataset ) with two pairs (SW and LW) of additional RT algorithms: from CAM3 and from GSFC's fvGCM. BBHRP uses AER's SW and LW RRTM codes. How we learn: If the RT models tend to agree, but disagree with

  8. SITE NAME: CITY: L~dL:&lvad:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EQUIPMENT ORE OR Rr,W MATL FINAL PRODUCT PI WASTE 8, RESIDUE q c-CjMEIJ INVOLVE?T' RT SITE 2%-----...----... .Control c H&l th Physics Protectinn . fl AECMED ...

  9. BPA-2013-01309-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    records request FOIA request from Ted Sickinger. Doug Johnson Bonneville Power Administration 503-230-5840 Rt'(..'EIVEA) BY BPA FO 1A OFFICE TiltS I DUE DATE: LOG From:...

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Parameters of Stratus Clouds in ARESE II Austin, R.T. (a), Davis, J.M. (a), Miller, S.D. (b), and Stephens, G.L. (a), Colorado State University, Fort Collins (a), Naval...

  11. Poster_AD.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiative transfer (RT) model with an unconventional propagation kernel, i.e., the term in ... Barker, H. W., B. A. Wielicki, and L. Parker, 1996: A parameterization for computing ...

  12. Implementation and Validation of the BHR Turbulence Model in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The effectiveness of the BHR-2 implementation has been demonstrated for variable density mixing in the KH, RT, and RM cases in an Eulerian framework 7. The primary motivation of ...

  13. nab-ARM_land2_v5.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Figure 5: Daily-averaged down-welling LW flux, from AMF measurements (red) and modelled ... (blue) are binned into the 10cm -1 bins used by the Edwards-Slingo RT code results (red). ...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... supplies without breeding tritium in the water blanket. less Full Text Available April ... have run parameter studies for the baseline roundtrip (RT) to Mars with a 100-ton payload. ...

  15. Social Media | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to bring next-gen battery materials to market - ... RT @NERSC: Oh my stars 700k-year simulation run on Pleiades ... Hi, I am Andreas Roelofs. I am Director of Nano Design Works ...

  16. BPA-2015-00676-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    calculations made at sea level to 75 other altitudes 6. Reference 6 also contains an Italian formula for the effect of altitude on Rt. These two equations are compared in Figure...

  17. ATR NSUF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... X-Ray Characterizations of Advanced Accident-tolerant Cladding APS View Details 13-469 Texas ... Particles in Zirconium-Hydride Matrix Fuels RT-PIE View Details 16-604 Penn State ...

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and analysis results (7105 -63006) in a 10x10 area centered at SGP and TWP-Darwin sites. Retrieval Algorithm MMCR iwc profiles MWR lwp ECMWF p, T, q, ... RT model...

  19. Twitter | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... RT @ and their username before the message, and then hit the "Tweet" button to publish it. ... If you want more people to see it, add something before the @username in your response, ...

  20. Threshold of photoelectron emission from CN{sub x} films deposited at room temperature and at 500 deg. C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sago, Genki; Li Wanyan; Goto, Keisuke; Ichikawa, Yo; Ishida, Yoshihisa; Kohiki, Shigemi

    2004-10-15

    The threshold of photoelectron emission was measured for amorphous CN{sub x} films deposited at room temperature (RT) and at 500 deg. C. The x values of the films deposited at RT and at 500 deg. C by magnetron sputtering of a graphite target in a mixed N{sub 2}/Ar gas were 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. Ratios of the sp{sup 2}- to sp{sup 3}-hybridized components of both C and N for the film deposited at 500 deg. C were larger by {approx_equal}4 times than those for the film deposited at RT. The onsets of the electron emission by photon irradiation were 5.0 and 4.7 eV for the films deposited at RT and at 500 deg. C, respectively.

  1. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using the Edwards-Slingo RT code (ES), the radiation measured at TOA by GERB and at the surface from the AMF during its Nigerien deployment is compared with calculations during...

  2. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.

    2013-03-21

    In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

  3. May 2014 PSERC Webinar: Testing and Validation of Synchrophasor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    data: the Phasor Measurement Unit Performance Analyzer (PPA) and Real Time Voltage Stability Monitoring (RT-VSM). The webinar will be held Tuesday, May 6, 2014 from 2-3 p.m. ...

  4. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  5. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: Long-term Outcomes of 53 Patients Treated With Conservative Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, Katherine O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh, E-mail: aguadagn@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsai, C. Jillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Feig, Barry W. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zagars, Gunar K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of conservative surgery and radiation therapy (RT) treatment in patients with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 53 consecutive dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans patients treated with surgery and preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy between 1972 and 2010. Median tumor size was 4 cm (range, 1-25 cm). Seven patients (13%) were treated with preoperative RT (50-50.4 Gy) and 46 patients (87%) with postoperative RT (60-66 Gy). Of the 46 patients receiving postoperative radiation, 3 (7%) had gross disease, 14 (30%) positive margins, 26 (57%) negative margins, and 3 (7%) uncertain margin status. Radiation dose ranged from 50 to 66 Gy (median dose, 60 Gy). Results: At a median follow-up time of 6.5 years (range, 0.5 months-23.5 years), 2 patients (4%) had disease recurrence, and 3 patients (6%) had died. Actuarial overall survival was 98% at both 5 and 10 years. Local control was 98% and 93% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Disease-free survival was 98% and 93% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The presence of fibrosarcomatous change was not associated with increased risk of local or distant relapse (P=.43). One of the patients with a local recurrence had gross residual disease at the time of RT and despite RT to 65 Gy developed both an in-field recurrence and a nodal and distant recurrence 3 months after RT. The other patient with local recurrence was found to have in-field recurrence 10 years after initial treatment. Thirteen percent of patients had an RT complication at 5 and 10 years, and 9% had a moderate or severe complication at 5 and 10 years. Conclusions: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a radioresponsive disease with excellent local control after conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Adjuvant RT should be considered for patients with large or recurrent tumors or when attempts at wide surgical margins would result in significant morbidity.

  6. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis; Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J.; Cooper, David E.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  7. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome After Abdominal Irradiation That Included or Excluded the Pelvis in Childhood Tumor Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudour, Helene; Chastagner, Pascal; Claude, Line; Desandes, Emmanuel; Klein, Marc; Carrie, Christian; Bernier, Valerie

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate fertility after abdominal and/or pelvic irradiation in long-term female survivors. Methods and Materials: Puberty and pregnancy outcome were analyzed in female survivors of childhood cancer (aged <18 years) treated with abdominal and/or pelvic radiotherapy (RT) at one of two French centers (Nancy and Lyon) between 1975 and 2004. Data were obtained from medical records and questionnaires sent to the women. Results: A total of 84 patients who had received abdominal and/or pelvic RT during childhood and were alive and aged more than 18 years at the time of the study made up the study population. Of the 57 female survivors treated with abdominal RT that excluded the pelvis, 52 (91%) progressed normally through puberty and 23 (40%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Of the 27 patients treated with pelvic RT, only 10 (37%) progressed normally through puberty and 5 (19%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Twenty-two women (seventeen of whom were treated with pelvic RT) had certain subfertility. A total of 50 births occurred in 28 women, with one baby dying at birth; one miscarriage also occurred. There was a high prevalence of prematurity and low birth weight but not of congenital malformations. Conclusions: Fertility can be preserved in patients who undergo abdominal RT that excludes the pelvis, taking into account the other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents) are taken into account. When RT includes the pelvis, fertility is frequently impaired and women can have difficulty conceiving. Nevertheless, pregnancies can occur in some of these women. The most important factor that endangers a successful pregnancy after RT is the total dose received by the ovaries and uterus. This radiation dose has to be systematically recorded to improve our ability to follow up patients.

  8. Surveillance for Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viruses using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meagher, Robert J.; Ball, Cameron Scott; Langevin, Stanley A.; Fang, Ying; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Coffey, Lark L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) offers highly sensitive and specific detection of these three viruses in a single multiplex reaction, but this technique requires costly, specialized equipment that is generally only available in centralized publicmore » health laboratories. We report the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect WNV, WEEV, and SLEV RNA extracted from pooled mosquito samples collected in California, including novel primer sets for specific detection of WEEV and SLEV, targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) gene of WEEV and the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of SLEV. Our WEEV and SLEV RT-LAMP primers allowed detection of <0.1 PFU/reaction of their respective targets in <30 minutes, and exhibited high specificity without cross reactivity when tested against a panel of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Furthermore, the SLEV primers do not cross-react with WNV, despite both viruses being closely related members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex. The SLEV and WEEV primers can also be combined in a single RT-LAMP reaction, with discrimination between amplicons by melt curve analysis. Although RT-qPCR is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than RT-LAMP for all three targets, the RT-LAMP technique is less instrumentally intensive than RT-qPCR and provides a more cost-effective method of vector-borne virus surveillance.« less

  9. Radiotherapy Improves Survival in Unresected Stage I-III Bronchoalveolar Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Damien; Mishra, Mark; Onn, Amir; Dicker, Adam P.; Symon, Zvi; Pfeffer, M. Raphael; Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv ; Lawrence, Yaacov Richard

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiotherapy (RT) improves the outcome of patients with unresected, nonmetastatic bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC) by performing a population-based analysis within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients diagnosed with BAC, Stage I-III, between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria included unknown stage, unknown primary treatment modality, Stage IV disease, and those diagnosed at autopsy. Demographic data, treatment details, and overall survival were retrieved from the SEER database. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 6933 patients with Stage I-III BAC were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 70 years (range, 10-101 years). The majority of patients were diagnosed with Stage I (74.4%); 968 patients (14%) did not undergo surgical resection. Unresected patients were more likely to be older (p < 0.0001), male (p = 0.001), black (p < 0.0001), and Stage III (p < 0.0001). Within the cohort of unresected patients, 300 (31%) were treated with RT. The estimated 2-year overall survival for patients with unresected, nonmetastatic BAC was 58%, 44%, and 27% in Stage I, II, and III, respectively. Factors associated with improved survival included female sex, earlier stage at diagnosis, and use of RT. Median survival in those not receiving RT vs. receiving RT was as follows: Stage I, 28 months vs. 33 months (n = 364, p = 0.06); Stage II, 18 months vs. not reached (n = 31, nonsignificant); Stage III, 10 months vs. 17 months (n = 517, p < 0.003). Conclusions: The use of RT is associated with improved prognosis in unresected Stage I-III BAC. Less than a third of patients who could have potentially benefited from RT received it, suggesting that the medical specialists involved in the care of these patients underappreciate the importance of RT.

  10. Impact of Preoperative Radiotherapy on General and Disease-Specific Health Status of Rectal Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Mols, Floortje; Lemmens, Valery E.P.P.; Rutten, Harm J.T.; Roukema, Jan A.; Martijn, Hendrik; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) on long-term health status of rectal cancer survivors. Using a population-based sample, we assessed the impact of pRT on general and disease-specific health status of rectal cancer survivors up to 10 years postdiagnosis. The health status of older ({>=}75 years old at diagnosis) pRT survivors was also compared with that of younger survivors. Methods and Materials: Survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated with surgery only (SU) or with pRT between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 38 (EORTC QLQ-CR38) questionnaire. The SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 (sexuality subscale) scores of the survivors were compared to an age- and sex-matched Dutch normal population. Results: A total of 340 survivors (response, 85%; pRT survivors, 71%) were analyzed. Overall, survivors had similar general health status. Both short-term (<5 years) and long-term ({>=}5 years) pRT survivors had significantly poorer body image and more problems with gastrointestinal function, male sexual dysfunction, and defecation than SU survivors. Survivors had comparable general health status but greater sexual dysfunction than the normal population. Older pRT survivors had general and disease-specific health status comparable to that of younger pRT survivors. Conclusions: For better survivorship care, rectal cancer survivors could benefit from increased clinical and psychological focus on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health status.

  11. Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world LANL statistical tools have helped create Reliability Technology (RT), which increases the overall fraction of productive manufacturing time, or "uptime," for its internal manufacturing lines. April 3, 2012 Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world Reliability Technology (RT) is a comprehensive reliability engineering

  12. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contessa, Joseph N.; Griffith, Kent A.; Wolff, Elizabeth; Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  13. The Efficacy of Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Graves' Orbitopathy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthiesen, Chance; Thompson, J. Spencer; Thompson, David; Farris, Bradley; Wilkes, Byron; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Herman, Terence; Bogardus, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review our institutional outcomes of patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) for Graves' orbitopathy (GO), assess the role of orbital reirradiation, and identify prognostic factors of complete response (CR). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of 211 patients who presented with a diagnosis of GO and received RT between January 2000-2010. RT dose was 20 Gy in 10 fractions. Patient median age was 51 years (range, 15-84 years), median follow-up was 11 months (range, 1-88 months). Patient symptoms included any combination of proptosis (90.9%), extraocular muscle dysfunction (78.9%), soft tissue signs (68.4%), and diplopia (58.4%). Corticosteroids were used as first-line therapy in 20.6% of patients. Among those who achieved either CR or partial response (PR), prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: Stabilization of disease without recurrence was clinically achieved overall in 202 patients (96.7%). At the completion of RT, 176 patients (84.2%) reported a symptomatic improvement of pretreatment symptoms. CR of GO symptoms was achieved using multiple treatment modalities, including RT by 93 patients (44.5%), of which 32 patients received RT only. Corticosteroids were discontinued in 97.8% of patients who received them as initial therapy. Surgical intervention following radiotherapy was required for 144 (68.9%) of all patients. Fourteen patients received orbital reirradiation for persistent or recurrent symptoms. Five of these achieved a CR, and the other nine achieved disease stabilization but retained persistent ocular symptoms. Long-term side effects of RT included dry eyes (12%). Of the prognostic factors we investigated, only gender predicted CR, which was less common in men (33.9%) than in women (49.7%) p = 0.0471. Conclusions: Orbital radiation for GO is an established treatment modality for patients. Orbital reirradiation is beneficial for patients who do not respond to initial RT or experience symptom recurrence without an

  14. Management of Pediatric Myxopapillary Ependymoma: The Role of Adjuvant Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agbahiwe, Harold C.; Wharam, Moody; Batra, Sachin; Cohen, Kenneth; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2013-02-01

    Introduction: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor in children. The primary treatment is gross total resection (GTR), with no clearly defined role for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Published reports, however, suggest that children with MPE present with a more aggressive disease course. The goal of this study was to assess the role of adjuvant RT in pediatric patients with MPE. Methods: Sixteen patients with MPE seen at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) between November 1984 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen of the patients were evaluable with a mean age of 16.8 years (range, 12-21 years). Kaplan-Meier curves and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Results: All patients received surgery as the initial treatment modality. Surgery consisted of either a GTR or a subtotal resection (STR). The median dose of adjuvant RT was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-54 Gy). All patients receiving RT were treated at the involved site. After a median follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 0.75-26.4 years), all patients were alive with stable disease. Local control at 5 and 10 years was 62.5% and 30%, respectively, for surgery alone versus 100% at both time points for surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifty percent of the patients receiving surgery alone had local failure. All patients receiving STR alone had local failure compared to 33% of patients receiving GTR alone. One patient in the surgery and adjuvant RT group developed a distant site of recurrence 1 year from diagnosis. No late toxicity was reported at last follow-up, and neurologic symptoms either improved or remained stable following surgery with or without RT. Conclusions: Adjuvant RT improved local control compared to surgery alone and should be considered after surgical resection in pediatric patients with MPE.

  15. Standard (60 Gy) or Short-Course (40 Gy) Irradiation Plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide for Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma: A Propensity-Matched Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minniti, Giuseppe; Scaringi, Claudia; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Terrenato, Irene; Esposito, Vincenzo; Arcella, Antonella; Pace, Andrea; Giangaspero, Felice; Bozzao, Alessandro; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate 2 specific radiation schedules, each combined with temozolomide (TMZ), assessing their efficacy and safety in patients aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Patients aged ≥65 years with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥60 who received either standard (60 Gy) or short-course (40 Gy) radiation therapy (RT) with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ between June 2004 and October 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. A propensity score analysis was executed for a balanced comparison of treatment outcomes. Results: A total of 127 patients received standard RT-TMZ, whereas 116 patients underwent short-course RT-TMZ. Median overall survival and progression-free survival times were similar: 12 months and 5.6 months for the standard RT-TMZ group and 12.5 months and 6.7 months for the short-course RT-TMZ group, respectively. Radiation schedule was associated with similar survival outcomes in either unadjusted or adjusted analysis. O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation was the most favorable prognostic factor (P=.0001). Standard RT-TMZ therapy was associated with a significant rise in grade 2 and 3 neurologic toxicity (P=.01), lowering of KPS scores during the study (P=.01), and higher posttreatment dosing of corticosteroid (P=.02). Conclusions: In older adults with GBM, survival outcomes of standard and short-course RT-TMZ were similar. An abbreviated course of RT plus TMZ may represent a reasonable therapeutic approach for these patients, without loss of survival benefit and acceptable toxicity.

  16. Muddy Water? Variation in Reporting Receipt of Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy by Population-Based Tumor Registries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Williams, Melanie; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Jiangong; MacKinnon, Jill; Anderson, Patricia; Wohler, Brad; Sinclair, Amber H.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Schymura, Maria J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, in the setting of breast cancer, the accuracy of registry radiation therapy (RT) coding compared with the gold standard of Medicare claims. Methods and Materials: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare data, we identified 73,077 patients aged ≥66 years diagnosed with breast cancer in the period 2001-2007. Underascertainment (1 - sensitivity), sensitivity, specificity, κ, and χ{sup 2} were calculated for RT receipt determined by registry data versus claims. Multivariate logistic regression characterized patient, treatment, and geographic factors associated with underascertainment of RT. Findings in the SEER–Medicare registries were compared with three non-SEER registries (Florida, New York, and Texas). Results: In the SEER–Medicare registries, 41.6% (n=30,386) of patients received RT according to registry coding, versus 49.3% (n=36,047) according to Medicare claims (P<.001). Underascertainment of RT was more likely if patients resided in a newer SEER registry (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.80; P<.001), rural county (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48; P<.001), or if RT was delayed (OR 1.006/day, 95% CI 1.006-1.007; P<.001). Underascertainment of RT receipt in SEER registries was 18.7% (95% CI 18.6-18.8%), compared with 44.3% (95% CI 44.0-44.5%) in non-SEER registries. Conclusions: Population-based tumor registries are highly variable in ascertainment of RT receipt and should be augmented with other data sources when evaluating quality of breast cancer care. Future work should identify opportunities for the radiation oncology community to partner with registries to improve accuracy of treatment data.

  17. Continuous Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC) * Sponsored by ARM and endorsed by GEWEX Radiation Panel * Aims to become the standard for documenting the performance of SW and LW RT codes in Large-Scale Models * Goal is to have RT codes of IPCC models report performance against the CIRC cases * Phase I to be launched in the following weeks: http://www.circ-project.org Differences from previous intercomparisons: * Observation-tested LBL calculations to used as radiative benchmarks * Benchmark results

  18. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Hoppe, Richard T.; Li, Ye-Xiong; Tsang, Richard; Wirth, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

  19. Long-term outcome and mortality trends in early-stage, Grade 1-2 follicular lymphoma treated with radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guadagnolo, Beverly A.; Neuberg, Donna; Ng, Andrea; Mauch, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze long-term outcomes and causes of death in patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for localized, low-grade follicular lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1972 and 2000, 106 patients with Stage I-II, Grade 1-2 follicular lymphoma received RT alone or radiation and chemotherapy (RT/CT). Seventy-four percent had Stage I, and 26% had Stage II disease. Seventy-six percent received RT alone, and 24% received combined RT/CT. Second malignancy rates were compared with an age- and sex-matched population. Results: Median follow-up was 12 years. Median survival time was 19 years. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 93%, 75%, and 62%, respectively. Age {>=}60 was the only significant adverse prognostic factor with respect to OS. There were 35 deaths, 20 of which were attributable to lymphoma. Freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 72%, 46%, and 39%, respectively. Forty-seven patients (48%) relapsed. Tumor size >3 cm was the only significant adverse factor for FFTF. Observed incidence of second malignancy did not significantly exceed expected incidence. Conclusions: Although patients with early-stage, low-grade follicular lymphoma have long median survival, the leading cause of death remains lymphoma. However, patients receiving RT do not have significantly elevated cumulative incidence of second malignancy.

  20. Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauspy, Jan; Beiner, Mario E.; Harley, Ian; Rosen, Barry; Murphy, Joan; Chapman, William; Le, Lisa W.; Fyles, Anthony; Levin, Wilfred

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To review the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the outcome and recurrence patterns of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary. Methods and Materials: The records of all patients with GCTs referred to the Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network between 1961 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using disease-free survival (DFS) as the endpoint. Results: A total of 103 patients with histologically confirmed GCTs were included in the present study. The mean duration of follow-up was 100 months (range, 1-399). Of the 103 patients, 31 received adjuvant RT. A total of 39 patients developed tumor recurrence. The tumor size, incidence of intraoperative rupture, and presence of concurrent endometrial cancer were not significant risk factors for DFS. The median DFS was 251 months for patients who underwent adjuvant RT compared with 112 months for patients who did not (p = .02). On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT remained a significant prognostic factor for DFS (p = .004). Of the 103 patients, 12 had died and 44 were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Ovarian GCTs can be indolent, with patients achieving long-term survival. In our series, adjuvant RT resulted in a significantly longer DFS. Ideally, randomized trials with long-term follow-up are needed to define the role of adjuvant RT for ovarian GCTs.

  1. The d-edge shortest-path problem for a Monge graph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, W.W.; Larmore, L.L.; Park, J.K.

    1992-07-14

    A complete edge-weighted directed graph on vertices 1,2,...,n that assigns cost c(i,j) to the edge (i,j) is called Monge if its edge costs form a Monge array, i.e., for all i < k and j < l, c[i, j]+c[k,l]{le} < c[i,l]+c[k,j]. One reason Monge graphs are interesting is that shortest paths can be computed quite quickly in such graphs. In particular, Wilber showed that the shortest path from vertex 1 to vertex n of a Monge graph can be computed in O(n) time, and Aggarwal, Klawe, Moran, Shor, and Wilber showed that the shortest d-edge 1-to-n path (i.e., the shortest path among all 1-to-n paths with exactly d edges) can be computed in O(dn) time. This paper`s contribution is a new algorithm for the latter problem. Assuming 0 {le} c[i,j] {le} U and c[i,j + 1] + c[i + 1,j] {minus} c[i,j] {minus} c[i + 1, j + 1] {ge} L > 0 for all i and j, our algorithm runs in O(n(1 + 1g(U/L))) time. Thus, when d {much_gt} 1 + 1g(U/L), our algorithm represents a significant improvement over Aggarwal et al.`s O(dn)-time algorithm. We also present several applications of our algorithm; they include length-limited Huffman coding, finding the maximum-perimeter d-gon inscribed in a given convex n-gon, and a digital-signal-compression problem.

  2. Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing; Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province ; Yang, Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Li, Xiaoyan; Moran, Meena S.

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ? Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 0.013 vs. 0.622 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 0.045 vs. 0.475 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 0.021 vs. 0.380 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT increases breast

  3. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Francois; Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu; Liu, Geoffrey

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  4. TH-E-BRF-03: A Multivariate Interaction Model for Assessment of Hippocampal Vascular Dose-Response and Early Prediction of Radiation-Induced Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farjam, R; Pramanik, P; Srinivasan, A; Chapman, C; Tsien, C; Lawrence, T; Cao, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Vascular injury could be a cause of hippocampal dysfunction leading to late neurocognitive decline in patients receiving brain radiotherapy (RT). Hence, our aim was to develop a multivariate interaction model for characterization of hippocampal vascular dose-response and early prediction of radiation-induced late neurocognitive impairments. Methods: 27 patients (17 males and 10 females, age 31–80 years) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. All patients were diagnosed with a low-grade glioma or benign tumor and treated by 3-D conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4–59.4 Gy in 1.8− Gy fractions). Six DCE-MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18 months post-RT. DCE data were fitted to the modified Toft model to obtain the transfer constant of gadolinium influx from the intravascular space into the extravascular extracellular space, Ktrans, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, Vp. The hippocampus vascular property alterations after starting RT were characterized by changes in the hippocampal mean values of, μh(Ktrans)τ and μh(Vp)τ. The dose-response, Δμh(Ktrans/Vp)pre->τ, was modeled using a multivariate linear regression considering integrations of doses with age, sex, hippocampal laterality and presence of tumor/edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose-response in hippocampus was correlated with neurocognitive decline 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The μh(Ktrans) increased significantly from pre-RT to 1 month post-RT (p<0.0004). The multivariate model showed that the dose effect on Δμh(Ktrans)pre->1M post-RT was interacted with sex (p<0.0007) and age (p<0.00004), with the dose-response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose-response in the left hippocampus of females was significantly correlated with memory function decline at 6 (r = − 0.95, p<0.0006) and 18 (r = −0.88, p<0.02) months post-RT. Conclusion: The hippocampal vascular

  5. A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, Seth A.; Hunt, Daniel; Sartor, A. Oliver; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Rajan, Raghu; Kerlin, Kevin J.; Jones, Christopher U.; Dobelbower, Michael; Shipley, William U.; Zeitzer, Kenneth; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Donavanik, Viroon; Rotman, Marvin; Hartford, Alan C.; Michalski, Jeffrey; Seider, Michael; Kim, Harold; and others

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Long-term (LT) androgen suppression (AS) with radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment of high-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9902 was a randomized trial testing the hypothesis that adjuvant combination chemotherapy (CT) with paclitaxel, estramustine, and oral etoposide plus LT AS plus RT would improve overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Patients with high-risk PCa (prostate-specific antigen 20-100 ng/mL and Gleason score [GS] ≥7 or clinical stage ≥T2 and GS ≥8) were randomized to RT and AS (AS + RT) alone or with adjuvant CT (AS + RT + CT). CT was given as four 21-day cycles, delivered beginning 28 days after 70.2 Gy of RT. AS was given as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for 24 months, beginning 2 months before RT plus an oral antiandrogen for 4 months before and during RT. The study was designed based on a 6% improvement in OS from 79% to 85% at 5 years, with 90% power and a 2-sided alpha of 0.05. Results: A total of 397 patients (380 eligible) were randomized. The patients had high-risk PCa, 68% with GS 8 to 10 and 34% T3 to T4 tumors, and median prostate-specific antigen of 22.6 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.2 years. The trial closed early because of excess thromboembolic toxicity in the CT arm. The 10-year results for all randomized patients revealed no significant difference between the AS + RT and AS + RT + CT arms in OS (65% vs 63%; P=.81), biochemical failure (58% vs 54%; P=.82), local progression (11% vs 7%; P=.09), distant metastases (16% vs 14%; P=.42), or disease-free survival (22% vs 26%; P=.61). Conclusions: NRG Oncology RTOG 9902 showed no significant differences in OS, biochemical failure, local progression, distant metastases, or disease-free survival with the addition of adjuvant CT to LT AS + RT. The trial results provide valuable data regarding the natural history of high-risk PCa treated with LT AS + RT and have implications for

  6. Benefit of Consolidative Radiation Therapy for Primary Bone Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Randa; Allen, Pamela K.; Rodriguez, Alma; Shihadeh, Ferial; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Arzu, Isadora; Reed, Valerie K.; Oki, Yasuhiro; Westin, Jason R.; Fayad, Luis E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Dabaja, Bouthaina

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) differ according to the site of presentation. With effective chemotherapy, the need for consolidative radiation therapy (RT) is controversial. We investigated the influence of primary bone presentation and receipt of consolidative RT on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLBCL. Methods and Materials: We identified 102 patients with primary bone DLBCL treated consecutively from 1988 through 2013 and extracted clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics from the medical records. Survival outcomes were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with factors affecting survival determined by log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done with a Cox regression model. Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 16-87 years). The most common site of presentation was in the long bones. Sixty-five patients (63%) received R-CHOP–based chemotherapy, and 74 (72%) received rituximab. RT was given to 67 patients (66%), 47 with stage I to II and 20 with stage III to IV disease. The median RT dose was 44 Gy (range, 24.5-50 Gy). At a median follow-up time of 82 months, the 5-year PFS and OS rates were 80% and 82%, respectively. Receipt of RT was associated with improved 5-year PFS (88% RT vs 63% no RT, P=.0069) and OS (91% vs 68%, P=.0064). On multivariate analysis, the addition of RT significantly improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.14, P=.014) with a trend toward an OS benefit (HR=0.30, P=.053). No significant difference in PFS or OS was found between patients treated with 30 to 35 Gy versus ≥36 Gy (P=.71 PFS and P=.31 OS). Conclusion: Patients with primary bone lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy followed by RT can have excellent outcomes. The use of consolidative RT was associated with significant benefits in both PFS and OS.

  7. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Li, Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  8. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Ansa Maer; Scherwath, Angela; Ernst, Gundula; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Bremer, Michael; Steinmann, Diana

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  9. The mitigating effect of magnetic fields on Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2013-05-15

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at interfaces of disparate mass densities have long been known to generate magnetic fields during inertial confinement fusion implosions. An externally applied magnetic field can also be efficiently amplified by RT instabilities. The focus here is on magnetic field generation and amplification at the gas-ice interface which is RT unstable during the deceleration phase of the implosion. RT instabilities lead to undesirable mix of hot and cold plasmas which enhances thermal energy loss and tends to produce a more massive warm-spot instead of a hot-spot. Two mechanisms are shown here to mitigate the thermal energy loss from the hot-spot. The first mechanism is the reduction of electron thermal conductivity with interface-aligned magnetic fields. This can occur through self-generated magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect as well as through externally applied magnetic fields that undergo an exponential growth via the stretch-and-fold magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Self-generated magnetic fields during RT evolution can result in a factor of 2−10 decrease in the electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface, while externally applied magnetic fields that are compressed to 6–1000 T at the onset of deceleration (corresponding to pre-implosion external fields of 0.06–10 T) could result in a factor of 2–500 reduction in electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface. The second mechanism to mitigate thermal energy loss from the hot-spot is to decrease the interface mixing area between the hot and cold plasmas. This is achieved through large external magnetic fields of 1000 T at the onset of deceleration which damp short-wavelength RT modes and long-wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz modes thus significantly slowing the RT growth and reducing mix.

  10. RTOG 0211: A Phase 1/2 Study of Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Gefitinib for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Lautenschlaeger, Tim; Curran, Walter J.; Brachman, David G.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Choucair, Ali; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Christiansen, Jason; Gustavson, Mark; Molinaro, Annette; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of CaliforniaSan Diego, La Jolla, California ; Mischel, Paul; Dicker, Adam P.; and others

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety and efficacy of gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with radiation for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Methods and Materials: Between March 21, 2002, and May 3, 2004, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0211 enrolled 31 and 147 GBM patients in the phase 1 and 2 arms, respectively. Treatment consisted of daily oral gefinitnib started at the time of conventional cranial radiation therapy (RT) and continued post RT for 18 months or until progression. Tissue microarrays from 68 cases were analyzed for EGFR expression. Results: The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of gefitinib was determined to be 500 mg in patients on non-enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (non-EIAEDs). All patients in the phase 2 component were treated at a gefitinib dose of 500 mg; patients receiving EIADSs could be escalated to 750 mg. The most common side effects of gefitinib in combination with radiation were dermatologic and gastrointestinal. Median survival was 11.5 months for patients treated per protocol. There was no overall survival benefit for patients treated with gefitinib + RT when compared with a historical cohort of patients treated with RT alone, matched by RTOG recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class distribution. Younger age was significantly associated with better outcome. Per protocol stratification, EGFR expression was not found to be of prognostic value for gefitinib + RT-treated patients. Conclusions: The addition of gefitinib to RT is well tolerated. Median survival of RTOG 0211 patients treated with RT with concurrent and adjuvant gefitinib was similar to that in a historical control cohort treated with radiation alone.

  11. Imaging Biomarker Dynamics in an Intracranial Murine Glioma Study of Radiation and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Caroline; Jalali, Shahrzad; Foltz, Warren; Burrell, Kelly; Wildgoose, Petra; Lindsay, Patricia; Graves, Christian; Camphausen, Kevin; Milosevic, Michael; Jaffray, David; Zadeh, Gelareh; Mnard, Cynthia

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for noninvasive biomarkers to guide individualized spatiotemporal delivery of radiation therapy (RT) and antiangiogenic (AA) therapy for brain tumors. This study explored early biomarkers of response to RT and the AA agent sunitinib (SU), in a murine intracranial glioma model, using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Mice with MRI-visible tumors were stratified by tumor size into 4 therapy arms: control, RT, SU, and SU plus RT (SURT). Single-fraction conformal RT was delivered using MRI and on-line cone beam computed tomography (CT) guidance. Serial MR images (T2-weighted, diffusion, dynamic contrast-enhanced and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted scans) were acquired biweekly to evaluate tumor volume, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and tumor perfusion and permeability responses (K{sub trans}, K{sub ep}). Results: Mice in all treatment arms survived longer than those in control, with a median survival of 35 days for SURT (P<.0001) and 30 days for RT (P=.009) and SU (P=.01) mice vs 26 days for control mice. At Day 3, ADC rise was greater with RT than without (P=.002). Sunitinib treatment reduced tumor perfusion/permeability values with mean K{sub trans} reduction of 27.6% for SU (P=.04) and 26.3% for SURT (P=.04) mice and mean K{sub ep} reduction of 38.1% for SU (P=.01) and 27.3% for SURT (P=.02) mice. The magnitude of individual mouse ADC responses at Days 3 and 7 correlated with subsequent tumor growth rate R values of ?0.878 (P=.002) and ?0.80 (P=.01), respectively. Conclusions: Early quantitative changes in diffusion and perfusion MRI measures reflect treatment responses soon after starting therapy and thereby raise the potential for these imaging biomarkers to guide adaptive and potentially individualized therapy approaches in the future.

  12. Impact of Neoadjuvant Radiation on Survival in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshy, Matthew, E-mail: mkoshy@umm.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Goloubeva, Olga; Suntharalingam, Mohan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The role of surgery in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of neoadjuvant radiation therapy for Stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database that included patients who were 18 years and older with NSCLC classified as Stage III and who underwent definitive therapy from 1988 to 2004. Patients were characterized by type of treatment received. Survival functions were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression model was used to analyze trends in overall (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: A total of 48,131 patients were selected, with a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 0-203 months). By type of treatment, the 3-year OS was 10% with radiation therapy (RT), 37% with surgery (S), 34% with surgery and postoperative radiation (S-RT), and 45% with neoadjuvant radiation followed by surgery (Neo-RT) (p = 0.0001). Multivariable Cox model identified sex, race, laterality, T stage, N stage, and type of treatment as factors affecting survival. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for other variables in regression model showed the types of treatment: S (HR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.4), S-RT (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), and RT (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.15-2.53) were associated with significantly worse overall survival when compared with Neo-RT (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: This population based study demonstrates that patients with Stage III NSCLC receiving Neo-RT had significantly improved overall survival when compared with other treatment groups.

  13. Late Patient-Reported Toxicity After Preoperative Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy in Nonresectable Rectal Cancer: Results From a Randomized Phase III Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braendengen, Morten, E-mail: mortbrae@medisin.uio.no [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Tveit, Kjell Magne [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bruheim, Kjersti [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Cvancarova, Milada [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Berglund, Ake [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is superior to radiotherapy (RT) in locally advanced rectal cancer, but the survival gain is limited. Late toxicity is, therefore, important. The aim was to compare late bowel, urinary, and sexual functions after CRT or RT. Methods and Materials: Patients (N = 207) with nonresectable rectal cancer were randomized to preoperative CRT or RT (2 Gy Multiplication-Sign 25 {+-} 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin). Extended surgery was often required. Self-reported late toxicity was scored according to the LENT SOMA criteria in a structured telephone interview and with questionnaires European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and sexual function -vaginal changes questionnaire (SVQ). Results: Of the 105 patients alive in Norway and Sweden after 4 to 12 years of follow-up, 78 (74%) responded. More patients in the CRT group had received a stoma (73% vs. 52%, p = 0.09). Most patients without a stoma (7 of 12 in CRT group and 9 of 16 in RT group) had incontinence for liquid stools or gas. No stoma and good anal function were seen in 5 patients (11%) in the CRT group and in 11 (30%) in the RT group (p = 0.046). Of 44 patients in the CRT group, 12 (28%) had had bowel obstruction compared with 5 of 33 (15%) in the RT group (p = 0.27). One-quarter of the patients reported urinary incontinence. The majority of men had severe erectile dysfunction. Few women reported sexual activity during the previous month. However, the majority did not have concerns about their sex life. Conclusions: Fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction are frequent after combined treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. There was a clear tendency for the problems to be more common after CRT than after RT.

  14. Relapse Analysis of Irradiated Patients Within the HD15 Trial of the German Hodgkin Study Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriz, Jan; Reinartz, Gabriele; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Kuhnert, Georg; Haverkamp, Heinz; Haverkamp, Uwe; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Herfarth, Klaus; Lukas, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Staar, Susanne; Hegerfeld, Kira; Baues, Christian; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To determine, in the setting of advanced-stage of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), whether relapses occur in the irradiated planning target volume and whether the definition of local radiation therapy (RT) used by the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) is adequate, because there is no harmonization of field and volume definitions among the large cooperative groups in the treatment of advanced-stage HL. Methods and Materials: All patients with residual disease of ≥2.5 cm after multiagent chemotherapy (CTX) were evaluated using additional positron emission tomography (PET), and those with a PET-positive result were irradiated with 30 Gy to the site of residual disease. We re-evaluated all sites of disease before and after CTX, as well as the PET-positive residual tumor that was treated in all relapsed patients. Documentation of radiation therapy (RT), treatment planning procedures, and portal images were carefully analyzed and compared with the centrally recommended RT prescription. The irradiated sites were compared with sites of relapse using follow-up computed tomography scans. Results: A total of 2126 patients were enrolled, and 225 patients (11%) received RT. Radiation therapy documents of 152 irradiated patients (68%) were analyzed, with 28 irradiated patients (11%) relapsing subsequently. Eleven patients (39%) had an in-field relapse, 7 patients (25%) relapsed outside the irradiated volume, and an additional 10 patients (36%) showed mixed in- and out-field relapses. Of 123 patients, 20 (16%) with adequately performed RT relapsed, compared with 7 of 29 patients (24%) with inadequate RT. Conclusions: The frequency and pattern of relapses suggest that local RT to PET-positive residual disease is sufficient for patients in advanced-stage HL. Insufficient safety margins of local RT may contribute to in-field relapses.

  15. Phase III Study of Radiation Therapy With or Without Cis-Platinum in Patients With Unresectable Squamous or Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: An Intergroup Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E2382)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quon, Harry; Leong, Traci; Haselow, Robert; Leipzig, Bruce; Cooper, Jay; Forastiere, Arlene

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: The Head and Neck Intergroup conducted a Phase III randomized trial to determine whether the addition weekly cisplatin to daily radiation therapy (RT) would improve survival in patients with unresectable squamous cell head-and-neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to RT (70 Gy at 1.8-2 Gy/day) or to the identical RT with weekly cisplatin dosed at 20 mg/m{sup 2}. Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log rank test. Results: Between 1982 and 1987, 371 patients were accrued, and 308 patients were found eligible for analysis. Median follow-up was 62 months. The median FFS was 6.5 and 7.2 months for the RT and RT + cisplatin groups, respectively (p = 0.30). The p value for the treatment difference was p = 0.096 in multivariate modeling of FFS (compared to a p = 0.30 in univariate analysis). Expected acute toxicities were significantly increased with the addition of cisplatin except for in-field RT toxicities. Late toxicities were not significantly different except for significantly more esophageal (9% vs. 3%, p = 0.03) and laryngeal (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.05) late toxicities in the RT + cisplatin group. Conclusion: The addition of concurrent weekly cisplatin at 20 mg/m{sup 2} to daily radiation did not improve survival, although there was evidence of activity. Low-dose weekly cisplatin seems to have modest tumor radiosensitization but can increase the risk of late swallowing complications.

  16. Radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression in very elderly patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Hoskin, Peter J.; Karstens, Johann H.; Rudat, Volker; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Owing to the aging of the population, the proportion of elderly patients receiving cancer treatment has increased. This study investigated the results of radiotherapy (RT) for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in the very elderly, because few data are available for these patients. Methods and Materials: The data from 308 patients aged {>=}75 years who received short-course (treatment time 1-5 days) or long-course RT (2-4 weeks) for MSCC were retrospectively analyzed for functional outcome, local control, and survival. Furthermore, nine potential prognostic factors were investigated: gender, performance status, interval from tumor diagnosis to MSCC, tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone or visceral metastases, ambulatory status, and speed at which motor deficits developed. Results: Improvement of motor deficits occurred in 25% of patients, with no further progression of MSCC in an additional 59%. The 1-year local control and survival rate was 92% and 43%, respectively. Improved functional outcomes were associated with ambulatory status and slower developing motor deficits. Improved local control resulted from long-course RT. Improved survival was associated with a longer interval from tumor diagnosis to MSCC, tumor type (breast/prostate cancer, myeloma/lymphoma), lack of visceral or other bone metastases, ambulatory status, and a slower development of motor deficits. Conclusion: Short- and long-course RT are similarly effective in patients aged {>=}75 years regarding functional outcome and survival. Long-course RT provided better local control. Patients with better expected survival should receive long-course RT and others short-course RT. The criteria for selection of an appropriate regimen for MSCC in very elderly patients should be the same as for younger individuals.

  17. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  18. PSA Response to Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is a Strong Independent Predictor of Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer in the Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cerne, Jasmina Z.; Munsell, Mark F.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Choi, Seungtaek L.; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Frank, Steven J.; Corn, Paul G.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs {>=}0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a K{sub m} value of 13.9 μM and 13.4 μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a K{sub m} value of 103 μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. - Highlights: • A new Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. • rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver. • rtOatp1d1 displays multi-specific transport of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. • rtOatp1d1 is a homologue of the OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. • rtOatp1d1 is a microcystin (MC) transporter.

  20. Prevention of Gynecomastia and Breast Pain Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Tamoxifen or Radiotherapy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo; Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godoi; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine, in a meta-analysis, whether gynecomastia and breast pain rates in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are reduced if treated with prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) or tamoxifen (TMX). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing RT or TMX with observation for men with prostate cancer using ADT. Results: Six RCTs (three RT trials and three TMX trials, N = 777 patients total) were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs comparing RT vs. observation showed a significant reduction in the incidence of gynecomastia and breast pain rates in patients treated with RT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.37, p < 0.0001, and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, p < 0.0001, respectively). Use of RT resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 29.4% and 19.9%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.4 and 5 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Pooled results from trials comparing TMX vs. observation showed a statistical benefit for breast pain and gynecomastia in favor of TMX arms (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02-0.08, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.0-0.14, p < 0.00001). TMX resulted in an ARR = 64.1% and 47.6%, with an NNT of 1.56 and 2.1 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Considering adverse effects, TMX was 6 times more adverse effects than RT. Conclusions: Our data have shown that both TMX and RT prevented gynecomastia and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Although TMX was two times more effective in preventing gynecomastia, RT should represent an effective and safe treatment option, to take into account mainly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or thrombotic diathesis.

  1. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, Marvin . E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Bundy, Brian; Lentz, Samuel S.; Muderspach, Laila I.; Zaino, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or

  2. Subclinical Cardiac Dysfunction Detected by Strain Imaging During Breast Irradiation With Persistent Changes 6 Weeks After Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, Queenie; Hee, Leia; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Allman, Christine; MacDonald, Peter; Delaney, Geoff P.; Lonergan, Denise; Thomas, Liza

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate 2-dimensional strain imaging (SI) for the detection of subclinical myocardial dysfunction during and after radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Forty women with left-sided breast cancer, undergoing only adjuvant RT to the left chest, were prospectively recruited. Standard echocardiography and SI were performed at baseline, during RT, and 6 weeks after RT. Strain (S) and strain rate (Sr) parameters were measured in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial planes. Correlation of change in global longitudinal strain (GLS % and Δ change) and the volume of heart receiving 30 Gy (V30) and mean heart dose (MHD) were examined. Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged; however, longitudinal systolic S and Sr and radial S were significantly reduced during RT and remained reduced at 6 weeks after treatment [longitudinal S (%) −20.44 ± 2.66 baseline vs −18.60 ± 2.70* during RT vs −18.34 ± 2.86* at 6 weeks after RT; longitudinal Sr (s{sup −1}) −1.19 ± 0.21 vs −1.06 ± 0.18* vs −1.06 ± 0.16*; radial S (%) 56.66 ± 18.57 vs 46.93 ± 14.56* vs 49.22 ± 15.81*; *P<.05 vs baseline]. Diastolic Sr were only reduced 6 weeks after RT [longitudinal E Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.47 ± 0.32 vs 1.29 ± 0.27*; longitudinal A Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.19 ± 0.31 vs 1.03 ± 0.24*; *P<.05 vs baseline], whereas circumferential strain was preserved throughout. A modest correlation between S and Sr and V30 and MHD was observed (GLS Δ change and V30 ρ = 0.314, P=.05; GLS % change and V30 ρ = 0.288, P=.076; GLS Δ change and MHD ρ = 0.348, P=.03; GLS % change and MHD ρ = 0.346, P=.031). Conclusions: Subclinical myocardial dysfunction was detected by 2-dimensional SI during RT, with changes persisting 6 weeks after treatment, though long-term effects remain unknown. Additionally, a modest correlation between strain reduction and radiation dose was observed.

  3. The Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes: Results from Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Delamere, Jennifer; Shippert, Timothy R.; Cole, Jason; Fomin, Boris; Iacono, Michael J.; Jin, Zhonghai; Li, Jiangning; Manners, James; Raisanen, Petri; Rose, Fred; Zhang, Yuanchong; Wilson, Michael J.; Rossow, William B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from Phase I of the Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC), intended as an evolving and regularly updated reference source for evaluation of radiative transfer (RT) codes used in Global Climate Models. CIRC differs from previous intercomparisons in that it relies on an observationally validated catalogue of cases. The seven CIRC Phase I baseline cases, five cloud-free, and two with overcast liquid clouds, are built around observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program that satisfy the goals of Phase I, namely to examine radiative transfer (RT) model performance in realistic, yet not overly complex, atmospheric conditions. In addition to the seven baseline cases, additional idealized "subcases" are also examined to facilitate intrepretation of the causes of model errors. In addition to summarizing individual model performance with respect to reference line-by-line calculations and inter-model differences, we also highlight RT model behavior for conditions of doubled CO2, aspects of utilizing a spectral specification of surface albedo, and the impact of the inclusion of scattering in the thermal infrared. Our analysis suggests that RT models should work towards improving their calculation of diffuse shortwave flux, shortwave absorption, treatment of spectral surface albedo, and shortwave CO2 forcing. On the other hand, LW calculations appear to be significantly closer to the reference results. By enhancing the range of conditions under which participating codes are tested, future CIRC phases will hopefully allow even more rigorous examination of RT code performance.

  4. Final Report - ILAW PCT, VHT, Viscosity, and Electrical Conductivity Model Development, VSL-07R1230-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Cooley, S. K.; Joseph, I.; Pegg, I. L.; Piepel, G. F.; Gan, H.; Muller, I.

    2013-12-17

    This report describes the results of work and testing specified by the Test Specifications (24590-LAW-TSP-RT-01-013 Rev.1 and 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-02-001 Rev.0), Test Plans (VSL-02T4800-1 Rev.1 & TP-RPP-WTP-179 Rev.1), and Text Exception (24590-WTP-TEF-RT-03-040). The work and any associated testing followed established quality assurance requirements and conducted as authorized. The descriptions provided in this test report are an accurate account of both the conduct of the work and the data collected. Results required by the Test Plans are reported. Also reported are any unusual or anomalous occurrences that are different from the starting hypotheses. The test results and this report have been reviewed and verified.

  5. Investigation of forced and isothermal chemical vapor infiltrated SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, J.; Kelkar, A.D.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    1993-09-01

    Mechanical properties of two different layups for each of the forced CVI (41 specimens) and isothermal CVI (36 specimens) materials were investigated in air at room temperature (RT), 1000C, and at room temperature after thermal shock (RT/TS) and exposure to oxidation (RT/OX). The FCVI specimens had a nominal interfacial coating thickness of 0.3 {mu}m of pyrolytic carbon, while CVI specimens had a coating thickness of 0.1 {mu}m. Effect of reinforcement and interfacial bond on mechanical properties of composite were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the fiber-matrix interface and the toughening mechanisms in this ceramic composite system.

  6. Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-10-15

    The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

  7. Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H. P.

    2015-02-05

    B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a(100) carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a(110) dislocations by dislocation reactions; the a(110) dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a(110) dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged.

  8. Consideration of Dose Limits for Organs at Risk of Thoracic Radiotherapy: Atlas for Lung, Proximal Bronchial Tree, Esophagus, Spinal Cord, Ribs, and Brachial Plexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Feng-Ming; Ritter, Timothy; Quint, Douglas J.; Senan, Suresh; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Hurkmans, Coen W.; Timmerman, Robert; Bezjak, Andrea; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Movsas, Benjamin; Marsh, Lon; Okunieff, Paul; Choy, Hak; Curran, Walter J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To review the dose limits and standardize the three-dimenional (3D) radiographic definition for the organs at risk (OARs) for thoracic radiotherapy (RT), including the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: The present study was performed by representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Soutwestern Oncology Group lung cancer committees. The dosimetric constraints of major multicenter trials of 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT were reviewed and the challenges of 3D delineation of these OARs described. Using knowledge of the human anatomy and 3D radiographic correlation, draft atlases were generated by a radiation oncologist, medical physicist, dosimetrist, and radiologist from the United States and reviewed by a radiation oncologist and medical physicist from Europe. The atlases were then critically reviewed, discussed, and edited by another 10 radiation oncologists. Results: Three-dimensional descriptions of the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus are presented. Two computed tomography atlases were developed: one for the middle and lower thoracic OARs (except for the heart) and one focusing on the brachial plexus for a patient positioned supine with their arms up for thoracic RT. The dosimetric limits of the key OARs are discussed. Conclusions: We believe these atlases will allow us to define OARs with less variation and generate dosimetric data in a more consistent manner. This could help us study the effect of radiation on these OARs and guide high-quality clinical trials and individualized practice in 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT.

  9. The effects of high temperature processing on the structural and optical properties of oxygenated CdS window layers in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Grice, Corey R.; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-07-28

    High efficiency CdTe solar cells typically use oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) window layers. We synthesize CdS:O window layers at room temperature (RT) and 270 °C using reactive sputtering. The band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at RT increase when O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios in the deposition chamber increase. On the other hand, the band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at 270 °C decrease as the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios increase. Interestingly, however, our high temperature closed-space sublimation (CSS) processed CdTe solar cells using CdS:O window layers deposited at RT and 270 °C exhibit very similar cell performance, including similar short-circuit current densities. To understand the underlying reasons, CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C are annealed at temperatures that simulate the CSS process of CdTe deposition. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy characterization of the annealed films reveals that the CdS:O films deposited at RT undergo grain regrowth and/or crystallization and exhibit reduced band gaps after the annealing. Our results suggest that CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C should exhibit similar optical properties after the deposition of CdTe layers, explaining the similar cell performance.

  10. Impact of Cranial Irradiation Added to Intrathecal Conditioning in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Central Nervous System Involvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Douglas, James G.; Storer, Barry E.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storb, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Neither the prognostic importance nor the appropriate management of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is known for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We examined the impact of a CNS irradiation boost to standard intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC). Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2005, a total of 648 adult AML patients received a myeloablative HCT: 577 patients were CNS negative (CNS-), and 71 were CNS positive (CNS+). Of the 71 CNS+ patients, 52 received intrathecal chemotherapy alone (CNS+ITC), and 19 received ITC plus an irradiation boost (CNS+RT). Results: The CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT patients had 1- and 5-year relapse-free survivals (RFS) of 43% and 35%, 15% and 6%, and 37% and 32%, respectively. CNS+ITC patients had a statistically significant worse RFS compared with CNS- patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.6; p < 0.0001). CNS+RT patients had improved relapse free survival over that of CNS+ITC patients (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01). The 1- and 5-year overall survivals (OS) of patients with CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT, were 50% and 38%, 21% and 6%, and 53% and 42%, respectively. The survival of CNS+RT were significantly better than CNS+ITC patients (p = 0.004). After adjusting for known risk factors, CNS+RT patients had a trend toward lower relapse rates and reduced nonrelapse mortality. Conclusions: CNS+ AML is associated with a poor prognosis. The role of a cranial irradiation boost to intrathecal chemotherapy appears to mitigate the risk of CNS disease, and needs to be further investigated to define optimal treatment strategies.

  11. Risk of Radiation-Induced Malignancy With Heterotopic Ossification Prophylaxis: A Case–Control Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheybani, Arshin; TenNapel, Mindi J.; Lack, William D.; Clerkin, Patrick; Hyer, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenqing; Jacobson, Geraldine M.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of radiation-induced malignancy after prophylactic treatment for heterotopic ossification (HO). Methods and Materials: A matched case–control study was conducted within a population-based cohort of 3489 patients treated either for acetabular fractures with acetabular open reduction internal fixation or who underwent total hip arthroplasty from 1990 to 2009. Record-linkage techniques identified patients who were diagnosed with a malignancy from our state health registry. Patients with a prior history of malignancy were excluded from the cohort. For each documented case of cancer, 2 controls were selected by stratified random sampling from the cohort that did not develop a malignancy. Matching factors were sex, age at time of hip treatment, and duration of follow-up. Results: A total of 243 patients were diagnosed with a malignancy after hip treatment. Five patients were excluded owing to inadequate follow-up time in the corresponding control cohort. A cohort of 238 cases (control, 476 patients) was included. Mean follow-up was 10 years, 12 years in the control group. In the cancer cohort, 4% of patients had radiation therapy (RT), compared with 7% in the control group. Of the 9 patients diagnosed with cancer after RT, none occurred within the field. The mean latency period was 5.9 years in the patients who received RT and 6.6 years in the patients who did not. Median (range) age at time of cancer diagnosis in patients who received RT was 62 (43-75) years, compared with 70 (32-92) years in the non-RT patients. An ad hoc analysis was subsequently performed in all 2749 patients who were not matched and found neither an increased incidence of malignancy nor a difference in distribution of type of malignancy. Conclusion: We were unable to demonstrate an increased risk of malignancy in patients who were treated with RT for HO prophylaxis compared with those who were not.

  12. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: choo.c@mayo.edu; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pearse, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  13. The Impact of Radiotherapy Fields in the Treatment of Patients With Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazloom, Ali; Wolff, Johannes E.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To perform a comprehensive literature review and analysis of cases dealing with choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) to determine the optimal radiotherapy (RT) treatment field. Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1979 to 2008 was performed, yielding 33 articles with 56 patients who had available data regarding RT treatment field. The median age at diagnosis was 2.7 years (range, 1 month-53 years). Of 54 patients with data regarding type of surgery, 21 (38.9%) had complete resection. Chemotherapy was delivered to 27 (48%) as part of initial therapy. The RT treatment volume was the craniospinal axis in 38 (68%), whole brain in 9 (16%), and tumor/tumor bed in 9 (16%). Median follow-up for surviving patients was 40 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 59.5% and 37.2%, respectively. Complete resection (p = 0.035) and use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI; p = 0.025) were found to positively affect PFS. The 5-year PFS for patients who had CSI vs. whole brain and tumor/tumor bed RT were 44.2% and 15.3%. For the 19 patients who relapsed, 9 (47%) had a recurrence in the RT field, 6 (32%) had a recurrence outside the RT field, and 4 (21%) had a recurrence inside and outside the irradiated field. Conclusion: Patients with CPC who received CSI had better PFS compared with those receiving less than CSI. This study supports the use of CSI in the multimodality management of patients with CPC.

  14. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Button, Michael R. Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.

  15. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steer, Anna N.; Aherne, Noel J.; Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques; Shakespeare, Thomas P.; Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery.

  16. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Wexler, Leonard H.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Happersett, Laura; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

  17. Outcomes of Patients With Revised Stage I Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney Treated in National Wilms Tumor Studies 1-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalapurakal, John A., E-mail: j-kalapurakal@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Perlman, Elizabeth J. [Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Seibel, Nita L. [Cancer Therapy and Evaluation Program, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Cancer Therapy and Evaluation Program, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ritchey, Michael [Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States)] [Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [Children's National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)] [Children's National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Grundy, Paul E. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)] [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of children with revised stage I clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) using the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTS)-5 staging criteria after multimodality treatment on NWTS 1-5 protocols. Methods and Materials: All CCSK patients enrolled in the National Wilms Tumor Study Group protocols had their pathology slides reviewed, and only those determined to have revised stage I tumors according to the NWTS-5 staging criteria were included in the present analysis. All patients were treated with multimodality therapy according to the NWTS 1-5 protocols. Results: A total of 53 children were identified as having stage I CCSK. All patients underwent primary surgery with radical nephrectomy. The chemotherapy regimens used were as follows: regimen A, C, F, or EE in 4 children (8%); regimen DD or DD4A in 33 children (62%); regimen J in 4 children (8%); and regimen I in 12 children (22%). Forty-six patients (87%) received flank radiation therapy (RT). Seven children (13%) did not receive flank RT. The median delay between surgery and the initiation of RT was 9 days (range, 3-61). The median RT dose was 10.8 Gy (range, 10-36). The flank RT doses were as follows: 10.5 or 10.8 Gy in 25 patients (47%), 11-19.9 Gy in 2 patients (4%), 20-29.9 Gy in 9 patients (17%), and 30-40 Gy in 10 patients (19%). The median follow-up for the entire group was 17 years (range, 2-36). The relapse-free and cancer-specific survival rate was 100% at the last follow-up examination. Conclusions: The present results have demonstrated that children with revised stage I CCSK using the NWTS-5 staging criteria have excellent survival rates despite the use of varying RT doses and chemotherapy regimens in the NWTS 1-5 protocols.

  18. Radiation-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing White Matter in Patients With Cerebral Tumors: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagesh, Vijaya Tsien, Christina I.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ross, Brian D.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Junick, Larry; Cao Yue

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing white matter before, during, and after radiotherapy (RT) in cerebral tumor patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, or benign tumor treated with RT were studied using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. The biologically corrected doses ranged from 50 to 81 Gy. The temporal changes were assessed before, during, and to 45 weeks after the start of RT. The mean diffusivity of water (), fractional anisotropy of diffusion, diffusivity perpendicular ({lambda}{sub perpendicular}) and parallel ({lambda}{sub parallel}) to white matter fibers were calculated in normal-appearing genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Results: In the genu and splenium, fractional anisotropy decreased and , {lambda}{sub parallel}, {lambda}{sub -perpendicular} increased linearly and significantly with time (p < 0.01). At 45 weeks after the start of RT, {lambda}{sub -perpendicular} had increased {approx}30% in the genu and splenium, and {lambda}{sub parallel} had increased 5% in the genu and 9% in the splenium, suggesting that demyelination is predominant. The increases in {lambda}{sub perpendicular} and {lambda}{sub parallel} were dose dependent, starting at 3 weeks and continuing to 32 weeks from the start of RT. The dose-dependent increase in {lambda}{sub perpendicular} and {lambda}{sub parallel} was not sustained after 32 weeks, indicating the transition from focal to diffuse effects. Conclusion: The acute and subacute changes in normal-appearing white matter fibers indicate radiation-induced demyelination and mild structural degradation of axonal fibers. The structural changes after RT are progressive, with early dose-dependent demyelination and subsequent diffuse dose-independent demyelination and mild axonal degradation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging is potentially a biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced white matter injury.

  19. Combined Modality Management of Retroperitoneal Sarcomas: A Single-Institution Series of 121 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Zagars, Gunar K.; Torres, Keila E.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Cormier, Janice N.; Feig, Barry W.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate local control, survival outcomes, and complication rates of patients treated with aggressive surgery and radiation therapy (RT) for retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 121 consecutive patients treated for RPS with surgery and RT between 1965 and 2012. The most common histology was liposarcoma (n=42; 35%). The median follow-up was 100 months (range: 20-467 months). Eighty-six patients (71%) were treated for initial presentation of RPS, and 35 patients (29%) presented with and were treated for RPS recurrence. RT was preoperative in 88 patients (73%; median dose: 50.4 Gy) and postoperative in 33 patients (27%; median dose: 55 Gy). Results: Five-year local control and overall survival rates were 56% and 57%, respectively. Two factors were associated with higher risk of any intra-abdominal recurrence at 5 years: positive or uncertain margins (58% vs 30% for negative margins, P<.001; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-4.8) and disease recurrence after previous resection (76% vs 31% for de novo RPS, P<.001; HR: 4.4; 95% CI: 2.5-7.5). The 10-year complication rate was 5%, and RT-related complications were associated with postoperative RT (P<.001) and RT dose of ≥60 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Intra-abdominal RPS recurrence continues to be a significant challenge despite the use of aggressive surgery and radiation therapy. Given the complications associated with postoperative radiation therapy, we recommend that preoperative radiation therapy is the preferred strategy when combined modality therapy is recommended.

  20. Phase I Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Dose Escalation Study in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 98-03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsien, Christina Moughan, Jennifer; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Purdy, James; Simpson, Joseph; Kresel, John J.; Curran, Walter J.; Diaz, Aidnag; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a Phase I trial the feasibility and toxicity of dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with primary supratentorial glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 209 patients were enrolled. All received 46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the first planning target volume (PTV{sub 1}), defined as the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus 1.8 cm. A subsequent boost was given to PTV{sub 2}, defined as GTV plus 0.3 cm. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group 1: PTV{sub 2} <75 cm{sup 3}; Group 2: PTV{sub 2} {>=}75 cm{sup 3}). Four RT dose levels were evaluated: 66, 72, 78, and 84 Gy. Carmustine 80 mg/m{sup 2} was given during RT, then every 8 weeks for 6 cycles. Pretreatment characteristics were well balanced. Results: Acute and late Grade 3/4 RT-related toxicities were no more frequent at higher RT dose or with larger tumors. There were no dose-limiting toxicities (acute Grade {>=}3 irreversible central nervous system toxicities) observed on any dose level in either group. On the basis of the absence of dose-limiting toxicities, dose was escalated to 84 Gy in both groups. Late RT necrosis was noted at 66 Gy (1 patient), 72 Gy (2 patients), 78 Gy (2 patients), and 84 Gy (3 patients) in Group 1. In Group 2, late RT necrosis was noted at 78 Gy (1 patient) and 84 Gy (2 patients). Median time to RT necrosis was 8.8 months (range, 5.1-12.5 months). Median survival in Group 1 was 11.6-19.3 months. Median survival in Group 2 was 8.2-13.9 months. Conclusions: Our study shows the feasibility of delivering higher than standard (60 Gy) RT dose with concurrent chemotherapy for primary GBM, with an acceptable risk of late central nervous system toxicity.

  1. Role of Salvage Radiation Therapy for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma Who Failed Autologous Stem Cell Transplant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goda, Jayant S.; Massey, Christine; Kuruvilla, John; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Keating, Armand; Crump, Michael; Tsang, Richard W.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze, through chart review, the efficacy of salvage radiation therapy (sRT) for relapsed or progressive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients who failed autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Patients and Methods: Among 347 patients with recurrent/refractory HL who received ASCT from 1986-2006, 163 had post-ASCT progression or relapse. Of these, 56 received sRT and form the basis of this report. Median age at sRT was 30 years (range, 17-59 years). Disease was confined to lymph nodes in 27 patients, whereas 24 had both nodal and extranodal disease. Salvage radiation therapy alone was given in 34 patients (61%), and sRT plus chemotherapy was given in 22 (39%). Median interval from ASCT to sRT was 0.8 years (range, 0.1-5.6 years). The median dose was 35 Gy (range, 8-40.3 Gy). The sRT technique was extended-field in 14 patients (25%) and involved-field in 42 (75%). Results: The median follow-up from sRT was 31.3 months (range, 0.2-205.5 months). Overall response rate was 84% (complete response: 36%; partial response: 48%). The median overall survival was 40.8 months (95% confidence interval, 34.2-56.3 months). The 5-year overall survival was 29% (95% confidence interval, 14%-44%). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 16%; the 2-year local PFS was 65%, whereas the 2-year systemic PFS was 17%. The 1-year PFS was higher in patients in whom all diseased sites were irradiated (49%) compared with those in whom only the symptomatic site was treated (22%, P=.07). Among 20 alive patients, 5 were disease free (at 6.4, 6.8, 7.4, 7.9, and 17.1 years). Conclusion: For patients with HL who fail ASCT, a selective use of RT provides a durable local control rate of 65% at 2 years and should be considered as part of the standard management plan for the palliation of incurable HL. Occasionally irradiation of truly localized disease can lead to long-term survival.

  2. http://www.ornl.gov/Procurement.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8/93 1. All Grade 5 and Grade 8 fasteners of foreign origin which do not bear any manufacturer's headmarks: Grade 5 Grade 8 2. Grade 5 fasteners with the following manufacturers' headmarks: J Jinn Her (TW) KS Kosaka Kogyo (JP) J KS 3. Grade 8 fasteners with the following manufacturers' headmarks: A Asahi Mfg (JP) KS Kosaka Kogyo (JP) A KS NF RT NF Nippon Fasteners (JP) RT Takai Ltd (JP) H Hinomoto Metal (JP) FM Fastener Co (of JP) H FM J M MS KY M Minamida Sieybo (JP) KY Kyoei (JP) MS Minato

  3. Comparison of real-time and linear-response time-dependent density functional theories for molecular chromophores ranging from sparse to high densities of states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tussupbayev, Samat; Govind, Niranjan; Lopata, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2015-03-10

    We assess the performance of real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) for the calculation of absorption spectra of 12 organic dye molecules relevant to photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells with 8 exchange-correlation functionals (3 traditional, 3 global hybrids, and 2 range-separated hybrids). We compare the calculations with traditional linear-response (LR) TDDFT. In addition, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RT-TDDFT approach to calculate wide absorption spectra of two large chromophores relevant to photovoltaics and molecular switches.

  4. DOE/EIA-0202(86/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Ter

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Ter m Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1986 .m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term ion-Term lort-Term ion-Term lort-Term lort-Term ort-Term ort-Term -rt-Term -t-Term -Term iiergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy " Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  5. DOE/EIA-0202(87/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1987 . m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term iort-Term lort-Term ion-Term lort-Term lort-Term ort-Term ort-Term rt-Term "t-Term -Term "rerm aergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  6. DOE/EIA-0202(88/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8/1Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1988 .m erm Term t-Term rt-Term jrt-Term ort-Term ion-Term ion-Term tort-Term jort-Term ion-Term ort-Term ore-Term rt-Term 't-Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  7. Treatment and Outcomes in Patients With Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma: The BC Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Sarah N.; Wai, Elaine S.; Tan, King; Alexander, Cheryl; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL). Methods and Materials: Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed for all patients referred to our institution from 1981 through 2011 with primary CBCL without extracutaneous or distant nodal spread at diagnosis (n=136). Hematopathologists classified 99% of cases using the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) guidelines. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Classification was 18% diffuse large B-cell leg-type (DLBCL-leg), 32% follicle center (FCCL), 45% marginal zone (MZL), and 6% nonclassifiable (OTHER). Of the 111 subjects with indolent lymphoma (FCCL, MZL, OTHER), 79% received radiation alone (RT), 11% surgery alone, 3% chemotherapy alone, 4% chemotherapy followed by RT, and 3% observation. Following treatment, 29% of subjects relapsed. In-field recurrence occurred in 2% treated with RT and in 33% treated with surgery alone. Of the 25 subjects with DLBCL-leg, 52% received chemotherapy followed by RT, 24% chemotherapy, 20% RT, and 4% surgery alone. Seventy-nine percent received CHOP-type chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin or epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone), 47% with rituximab added. Overall and disease-specific survival and time to progression at 5 years were 81%, 92%, and 69% for indolent and 26%, 61%, and 54% for DLBCL-leg, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of indolent subjects, RT was associated with better time to progression (P=.05). RT dose, chemo, age >60 y, and >1 lesion were not significantly associated with time to progression. For DLBCL-leg, disease-specific survival at 5 years was 100% for those receiving rituximab versus 67% for no rituximab (P=.13). Conclusions: This review demonstrates better outcomes for indolent histology compared with DLBCL-leg, validating the prognostic utility of the WHO-EORTC classification. In the indolent group

  8. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-Induced Vaginal Stenosis After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Rectal and Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Christina H.; Law, Ethel; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya P.; Yang, T. Jonathan; Riedel, Elyn; Wu, Abraham J.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized toxicity in women who receive pelvic radiation therapy (RT), the relationship between RT dose and the volume and extent of toxicity has not been analyzed. We modeled this relationship to identify predictors of VS. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 54 women, aged 29 to 78 years, who underwent pelvic RT for rectal or anal cancer during 2008 to 2011 and were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating vaginal dilator use. Maximum dilator size was measured before RT (baseline) and 1 month and 12 months after RT. Dilator use was initiated at 1 month. The difference (D) in dilator size before and after RT was recorded. Those with D ≤−1 were classified as having VS (n=35); those with D ≥0 were classified as having no VS (n=19 at 1 month). Dose-volume parameters were extracted, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used to build a predictive model. Results: The mean vaginal doses were 50.0 Gy and 36.8 Gy for anal and rectal cancer patients, respectively. One month after RT, a gEUD model using a wide range of a values suggests that sparing of vaginal volume to a low dose may be important. When gEUD (a = −1) was <35 Gy and the mean vaginal dose was <43 Gy, severe VS was reduced (P=.02). A 1-year analysis suggests increasingly negative D values with increasing mean dose. However, patients with compliance <40% were more likely to have toxicity. Conclusions: Vaginal stenosis is influenced by multiple RT dose-volume characteristics. Mean dose and gEUD constraints together may reduce the risk of severe VS. Patients receiving higher mean vaginal doses should have greater compliance with dilator therapy to minimize risk of toxicity. Further validation with independent datasets is needed.

  9. Linear study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a diffusive quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momeni, Mahdi

    2013-08-15

    The linear Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an incompressible quantum plasma is investigated on the basis of quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the occurrence of RT instability depends on density-temperature inhomogeneity (characteristic lengths) on one hand, and the system layer size on the other. It is also observed that the combined effects of external magnetic field, diffusivity, and quantum pressure significantly modify the dispersion properties of system in both the parallel and perpendicular directions. For any case, the imaginary and real parts of dispersion relation are presented and the possibility and conditions for the instability growth rate are discussed.

  10. Propensity-Weighted Comparison of Long-Term Risk of Urinary Adverse Events in Elderly Women Treated For Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Sean P.; Fan, Yunhua; Jarosek, Stephanie; Chu, Haitao; Downs, Levi; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Geller, Melissa A.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Cervical cancer treatment is associated with a risk of urinary adverse events (UAEs) such as ureteral stricture and vesicovaginal fistula. We sought to measure the long-term UAE risk after surgery and radiation therapy (RT), with confounding controlled through propensity-weighted models. Methods and Materials: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified women ≥66 years old with nonmetastatic cervical cancer treated with simple surgery (SS), radical hysterectomy (RH), external beam RT plus brachytherapy (EBRT+BT), or RT+surgery. We matched them to noncancer controls 1:3. Differences in demographic and cancer characteristics were balanced by propensity weighting. Grade 3 to 4 UAEs were identified by diagnosis codes plus treatment codes. Cumulative incidence was measured using Kaplan-Meier methods. The hazard associated with different cancer treatments was compared using Cox models. Results: UAEs occurred in 272 of 1808 cases (17%) and 222 of 5424 (4%) controls; most (62%) were ureteral strictures. The raw cumulative incidence of UAEs was highest in advanced cancers. UAEs occurred in 31% of patients after EBRT+BT, 25% of patients after RT+surgery, and 15% of patients after RH; however, after propensity weighting, the incidence was similar. In adjusted Cox models (reference = controls), the UAE risk was highest after RT+surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 5.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-11.07), followed by EBRT+BT (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.45-7.65), RH (HR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.41-9.46) and SS (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32-3.01). The higher risk after RT+surgery versus EBRT+BT was statistically significant, whereas, EBRT+BT and RH were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions: UAEs are common after cervical cancer treatment, particularly in patients with advanced cancers. UAEs are more common after RT, but these women tend to have the advanced cancers. After propensity weighting, the risk after RT was similar

  11. Development of efficient time-evolution method based on three-term recurrence relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akama, Tomoko Kobayashi, Osamu; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-05-28

    The advantage of the real-time (RT) propagation method is a direct solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation which describes frequency properties as well as all dynamics of a molecular system composed of electrons and nuclei in quantum physics and chemistry. Its applications have been limited by computational feasibility, as the evaluation of the time-evolution operator is computationally demanding. In this article, a new efficient time-evolution method based on the three-term recurrence relation (3TRR) was proposed to reduce the time-consuming numerical procedure. The basic formula of this approach was derived by introducing a transformation of the operator using the arcsine function. Since this operator transformation causes transformation of time, we derived the relation between original and transformed time. The formula was adapted to assess the performance of the RT time-dependent Hartree-Fock (RT-TDHF) method and the time-dependent density functional theory. Compared to the commonly used fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, our new approach decreased computational time of the RT-TDHF calculation by about factor of four, showing the 3TRR formula to be an efficient time-evolution method for reducing computational cost.

  12. Imision, Sohmso~ operatlonr Offloe

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  13. Reliability Availability Serviceability

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-18

    Our work is aimed at providing a data store for system-level events and presenting a flexible query interface to those events. The work extends the functinality provided by the open source Request Tracker (RT) (http://www.bestpractical.com/rt) project witht the Asset Tracker (AT) addon (http://atwiki.chaka.net). We have developed an Event Tracker add-on to RT and an interface for gathering, dispatching, and inserting system events into Event Tracker. Data sources include data from all components of the system.more » Data is initially sent to a defined set of data filters. The data filters are capable of discarding specified data, throttling input, handling context-sensitive input, passing data through an external shell pipe command, and compressing multiple data enteries into a single event. The filters then pass the data on to an event dispatch engine. The dispatcher can print events to the screen as they happen, track them in the database, forward them on, or pass them on to an external command. By collecting all of the data into a single database, we are able to leverage the Query Builder interface supplied by RT to create, save, and restore almost any kind of query imaginable.« less

  14. Research Report SC-RR-710673

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    m 5 1fi?2 -*Trr r(V Ttr- Research Report SC-RR-710673 Way 1972 APPLICATION OF ... LABORATORIES O P F ' ' - ' ' ' ' c n cfR - t u t I i M J T c n ' T A i c c rtTrMi( ...

  15. cks154.tmp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Fluids 6,4019 (1994). 5 D.R. Farley et al., these proceedings. 6 L.M. Logory et al., these proceedings. 7 E.M. Campbell, Lasers and Particle Beams 9,209-231 (1991). 8 R.T. ...

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Irradiated Field: An Analysis of 43 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Nguyen D.; Teh, Bin S.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2013-03-01

    Patients with soft tissue sarcomas that arise from previously irradiated fields have traditionally been reported to have a poor prognosis. In this report, we examined the characteristics and outcomes of patients who developed a rhabdomyosarcoma in a previously irradiated field (RMS-RIF); we hypothesize that these patients should have a better outcome compared to other postradiation soft tissue sarcomas as these tumors are chemosensitive and radiosensitive. A PubMed search of the literature from 1961-2010 yielded 33 studies with data for patients with RMS-RIF. The study included 43 patients with a median age of 6.5 years at the time of radiation therapy (RT) for the initial tumor. The median RT dose was 48 Gy. The median latency period, the time from RT to development of RMS-RIF, was 8 years. The 3-year overall survival for RMS-RIF was 42%. The 3-year overall survival was 66% for patients receiving chemotherapy and local treatment (surgery and/or RT) compared to 29% for those who had systemic treatment only or local treatment only (P=.049). Other factors associated with increased 3-year overall survival included retinoblastoma initial diagnosis (P<.001), age ?18 years at diagnosis of RMS-RIF (P=.003), favorable site (P=.008), and stage 1 disease (P=.002). Age at time of RMS-RIF, retinoblastoma initial tumor, favorable site, stage 1 disease, and use of both systemic and local treatment were found to be favorable prognostic factors for 3-year overall survival.

  17. GAX absorption cycle design process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priedeman, D.K.; Christensen, R.N.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an absorption system design process that relies on computer simulations that are validated by experimental findings. An ammonia-water absorption heat pump cycle at 3 refrigeration tons (RT) and chillers at 3.3 RT and 5 RT (10.5 kW, 11.6 kW, and 17.6 kW) were initially modeled and then built and tested. The experimental results were used to calibrate both the cycle simulation and the component simulations, yielding computer design routines that could accurately predict component and cycle performance. Each system was a generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle, and all were sized for residential and light commercial use, where very little absorption equipment is currently used. The specific findings of the 5 RT (17.6 kW) chiller are presented. Modeling incorporated a heat loss from the gas-fired generator and pressure drops in both the evaporator and absorber. Simulation results and experimental findings agreed closely and validated the modeling method and simulation software.

  18. Modification of solid state CdZnTe (CZT) radiation detectors with high sensitivity or high resolution operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Washington, II, Aaron L; Duff, Martine C; Teague, Lucile C; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael

    2014-11-11

    An apparatus and process is provided to illustrate the manipulation of the internal electric field of CZT using multiple wavelength light illumination on the crystal surface at RT. The control of the internal electric field is shown through the polarization in the IR transmission image under illumination as a result of the Pockels effect.

  19. Monitoring external beam radiotherapy using real-time beam visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, Cesare H.; Naczynski, Dominik J.; Yu, Shu-Jung S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a novel radiation therapy monitoring technique that utilizes a flexible scintillating film, common optical detectors, and image processing algorithms for real-time beam visualization (RT-BV). Methods: Scintillating films were formed by mixing Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb (GOS) with silicone and casting the mixture at room temperature. The films were placed in the path of therapeutic beams generated by medical linear accelerators (LINAC). The emitted light was subsequently captured using a CMOS digital camera. Image processing algorithms were used to extract the intensity, shape, and location of the radiation field at various beam energies, dose rates, and collimator locations. The measurement results were compared with known collimator settings to validate the performance of the imaging system. Results: The RT-BV system achieved a sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio to enable real-time monitoring of the LINAC beam at 20 fps with normal ambient lighting in the LINAC room. The RT-BV system successfully identified collimator movements with sub-millimeter resolution. Conclusions: The RT-BV system is capable of localizing radiation therapy beams with sub-millimeter precision and tracking beam movement at video-rate exposure.

  20. BPA-2012-01815-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Winn,Kim S (BPA) - DK-7 From: Winn,Kim S (BPA) - DK-7 Sent: Wednesday, August 29, 2012 1:51 PM To: 'A Better Way for BPA Executive Board' Subject: RE: BPA FOIA request RtCE1'El)...

  1. Impact of Concomitant Chemotherapy on Outcomes of Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Shlok; Kong, Weidong; Booth, Christopher M.; Mackillop, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials have shown that the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy (RT) improves survival in advanced head-and-neck cancer. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness of concomitant chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) in routine practice. Methods and Materials: This was a population-based cohort study. Electronic records of treatment from all provincial cancer centers were linked to a population--based cancer registry to describe the adoption of C-CRT for head-and-neck cancer patients in Ontario, Canada. The study population was then divided into pre- and postadoption cohorts, and their outcomes were compared. Results: Between 1992 and 2008, 18,867 patients had diagnoses of head-and-neck cancer in Ontario, of whom 7866 (41.7%) were treated with primary RT. The proportion of primary RT cases that received C-CRT increased from 2.2% in the preadoption cohort (1992-1998) to 39.3% in the postadoption cohort (2003-2008). Five-year survival among all primary RT cases increased from 43.6% in the preadoption cohort to 51.8% in the postadoption cohort (P<.001). Over the same period, treatment-related hospital admissions increased significantly, but there was no significant increase in treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: C-CRT was widely adopted in Ontario after 2003, and its adoption was temporally associated with an improvement in survival.

  2. Quadrennial

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RepoRt on the FiRst Quadrennial Technology review QTr Message froM the secretary of energy | i QUaDrennIaL technoLogy reVIeW 2011 Message froM the secretary of energy Steven Chu, ...

  3. An Experimental and Theoretical Multi-Mbar Study of Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegner, B E; Macleod, S G; CYNN, H; Proctor, J; Evans, W J; McMahon, M I; Ackland, G J

    2011-04-13

    We report results from an experimental and theoretical study of the room temperature (RT) compression of the ternary alloy Ti-6Al-4V. In this work, we have extended knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) from 40 GPa to 221 GPa, and observed a different sequence of phase transitions to that reported previously for pure Ti.

  4. Management of Male Breast Cancer in the United States: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Emma C.; DeWitt, Peter; Fisher, Christine M.; Rabinovitch, Rachel

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stage-specific management of male breast cancer (MBC) with surgery and radiation therapy (RT) and relate them to outcomes and to female breast cancer (FBC). Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all primary invasive MBC and FBC diagnosed from 1973 to 2008. Analyzable data included age, race, registry, grade, stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, type of surgery, and use of RT. Stage was defined as localized (LocD): confined to the breast; regional (RegD): involving skin, chest wall, and/or regional lymph nodes; and distant: M1. The primary endpoint was cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: A total of 4276 cases of MBC and 718,587 cases of FBC were identified. Male breast cancer constituted 0.6% of all breast cancer. Comparing MBC with FBC, mastectomy (M) was used in 87.4% versus 38.3%, and breast-conserving surgery in 12.6% versus 52.6% (P<10{sup ?4}). For males with LocD, CSS was not significantly different for the 4.6% treated with lumpectomy/RT versus the 70% treated with M alone (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-3.61; P=.57). Postmastectomy RT was delivered in 33% of males with RegD and was not associated with an improvement in CSS (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.88-1.41; P=.37). There was a significant increase in the use of postmastectomy RT in MBC over time: 24.3%, 27.2%, and 36.8% for 1973-1987, 1988-1997, and 1998-2008, respectively (P<.0001). Cause-specific survival for MBC has improved: the largest significant change was identified for men diagnosed in 1998-2008 compared with 1973-1987 (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.88; P=.0004). Conclusions: Surgical management of MBC is dramatically different than for FBC. The majority of males with LocD receive M despite equivalent CSS with lumpectomy/RT. Postmastectomy RT is greatly underutilized in MBC with RegD, although a CSS benefit was not demonstrated. Outcomes for MBC are improving, attributable to improved

  5. SU-E-T-587: Monte Carlo Versus Ray-Tracing for Treatment Planning Involving CNS Tumors On the MultiPlan System for CyberKnife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forbang, R Teboh

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: MultiPlan, the treatment planning system for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery system offers two approaches to dose computation, namely Ray-Tracing (RT), the default technique and Monte Carlo (MC), an option. RT is deterministic, however it accounts for primary heterogeneity only. MC on the other hand has an uncertainty associated with the calculation results. The advantage is that in addition, it accounts for heterogeneity effects on the scattered dose. Not all sites will benefit from MC. The goal of this work was to focus on central nervous system (CNS) tumors and compare dosimetrically, treatment plans computed with RT versus MC. Methods: Treatment plans were computed using both RT and MC for sites covering (a) the brain (b) C-spine (c) upper T-spine (d) lower T-spine (e) L-spine and (f) sacrum. RT was first used to compute clinically valid treatment plans. Then the same treatment parameters, monitor units, beam weights, etc., were used in the MC algorithm to compute the dose distribution. The plans were then compared for tumor coverage to illustrate the difference if any. All MC calculations were performed at a 1% uncertainty. Results: Using the RT technique, the tumor coverage for the brain, C-spine (C3–C7), upper T-spine (T4–T6), lower T-spine (T10), Lspine (L2) and sacrum were 96.8%, 93.1%, 97.2%, 87.3%, 91.1%, and 95.3%. The corresponding tumor coverage based on the MC approach was 98.2%, 95.3%, 87.55%, 88.2%, 92.5%, and 95.3%. It should be noted that the acceptable planning target coverage for our clinical practice is >95%. The coverage can be compromised for spine tumors to spare normal tissues such as the spinal cord. Conclusion: For treatment planning involving the CNS, RT and MC appear to be similar for most sites but for the T-spine area where most of the beams traverse lung tissue. In this case, MC is highly recommended.

  6. Adjuvant Brachytherapy Removes Survival Disadvantage of Local Disease Extension in Stage IIIC Endometrial Cancer: A SEER Registry Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Peter J. Jani, Ashesh B.; Horowitz, Ira R.; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of radiotherapy (RT) in women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: The 17-registry Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched for patients with lymph node-positive non-Stage IV epithelial endometrial cancer diagnosed and treated between 1988 and 1998. Two subgroups were identified: those with organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and those with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. RT was coded as external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). Observed survival (OS) was reported with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up; the survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. Results: The therapy data revealed 611 women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer during this period. Of these women, 51% were treated with adjuvant EBRT, 21% with EBRT and BT, and 28% with no additional RT (NAT). Of the 611 patients, 293 had organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and 318 patients had Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. The 5-year OS rate for all patients was 40% with NAT, 56% after EBRT, and 64% after EBRT/BT. Adjuvant RT improved survival compared with NAT (p <0.001). In patients with organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer, the 5-year OS rate was 50% for NAT, 64% for EBRT, and 67% for EBRT/BT. Again, adjuvant RT contributed to improved survival compared with NAT (p = 0.02). In patients with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and direct tumor extension, the 5-year OS rate was 34% for NAT, 47% for EBRT, and 63% for EBRT/BT. RT improved OS compared with NAT (p <0.001). Also, in this high-risk subgroup, adding BT to EBRT was superior to EBRT alone (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer receiving adjuvant EBRT and EBRT/BT had improved OS compared with patients receiving NAT. When direct extension of the primary tumor was present, the addition of BT to EBRT was even more beneficial.

  7. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, L.L. Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite

  8. Long-term follow-up of {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as pretreatment assessment in patients who undergo salvage radiotherapy for rising prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagda, Suneel N. . E-mail: snagda@gmail.com; Mohideen, Najeeb; Lo, Simon S.; Khan, Usman B.S.; Dillehay, Gary; Wagner, Robert; Campbell, Steven; Flanigan, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term failure patterns in patients who underwent an {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as part of their pretreatment assessment for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after prostatectomy and subsequently received local radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate bed. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were referred for evaluation of a rising PSA level after radical prostatectomy. All patients had negative findings for metastatic disease after abdominal/pelvis imaging with CT and isotope bone scans. All patients underwent a capromab pendetide scan, and the sites of uptake were noted. All patients were treated with local prostate bed RT (median dose 66.6 Gy). Results: Of the 58 patients, 20 had biochemical failure (post-RT PSA level >0.2 ng/mL or a rise to greater than the nadir PSA), including 6 patients with positive uptake outside the bed (positive elsewhere). The 4-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rates for patients with negative (53%), positive in the prostate bed alone (45%), or positive elsewhere (74%) scan findings did not differ significantly (p = 0.51). The positive predictive value of the capromab pendetide scan in detecting disease outside the bed was 27%. The capromab pendetide scan status had no effect on bRFS. Those with a pre-RT PSA level of <1 ng/mL had improved bRFS (p = 0.003). Conclusion: The capromab pendetide scan has a low positive predictive value in patients with positive elsewhere uptake and the 4-year bRFS was similar to that for those who did not exhibit positive elsewhere uptake. Therefore, patients with a postprostatectomy rising PSA level should considered for local RT on the basis of clinicopathologic factors.

  9. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jiayi; DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra; Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  10. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hae-June; Yoon, Changhwan; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Yeo-Jung; Schmidt, Benjamin; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Tap, William D.; Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Choy, Edwin; Kirsch, David G.; Simon, M. Celeste; and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  11. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landau, Efrat; Boop, Frederick A.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods.

  12. Single-Institution Experience in the Treatment of Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma Treated With Immunochemotherapy in the Setting of Response Assessment by {sup 18}Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohamed Amin; Costelloe, Colleen; Wogan, Christine F.; Reed, Valerie; Romaguera, Jorge E.; Neelapu, Sattva; Oki, Yasuhiro; Fayad, Luis; Hagemeister, Frederick B.; Nastoupil, Loretta; Turturro, Francesco; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A.; and others

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Excellent outcomes obtained after infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-EPOCH) alone have led some to question the role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL). We reviewed the outcomes in patients treated with 1 of 3 rituximab-containing regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [R-CHOP]; hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone [R-HCVAD], or R-EPOCH) with or without RT. We also evaluated the ability of positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) to identify patients at risk of relapse. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 97 patients with diagnoses of stage I/II PMBCL treated at our institution between 2001 and 2013. The clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. We analyzed whether postchemotherapy PET-CT could identify patients at risk for progressive disease according to a 5 point scale (5PS) Deauville score assigned. Results: Among 97 patients (median follow-up time, 57 months), the 5-year overall survival rate was 99%. Of patients treated with R-CHOP, 99% received RT; R-HCVAD, 82%; and R-EPOCH, 36%. Of 68 patients with evaluable end-of-chemotherapy PET-CT scans, 62% had a positive scan (avidity above that of the mediastinal blood pool [Deauville 5PS = 3]), but only 9 patients experienced relapse (n=1) or progressive disease (n=8), all with a 5PS of 4 to 5. Of the 25 patients who received R-EPOCH, 4 experienced progression, all with 5PS of 4 to 5; salvage therapy (RT and autologous stem cell transplantation) was successful in all cases. Conclusion: Combined modality immunochemotherapy and RT is well tolerated and effective for treatment of PMBCL. A postchemotherapy 5PS of 4 to 5, rather than 3 to 5, can identify patients at high risk of progression who should be considered for therapy beyond

  13. The Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Meningeal HemangiopericytomaExperience From the SEER Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stessin, Alexander M.; Sison, Cristina; Nieto, Jaime; Raifu, Muri; Li, Baoqing

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) on cause-specific survival in patients with meningeal hemangiopericytomas. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1990-2008 was queried for cases of surgically resected central nervous system hemangiopericytoma. Patient demographics, tumor location, and extent of resection were included in the analysis as covariates. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to analyze cause-specific survival. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine which factors were associated with cause-specific survival. Results: The mean follow-up time is 7.9 years (95 months). There were 76 patients included in the analysis, of these, 38 (50%) underwent gross total resection (GTR), whereas the other half underwent subtotal resection (STR). Postoperative RT was administered to 42% (16/38) of the patients in the GTR group and 50% (19/38) in the STR group. The 1-year, 10-year, and 20-year cause-specific survival rates were 99%, 75%, and 43%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, postoperative RT was associated with significantly better survival (HR = 0.269, 95% CI 0.084-0.862; P=.027), in particular for patients who underwent STR (HR = 0.088, 95% CI: 0.015-0.528; P<.008). Conclusions: In the absence of large prospective trials, the current clinical decision-making of hemangiopericytoma is mostly based on retrospective data. We recommend that postoperative RT be considered after subtotal resection for patients who could tolerate it. Based on the current literature, the practical approach is to deliver limited field RT to doses of 50-60 Gy while respecting the normal tissue tolerance. Further investigations are clearly needed to determine the optimal therapeutic strategy.

  14. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Felix Y.; Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew; Sandler, Howard; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10.

  15. SU-E-T-398: Feasibility of Automated Tools for Robustness Evaluation of Advanced Photon and Proton Techniques in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H; Liang, X; Kalbasi, A; Lin, A; Ahn, P; Both, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy (RT) techniques such as proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) and photon-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) have dosimetric advantages in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. However, anatomic or alignment changes during treatment may limit robustness of PBS and VMAT plans. We assess the feasibility of automated deformable registration tools for robustness evaluation in adaptive PBS and VMAT RT of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods: We treated 10 patients with bilateral OPC with advanced RT techniques and obtained verification CT scans with physician-reviewed target and OAR contours. We generated 3 advanced RT plans for each patient: proton PBS plan using 2 posterior oblique fields (2F), proton PBS plan using an additional third low-anterior field (3F), and a photon VMAT plan using 2 arcs (Arc). For each of the planning techniques, we forward calculated initial (Ini) plans on the verification scans to create verification (V) plans. We extracted DVH indicators based on physician-generated contours for 2 target and 14 OAR structures to investigate the feasibility of two automated tools (contour propagation (CP) and dose deformation (DD)) as surrogates for routine clinical plan robustness evaluation. For each verification scan, we compared DVH indicators of V, CP and DD plans in a head-to-head fashion using Student's t-test. Results: We performed 39 verification scans; each patient underwent 3 to 6 verification scan. We found no differences in doses to target or OAR structures between V and CP, V and DD, and CP and DD plans across all patients (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Automated robustness evaluation tools, CP and DD, accurately predicted dose distributions of verification (V) plans using physician-generated contours. These tools may be further developed as a potential robustness screening tool in the workflow for adaptive treatment of OPC using advanced RT techniques, reducing the need for physician-generated contours.

  16. Impact of 1p/19q Codeletion and Histology on Outcomes of Anaplastic Gliomas Treated With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speirs, Christina K.; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.; DeWees, Todd A.; Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Chicoine, Michael R.; Dacey, Ralph G.; Rich, Keith M.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Kim, Albert H.; Huang, Jiayi

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Anaplastic gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of primary high-grade brain tumors, and the optimal postoperative treatment remains controversial. In this report, we present our institutional data on the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) plus temozolomide (RT + TMZ) for anaplastic gliomas, stratified by histology and 1p/19q codeletion. Methods and Materials: A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of patients with supratentorial anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA), and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). After surgery, RT was delivered at a median total dose of 60 Gy (range, 31.6-63 Gy) in daily fractions. All patients received standard concurrent TMZ, with or without adjuvant TMZ. Histological/molecular subtypes were defined as codeleted AO/AOA, non-codeleted AO/AOA, and AA. Results: From 2000 to 2012, 111 cases met study criteria and were evaluable. Codeleted AO/AOA had superior overall survival (OS) to non-codeleted AO/AOA (91% vs 68% at 5 years, respectively, P=.02), whereas progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different (70% vs 46% at 5 years, respectively, P=.10). AA had inferior OS to non-codeleted AO/AOA (37% vs 68% at 5 years, respectively, P=.007) and inferior PFS (27% vs 46%, respectively, P=.03). On multivariate analysis, age, performance status, and histological or molecular subtype were independent predictors for both PFS and OS. Compared to historical controls, RT + TMZ provided comparable OS to RT with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (RT + PCV) for codeleted AO/AOA, superior OS to RT alone for non-codeleted AO/AOA, and similar OS to RT alone for AA. Conclusions: RT + TMZ may be a promising treatment for both codeleted and non-codeleted AO/AOA, but its role for AA remains unclear.

  17. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Filippi, Andrea R.; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A.; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  18. SU-C-17A-05: Quantification of Intra-Fraction Motion of Breast Tumors Using Cine-MRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijst, T van; Philippens, M; Bongard, D van den; Asselen, B van; Lagendijk, J; Kleijnen, J; Hartogh, M den

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables direct characterization of intra-fraction motion ofbreast tumors, due to high softtissue contrast and geometric accuracy. The purpose is to analyzethis motion in early-stage breast-cancer patients using pre-operative supine cine-MRI. Methods: MRI was performed in 12 female early-stage breast-cancer patients on a 1.5-T Ingenia (Philips)wide-bore scanner in supine radiotherapy (RT) position, prior to breast-conserving surgery. Twotwodimensional (2D) T2-weighted balanced fast-field echo (cine-MRI) sequences were added tothe RT protocol, oriented through the tumor. They were alternately acquired in the transverse andsagittal planes, every 0.3 s during 1 min. A radiation oncologist delineated gross target volumes(GTVs) on 3D contrast-enhanced MRI. Clinical target volumes (CTV = GTV + 15 mm isotropic)were generated and transferred onto the fifth time-slice of the time-series, to which subsequents lices were registered using a non-rigid Bspline algorithm; delineations were transformed accordingly. To evaluate intra-fraction CTV motion, deformation fields between the transformed delineations were derived to acquire the distance ensuring 95% surface coverage during scanning(P95%), for all in-plane directions: anteriorposterior (AP), left-right (LR), and caudal-cranial(CC). Information on LR was derived from transverse scans, CC from sagittal scans, AP fromboth sets. Results: Time-series with registration errors - induced by motion artifacts - were excluded by visual inspection. For our analysis, 11 transverse, and 8 sagittal time-series were taken into account. Themedian P95% calculated in AP (19 series), CC (8), and LR (11) was 1.8 mm (range: 0.94.8), 1.7mm (0.83.6), and 1.0 mm (0.63.5), respectively. Conclusion: Intra-fraction motion analysis of breast tumors was achieved using cine-MRI. These first results show that in supine RT position, motion amplitudes are limited. This information can be used for adaptive RT

  19. SU-D-9A-06: 3D Localization of Neurovascular Bundles Through MR-TRUS Registration in Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X; Rossi, P; Ogunleye, T; Jani, A; Curran, W; Liu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common complication of prostate-cancer radiotherapy (RT) and the major mechanism is radiation-induced neurovascular bundle (NVB) damage. However, the localization of the NVB remains challenging. This study's purpose is to accurately localize 3D NVB by integrating MR and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images through MR-TRUS fusion. Methods: T1 and T2-weighted MR prostate images were acquired using a Philips 1.5T MR scanner and a pelvic phase-array coil. The 3D TRUS images were captured with a clinical scanner and a 7.5 MHz biplane probe. The TRUS probe was attached to a stepper; the B-mode images were captured from the prostate base to apex at a 1-mm step and the Doppler images were acquired in a 5-mm step. The registration method modeled the prostate tissue as an elastic material, and jointly estimated the boundary condition (surface deformation) and the volumetric deformations under elastic constraint. This technique was validated with a clinical study of 7 patients undergoing RT treatment for prostate cancer. The accuracy of our approach was assessed through the locations of landmarks, as well as previous ultrasound Doppler images of patients. Results: MR-TRUS registration was successfully performed for all patients. The mean displacement of the landmarks between the post-registration MR and TRUS images was 1.370.42 mm, which demonstrated the precision of the registration based on the biomechanical model; and the NVB volume Dice Overlap Coefficient was 92.13.2%, which demonstrated the accuracy of the NVB localization. Conclusion: We have developed a novel approach to improve 3D NVB localization through MR-TRUS fusion for prostate RT, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with ultrasound Doppler data. This technique could be a useful tool as we try to spare the NVB in prostate RT, monitor NBV response to RT, and potentially improve post-RT potency outcomes.

  20. Genomic Prostate Cancer Classifier Predicts Biochemical Failure and Metastases in Patients After Postoperative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Den, Robert B.; Feng, Felix Y.; Showalter, Timothy N.; Mishra, Mark V.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Kelly, W. Kevin; Birbe, Ruth C.; McCue, Peter A.; Ghadessi, Mercedeh; Yousefi, Kasra; Davicioni, Elai; Knudsen, Karen E.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Totest the hypothesis that a genomic classifier (GC) would predict biochemical failure (BF) and distant metastasis (DM) in men receiving radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Among patients who underwent post-RP RT, 139 were identified for pT3 or positive margin, who did not receive neoadjuvant hormones and had paraffin-embedded specimens. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the highest Gleason grade focus and applied to a high-density-oligonucleotide microarray. Receiver operating characteristic, calibration, cumulative incidence, and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess GC performance for predicting BF and DM after post-RP RT in comparison with clinical nomograms. Results: Thearea under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the Stephenson model was 0.70 for both BF and DM, with addition of GC significantly improving area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Stratified by GC risk groups, 8-year cumulative incidence was 21%, 48%, and 81% for BF (P<.0001) and for DM was 0, 12%, and 17% (P=.032) for low, intermediate, and high GC, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with high GC had a hazard ratio of 8.1 and 14.3 for BF and DM. In patients with intermediate or high GC, those irradiated with undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA ?0.2ng/mL) had median BF survival of >8years, compared with <4years for patients with detectable PSA (>0.2ng/mL) before initiation of RT. At 8years, the DM cumulative incidence for patients with high GC and RT with undetectable PSA was 3%, compared with 23% with detectable PSA (P=.03). No outcome differences were observed for low GC between the treatment groups. Conclusion: The GC predicted BF and metastasis after post-RP irradiation. Patients withlower GC risk may benefit from delayed RT, as opposed to those with higher GC; however, this needs prospective validation. Genomic-based models may be

  1. Long-Term Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9903: A Randomized Phase 3 Trial to Assess the Effect of Erythropoietin on Local-Regional Control in Anemic Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenouda, George; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, K. Kian; Machtay, Mitchell; Parliament, Matthew B.; Hershock, Diane; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Lin, Alexander; Rotman, Marvin; Nabid, Abdenour; Hong, Susan; Shehata, Sarwat; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Sultanem, Khalil; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This paper reports long-term results of RTOG 9903, to determine whether the addition of erythropoietin (EPO) would improve the outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) in mildly to moderately anemic patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa). Methods and Materials: The trial included HNSCCa patients treated with definitive RT. Patients with stage III or IV disease received concomitant chemoradiation therapy or accelerated fractionation. Pretreatment hemoglobin levels were required to be between 9.0 and 13.5 g/dL (12.5 g/dL for females). EPO, 40,000 U, was administered weekly starting 7 to 10 days before RT was initiated in the RT + EPO arm. Results: A total of 141 of 148 enrolled patients were evaluable. The baseline median hemoglobin level was 12.1 g/dL. In the RT + EPO arm, the mean hemoglobin level at 4 weeks increased by 1.66 g/dL, whereas it decreased by 0.24 g/dL in the RT arm. With a median follow-up of 7.95 years (range: 1.66-10.08 years) for surviving patients and 3.33 years for all patients (range: 0.03-10.08 years), the 5-year estimate of local-regional failure was 46.2% versus 39.4% (P=.42), local-regional progression-free survival was 31.5% versus 37.6% (P=.20), and overall survival was 36.9% versus 38.2% (P=.54) for the RT + EPO and RT arms, respectively. Late toxicity was not different between the 2 arms. Conclusions: This long-term analysis confirmed that despite the ability of EPO to raise hemoglobin levels in anemic patients with HNSCCa, it did not improve outcomes when added to RT. The possibility of a detrimental effect of EPO could not be ruled out.

  2. Long-term Follow-up of the RTOG 9501/Intergroup Phase III Trial: Postoperative Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in High-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Jay S.; Zhang Qiang; Pajak, Thomas F.; Forastiere, Arlene A.; Jacobs, John; Saxman, Scott B.; Kish, Julie A.; Kim, Harold E.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Rotman, Marvin; Lustig, Robert; Ensley, John F.; Thorstad, Wade; Schultz, Christopher J.; Yom, Sue S.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Previous analysis of this Intergroup trial demonstrated that with a median follow-up among surviving patients of 45.9 months, the concurrent postoperative administration of cisplatin and radiation therapy improved local-regional control and disease-free survival of patients who had high-risk resectable head-and-neck carcinomas. With a minimum of 10 years of follow-up potentially now available for all patients, these results are updated here to examine long-term outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 410 analyzable patients who had high-risk resected head-and-neck cancers were prospectively randomized to receive either radiation therapy (RT: 60 Gy in 6 weeks) or identical RT plus cisplatin, 100 mg/m{sup 2}i.v. on days 1, 22, and 43 (RT + CT). Results: At 10 years, the local-regional failure rates were 28.8% vs 22.3% (P=.10), disease-free survival was 19.1% vs 20.1% (P=.25), and overall survival was 27.0% vs 29.1% (P=.31) for patients treated by RT vs RT + CT, respectively. In the unplanned subset analysis limited to patients who had microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease, local-regional failure occurred in 33.1% vs 21.0% (P=.02), disease-free survival was 12.3% vs 18.4% (P=.05), and overall survival was 19.6% vs 27.1% (P=.07), respectively. Conclusion: At a median follow-up of 9.4 years for surviving patients, no significant differences in outcome were observed in the analysis of all randomized eligible patients. However, analysis of the subgroup of patients who had either microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease showed improved local-regional control and disease-free survival with concurrent administration of chemotherapy. The remaining subgroup of patients who were enrolled only because they had tumor in 2 or more lymph nodes did not benefit from the addition of CT to RT.

  3. Lung Texture in Serial Thoracic Computed Tomography Scans: Correlation of Radiomics-based Features With Radiation Therapy Dose and Radiation Pneumonitis Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunliffe, Alexandra; Armato, Samuel G.; Castillo, Richard; Pham, Ngoc; Guerrero, Thomas; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationship between radiation dose and change in a set of mathematical intensity- and texture-based features and to determine the ability of texture analysis to identify patients who develop radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 106 patients who received radiation therapy (RT) for esophageal cancer were retrospectively identified under institutional review board approval. For each patient, diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired before (0-168 days) and after (5-120 days) RT, and a treatment planning CT scan with an associated dose map was obtained. 32- × 32-pixel regions of interest (ROIs) were randomly identified in the lungs of each pre-RT scan. ROIs were subsequently mapped to the post-RT scan and the planning scan dose map by using deformable image registration. The changes in 20 feature values (ΔFV) between pre- and post-RT scan ROIs were calculated. Regression modeling and analysis of variance were used to test the relationships between ΔFV, mean ROI dose, and development of grade ≥2 RP. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to determine each feature's ability to distinguish between patients with and those without RP. A classifier was constructed to determine whether 2- or 3-feature combinations could improve RP distinction. Results: For all 20 features, a significant ΔFV was observed with increasing radiation dose. Twelve features changed significantly for patients with RP. Individual texture features could discriminate between patients with and those without RP with moderate performance (AUCs from 0.49 to 0.78). Using multiple features in a classifier, AUC increased significantly (0.59-0.84). Conclusions: A relationship between dose and change in a set of image-based features was observed. For 12 features, ΔFV was significantly related to RP development. This study demonstrated the ability of radiomics to provide a quantitative, individualized

  4. The oxidation-reduction kinetics of palladium powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munir, Z.A.; Coombs, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cyclic oxidation-reduction of submicrometer sized palladium powder was investigated over the temperature range 848 to 923 K. The total oxygen uptake decreased with increasing number of cycles as a consequence of sintering. Sintering was restricted to the reduction steps in these cycles. The relationships for the rate constants of the oxidation and reduction processes are, respectively, (1.04)10/sup 6/ exp(-(74.1)10/sup 3//RT), and (7.63)10/sup 12/ exp(-(207.9)10/sup 3//RT). The activation energies for the oxidation of palladium powder and the reduction of palladium oxide are 74.1 and 207.9 kJ mol/sup -1/, respectively.

  5. Final Report - DuraMelter 100 Tests to Support LAW Glass Formulation Correlation Development, VSL-06R6480-1, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-12-03

    This report describes the results of work and testing specified by Test Specifications 24590-LAW-TSP-RT-04-004, Rev. 0, Test Plans VSL-05T5480-1, Rev. 0 and Text Exceptions 24590-LAW-TEF-RT-05-00002. The work and any associated testing followed established quality assurance requirements and was conducted as authorized. The descriptions provided in this test report are an accurate account of both the conduct of the work and the data collected. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. Also reported are any unusual or anomalous occurences that are different from the starting hypotheses. The test results and this report have been reviewed and verified.

  6. Study of the stability of Z-pinch implosions with different initial density profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Batrakov, A. V.; Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk ; Baksht, R. B.; Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv

    2014-05-15

    Stability of metal-puff Z pinches was studied experimentally. Experiments were carried out on a facility producing a load current up to 450 kA with a rise time of 450?ns. In a metal-puff Z pinch, the plasma shell is produced due to evaporation of the electrode material during the operation of a vacuum arc. In the experiment to be reported, a single-shell and a shell-on-jet pinch load with magnesium electrodes were used. Two-dimensional, 3 ns gated, visible-light images were taken at different times during the implosion. When the shell was formed from a collimated plasma flow with small radial divergence, RayleighTaylor (RT) instability typical of gas-puff implosions was recorded. The RT instability was completely suppressed in a mode where the initial density distribution of the shell approached a tailored density profile [A. L. Velikovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 853 (1996)].

  7. Collisional effects on Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Flaig, M.; Plewa, T.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V.

    2015-05-15

    Magnetic-field generation from the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability was predicted more than 30 years ago, though experimental measurements of this phenomenon have only occurred in the past few years. These pioneering observations demonstrated that collisional effects are important to B-field evolution. To produce fields of a measurable strength, high-intensity lasers irradiate solid targets to generate the nonaligned temperature and density gradients required for B-field generation. The ablation process naturally generates an unstable system where RT-induced magnetic fields form. Field strengths inferred from monoenergetic-proton radiographs indicate that in the ablation region diffusive effects caused by finite plasma resistivity are not negligible. Results from the first proof-of-existence experiments are reviewed and the role of collisional effects on B-field evolution is discussed in detail.

  8. Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing in Lieu of Radiography for Acceptance of Carbon Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Nove, Carol A.

    2014-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting studies for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the capability, effectiveness, and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) as a replacement method for radiographic testing (RT) for volumetric examination of nuclear power plant (NPP) components. This particular study focused on evaluating the use of UT on carbon steel plate welds. Welding fabrication flaws included a combination of planar and volumetric types, e.g., incomplete fusion, lack of penetration, cracks, porosity, and slag inclusions. The examinations were conducted using phased-array (PA) UT techniques applied primarily for detection and flaw type characterization. This paper will discuss the results of using UT in lieu of RT for detection and classification of fabrication flaws in carbon steel plate welds.

  9. The analytic model of a laser-accelerated plasma target and its stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khudik, V. Yi, S. A.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G.

    2014-01-15

    A self-consistent kinetic theory of a laser-accelerated plasma target with distributed electron/ion densities is developed. The simplified model assumes that after an initial transition period the bulk of cold ions are uniformly accelerated by the self-consistent electric field generated by hot electrons trapped in combined ponderomotive and electrostatic potentials. Several distinct target regions (non-neutral ion tail, non-neutral electron sheath, and neutral plasma bulk) are identified and analytically described. It is shown analytically that such laser-accelerated finite-thickness target is susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. Particle-in-cell simulations of the seeded perturbations of the plasma target reveal that, for ultra-relativistic laser intensities, the growth rate of the RT instability is depressed from the analytic estimates.

  10. Microsoft Word - Document11

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Margaret L ivingstone What A rt C an T ell Us A bout T he Brain Abstract: Artists h ave b een d oing e xperiments o n v ision l onger t han n eurobiologists. S ome major w orks o f a rt h ave p rovided i nsights a s t o h ow w e s ee; s ome o f t hese i nsights are s o f undamental t hat t hey c an b e u nderstood i n t erms o f t he u nderlying neurobiology. F or e xample, a rtists h ave l ong r ealized t hat c olor a nd l uminance c an play i ndependent r oles i n v isual p erception. P icasso

  11. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframes—incentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales —making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  12. Effects of Contact Resistance on Electrical Conductivity Measurements of SiC-Based Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Henager, Charles H.

    2012-04-17

    A combination 2/4-probe method was used to measure electrical resistances across a pure, monolithic CVD-SiC disc sample with contact resistance at the SiC/metallic electrode interfaces. By comparison of the almost simultaneous 2/4-probe measurements, the specific contact resistance and its temperature dependence were determined for two types (sputtered gold and porous nickel) electrodes from RT to ~700C. The specific contact resistance values (Rc) behaved similarly for each type of metallic electrode: Rc >~1000 ?-cm2 at RT, decreasing continuously to ~1-10 ?-cm2 at 700C. The temperature dependence of the inverse Rc indicated thermally activated electrical conduction across the SiC/metallic interface with an apparent activation energy of ~0.3 eV. For the flow channel insert application in a fusion reactor blanket, contact resistance potentially could reduce the transverse electrical conductivity by ~1/2.

  13. Effects of contact resistance on electrical conductivity measurements of SiC-based materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-06-30

    A combination 2/4-probe method was used to measure electrical resistances across a pure, monolithic CVD-SiC disc sample with contact resistance at the SiC/metallic electrode interfaces. By comparison of the almost simultaneous 2/4-probe measurements, the specific contact resistance (Rc) and its temperature dependence were determined for two types (sputtered gold and porous nickel) electrodes from room temperature (RT) to ?973 K. The Rc-values behaved similarly for each type of metallic electrode: Rc > ?1000 ? cm2 at RT, decreasing continuously to ?110 ? cm2 at 973 K. The temperature dependence of the inverse Rc indicated thermally activated electrical conduction across the SiC/metallic interface with an apparent activation energy of ?0.3 eV. For the flow channel insert application in a fusion reactor blanket, contact resistance potentially could reduce the transverse electrical conductivity by about 50%.

  14. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  15. Collison-induced rototranslational absorption spectra of H/sub 2/-He pairs at temperatures from 40 to 3000 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borysow, J.; Frommhold, L.; Birnbaum, G.

    1988-03-01

    The zeroth, first, and second spectral moments of the rototranslational collision-induced absorption (RT CIA) spectra of hydrogen-helium mixtures are calculated from the fundamental theory, for temperatures from 40 to 3000 K. With the help of simple analytical functions of three parameters and the information given, the RT CIA spectra of H/sub 2/-He pairs can be generated on computers of small capacity, with rms deviations from exact quantum profiles of not more than a few percent. Such representations of the CIA spectra are of interest for work related to the atmospheres of the outer planets and cool stars. The theoretical spectra are in close agreement with existing laboratory measurements at various temperatures from about 77 to 3000 K. 28 references.

  16. Final Report - Sulfate Solubility in RPP-WTP HLW Glasses, VSL-06R6780-1, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Feng, A.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-12-03

    This report describes the results of work and testing specified by Test Specifications 24590-HLW-TSP-RT-01-006 Rev 1, Test Plans VSL-02T7800-1 Rev 1 and Test Exceptions 24590-HLW-TEF-RT-05-00007. The work and any associated testing followed established quality assurance requirements and were conducted as authorized. The descriptions provided in this report are an accurate account of both the conduct of the work and the data collected. Results required by the Test Plans are reported. Also reported are any unusual or anomalous occurrences that are different from the starting hypotheses. The test results and this report have been reviewed and verified.

  17. Acoustic effects at interaction of laser radiation with a liquid accompanied by optical breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulanov, A. V.; Nagorny, I. G.

    2012-09-04

    The experimental researches of acoustic emission from optical breakdown in liquids are presented. Spectral characteristics and power of the acoustic waves generated in a liquid by optical breakdown at interaction of laser radiation with the wavelength of 532 nanometers were studied. It is shown, that two spectral maxima characterizing acoustic emission are observed. The shift of low-frequency maximum depending on the laser energy pulse is observed. As a whole, the linear dependence of acoustic pressure on the energy of laser pulse is observed. It is shown, that using acoustic data it is possible to reproduce function R(t) which will be in accord with characteristic dependences R(t), obtained from optical data. The last is especially important for breakdown studying in opaque environments.

  18. TU-A-BRF-01: MR Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanescu, T; Balter, J; Nyholm, T; Lagendijk, J

    2014-06-15

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of new technologies focused on the deeper integration of MR in radiotherapy. The innovations span from image data acquisition and post-processing to clinical implementation of MR-guided RT systems and workflow development. The session is intended to provide a review of the key and most recent advancements. Targeted discussions will cover topics which currently define the concept of MR-guided radiotherapy including a) system commissioning, quality control and safety, b) MR data manipulation for dose computations and treatment simulation, c) quantification/management of organ motion and treatment delivery guidance. Learning Objectives: Understand the concept and specifics of MR-guided radiotherapy; Understand the requirements for system integration in clinical workflow; Become familiar with the proposed strategies for system commissioning, RT planning and delivery guidance.

  19. Unleashing the Power of ORPS g A Desk Guide to The Occurrence Reporting and Processing System and How to Get the Information You Need

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unleashing the Power of ORPS A Desk Guide to the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) and How to Get the Information You Need U S D E PA RT M E N T O F E N E RGY O F F I C E O F ES H R E P O RT I N G A N D A N A LYS I S ( AU - 2 3 ) 11/24/2015 1 Introduction to ORPS The Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) is a system designed to assist users to submit, collect, transmit, update, and sign the occurrence reports required by DOE O 232.2 Admin Chg 1, Occurrence Reporting

  20. r~& 23, u77

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  1. DOE/EIS-0200-SA-04 August

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections February 1984 Published: March 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- .iort- iort- lort- <ort- ort Tt- .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term Term .-Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  2. Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer in Patients Treated With Breast Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Sun Young; Lee, Seung Ju; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Han-Sung; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Breast conservation surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) have been linked with high locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rates. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical outcomes in patients who exhibited LRR and IBTR after being treated by BCS and RT following NCT. Methods and Materials: In total, 251 breast cancer patients treated with BCS and RT following NCT between 2001 and 2006 were included. All patients had been shown to be clinically node-positive. Clinical stage at diagnosis (2003 AJCC) was II in 68% of patients and III in 32% of patients. Of those, 50%, 35%, and 15% of patients received anthracycline-based, taxane-based, and combined anthracycline-taxane NCT, respectively. All patients received RT. Results: During follow-up (median, 55 months), 26 (10%) patients had LRR, 19 of these patients had IBTR. Five-year actuarial rates of IBTR-free and LRR-free survival were 91% and 89%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, lack of hormone suppression therapy was found to increase both LRR and IBTR rates. Hazard ratios were 7.99 (p < 0.0001) and 4.22 (p = 0.004), respectively. Additionally, pathology stage N2 to N3 increased LRR rate (hazard ratio, 4.22; p = 0.004), and clinical AJCC stage III IBTR rate (hazard ratio, 9.05; p = 0.034). Achievement of pathological complete response and presence of multifocal tumors did not affect LRR or IBTR. Conclusions: In patients with locally advanced disease, who were clinically node-positive at presentation, BCS after NCT resulted in acceptably low rates of IBTR and LRR. Mastectomy should be considered as an option in patients who present with clinical stage III tumors or who are not treated with adjuvant hormone suppression therapy, because they exhibit high IBTR rates after NCT and BCS.

  3. Erlotinib Versus Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Patients With EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Rimner, Andreas; Shi, Weiji; Riely, Gregory J.; Beal, Kathryn; Yu, Helena A.; Chan, Timothy A.; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Abraham J.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system, it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Methods and Materials: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified. Results: 222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole brain RT (WBRT), and 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median, 35 vs 26 months; P=.62), whereas patients treated with SRS had a longer OS than did those in the erlotinib group (median, 64 months; P=.004). The median time to intracranial progression was 17 months. There was a longer time to intracranial progression in patients who received WBRT than in those who received erlotinib upfront (median, 24 vs 16 months, P=.04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to experience intracranial failure as a component of first failure, whereas WBRT patients were more likely to experience failure outside the brain (P=.004). Conclusions: The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison with a targeted biologic agent with known central nervous system activity.

  4. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - Wind Energy Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Tribal Energy Program Review November 18, 2008 By Bruce Wright Connie Fredenberg Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association "The Birthplace of the Wind" Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. * 150 mph gusts * Extreme Turbulence Potential * Corrosive Salt Spray World Class Wind: A Mixed Blessing Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. LOGISTICS * Anchorage to Nikolski is 916 air miles for $1,316 rt. * During the fishing season a refundable ticket

  5. May 12, 2011, Visiting Speakers Program Events - Special Report - Counterfeit Parts: Increasing Awareness and Developing Countermeasures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SpeciAl RepoRt counterfeit parts: increasing Awareness and Developing countermeasures March 2011 Counterfeit Parts: Increasing Awareness and Developing Countermeasures March 2011 © 2010 Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. 1000 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1700, Arlington, Virginia 22209 n www.aia-aerospace.org Counterfeit Parts: Increasing Awareness and Developing Countermeasures i December 2010 Counterfeit Parts: Increasing Awareness and Developing Countermeasures Counterfeiting has a

  6. Re

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expe rim e nt Se t up CSRM Sys t e m f or At m os ph e ric M ode l l ing v e rs ion 6.5 (SAM v 6.5) 2D w it h axis orie nt e d w e s t -e as t 24 v e rt ical l aye rs w it h grids...

  7. Patient-Physician Communication About Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a Radiation Oncology Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge Jin; Fishman, Jessica; Annenberg School for Communication at University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Vapiwala, Neha; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Li, Susan Q.; Desai, Krupali; Xie, Sharon X.; Mao, Jun J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients, patient-physician communication regarding CAM therapies remains limited. This study quantified the extent of patient-physician communication about CAM and identified factors associated with its discussion in radiation therapy (RT) settings. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 305 RT patients at an urban academic cancer center. Patients with different cancer types were recruited in their last week of RT. Participants self-reported their demographic characteristics, health status, CAM use, patient-physician communication regarding CAM, and rationale for/against discussing CAM therapies with physicians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify relationships between demographic/clinical variables and patients' discussion of CAM with radiation oncologists. Results: Among the 305 participants, 133 (43.6%) reported using CAM, and only 37 (12.1%) reported discussing CAM therapies with their radiation oncologists. In multivariate analyses, female patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.98) and patients with full-time employment (AOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.81) were less likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists. CAM users (AOR 4.28, 95% CI 1.93-9.53) were more likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists than were non-CAM users. Conclusions: Despite the common use of CAM among oncology patients, discussions regarding these treatments occur rarely in the RT setting, particularly among female and full-time employed patients. Clinicians and patients should incorporate discussions of CAM to guide its appropriate use and to maximize possible benefit while minimizing potential harm.

  8. Unambiguous determination of H-atom positions: comparing results from neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardberg, Anna S.; Del Castillo, Alexis R.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Myles, Dean A.A.

    2010-11-19

    The locations of H atoms in biological structures can be difficult to determine using X-ray diffraction methods. Neutron diffraction offers a relatively greater scattering magnitude from H and D atoms. Here, 1.65 {angstrom} resolution neutron diffraction studies of fully perdeuterated and selectively CH{sub 3}-protonated perdeuterated crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin (D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively) at room temperature (RT) are described, as well as 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the same protein at both RT and 100 K. The two techniques are quantitatively compared in terms of their power to directly provide atomic positions for D atoms and analyze the role played by atomic thermal motion by computing the {sigma} level at the D-atom coordinate in simulated-annealing composite D-OMIT maps. It is shown that 1.65 {angstrom} resolution RT neutron data for perdeuterated rubredoxin are {approx}8 times more likely overall to provide high-confidence positions for D atoms than 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray data at 100 K or RT. At or above the 1.0{sigma} level, the joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structures define 342/378 (90%) and 291/365 (80%) of the D-atom positions for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. The X-ray-only 1.1 {angstrom} resolution 100 K structures determine only 19/388 (5%) and 8/388 (2%) of the D-atom positions above the 1.0{sigma} level for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. Furthermore, the improved model obtained from joint XN refinement yielded improved electron-density maps, permitting the location of more D atoms than electron-density maps from models refined against X-ray data only.

  9. TU-F-18C-09: Mammogram Surveillance Using Texture Analysis for Breast Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, H; Tome, W; FOX, J; Hong, L; Yaparpalvi, R; Mehta, K; Bodner, W; Kalnicki, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of applying cancer risk model established from treated patients to predict the risk of recurrence on follow-up mammography after radiation therapy for both ipsilateral and contralateral breast. Methods: An extensive set of textural feature functions was applied to a set of 196 Mammograms from 50 patients. 56 Mammograms from 28 patients were used as training set, 44 mammograms from 22 patients were used as test set and the rest were used for prediction. Feature functions include Histogram, Gradient, Co-Occurrence Matrix, Run-Length Matrix and Wavelet Energy. An optimum subset of the feature functions was selected by Fisher Coefficient (FO) or Mutual Information (MI) (up to top 10 features) or a method combined FO, MI and Principal Component (FMP) (up to top 30 features). One-Nearest Neighbor (1-NN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Nonlinear Discriminant Analysis (NDA) were utilized to build a risk model of breast cancer from the training set of mammograms at the time of diagnosis. The risk model was then used to predict the risk of recurrence from mammogram taken one year and three years after RT. Results: FPM with NDA has the best classification power in classifying the training set of the mammogram with lesions versus those without lesions. The model of FPM with NDA achieved a true positive (TP) rate of 82% compared to 45.5% of using FO with 1-NN. The best false positive (FP) rates were 0% and 3.6% in contra-lateral breast of 1-year and 3-years after RT, and 10.9% in ipsi-lateral breast of 3-years after RT. Conclusion: Texture analysis offers high dimension to differentiate breast tissue in mammogram. Using NDA to classify mammogram with lesion from mammogram without lesion, it can achieve rather high TP and low FP in the surveillance of mammogram for patient with conservative surgery combined RT.

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of ARM Cloud Property Observations with CRM Simulations Xu, K.-M. (a), Cederwall, R.T. (b), Xie, S.C. (b), and Yio, J.J. (b), NASA Langley Research Center (a), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (b) Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The cloud property observations are compared with cloud-resolving model simulated cloud properties in this study, using the Summer 1997 Intensive Observation Period (IOP) data of the ARM program. Midlatitude

  11. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stratus Microphysical Parameters Using Radar and Visible Optical Depth Austin, R.T. and Stephens, G.L., Colorado State University, Fort Collins Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting A new algorithm for the retrieval of stratus cloud microphysical parameters was introduced last year and applied to measurements of maritime stratus clouds off the coast of California. The retrieval has been refined and applied to data from the Southern Great Plains CART site, as well

  12. ETATP12rev0.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... si io on n b ba at tt te er ry y p pa ac ck k a an nd d m mo od du ul le e v vo ol lt ta ... F Fu ur rt th he er r, , t th he e B BM MS S s sh ha al ll l a au ut to om ma at ti ic ca ...

  13. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  14. Multi-Institutional Experience of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Black vs White Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Carl; Bai, Harrison; Neboori, Hanmanth; Takita, Cristiane; Motwani, Sabin; Wright, Jean L.; Hobeika, Georges; Haffty, Bruce G.; Jones, Tiffanie; Goyal, Sharad; Moran, Meena S.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of data on racial disparities in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the data from a multi-institutional cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed to determine whether racial disparities or differences exist. Methods and Materials: A total of 533 white and 76 black DCIS patients from 3 university-based cancer centers were uniformly treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT. All patient data were collected and analyzed as a function of race. Results: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. No significant racial differences were seen in tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, necrosis, or grade (all P>.05). Of the treatment parameters, the RT dose delivered, boost, positive margin rates, frequency of hormone receptor status assessment, and receipt of hormonal therapy for the 2 cohorts did not significantly differ (all P>.05). The local relapse-free survival was similar at 5 years (96.1% and 98.1%, P=.399) and 10 years (92.8% vs 95.8%, P=.360), with no significant overall survival difference at 10 years (94.0% vs 88.9%, P=.290) between the white and black patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, race was not an independent predictor of local relapse-free survival or overall survival when accounting for age, grade, and margin status. Conclusion: In our large cohort of DCIS patients uniformly treated at 3 institutions with breast conservation without any apparent differences in treatment delivery parameters, we demonstrated that the clinical and pathologic features and local survival outcomes did not differ as a function of race. Our results suggest that when black patients with DCIS are appropriately selected for breast conservation and receive adjuvant RT without racial disparities in the treatment parameters, differences in the outcomes as a function of race do not exist.

  15. SU-E-J-190: Characterization of Radiation Induced CT Number Changes in Tumor and Normal Lung During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C; Liu, F; Tai, A; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure CT number (CTN) changes in tumor and normal lung as a function of radiation therapy (RT) dose during the course of RT delivery for lung cancer using daily IGRT CT images and single respiration phase CT images. Methods: 4D CT acquired during planning simulation and daily 3D CT acquired during daily IGRT for 10 lung cancer cases randomly selected in terms of age, caner type and stage, were analyzed using an in-house developed software tool. All patients were treated in 2 Gy fractions to primary tumors and involved nodal regions. Regions enclosed by a series of isodose surfaces in normal lung were delineated. The obtained contours along with target contours (GTVs) were populated to each singlephase planning CT and daily CT. CTN in term of Hounsfield Unit (HU) of each voxel in these delineated regions were collectively analyzed using histogram, mean, mode and linear correlation. Results: Respiration induced normal lung CTN change, as analyzed from single-phase planning CTs, ranged from 9 to 23 (2) HU for the patients studied. Normal lung CTN change was as large as 50 (12) HU over the entire treatment course, was dose and patient dependent and was measurable with dose changes as low as 1.5 Gy. For patients with obvious tumor volume regression, CTN within the GTV drops monotonically as much as 10 (1) HU during the early fractions with a total dose of 20 Gy delivered. The GTV and CTN reductions are significantly correlated with correlation coefficient >0.95. Conclusion: Significant RT dose induced CTN changes in lung tissue and tumor region can be observed during even the early phase of RT delivery, and may potentially be used for early prediction of radiation response. Single respiration phase CT images have dramatically reduced statistical noise in ROIs, making daily dose response evaluation possible.

  16. EXTRA-A Multicenter Phase II Study of Chemoradiation Using a 5 Day per Week Oral Regimen of Capecitabine and Intravenous Mitomycin C in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glynne-Jones, Rob Meadows, Helen; Wan, Susan; Gollins, Simon; Leslie, Martin; Levine, Ed; McDonald, Alec C.; Myint, Sun; Samuel, Les; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) + mitomycin C (MMC)-based chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with epidermoid anal carcinoma. Clinical trials in other cancers have confirmed 5-FU can successfully be replaced by the oral fluoropyrimidine capecitabine. This phase II trial aimed to determine the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of capecitabine, MMC and radiotherapy (RT) in anal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal Cancer Trial (ACT) II trial (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy). With MMC (12 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1 and capecitabine on each RT treatment day in two divided doses (825 mg/m{sup 2} b.i.d). The endpoints were complete response at 4 weeks, local control at 6 months and toxicity. Results: Thirty-one patients entered the trial. The median age was 61 years (range 45-86) with 14 males and 17 females. Compliance with chemotherapy with no dose interruptions or delays was 68%, and with RT was 81%. Eighteen (58%) patients completed both modalities of treatment as planned. Dose-limiting Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea was seen in 1 of 31 patients. Three patients experienced Grade 3 neutropenia. There were no treatment-related deaths. Four weeks following completion of chemoradiation, 24 patients (77%) had a complete clinical response, and 4 (16%) a partial response. With a median follow-up of 14 months, three locoregional relapses occurred. Conclusions: Capecitabine with MMC and RT in with patients anal carcinoma is well tolerated, with minimal toxicity and acceptable compliance. We recommend testing this schedule in future national Phase III studies in anal cancer.

  17. Microsoft Word - Errata for the Pressure and Vacuum Systems Safety Supplement 3-15

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SYSTEM TURNOVER FORM PS-9 Pressure System Number: Pressure System Name: OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS: IN-SERVICE INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS: Piping Vessels Relief Valves Component Component ISI Category ISI Type (VT, UT, RT, etc) ISI Frequency Special ISI Requirements: System Owner name and signature: Date: Design Authority name and signature Date Design Authority shall forward this form to the Pressure Systems Committee Designee for filing and updating the operating pressure

  18. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Integrated Aerosol Properties During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP P. Ricchiazzi and C. Gautier Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) University of California Santa Barbara, California Background Some recent studies of clear-sky radiation indicate that current radiative transfer (RT) models tend to underestimate atmospheric absorption when the aerosol optical depth is small and standard aerosol properties are assumed. This so-called clear-sky anomaly is manifested in

  19. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world April 3, 2012 Billion dollar manufacturing savings and new menufacturing jobs in the U.S result from LANL reliability engineering The Procter and Gamble Company (P&G) develops and launches consumer product innovations focused on improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world. Reliability Technology (RT) is a comprehensive reliability engineering system developed by P&G to increase the overall

  20. DOE/EIA-0202(84/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections February 1984 Published: March 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- .iort- iort- lort- <ort- ort Tt- .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term Term .-Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  1. DOE/EIA-0202(84/4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1984 Published: November 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort iort lort iort lort \ort ort Tt .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  2. DOE/EIA-0202(85/1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections January 1985 Published: February 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort lort lort nort lort *.ort ort Tt .m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  3. DOE/EIA-0202(85/2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook amm Quarterly Projections April 1985 Published: May 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort .iort iort iort lort '.ort ort .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term xrm nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  4. DOE/EIA-0202(85/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections July 1985 Published: August 1985 Energy Information Administration Washington, D C t rt jrt .ort lort iort iort iort iort '.ort ort Tt .-m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  5. DOE/EIA-0202(87/4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4Q) Energy Information Administration Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections October 1987 i- rt- jrt ort lort lort lort- iort- lort- ort- ort Tt- " t- . m erm Perm -Term -Term -Term -Term ,-Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term 71 e rrn TT1 "1 Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy "nergy -cry Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (83/3Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook iuarterly Projections August 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. 20585 t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- iort- nort- lort- '.ort- ort- Tt- .-m .erm -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term -Term Term .-Term -Term xrm Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy -OJ.UUK Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  7. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2014-11-14

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S{sub 0} state and the doubly-excited S{sub 2} state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation.

  8. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg ; Olsson, Caroline; Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg ; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm ; Tucker, Susan; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar; Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  9. Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; Boice, John D.; Stovall, Marilyn; Reiner, Anne S.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Knight, Julia A.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Haile, Robert W.; Smith, Susan A.; Capanu, Marinela; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Shore, Roy E.; Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC. Results: Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to {>=}1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.

  10. Change of Maximum Standardized Uptake Value Slope in Dynamic Triphasic [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Distinguishes Malignancy From Postradiation Inflammation in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Carryn M.; Chang, Tangel; Graham, Michael M.; Marquardt, Michael D.; Button, Anna; Smith, Brian J.; Menda, Yusuf; Sun, Wenqing; Pagedar, Nitin A.; Buatti, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dynamic [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake methodology as a post–radiation therapy (RT) response assessment tool, potentially enabling accurate tumor and therapy-related inflammation differentiation, improving the posttherapy value of FDG–positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Methods and Materials: We prospectively enrolled head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma patients who completed RT, with scheduled 3-month post-RT FDG-PET/CT. Patients underwent our standard whole-body PET/CT scan at 90 minutes, with the addition of head-and-neck PET/CT scans at 60 and 120 minutes. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of regions of interest were measured at 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The SUV{sub max} slope between 60 and 120 minutes and change of SUV{sub max} slope before and after 90 minutes were calculated. Data were analyzed by primary site and nodal site disease status using the Cox regression model and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Outcomes were based on pathologic and clinical follow-up. Results: A total of 84 patients were enrolled, with 79 primary and 43 nodal evaluable sites. Twenty-eight sites were interpreted as positive or equivocal (18 primary, 8 nodal, 2 distant) on 3-month 90-minute FDG-PET/CT. Median follow-up was 13.3 months. All measured SUV endpoints predicted recurrence. Change of SUV{sub max} slope after 90 minutes more accurately identified nonrecurrence in positive or equivocal sites than our current standard of SUV{sub max} ≥2.5 (P=.02). Conclusions: The positive predictive value of post-RT FDG-PET/CT may significantly improve using novel second derivative analysis of dynamic triphasic FDG-PET/CT SUV{sub max} slope, accurately distinguishing tumor from inflammation on positive and equivocal scans.

  11. Effects of Irradiation on Brain Vasculature Using an In Situ Tumor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawaski, Janice A.; Gaber, M. Waleed; Sabek, Omaima M.; Wilson, Christy M.; Duntsch, Christopher D.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Damage to normal tissue is a limiting factor in clinical radiotherapy (RT). We tested the hypothesis that the presence of tumor alters the response of normal tissues to irradiation using a rat in situ brain tumor model. Methods and Materials: Intravital microscopy was used with a rat cranial window to assess the in situ effect of rat C6 glioma on peritumoral tissue with and without RT. The RT regimen included 40 Gy at 8 Gy/day starting Day 5 after tumor implant. Endpoints included blood-brain barrier permeability, clearance index, leukocyte-endothelial interactions and staining for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) glial fibrillary acidic protein, and apoptosis. To characterize the system response to RT, animal survival and tumor surface area and volume were measured. Sham experiments were performed on similar animals implanted with basement membrane matrix absent of tumor cells. Results: The presence of tumor alone increases permeability but has little effect on leukocyte-endothelial interactions and astrogliosis. Radiation alone increases tissue permeability, leukocyte-endothelial interactions, and astrogliosis. The highest levels of permeability and cell adhesion were seen in the model that combined tumor and irradiation; however, the presence of tumor appeared to reduce the volume of rolling leukocytes. Unirradiated tumor and peritumoral tissue had poor clearance. Irradiated tumor and peritumoral tissue had a similar clearance index to irradiated and unirradiated sham-implanted animals. Radiation reduces the presence of VEGF in peritumoral normal tissues but did not affect the amount of apoptosis in the normal tissue. Apoptosis was identified in the tumor tissue with and without radiation. Conclusions: We developed a novel approach to demonstrate that the presence of the tumor in a rat intracranial model alters the response of normal tissues to irradiation.

  12. SU-E-T-291: Sensitivity of a Simple 2D EPID in Vivo Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peca, S; Brown, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: As radiotherapy (RT) increases in complexity, so does motivation for in vivo dosimetry (IVD), which may detect errors such as: setup, beam shaping and dose delivered. We have recently developed an easy-toimplement method for two-dimensional IVD based on images taken with the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in cine mode during treatment. The purpose of this work is to characterize its sensitivity to possible RT delivery errors. Methods: We introduced a series of modifications to a simple RT field (1010, 100MU, 300RR, 20cm homogeneous phantom) to simulate errors. These modifications included multi-leaf collimator (MLC) position, number of MUs, and collimator angle. We quantified the sensitivity to inhomogeneities by inserting variable amounts of solid lung and bone. Finally we delivered realistic fields to an anthropomorphic phantom to estimate sensitivity to gantry angle and setup errors. Results: Our EPIDIVD is sensitive to MLC positioning errors of 1mm and 3mm in the closed and open directions respectively, and to 3% MU variations. Sensitivity to collimator angle depends on field shape irregularity; in the case of a 10x10 field, we are sensitive to errors of 0.8. The sensitivity to inhomogeneities is limited by the nature of MV imaging: approximately 1% signal change is noted when switching 5cm of water to equal amounts of bone or lung. This suggests that the EPID-IVD is likely not sensitive to small setup or gantry angle errors, as confirmed by anthropomorphic tests. Conclusion: We have characterized a simple method of 2D dose reconstruction at isocenter depth inside the patient, which is sensitive to possible RT delivery errors. This method may be useful as a secondary safety check, to prevent large errors from being carried on to following fractions, and to record delivered dose. By using readily available hardware, it is easily implemented and may prove especially useful in centers with limited resources.

  13. Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Richins; Stephen Novascone; Cheryl O'Brien

    2009-08-01

    Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors William Richins1, Stephen Novascone1, and Cheryl O’Brien1 1Idaho National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, e-mail: William.Richins@inl.gov The Idaho National Laboratory (INL, USA) and IASMiRT sponsored an international forum Nov 5-6, 2008 in Porvoo, Finland for nuclear industry, academic, and regulatory representatives to identify structural issues in current and future advanced reactor design, especially for extreme conditions and external threats. The purpose of this Topical Workshop was to articulate research, engineering, and regulatory Code development needs. The topics addressed by the Workshop were selected to address critical industry needs specific to advanced reactor structures that have long lead times and can be the subject of future SMiRT technical sessions. The topics were; 1) structural/materials needs for extreme conditions and external threats in contemporary (Gen. III) and future (Gen. IV and NGNP) advanced reactors and 2) calibrating simulation software and methods that address topic 1 The workshop discussions and research needs identified are presented. The Workshop successfully produced interactive discussion on the two topics resulting in a list of research and technology needs. It is recommended that IASMiRT communicate the results of the discussion to industry and researchers to encourage new ideas and projects. In addition, opportunities exist to retrieve research reports and information that currently exists, and encourage more international cooperation and collaboration. It is recommended that IASMiRT continue with an off-year workshop series on select topics.

  14. Quantitative Ultrasonic Nakagami Imaging of Neck Fibrosis After Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Yoshida, Emi; Cassidy, Richard J.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of ultrasound Nakagami imaging to quantitatively assess radiation-induced neck fibrosis, a common sequela of radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck. Methods and Materials: In a pilot study, 40 study participants were enrolled and classified into 3 subgroups: (1) a control group of 12 healthy volunteers; (2) an asymptomatic group of 11 patients who had received intensity modulated RT for head and neck cancer and had experienced no neck fibrosis; and (3) a symptomatic group of 17 post-RT patients with neck fibrosis. Each study participant underwent 1 ultrasound study in which scans were performed in the longitudinal orientation of the bilateral neck. Three Nakagami parameters were calculated to quantify radiation-induced tissue injury: Nakagami probability distribution function, shape, and scaling parameters. Physician-based assessments of the neck fibrosis were performed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scoring scheme, and patient-based fibrosis assessments were rated based on symptoms such as pain and stiffness. Results: Major discrepancies existed between physician-based and patient-based assessments of radiation-induced fibrosis. Significant differences in all Nakagami parameters were observed between the control group and 2 post-RT groups. Moreover, significant differences in Nakagami shape and scaling parameters were observed among asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. Compared with the control group, the average Nakagami shape parameter value increased by 32.1% (P<.001), and the average Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 55.7% (P<.001) for the asymptomatic group, whereas the Nakagami shape parameter increased by 74.1% (P<.001) and the Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 83.5% (P<.001) for the symptomatic group. Conclusions: Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging is a potential quantitative tool to characterize radiation-induced asymptomatic and symptomatic neck fibrosis.

  15. Sensitivity of Clear-Sky Diffuse Radiation to In Situ Aerosol Scattering Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity of Clear-Sky Diffuse Radiation to In Situ Aerosol Scattering Parameters P. J. Ricchiazzi and C. Gautier University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Recent studies of clear-sky radiation indicate that current radiative transfer (RT) models underestimate atmospheric absorption when standard aerosol properties are used. This so-called clear-sky anomaly is manifested in predicted levels of diffuse radiation significantly below those observed at Southern Great Plains

  16. WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

  17. Microstructure evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide and Sn-doped indium oxide deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: A comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Man; Bikowski, Andre; Ellmer, Klaus

    2015-04-21

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on borosilicate glass substrates deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). One-dimensional power spectral density (1DPSD) functions derived from the AFM profiles, which can be used to distinguish different growth mechanisms, were used to compare the microstructure scaling behavior of the thin films. The rms roughness R{sub q} evolves with film thickness as a power law, R{sub q} ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}, and different growth exponents β were found for AZO and ITO films. For AZO films, β of 1.47 and 0.56 are obtained for RT and 300 °C depositions, respectively, which are caused by the high compressive stress in the film at RT and relaxation of the stress at 300 °C. While for ITO films, β{sub 1} = 0.14 and β{sub 2} = 0.64 for RT, and β{sub 1} = 0.89 and β{sub 2} = 0.3 for 300 °C deposition are obtained, respectively, which is related to the strong competition between the surface diffusion and shadowing effect and/or grain growth. Electrical properties of both materials as a function of film thickness were also compared. By the modified Fuchs-Sondheimer model fitting of the electrical transport in both materials, different nucleation states are pointed out for both types of films.

  18. Outcomes and Acute Toxicities of Proton Therapy for Pediatric Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGovern, Susan L.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Munsell, Mark F.; Kumbalasseriyil, Nancy; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary F.; Chintagumpala, Murali; Khatua, Soumen; Mahajan, Anita

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system is a rare cancer primarily affecting children younger than 5 years old. Because patients are young and receive intensive chemotherapy, there is concern regarding late radiation toxicity, particularly as survival rates improve. Therefore, there is interest in using proton therapy to treat these tumors. This study was undertaken to investigate outcomes and acute toxicities associated with proton therapy for AT/RT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with AT/RT treated with proton radiation from October 2008 to August 2013 were reviewed. Demographics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 19 months (range, 4-55 months), with a median age at radiation start of 24 months (range, 6-62 months). Seventeen patients received local radiation with a median dose of 50.4 GyRBE (range, 9-54 GyRBE). Fourteen patients received craniospinal radiation; half received 24 GyRBE or less, and half received 30.6 GyRBE or more. For patients receiving craniospinal radiation, the median tumor dose was 54 GyRBE (range, 43.2-55.8 GyRBE). Twenty-seven patients (87%) completed the planned radiation. With median follow-up of 24 months for all patients (range, 3-53 months), median progression-free survival was 20.8 months and median overall survival was 34.3 months. Five patients (16%) developed clinical findings and imaging changes in the brainstem 1 to 4 months after radiation, consistent with radiation reaction; all cases resolved with steroids or bevacizumab. Conclusions: This is the largest report of children with AT/RT treated with proton therapy. Preliminary survival outcomes in this young pediatric population are encouraging compared to historic results, but further study is warranted.

  19. Metrics of closed world of Friedmann, agitated by electric charge (towards a theory electromagnetic Friedmanns)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, M.A.; Frolov, V.P.

    1986-06-10

    The generalization is considered of the well-known Tolman problem to the case of electrically charged dust-like matter of the central symmetrical system. The first integrals of the correspondent system of the Einstein-Maxwell equations are found. The problem is specificated in such a way that with the full charge of the system going to zero, the metrics of the closed Friedman world arises. Such a system is considered at the initial moment, that of maximal enlargement. With any nonvanishing but no-matter-how-small value of the electric charge, the metrics is unclosed. The metrics of the almost-Friedmanian part of the world allows the continuation through the narrow manhole (at the small charge) as the Nordstroem Reissner metrics with the parameters m/sub O/ sq rt (chi) = e/sub o/. The expression for the electric potential in the manhole phi/sub h/ = c-squared/sq rt chi does not depend upon the value of the electric charge. The radius of the manhole r/sub h/ = e/sub O/ sq. rt (chi)/ c-squared increases with the increase of the charge. The state of the manhole as given by the classical description appears as essentially unstable from the quantum-physics viewpoint. The production of various pairs in the enormous electric fields of the manhole gives rise to the polarisation of the latter up to effective charge Z < 137e irrespective of the initial (no matter how great) charge of the system.

  20. Effect of Grain Refinement on the Mechanical Behaviour of an Al6061 Alloy at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno-Valle, E.; Sabirov, I.; Murashkin, M. Yu.; Valiev, R. Z.; Bobruk, E. V.; Perez-Prado, M. T.

    2011-05-04

    A solution treated coarse grained (CG) Al6061 was subjected to high pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature resulting in the formation of a homogeneous ultra-fine grained (UFG) microstructure with an average grain size of 170 nm. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). The as-HPT UFG Al6061 alloy shows an increased strength at both RT and LNT. The decrease of testing temperature results in increased flow stress and in enhanced elongation to failure in both CG and UFG samples. The ratio {sigma}{sub y}{sup LNT}/{sigma}{sub y}{sup RT} was found to be larger for the CG Al6061 than for the UFG Al6061. Both surface relief and fracture surface observations were performed. The effect of the grain size and of the testing temperature on the mechanical behaviour of the Al6061 alloy is analyzed in detail. It is suggested that the solute atoms play an important role in the plastic deformation of the UFG Al6061 alloy.

  1. The effects of early time laser drive on hydrodynamic instability growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Suter, L. J.; Masse, L. P.

    2014-09-15

    Defects on inertial confinement fusion capsule surfaces can seed hydrodynamic instability growth and adversely affect capsule performance. The dynamics of shocks launched during the early period of x-ray driven National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions determine whether perturbations will grow inward or outward at peak implosion velocity and final compression. In particular, the strength of the first shock, launched at the beginning of the laser pulse, plays an important role in determining Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillations on the ablation front. These surface oscillations can couple to the capsule interior through subsequent shocks before experiencing Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. We compare radiation hydrodynamic simulations of NIF implosions to analytic theories of the ablative RM and RT instabilities to illustrate how early time laser strength can alter peak velocity growth. We develop a model that couples the RM and RT implosion phases and captures key features of full simulations. We also show how three key parameters can control the modal demarcation between outward and inward growth.

  2. Charge states of Ca atoms in {beta}-dicalcium silicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mori, Kazuhiro . E-mail: kmori@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kiyanagi, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Iwase, Kenji; Sato, Takashi; Itoh, Keiji; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Kamiyama, Takashi; Fukunaga, Toshiharu

    2006-11-15

    In order to study the crystal structure of {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out at temperatures between room temperature (RT) and 600 deg. C. Rietveld refinement at RT has shown that {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} is monoclinic based on P2{sub 1}/n symmetry and two different types of Ca sites, Ca(1) and Ca(2). All interatomic distances within 3A were calculated, with the valences of Ca(1) with seven Ca-O bonds and Ca(2) with eight were estimated to be 1.87+ and 2+ by the Zachariasen-Brown-Altermatt formula (bond valence sum). Applying charge neutrality the two charge states of Ca in {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} are [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and Ca(2){sup 2+}, respectively. Furthermore, the [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} unit has the shortest Ca-O distance, and its length kept constant at 2.23A at all temperatures. In the short-range structure analysis at RT, the shortest Ca-O bond was also observed in a radial distribution function. These results imply that the [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} unit has covalency on the shortest Ca-O in addition to Si-O.

  3. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Mack Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) {+-} 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out.

  4. A high capability teleoperated vehicle for hazardous applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudar, A.M.; Witherspoon, R.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing a high performance teleoperated vehicle for use in radioactive and hazardous environments. The three-wheeled vehicle incorporates a highly dexterous 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF), hydraulically-powered manipulator made by Schilling Development, Inc. The teleoperator is called Little MoRT (MObile Radio-controlled Teleoperator) and is a modified version of a commercially available, battery-powered, warehouse vehicle. Little MoRT is controlled remotely by a universal robot controller either through a radio frequency link or a tethered cable. Six video cameras and a microphone provide the operator with audio-visual feedback of the vehicle and its surrounding environment. The vehicle also incorporates a hydraulic power unit consisting of a propane-driven engine for powering the Schilling manipulator. Little MoRT is capable of operating in outdoor as well as indoor environments and is well suited for decontamination and decommissioning activities such as dismantling, sorting, and surveying of radioactive waste.

  5. 2014_Q1.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    W We We We el lc lc lc com om om o e e e e t to to to to t t t t th he he he he J J J J Jan an an anua ua ua uary ry ry ry y M M -M M Mar ar ar ar h ch ch ch ch 2 2 2 2 201 01 01 01 014 4 4 4 4 i is is is issu su su sue e e e f of of of of t t t t th he he he he U U U U U S S S .S .S. . D De De De Depa pa pa pa p rt rt rt rtme me me ment nt nt nt o o o of f f f f En En En Ener er er ergy gy gy gy gy ( ( ( ( ( ( O DO DO DO DO ) E) E) E) E) ) Of Of Of Offi fi fi fi ce ce ce o o of f f f L Le Le

  6. Modeling of Nova indirect drive Rayleigh--Taylor experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, S.V.; Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K. )

    1994-11-01

    The growth due to the Rayleigh--Taylor (RT) instability of single-wavelength surface perturbations on planar foils of brominated CH [CH(Br)] and fluorosilicone (FS) was measured. The foils were accelerated by x-ray ablation with temporally shaped drive pulses. A range of initial amplitudes ([ital a][sub 0]) and wavelengths ([lambda]) have been used. This paper focuses upon foils with small [ital a][sub 0]/[lambda], which exhibit substantial growth in the linear regime, and are most sensitive to the calculated growth rate. The CH(Br) foils exhibit slower RT perturbation growth because opacity differences result in a larger ablation velocity and a longer density scale length than for FS. Tabulated opacities from detailed atomic models, OPAL [Astrophys. J. [bold 397], 717 (1992)] and super transition array (STA) [Phys. Rev. A [bold 40], 3183 (1989)] were employed. Unlike previous simulations which employed the average atom (XSN) opacity treatment, parameter adjustments to fit experimental data no longer appear necessary. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects do not appear to be important. Other variables which may affect the modeling, such as changes of the equation of state and radiation drive spectrum, were also examined. The current calculational model, which incorporates physically justified choices for these calculational ingredients, agrees with the Nova single wavelength RT perturbation growth data.

  7. Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H. P.

    2015-02-05

    B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a(100) carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a(110) dislocations by dislocationmore » reactions; the a(110) dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a(110) dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged.« less

  8. The quantum interference effects in the SC II 4247 Å line of the second solar spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smitha, H. N.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in E-mail: mbianda@irsol.ch

    2014-10-10

    The Sc II 4247 Å line formed in the chromosphere is one of the lines well known, like the Na I D{sub 2} and Ba II D{sub 2}, for its prominent triple-peak structure in Q/I and the underlying quantum interference effects governing it. In this paper, we try to study the nature of this triple-peak structure using the theory of F-state interference including the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) and radiative transfer (RT). We compare our results with the observations taken in a quiet region near the solar limb. In spite of accounting for PRD and RT effects, it has not been possible to reproduce the observed triple-peak structure in Q/I. While the two wing PRD peaks (on either side of central peak) and the near wing continuum can be reproduced, the central peak is completely suppressed by the enhanced depolarization resulting from the hyperfine structure splitting. This suppression remains for all the tested widely different one-dimensional model atmospheres or for any multi-component combinations of them. While multidimensional RT effects may improve the fit to the intensity profiles, they do not appear capable of explaining the enigmatic central Q/I peak. This leads us to suspect that some aspect of quantum physics is missing.

  9. Post-annealing effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Yu-Min Kuang, Chein-Hsiun; Han, Tai-Chun; Yu, Chin-Chung; Li, Sih-Sian

    2015-05-07

    In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of both as-deposited and post-annealed Cu-doped ZnO thin films for better understanding the possible mechanisms of room-temperature ferromagnetism (RT-FM) in ZnO-based diluted magnetic oxides. All of the films have a c-axis-oriented wurtzite structure and display RT-FM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the incorporated Cu ions in as-deposited films are in 1+ valence state merely, while an additional 2+ valence state occurs in post-annealed films. The presence of Cu{sup 2+} state in post-annealed film accompanies a higher magnetization value than that of as-deposited film and, in particular, the magnetization curves at 10 K and 300 K of the post-annealed film separate distinctly. Since Cu{sup 1+} ion has a filled 3d band, the RT-FM in as-deposited Cu-doped ZnO thin films may stem solely from intrinsic defects, while that in post-annealed films is enhanced due to the presence of CuO crystallites.

  10. SU-E-J-16: A Review of the Magnitude of Patient Imaging Shifts in Relation to Departmental Policy Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, M; Sansourekidou, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate how changes in imaging policy affect the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Methods: In June 2012, the department's imaging policy was altered to require that any shifts derived from imaging throughout the course of treatment shall be considered systematic only after they were validated with two data points that are consistent in the same direction. Multiple additions and clarifications to the imaging policy were implemented throughout the course of the data collection, but they were mostly of administrative nature. Entered shifts were documented in MOSAIQ (Elekta AB) through the localization offset. The MOSAIQ database was queried to identify a possible trend. A total of 25,670 entries were analyzed, including four linear accelerators with a combination of MV planar, kV planar and kV three dimensional imaging. The monthly average of the magnitude of the vector was used. Plan relative offsets were excluded. During the evaluated period of time, one of the satellite facilities acquired and implemented Vision RT (AlignRT Inc). Results: After the new policy was implemented the shifts variance and standard deviation decreased. The decrease is linear with time elapsed. Vision RT implementation at one satellite facility reduced the number of overall shifts, specifically for breast patients. Conclusion: Changes in imaging policy have a significant effect on the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Using two statistical points before applying a shift as persistent decreased the overall magnitude of the shifts applied to patients.

  11. Salvage Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: Prognostic Factors to Consider in Patient Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Gingras-Hill, Geneviève; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Laperriere, Normand J.; Bernstein, Mark; Jiang, Haiyan; Ménard, Cynthia; Chung, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is offered to patients for recurrent brain metastases after prior brain radiation therapy (RT), but few studies have evaluated the efficacy of salvage SRS or factors to consider in selecting patients for this treatment. This study reports overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) after salvage SRS, and factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of patients treated from 2009 to 2011 with salvage SRS after prior brain RT for brain metastases. Survival from salvage SRS and from initial brain metastases diagnosis (IBMD) was calculated. Univariate and multivariable (MVA) analyses included age, performance status, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial disease control, and time from initial RT to salvage SRS. Results: There were 106 patients included in the analysis with a median age of 56.9 years (range 32.5-82 years). A median of 2 metastases were treated per patient (range, 1-12) with a median dose of 21 Gy (range, 12-24) prescribed to the 50% isodose. With a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range, 0.1-68.2), LC was 82.8%, 60.1%, and 46.8% at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.9-7.6). Median OS was 11.7 months (95% CI = 8.1-13) from salvage SRS, and 22.1 months from IBMD (95% CI = 18.4-26.8). On MVA, age (P=.01; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07), extracranial disease control (P=.004; HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.78), and interval from initial RT to salvage SRS of at least 265 days (P=.001; HR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.47-4.09) were predictive of OS. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that patients can have durable local control and survival after salvage SRS for recurrent brain metastases. In particular, younger patients with controlled extracranial disease and a durable response to initial brain RT are likely to benefit from salvage SRS.

  12. SU-E-T-224: Is Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Method Necessary for Cyberknife Brain Treatment Planning?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L; Fourkal, E; Hayes, S; Jin, L; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the dosimetric difference resulted in using the pencil beam algorithm instead of Monte Carlo (MC) methods for tumors adjacent to the skull. Methods: We retrospectively calculated the dosimetric differences between RT and MC algorithms for brain tumors treated with CyberKnife located adjacent to the skull for 18 patients (total of 27 tumors). The median tumor sizes was 0.53-cc (range 0.018-cc to 26.2-cc). The absolute mean distance from the tumor to the skull was 2.11 mm (range - 17.0 mm to 9.2 mm). The dosimetric variables examined include the mean, maximum, and minimum doses to the target, the target coverage (TC) and conformality index. The MC calculation used the same MUs as the RT dose calculation without further normalization and 1% statistical uncertainty. The differences were analyzed by tumor size and distance from the skull. Results: The TC was generally reduced with the MC calculation (24 out of 27 cases). The average difference in TC between RT and MC was 3.3% (range 0.0% to 23.5%). When the TC was deemed unacceptable, the plans were re-normalized in order to increase the TC to 99%. This resulted in a 6.9% maximum change in the prescription isodose line. The maximum changes in the mean, maximum, and minimum doses were 5.4 %, 7.7%, and 8.4%, respectively, before re-normalization. When the TC was analyzed with regards to target size, it was found that the worst coverage occurred with the smaller targets (0.018-cc). When the TC was analyzed with regards to the distance to the skull, there was no correlation between proximity to the skull and TC between the RT and MC plans. Conclusions: For smaller targets (< 4.0-cc), MC should be used to re-evaluate the dose coverage after RT is used for the initial dose calculation in order to ensure target coverage.

  13. SU-E-T-198: Hippocampal-Sparing Radiotherapy (HSRT) for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) Using Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlop, A; Welsh, L; Nutting, C; Harrington, K; Bhide, S; Newbold, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is increasing evidence that decline in cognitive function following brain radiotherapy (RT) is related to the radiation dose delivered to the hippocampi. In this work we evaluate the feasibility of using IMRT to generate HSRT plans in HNC. Methods: A planning study was undertaken for ten representative patients with HNC previously treated with radical (chemo)-RT using standard IMRT techniques. The hippocampi were delineated according to the RTOG hippocampal contouring atlas, on a T1w- MRI scan that was registered with the RT planning CT. LINAC-based, clinically acceptable, HSRT plans were generated and assessed using the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system. Results: Using a VMAT technique, a reduction in hippocampal dose was achievable in six cases. For these cases, the EQD2-D40% of the bilateral hippocampi was significantly reduced by HSRT (p = 0.006) from a median of 18.8Gy (range 14.4–34.6) to 6.5 Gy (4.2–9.5) for the delivered and HSRT plans respectively. Plans were also generated using a fixed-field IMRT technique with non-coplanar beams that were designed to avoid the bilateral hippocampi, resulting in a median EQD2-D40% of 11.2Gy (8.0–14.5). Both HSRT techniques also resulted in lower doses to the whole brain, brain stem, and cerebellum. The HSRT plans resulted in higher doses to some regions of non-contoured normaltissue, but the magnitude of these dose differences is unlikely to be of clinical significance in terms of acute and late toxicity. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it is possible, in many cases, to adapt treatment plans for HNC to significantly reduce dose to the hippocampi. This reduction in dose would be predicted to Resultin a significant reduction in the probability of subsequent decline in cognitive function following RT. Our results point towards the need for the collection of prospective data on cognitive outcomes for the HNC patient population treated with radical (chemo)-RT.

  14. Phase I Trial Using Patupilone (Epothilone B) and Concurrent Radiotherapy for Central Nervous System Malignancies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogh, Shannon; Machtay, Mitchell; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Curran, Walter J.; Bonanni, Roseann; Axelrod, Rita; Andrews, David; Dicker, Adam P.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Based on preclinical data indicating the radiosensitizing potential of epothilone B, the present study was designed to evaluate the toxicity and response rate of patupilone, an epothilone B, with concurrent radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of central nervous system malignancies. Methods and Materials: The present Phase I study evaluated the toxicities associated with patupilone combined with RT to establish the maximal tolerated dose. Eligible patients had recurrent gliomas (n = 10) primary (n = 5) or metastatic (n = 17) brain tumors. Dose escalation occurred if no dose-limiting toxicities, defined as any Grade 4-5 toxicity or Grade 3 toxicity requiring hospitalization, occurred during treatment. Results: Of 14 patients, 5 were treated with weekly patupilone at 1.5 mg/m{sup 2}, 4 at 2.0 mg/m{sup 2}, 4 at 2.5 mg/m{sup 2}, and 1 at 4 mg/m{sup 2}. Of 18 patients, 7 were treated in the 6-mg/m{sup 2} group, 6 in the 8-mg/m{sup 2} group, and 5 in the 10-mg/m{sup 2} group. Primary central nervous system malignancies received RT to a median dose of 60 Gy. Central nervous system metastases received whole brain RT to a median dose of 37.4 Gy, and patients with recurrent gliomas underwent stereotactic RT to a median dose of 37.5 Gy. One dose-limiting toxicity (pneumonia) was observed in group receiving 8-mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks. At the subsequent dose level (10 mg/m{sup 2}), two Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities occurred (renal failure and pulmonary hemorrhage); thus, 8 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks was the maximal tolerated dose and the recommended Phase II dose. Conclusion: Combined with a variety of radiation doses and fractionation schedules, concurrent patupilone was well tolerated and safe, with a maximal tolerated dose of 8 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks.

  15. TU-C-17A-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - A Supervised Framework for Automatic Contour Assessment for Radiotherapy Planning of Head- Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Kavanaugh, J; Tan, J; Dolly, S; Gay, H; Thorstad, W; Anastasio, M; Altman, M; Mutic, S; Li, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Precise contour delineation of tumor targets and critical structures from CT simulations is essential for accurate radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. However, manual and automatic delineation processes can be error prone due to limitations in imaging techniques and individual anatomic variability. Tedious and laborious manual verification is hence needed. This study develops a general framework for automatically assessing RT contours for head-neck cancer patients using geometric attribute distribution models (GADMs). Methods: Geometric attributes (centroid and volume) were computed from physician-approved RT contours of 29 head-neck patients. Considering anatomical correlation between neighboring structures, the GADM for each attribute was trained to characterize intra- and interpatient structure variations using principal component analysis. Each trained GADM was scalable and deformable, but constrained by the principal attribute variations of the training contours. A new hierarchical model adaptation algorithm was utilized to assess the RT contour correctness for a given patient. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to evaluate and tune system parameters for the training models. Results: Experiments utilizing training and non-training data sets with simulated contouring errors were conducted to validate the framework performance. Promising assessment results of contour normality/abnormality for the training contour-based data were achieved with excellent accuracy (0.99), precision (0.99), recall (0.83), and F-score (0.97), while corresponding values of 0.84, 0.96, 0.83, and 0.9 were achieved for the non-training data. Furthermore, the areas under the ROC curves were above 0.9, validating the accuracy of this test. Conclusion: The proposed framework can reliably identify contour normality/abnormality based upon intra- and inter-structure constraints derived from clinically-approved contours. It also allows physicians to

  16. Aging Behavior and Performance Projections for a Polysulfide Elastomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Quintana, Adam

    2015-05-01

    The accelerated aging behavior and aging state of a 30 year old field retrieved polysulfide elastomer was examined. The material is used as an environmental thread sealant for a stainless steel bolt in a steel threaded insert in an aluminum assembly. It is a two component curable polysulfide elastomer that is commercially available in a similar formulation as was applied 30 years ago. The primary goal of this study was to establish if aging over 30 years under moderate aging conditions (mostly ambient temperature and humidity) resulted in significant property changes, or if accelerated aging could identify developing aging pathways which would prevent the extended use of this material. The aging behavior of this material was examined in three ways: A traditional accelerated thermo-oxidative aging study between 95 to 140°C which focused on physical and chemical properties changes, an evaluation of the underlying oxidation rates between RT and 125°C, and an assessment of the aging state of a small 30 year old sample. All three data sets were used to establish aging characteristics, their time evolution, and to extrapolate the observed behavior to predict performance limits at RT. The accelerated aging study revealed a relatively high average activation energy of ~130 kJ/mol which gives overconfident performance predictions. Oxidation rates showed a decreasing behavior with aging time and a lower E a of ~84 kJ/mol from time - temperature superposition , but also predicted sufficient additional performance at RT. Consistent with these projections for extended RT performance, only small changes were observed for the 30 year old material. Extrapolations using this partially aged material also predict ongoing use as a viable option. Unexpected RT degradation could only develop into a concern should the oxidation rate not trend lower over time as was observed at elevated temperature. Considering all data acquired in this limited aging study , there are no immediately

  17. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  18. Radiation Therapy in Primary Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma With Positron Emission Tomography Positivity After Rituximab Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Giunta, Francesca; Bellò, Marilena; Chiappella, Annalisa; Caracciolo, Daniele; Zotta, Michela; Douroukas, Anastasios; Ragona, Riccardo; Vitolo, Umberto; Bisi, Gianni; Ricardi, Umberto

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of radiation therapy (RT) in patients affected with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) with residual {sup 18}fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}FDG-PET)-positive disease after rituximab chemotherapy (R-CT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven patients treated with R-CT and RT, all with {sup 18}FDG-PET scan at diagnosis and before RT, were included. All {sup 18}FDG-PET scans were reviewed, and responses were classified according to the Deauville 5-point scoring system. Outcomes measures were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), estimated for the whole cohort and for subgroups according to {sup 18}FDG-PET score after R-CT. Results: The median follow-up time was 40.9 months. Three patients were assigned to Deauville score 1 (8.1%), 9 to score 2 (24.3%), 7 to score 3 (19%), 14 to score 4 (37.8%), and 4 to score 5 (10.8%). After RT, all patients with score 3-4 experienced a complete response (CR). Among patients with score 5, 1 was in CR (25%), 2 had persistent positivity (50%), and 1 showed progressive disease (25%). A total of 4 patients experienced progression or relapse: 1 of 33 (3%) with scores 1-4, and 3 of 4 (75%) with score 5. The 3-year OS and PFS of the whole cohort were 89.8% and 88.7%, respectively. OS was significantly different between scores 1-3 and scores 4-5 (100% vs 77% at 3 years, P<.05). Patients with a score of 5 had a significantly worse outcome than did all other patients (OS at 2 years, 33.3% vs 100%). Conclusions: Approximately 50% of PMBCL patients show residual disease at {sup 18}FDG-PET scan after R-CT. RT is able to convert to CR approximately 85% of these patients, but those with a Deauville score of 5 (10%) appear at high risk of progression and death, and they might be candidates for intensified programs.

  19. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Li, Dongdong; Olson, Robert; McBride, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  20. Improved Survival Endpoints With Adjuvant Radiation Treatment in Patients With High-Risk Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Vance, Sean; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Mahan, Meredith; Munkarah, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the impact of adjuvant radiation treatment (RT) on recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We identified 382 patients with high-risk EC who underwent hysterectomy. RFS, DSS, and OS were calculated from the date of hysterectomy by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to explore the risks associated with various factors on survival endpoints. Results: The median follow-up time for the study cohort was 5.4 years. The median age was 71 years. All patients underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, 93% had peritoneal cytology, and 85% underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients with endometrioid histology constituted 72% of the study cohort, serous in 16%, clear cell in 7%, and mixed histology in 4%. Twenty-three percent of patients had stage II disease. Adjuvant management included RT alone in 220 patients (57%), chemotherapy alone in 25 patients (7%), and chemoradiation therapy in 27 patients (7%); 110 patients (29%) were treated with close surveillance. The 5-year RFS, DSS, and OS were 76%, 88%, and 73%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT was a significant predictor of RFS (P<.001) DSS (P<.001), and OS (P=.017). Lymphovascular space involvement was a significant predictor of RFS and DSS (P<.001). High tumor grade was a significant predictor for RFS (P=.038) and DSS (P=.025). Involvement of the lower uterine segment was also a predictor of RFS (P=.049). Age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space involvement were significant predictors of OS: P<.001 and P=.002, respectively. Conclusion: In the treatment of patients with high-risk features, our study suggests that adjuvant RT significantly improves recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma

  1. 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla for Early Response Assessment of Glioblastoma Patients During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muruganandham, Manickam; Clerkin, Patrick P.; Smith, Brian J.; Anderson, Carryn M.; Morris, Ann; Capizzano, Aristides A.; Magnotta, Vincent; McGuire, Sarah M.; Smith, Mark C.; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) proton spectroscopic imaging for treatment planning and its implications for early response assessment in glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma had 3D-MR proton spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) along with T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR images at simulation and at boost treatment planning after 17 to 20 fractions of radiation therapy. All patients received standard radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Imaging for response assessment consisted of MR scans every 2 months. Progression-free survival was defined by the criteria of MacDonald et al. MRSI images obtained at initial simulation were analyzed for choline/N-acetylaspartate ratios (Cho/NAA) on a voxel-by-voxel basis with abnormal activity defined as Cho/NAA ≥2. These images were compared on anatomically matched MRSI data collected after 3 weeks of RT. Changes in Cho/NAA between pretherapy and third-week RT scans were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests and correlated with progression-free survival, radiation dose and location of recurrence using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.6 months, 50% of patients had experienced progression based on imaging. Patients with a decreased or stable mean or median Cho/NAA values had less risk of progression (P<.01). Patients with an increase in mean or median Cho/NAA values at the third-week RT scan had a significantly greater chance of early progression (P<.01). An increased Cho/NAA at the third-week MRSI scan carried a hazard ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.71; P=.03). Most patients received the prescription dose of RT to the Cho/NAA ≥2 volume, where recurrence most often occurred. Conclusion: Change in mean and median Cho/NAA detected at 3 weeks was a significant predictor of

  2. Does Response to Induction Chemotherapy Predict Survival for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Secondary Analysis of RTOG 8804/8808

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Byhardt, Roger W.; Cox, James D.; Sause, William T.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) improves survival compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LANSCLC) patients with good prognostic factors. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to ICT followed by RT. The question arises whether ICT response predicts the outcome of patients subsequently treated with CCRT or RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1992, 194 LANSCLC patients were treated prospectively with ICT (two cycles of vinblastine and cisplatin) and then CCRT (cisplatin plus 63 Gy for 7 weeks) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8804 trial (n = 30) or ICT and then RT (60 Gy/6 wk) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8808 trial (n = 164). Of the 194 patients, 183 were evaluable and 141 had undergone a postinduction assessment. The overall survival (OS) of those with complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) was compared with that of patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) after ICT. Results: Of the 141 patients, 6, 30, 99, and 6 had CR, PR, SD, and PD, respectively. The log-rank test showed a significant difference (p <0.0001) in OS when the response groups were compared (CR/PR vs. SD/PD). On univariate and multivariate analyses, a trend was seen toward a response to ICT with OS (p = 0.097 and p = 0.06, respectively). A squamous histologic type was associated with worse OS on univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.031 and p = 0.018, respectively). SD/PD plus a squamous histologic type had a hazard ratio of 2.25 vs. CR/PR plus a nonsquamous histologic type (p = 0.007) on covariate analysis. Conclusion: The response to ICT was associated with a significant survival difference when the response groups were compared. A response to ICT showed a trend toward, but was not predictive of, improved OS in LANSCLC patients. Patients with SD/PD after ICT and a squamous histologic type had the poorest OS. These data suggest that patients with squamous LANSCLC might benefit

  3. TU-F-12A-04: Differential Radiation Avoidance of Functional Liver Regions Defined by 99mTc-Sulfur Colloid SPECT/CT with Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, S; Miyaoka, R; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G; Vesselle, H; Nyflot, M; Apisarnthanarax, S; Saini, J; Wong, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients is conventionally planned without consideration of spatial heterogeneity in hepatic function, which may increase risk of radiation-induced liver disease. Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton radiotherapy (pRT) plans were generated to differentially decrease dose to functional liver volumes (FLV) defined on [{sup 99m}Tc]sulfur colloid (SC) SPECT/CT images (functional avoidance plans) and compared against conventional pRT plans. Methods: Three HCC patients underwent SC SPECT/CT scans for pRT planning acquired 15 min post injection over 24 min. Images were reconstructed with OSEM following scatter, collimator, and exhale CT attenuation correction. Functional liver volumes (FLV) were defined by liver:spleen uptake ratio thresholds (43% to 90% maximum). Planning objectives to FLV were based on mean SC SPECT uptake ratio relative to GTV-subtracted liver and inversely scaled to mean liver dose of 20 Gy. PTV target coverage (V{sub 95}) was matched between conventional and functional avoidance plans. PBS pRT plans were optimized in RayStation for single field uniform dose (SFUD) and systematically perturbed to verify robustness to uncertainty in range, setup, and motion. Relative differences in FLV DVH and target dose heterogeneity (D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D50 were assessed. Results: For similar liver dose between functional avoidance and conventional PBS pRT plans (D{sub mean}?5% difference, V{sub 18Gy}?1% difference), dose to functional liver volumes were lower in avoidance plans but varied in magnitude across patients (FLV{sub 70%max} D{sub mean}?26% difference, V{sub 18Gy}?8% difference). Higher PTV dose heterogeneity in avoidance plans was associated with lower functional liver dose, particularly for the largest lesion [(D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D{sub 50}=13%, FLV{sub 90%max}=50% difference]. Conclusion: Differential avoidance of functional liver regions defined on sulfur colloid SPECT/CT is feasible with proton therapy

  4. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Belz, Jodi; Markovic, Stacey; Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William; Niedre, Mark; Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G.; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  5. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouvea de Lima, Aline; Villar, Rosangela Correa; Castro, Gilberto de; Antequera, Reynaldo; Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral; Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moises Longo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might

  6. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huddart, Robert A.; Hall, Emma; Hussain, Syed A.; Jenkins, Peter; Rawlings, Christine; Tremlett, Jean; Crundwell, Malcolm; Adab, Fawzi A.; Sheehan, Denise; Syndikus, Isabel; Hendron, Carey; Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel; James, Nicholas D.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT ? sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval ?7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (?12.8%, 14.6%) in the per-protocol population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  7. A Novel Method for Predicting Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Radiation Therapy and the Need for Age-Based Risk-Adapted Dose Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Alcantara, Pino; Li, Linna; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2013-07-15

    Background: There are no well-established normal tissue sparing dosevolume histogram (DVH) criteria that limit the risk of urinary toxicity from prostate radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to determine which criteria predict late toxicity among various DVH parameters when contouring the entire solid bladder and its contents versus the bladder wall. The area under the histogram curve (AUHC) was also analyzed. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2000, 503 men with prostate cancer received 3-dimensional conformal RT (median follow-up time, 71 months). The whole bladder and the bladder wall were contoured in all patients. The primary endpoint was grade ?2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring ?3 months after completion of RT. Cox regressions of time to grade ?2 toxicity were estimated separately for the entire bladder and bladder wall. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) assessed model discriminative ability. Before training the models, an external random test group of 100 men was set aside for testing. Separate analyses were performed based on the mean age (? 68 vs >68 years). Results: Age, pretreatment urinary symptoms, mean dose (entire bladder and bladder wall), and AUHC (entire bladder and bladder wall) were significant (P<.05) in multivariable analysis. Overall, bladder wall CPE values were higher than solid bladder values. The AUHC for bladder wall provided the greatest discrimination for late bladder toxicity when compared with alternative DVH points, with CPE values of 0.68 for age ?68 years and 0.81 for age >68 years. Conclusion: The AUHC method based on bladder wall volumes was superior for predicting late GU toxicity. Age >68 years was associated with late grade ?2 GU toxicity, which suggests that risk-adapted dose constraints based on age should be explored.

  8. Dummy Run of Quality Assurance Program in a Phase 3 Randomized Trial Investigating the Role of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation in Breast Cancer Patients: Korean Radiation Oncology Group 08-06 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Yoonsun; Kim, Jun Won; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Su Ssan; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Park, Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Kyu Chan; Suh, Hyun Suk; Kim, Jin Hee; Shin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 study protocol allowed radiation therapy (RT) technique to include or exclude breast cancer patients from receiving radiation therapy to the internal mammary lymph node (IMN). The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric differences between the 2 groups and potential influence on clinical outcome by a dummy run procedure. Methods and Materials: All participating institutions were asked to produce RT plans without irradiation (Arm 1) and with irradiation to the IMN (Arm 2) for 1 breast-conservation treatment case (breast-conserving surgery [BCS]) and 1 mastectomy case (modified radical mastectomy [MRM]) whose computed tomography images were provided. We assessed interinstitutional variations in IMN delineation and evaluated the dose-volume histograms of the IMN and normal organs. A reference IMN was delineated by an expert panel group based on the study guidelines. Also, we analyzed the potential influence of actual dose variation observed in this study on patient survival. Results: Although physicians intended to exclude the IMN within the RT field, the data showed almost 59.0% of the prescribed dose was delivered to the IMN in Arm 1. However, the mean doses covering the IMN in Arm 1 and Arm 2 were significantly different for both cases (P<.001). Due to the probability of overdose in Arm 1, the estimated gain in 7-year disease-free survival rate would be reduced from 10% to 7.9% for BCS cases and 7.1% for MRM cases. The radiation doses to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and coronary artery were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 2. Conclusions: Although this dummy run study indicated that a substantial dose was delivered to the IMN, even in the nonirradiation group, the dose differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant. However, this dosimetric profile should be studied further with actual patient samples and be taken into consideration when analyzing clinical outcomes according to IMN

  9. AZD5438, an Inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghavan, Pavithra; Tumati, Vasu; Yu Lan; Chan, Norman; Tomimatsu, Nozomi; Burma, Sandeep; Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas ; Bristow, Robert G.; Saha, Debabrata; Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the primary modalities for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to the intrinsic radiation resistance of these tumors, many patients experience RT failure, which leads to considerable tumor progression including regional lymph node and distant metastasis. This preclinical study evaluated the efficacy of a new-generation cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, AZD5438, as a radiosensitizer in several NSCLC models that are specifically resistant to conventional fractionated RT. Methods and Materials: The combined effect of ionizing radiation and AZD5438, a highly specific inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, was determined in vitro by surviving fraction, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and homologous recombination (HR) assays in 3 NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, and H460). For in vivo studies, human xenograft animal models in athymic nude mice were used. Results: Treatment of NSCLC cells with AZD5438 significantly augmented cellular radiosensitivity (dose enhancement ratio rangeing from 1.4 to 1.75). The degree of radiosensitization by AZD5438 was greater in radioresistant cell lines (A549 and H1299). Radiosensitivity was enhanced specifically through inhibition of Cdk1, prolonged G{sub 2}-M arrest, inhibition of HR, delayed DNA DSB repair, and increased apoptosis. Combined treatment with AZD5438 and irradiation also enhanced tumor growth delay, with an enhancement factor ranging from 1.2-1.7. Conclusions: This study supports the evaluation of newer generation Cdk inhibitors, such as AZD5438, as potent radiosensitizers in NSCLC models, especially in tumors that demonstrate variable intrinsic radiation responses.

  10. Predicting the Risk of Secondary Lung Malignancies Associated With Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor; Xu Yanguang; Clifford Chao, K.S.; Brenner, David J.; Burri, Ryan J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The risk of secondary lung malignancy (SLM) is a significant concern for women treated with whole-breast radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer. In this study, a biologically based secondary malignancy model was used to quantify the risk of secondary lung malignancies (SLMs) associated with several common methods of delivering whole-breast radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Both supine and prone computed tomography simulations of 15 women with early breast cancer were used to generate standard fractionated and hypofractionated whole-breast RT treatment plans for each patient. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the ipsilateral breast and lung were calculated for each patient on each plan. A model of spontaneous and radiation-induced carcinogenesis was used to determine the relative risks of SLMs for the different treatment techniques. Results: A higher risk of SLMs was predicted for supine breast irradiation when compared with prone breast irradiation for both the standard fractionation and hypofractionation schedules (relative risk [RR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.30-2.88, and RR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.39-2.98, respectively). No difference in risk of SLMs was noted between standard fractionation and hypofractionation schedules in either the supine position (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.97-1.14) or the prone position (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.88-1.15). Conclusions: Compared with supine whole-breast irradiation, prone breast irradiation is associated with a significantly lower predicted risk of secondary lung malignancy. In this modeling study, fractionation schedule did not have an impact on the risk of SLMs in women treated with whole-breast RT for early breast cancer.

  11. Prognostic Significance of Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Patients With Gleason Score 8-10 Prostate Cancer Treated With Primary Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hayek, Sylvia; Amin, Mitual; Ye Hong; Kestin, Larry L.; Zadora, Steven; Vicini, Frank A.; Cotant, Matthew; Brabbins, Donald S.; Ghilezan, Michel I.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic significance of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer treated with primary radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Chromogranin A (CgA) staining was performed and overseen by a single pathologist on core biopsies from 176 patients from the William Beaumont prostate cancer database. A total of 143 had evaluable biopsy material. Staining was quantified as 0%, <1%, 1-10%, or >10% of tumor cells. Patients received external beam RT alone or together with high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates determined if the presence/frequency of neuroendocrine cells correlated with clinical endpoints. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Forty patients (28%) had at least focal positive CgA staining (<1% n = 21, 1-10% n = 11, >10% n = 8). No significant differences existed between patients with or without staining in terms of age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, tumor stage, hormone therapy administration, % biopsy core involvement, mean Gleason score, or RT dose/modality. CgA staining concentration independently predicted for biochemical and clinical failure, distant metastases (DM), and cause-specific survival (CSS). For patients with <1% vs. >1% staining, 10-year DM rates were 13.4% vs. 55.3%, respectively (p = 0.001), and CSS was 91.7% vs. 58.9% (p < 0.001). As a continuous variable, increasing CgA staining concentration predicted for inferior rates of DM, CSS, biochemical control, and any clinical failure. No differences in outcomes were appreciated for patients with 0% vs. <1% NED. Conclusions: For Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer, >1% NED is associated with inferior clinical outcomes for patients treated with radiotherapy. This relates most directly to an increase in distant disease failure.

  12. Correlation of a hypoxia based tumor control model with observed local control rates in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avanzo, Michele; Stancanello, Joseph; Franchin, Giovanni; Sartor, Giovanna; Jena, Rajesh; Drigo, Annalisa; Dassie, Andrea; Gigante, Marco; Capra, Elvira

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To extend the application of current radiation therapy (RT) based tumor control probability (TCP) models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to include the effects of hypoxia and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: A TCP model is described based on the linear-quadratic model modified to account for repopulation, chemotherapy, heterogeneity of dose to the tumor, and hypoxia. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters exert the greatest influence on the uncertainty of modeled TCP. On the basis of the sensitivity analysis, the values of specific radiobiological parameters were set to nominal values reported in the literature for NPC or head and neck tumors. The remaining radiobiological parameters were determined by fitting TCP to clinical local control data from published randomized studies using both RT and CRT. Validation of the model was performed by comparison of estimated TCP and average overall local control rate (LCR) for 45 patients treated at the institution with conventional linear-accelerator-based or helical tomotherapy based intensity-modulated RT and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the model is most sensitive to the radiosensitivity term {alpha} and the dose per fraction. The estimated values of {alpha} and OER from data fitting were 0.396 Gy{sup -1} and 1.417. The model estimate of TCP (average 90.9%, range 26.9%-99.2%) showed good correlation with the LCR (86.7%). Conclusions: The model implemented in this work provides clinicians with a useful tool to predict the success rate of treatment, optimize treatment plans, and compare the effects of multimodality therapy.

  13. Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Radiation Therapy? Analysis of a Single-Institution Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P.R. of China (China); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Levy, Lawrence B.; O'Reilly, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gold, Kathryn A. [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) can mitigate radiation-induced lung injury. We sought here to investigate possible associations between ACEI use and the risk of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients who received definitive radiation therapy for stages I to III NSCLC between 2004 and 2010 at a single tertiary cancer center. Patients must have received a radiation dose of at least 60 Gy for a single primary lung tumor and have had imaging and dosimetric data available for analysis. RP was quantified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess potential associations between ACEI use and risk of symptomatic RP. Results: Of 413 patients analyzed, 65 were using ACEIs during RT. In univariate analysis, the rate of RP grade ?2 seemed lower in ACEI users than in nonusers (34% vs 46%), but this apparent difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). In multivariate analysis of all patients, ACEI use was not associated with the risk of symptomatic RP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; P=.07) after adjustment for sex, smoking status, mean lung dose (MLD), and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that ACEI use did have a protective effect from RP grade ?2 among patients who received a low (?20-Gy) MLD (P<.01) or were male (P=.04). Conclusions: A trend toward reduction in symptomatic RP among patients taking ACEIs during RT for NSCLC was not statistically significant on univariate or multivariate analyses, although certain subgroups may benefit from use (ie, male patients and those receiving low MLD). The evidence at this point is insufficient to establish whether the use of ACEIs does or does not reduce the risk of RP.

  14. SU-E-T-473: A Patient-Specific QC Paradigm Based On Trajectory Log Files and DICOM Plan Files

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMarco, J; McCloskey, S; Low, D; Moran, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a remote QC tool for monitoring treatment machine parameters and treatment workflow. Methods: The Varian TrueBeamTM linear accelerator is a digital machine that records machine axis parameters and MLC leaf positions as a function of delivered monitor unit or control point. This information is saved to a binary trajectory log file for every treatment or imaging field in the patient treatment session. A MATLAB analysis routine was developed to parse the trajectory log files for a given patient, compare the expected versus actual machine and MLC positions as well as perform a cross-comparison with the DICOM-RT plan file exported from the treatment planning system. The parsing routine sorts the trajectory log files based on the time and date stamp and generates a sequential report file listing treatment parameters and provides a match relative to the DICOM-RT plan file. Results: The trajectory log parsing-routine was compared against a standard record and verify listing for patients undergoing initial IMRT dosimetry verification and weekly and final chart QC. The complete treatment course was independently verified for 10 patients of varying treatment site and a total of 1267 treatment fields were evaluated including pre-treatment imaging fields where applicable. In the context of IMRT plan verification, eight prostate SBRT plans with 4-arcs per plan were evaluated based on expected versus actual machine axis parameters. The average value for the maximum RMS MLC error was 0.067±0.001mm and 0.066±0.002mm for leaf bank A and B respectively. Conclusion: A real-time QC analysis program was tested using trajectory log files and DICOM-RT plan files. The parsing routine is efficient and able to evaluate all relevant machine axis parameters during a patient treatment course including MLC leaf positions and table positions at time of image acquisition and during treatment.

  15. NSTX-U Control System Upgrades

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Erickson, K. G.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Lawson, J. E.; Mozulay, R.; Sichta, P.; Tchilinguirian, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forwardmore » port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control.« less

  16. F-18-FDG-PET Confined Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced NSCLC With Concomitant Chemotherapy: Results of the PET-PLAN Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Hellwig, Dirk; Kremp, Stephanie; Grgic, Aleksandar; Groeschel, Andreas; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Nestle, Ursula; Ruebe, Christian

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The integration of fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the process of radiotherapy (RT) planning of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may improve diagnostic accuracy and minimize interobserver variability compared with target volume definition solely based on computed tomography. Furthermore, irradiating only FDG-PET-positive findings and omitting elective nodal regions may allow dose escalation by treating smaller volumes. The aim of this prospective pilot trial was to evaluate the therapeutic safety of FDG-PET-based RT treatment planning with an autocontour-derived delineation of the primary tumor. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stages II-III inoperable NSCLC, and simultaneous, platinum-based radiochemotherapy was indicated. FDG-PET and computed tomography acquisitions in RT treatment planning position were coregistered. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the FDG-PET-defined primary tumor, which was autodelineated with a source-to-background algorithm, plus FDG-PET-positive lymph node stations. Limited by dose restrictions for normal tissues, prescribed total doses were in the range of 66.6 to 73.8 Gy. The primary endpoint was the rate of out-of-field isolated nodal recurrences (INR). Results: As per intent to treat, 32 patients received radiochemotherapy. In 15 of these patients, dose escalation above 66.6 Gy was achieved. No Grade 4 toxicities occurred. After a median follow-up time of 27.2 months, the estimated median survival time was 19.3 months. During the observation period, one INR was observed in 23 evaluable patients. Conclusions: FDG-PET-confined target volume definition in radiochemotherapy of NSCLC, based on a contrast-oriented source-to-background algorithm, was associated with a low risk of INR. It might provide improved tumor control because of dose escalation.

  17. Tensor products of U{sub q}{sup Prime }sl-caret(2)-modules and the big q{sup 2}-Jacobi function transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gade, R. M.

    2013-01-15

    Four tensor products of evaluation modules of the quantum affine algebra U{sub q}{sup Prime }sl-caret(2) obtained from the negative and positive series, the complementary and the strange series representations are investigated. Linear operators R(z) satisfying the intertwining property on finite linear combinations of the canonical basis elements of the tensor products are described in terms of two sets of infinite sums {l_brace}{tau}{sup (r,t)}{r_brace}{sub r,t Element-Of Z{sub {>=}{sub 0}}} and {l_brace}{tau}{sup (r,t)}{r_brace}{sub r,t Element-Of Z{sub {>=}{sub 0}}} involving big q{sup 2}-Jacobi functions or related nonterminating basic hypergeometric series. Inhomogeneous recurrence relations can be derived for both sets. Evaluations of the simplest sums provide the corresponding initial conditions. For the first set of sums the relations entail a big q{sup 2}-Jacobi function transform pair. An integral decomposition is obtained for the sum {tau}{sup (r,t)}. A partial description of the relation between the decompositions of the tensor products with respect to U{sub q}sl(2) or with respect to its complement in U{sub q}{sup Prime }sl-caret(2) can be formulated in terms of Askey-Wilson function transforms. For a particular combination of two tensor products, the occurrence of proper U{sub q}{sup Prime }sl-caret(2)-submodules is discussed.

  18. Impact of Intraluminal Brachytherapy on Survival Outcome for Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Biliary Tract Cancer: A Propensity-Score Matched-Pair Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kanesaka, Naoto; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Kosugi, Takashi; Hatano, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masao; Ito, Yoshinori; Takayama, Makoto; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Imai, Michiko; Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Nemoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether adding intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) to definitive radiation therapy (RT) for unresectable biliary tract cancer has a positive impact on survival outcome. Methods and Materials: The original cohort comprised 209 patients, including 153 who underwent external beam RT (EBRT) alone and 56 who received both ILBT and EBRT. By matching propensity scores, 56 pairs (112 patients) consisting of 1 patient with and 1 patient without ILBT were selected. They were well balanced in terms of sex, age, performance status, clinical stage, jaundice, and addition of chemotherapy. The impact of ILBT on overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC) was investigated. Results: The 2-year OS rates were 31% for the ILBT+ group and 40% for theILBT– group (P=.862). The 2-year DSS rates were 42% for the ILBT+ group and 41% for the ILBT– group (P=.288). The 2-year LC rates were 65% for the ILBT+ group and 35% for the ILBT– group (P=.094). Three of the 4 sensitivity analyses showed a significantly better LC for the ILBT+ group (P=.010, .025, .049), and another showed a marginally better LC (P=.068), and none of the sensitivity analyses showed any statistically significant differences in OS or DSS. Conclusions: In the treatment for unresectable biliary tract cancer, the addition of ILBT to RT has no impact on OS or DSS but is associated with better LC. Therefore, the role of ILBT should be addressed by other measures than survival benefit, for example, by less toxicity, prolonged biliary tract patency decreasing the need for further palliative interventions, or patient quality of life.

  19. An Empirical Study on Ultrasonic Testing in Lieu of Radiography for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, Traci L.; Pardini, Allan F.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Prowant, Matthew S.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-09-01

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the capability, effectiveness, and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) as a replacement method for radiographic testing (RT) for inspecting nuclear power plant (NPP) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate UT techniques to assess their ability to detect, locate, size, and characterize fabrication flaws in typical NPP weldments. This particular study focused on the evaluation of four carbon steel pipe-to-pipe welds on specimens that ranged in thicknesses from 19.05 mm (0.75 in.) to 27.8 mm (1.094 in.) and were 355.6 mm (14.0 in.) or 406.4 mm (16.0 in.) in diameter. The pipe welds contained both implanted (intentional) fabrication flaws as well as bonus (unintentional) flaws throughout the entire thickness of the weld and the adjacent base material. The fabrication flaws were a combination of planar and volumetric flaw types, including incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, cracks, porosity, and slag inclusions. The examinations were conducted using phased-array UT (PA UT) techniques applied primarily for detection and length sizing of the flaws. Radiographic examinations were also conducted on the specimens with RT detection and length sizing results being used to establish true state. This paper will discuss the comparison of UT and RT (true state) detection results conducted to date along with a discussion on the technical gaps that need to be addressed before these methods can be used interchangeably for repair and replacement activities for NPP components.

  20. Breast Cancer Patients With 10 or More Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes Treated by Multimodality Therapy: Influence of Clinical Presentation on Outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geara, Fady B. . E-mail: fg00@aub.edu.lb; Nasr, Elie; Tucker, Susan L.; Charafeddine, Maya; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Eid, Toufic; Abbas, Jaber; Salem, Ziad; Shamseddine, Ali; Issa, Philip; El Saghir, Nagi

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze tumor control and survival for breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes without systemic disease, treated by adjuvant radiation alone or combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 consecutive patients with these characteristics who received locoregional radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. The majority of patients had clinical Stage II or IIIA-B disease (43% and 48%, respectively). The median number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 15 (range, 10-78). Adjuvant therapy consisted of RT alone, with or without chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and/or ovarian castration. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 20% and 7%, respectively. Median DFS was higher for patients with Stage I-II compared with those with Stage IIIABC (28 vs. 19 months; p = 0.006). Median DFS for patients aged {<=}35 years was lower than that of older patients (12 vs. 24 months; p < 0.0001). Patients treated with a combination therapy had a higher 5-year DFS rate compared with those treated by RT alone (26% vs. 11%; p 0.03). In multivariate analysis, clinical stage (III vs. I, II; relative risk = 1.8, p = 0.002) and age ({<=}35 vs. others; relative risk = 2.6, p <0.001) were found to be independent variables for DFS. Conclusion: This retrospective data analysis identified young age and advanced clinical stage as pertinent and independent clinical prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with advanced axillary disease (10 or more involved nodes). These factors can be used for further prognostic classification.

  1. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 02-29: A Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy and Full-Dose Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgical Resection and Consolidative Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suntharalingam, Mohan; Paulus, Rebecca; Edelman, Martin J.; Krasna, Mark; Burrows, Whitney; Gore, Elizabeth; Wilson, Lynn D.; Choy, Hak

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mediastinal nodal clearance (MNC) rates after induction chemotherapy and concurrent, full-dose radiation therapy (RT) in a phase II trimodality trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0229). Patients and Methods: Patients (n=57) with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (pathologically proven N2 or N3) were eligible. Induction chemotherapy consisted of weekly carboplatin (AUC = 2.0) and paclitaxel 50 mg/m{sup 2}. Concurrent RT was prescribed, with 50.4 Gy to the mediastinum and primary tumor and a boost of 10.8 Gy to all gross disease. The mediastinum was pathologically reassessed after completion of chemoradiation. The primary endpoint of the study was MNC, with secondary endpoints of 2-year overall survival and postoperative morbidity/mortality. Results: The grade 3/4 toxicities included hematologic 35%, gastrointestinal 14%, and pulmonary 23%. Forty-three patients (75%) were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Twenty-seven patients achieved the primary endpoint of MNC (63%). Thirty-seven patients underwent resection. There was a 14% incidence of grade 3 postoperative pulmonary complications and 1 30-day, postoperative grade 5 toxicity (3%). With a median follow-up of 24 months for all patients, the 2-year overall survival rate was 54%, and the 2-year progression-free survival rate was 33%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 75% for those who achieved nodal clearance, 52% for those with residual nodal disease, and 23% for those who were not evaluable for the primary endpoint (P=.0002). Conclusions: This multi-institutional trial confirms the ability of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation with full-dose RT to sterilize known mediastinal nodal disease.

  2. Visual Outcome in Meningiomas Around Anterior Visual Pathways Treated With Linear Accelerator Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas; Reich, Ehud; Gal, Lior; Rappaport, Zvi Harry; Nissim, Ouzi; Pfeffer, Raphael; Spiegelmann, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Meningiomas threatening the anterior visual pathways (AVPs) and not amenable for surgery are currently treated with multisession stereotactic radiotherapy. Stereotactic radiotherapy is available with a number of devices. The most ubiquitous include the gamma knife, CyberKnife, tomotherapy, and isocentric linear accelerator systems. The purpose of our study was to describe a case series of AVP meningiomas treated with linear accelerator fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) using the multiple, noncoplanar, dynamic conformal rotation paradigm and to compare the success and complication rates with those reported for other techniques. Patients and Methods: We included all patients with AVP meningiomas followed up at our neuro-ophthalmology unit for a minimum of 12 months after FSRT. We compared the details of the neuro-ophthalmologic examinations and tumor size before and after FSRT and at the end of follow-up. Results: Of 87 patients with AVP meningiomas, 17 had been referred for FSRT. Of the 17 patients, 16 completed >12 months of follow-up (mean 39). Of the 16 patients, 11 had undergone surgery before FSRT and 5 had undergone FSRT as first-line management. Tumor control was achieved in 14 of the 16 patients, with three meningiomas shrinking in size after RT. Two meningiomas progressed, one in an area that was outside the radiation field. The visual function had improved in 6 or stabilized in 8 of the 16 patients (88%) and worsened in 2 (12%). Conclusions: Linear accelerator fractionated RT using the multiple noncoplanar dynamic rotation conformal paradigm can be offered to patients with meningiomas that threaten the anterior visual pathways as an adjunct to surgery or as first-line treatment, with results comparable to those reported for other stereotactic RT techniques.

  3. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, David Howland; Lin, Hyun K; Iwerks, Justin G; Gliman, James G

    2009-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.

  4. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, Jordan A.; Wang, Andrew Z.; University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC ; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Rosenman, Julian G.; University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC ; Carpenter, William R.; Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC ; Godley, Paul A.; Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC ; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of <25%, 25%-50%, and >50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with <25% likelihood, and T3-T4 patients had 18% higher odds. Prostatectomy use increased in recent years. Patients aged 76-80 years were likely to be managed conservatively, even those with a >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3-T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely

  5. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther, Jillian R.; Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali; Ketonen, Leena; Jones, Jeremy Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Boehling, Nicholas S.; Khatua, Soumen; Adesina, Adekunle; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E.; Mahajan, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem.

  6. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I.; Morton, Randall P.; Hay, K. David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T.; Fraser-Browne, Carol L.; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program Funding in the United States: Conventional Hydropower Projects, FY 2008 … FY 2010

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    rt is the property of the Office of Inspector General and is for OFFICIAL USE Appropriate safeguards should be pro * * ited to Departm DOE/IG-0927 November 2014 8Pfl81AL ~8E 8P4L\' errtel' L 1;111 =utt (When separated from the attached report, this memorandum may be publicly released.) Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 7, 2014 MEMORANDUMFORTHESECRETARY ~~-~- FROM: Gregory H. Friedman SUBJECT: BACKGROUND Inspector General INFORMATION: Special Inquiry on "Alleged Attempts by

  8. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S.; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T.; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N. George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  9. Bladder Cancer Patterns of Pelvic Failure: Implications for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei; Vaughn, David J.; Keefe, Stephen M.; Vapiwala, Neha; Deville, Curtiland; Bekelman, Justin E.; Tucker, Kai; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LFs) after cystectomy with or without chemotherapy are common in locally advanced disease. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LFs, but toxicity has discouraged its use. Modern RT techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest but require knowledge of pelvic failure patterns to design treatment volumes. Methods and Materials: Five-year LF rates after radical cystectomy plus pelvic node dissection with or without chemotherapy were determined for 8 pelvic sites among 442 urothelial bladder carcinoma patients. The impact of pathologic stage, margin status, nodal involvement, and extent of node dissection on failure patterns was assessed using competing risk analysis. We calculated the percentage of patients whose sites of LF would have been completely encompassed within various hypothetical clinical target volumes (CTVs) for postoperative radiation. Results: Compared with stage {<=}pT2, stage {>=}pT3 patients had higher 5-year LF rates in virtually all pelvic sites. Among stage {>=}pT3 patients, margin status significantly altered the failure pattern whereas extent of node dissection and nodal positivity did not. In stage {>=}pT3 patients with negative margins, failure occurred predominantly in the iliac/obturator nodes and uncommonly in the cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodes. Of these patients in whom failure subsequently occurred, 76% would have had all LF sites encompassed within CTVs covering only the iliac/obturator nodes. In stage {>=}pT3 with positive margins, cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodal failures increased significantly. Only 57% of such patients had all LF sites within CTVs limited to the iliac/obturator nodes, but including the cystectomy bed and presacral nodes in the CTV when margins were positive increased the percentage of LFs encompassed to 91%. Conclusions: Patterns of failure within the pelvis are summarized to facilitate design of adjuvant RT protocols. These data suggest

  10. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CMBE - a New ACRF Data Product for Climate Studies Download a printable PDF Submitter: Xie, S., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Xie S, RB McCoy, SA Klein, RT Cederwall, WJ Wiscombe, EE Clothiaux, KL Gaustad, J Golaz, S Hall, MP Jensen, KL Johnson, Y Lin, CN Long, JH Mather, RA McCord, SA McFarlane, G Palanisamy, Y Shi, and DD Turner. 2010. "ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate

  11. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Seasonal Case Studies Reveal Significant Variance in Large-Scale Forcing Data Submitter: Xie, S., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Xie, S, R.T Cederwall, M. Zhang, and J.J. Yio, Comparison of SCM and CSRM forcing data derived from the ECMWF model and from objective analysis at the ARM SGP site, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 4499, doi:10.1029/2003JD003541, 2003.

  12. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Problem with Thin Liquid Water Clouds Submitter: Turner, D. D., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Area of Research: Clouds with Low Optical [Water] Depths (CLOWD) Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: D.D. Turner, A.M. Vogelmann, R.T. Austin, J.C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J.C. Chiu, S.A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S.A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rt is the property of the Office of Inspector General and is for OFFICIAL USE Appropriate safeguards should be pro * * ited to Departm DOE/IG-0927 November 2014 8Pfl81AL ~8E 8P4L\' errtel' L 1;111 =utt (When separated from the attached report, this memorandum may be publicly released.) Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 7, 2014 MEMORANDUMFORTHESECRETARY ~~-~- FROM: Gregory H. Friedman SUBJECT: BACKGROUND Inspector General INFORMATION: Special Inquiry on "Alleged Attempts by

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This rt is the property of the Office of Inspector General and is for OFFICIAL USE Appropriate safeguards should be pro * DOE/IG-0927 November 2014 lf'llltil:\L 15181!!! 8fll!Y SFFISUcL USI C fib f (When separated from the attached report, this memorandum may be publicly released.) Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 7, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY ~~ FROM: Gregory H. Friedman SUBJECT: BACKGROUND Inspector General INFORMATION: Special Inquiry on "Alleged Attempts by

  15. SITES ELIHlNAlED FRCil FUW' ~1WWk'l ffi LY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  16. SREL Reprint #3265

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Effects of timber harvesting on terrestrial survival of pond-breeding amphibians Brian D. Todd1, Sean M. Blomquist2, Elizabeth B. Harper3, and Michael S. Osbourn4 1Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA 2US Fish and Wildlife Service, 14000 W. State Route 2, Oak Harbor, OH 43449, USA 3Paul Smith's College, Rt. 30 & 86, Paul Smiths, NY 12970-0265, USA 4University of Missouri, Division of Biological

  17. Enron Documents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1999 rDEC- 15--B ]S-48 P. 02/21 December 14.1398 Vol. 5. No. SD tandard & Poors' kmRP'M ITILITIESl :- g PERS PECTVES | BH ~I UWhy Is ectric Restrturing Moving So Slowly in States? A the begi6s d 199S. Siamrd & PWfs iwpd between ne rulatory boj,. th Amore Ccaporior. ~3 b f^ rlWdiTr!- atalrtgenbardawmuldadptericemsam- Cmmwiion ACC. and Arizna's two maor OUs. 4 " -" = ' - 1*;n siit ionlt^ ddu teared clstt mrvwy. Leg AinaRt PbliSAniceCo. aod T-Tsn ,Eleaic Pori Co. .::* _.;is __ ..

  18. Subsets of Women With Close or Positive Margins After Breast-Conserving Surgery With High Local Recurrence Risk Despite Breast Plus Boost Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Lesperance, Mary; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: (1) To examine the effect of surgical margin status on local recurrence (LR) and survival following breast-conserving therapy; (2) To identify subsets with close or positive margins with high LR risk despite whole breast radiotherapy (RT) plus boost. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 2,264 women with pT1-3, any N, M0 invasive breast cancer, treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast {+-} boost RT. Five-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) LR, breast cancer-specific and overall survival (BCSS and OS) were compared between cohorts with negative (n = 1,980), close (n = 222), and positive (n = 62) margins. LR rates were analyzed according to clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariable Cox regression modeling and matched analysis of close/positive margin cases and negative margin controls were performed. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Boost RT was used in 92% of patients with close or positive margins. Five-year KM LR rates in the negative, close and positive margin cohorts were 1.3%, 4.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.001). BCSS and OS were similar in the three margin subgroups. In the close/positive margin cohort, LR rates were 10.2% with age <45 years, 11.8% with Grade III, 11.3% with lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and 26.3% with {>=}4 positive nodes. Corresponding rates in the negative margin cohort were 2.3%, 2.4%, 1.0%, and 2.4%, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of the entire cohort, close or positive margin, Grade III histology, {>=}4 positive nodes, and lack of systemic therapy were significantly associated with higher LR risk. When close/positive margin cases were matched to negative margin controls, the difference in 5-year LR remained significant (4.25% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: On univariable analysis, subsets with close or positive margins, in combination with age <45 years, Grade III, LVI, and {>=}4 positive nodes, have 5-year LR >10% despite whole breast plus boost RT. These patients should be considered for

  19. Outcomes of Positron Emission Tomography-Staged Clinical N3 Breast Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, Surgery, and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hae Jin; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Kwan Ho; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kang, Han-Sung; Chie, Eui Kyu; Ha, Sung Whan

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcome and efficacy of regional lymph node irradiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) and surgery in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive clinical N3 (cN3) breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 55 patients with ipsilateral infraclavicular (ICL), internal mammary (IMN), or supraclavicular (SCL) lymph node involvement in the absence of distant metastases, as revealed by an initial PET scan, were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical nodal stage at diagnosis (2002 AJCC) was cN3a in 14 patients (26%), cN3b in 12 patients (22%), and cN3c in 29 patients (53%). All patients were treated with NCT, followed by mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery and subsequent radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent. Results: At the median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-80 months), 20 patients (36%) had developed treatment failures, including distant metastases either alone or combined with locoregional recurrences that included one ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), six regional failures (RF), and one case of combined IBR and RF. Only 3 patients (5.5%) exhibited treatment failure at the initial PET-positive clinical N3 lymph node. The 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 80%, 60%, and 79%, respectively. RT delivered to PET-positive IMN regions in cN3b patients and at higher doses ({>=}55 Gy) to SCL regions in cN3c patients was not associated with improved 5-year IMN/SCL relapse-free survival or DFS. Conclusion: NCT followed by surgery and RT, including the regional lymph nodes, resulted in excellent locoregional control for patients with PET-positive cN3 breast cancer. The primary treatment failure in this group was due to distant metastasis rather than RF. Neither higher-dose RT directed at PET-positive SCL nodes nor coverage of PET-positive IMN nodes was associated with additional gains in locoregional control or DFS.

  20. Skin-sparing Helical Tomotherapy vs 3D-conformal Radiotherapy for Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy: In Vivo Skin Dosimetry Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capelle, Lisa; Warkentin, Heather; MacKenzie, Marc; Joseph, Kurian; Gabos, Zsolt; Pervez, Nadeem; Tankel, Keith; Chafe, Susan; Amanie, John; Ghosh, Sunita; Parliament, Matthew; Abdulkarim, Bassam

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether treatment-planning system (TPS)-calculated dose accurately reflects skin dose received for patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) with standard three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or skin-sparing helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating acute skin toxicity from adjuvant breast RT with 3D-CRT compared to skin-sparing HT, where a 5-mm strip of ipsilateral breast skin was spared. Thermoluminescent dosimetry or optically stimulated luminescence measurements were made in multiple locations and were compared to TPS-calculated doses. Skin dosimetric parameters and acute skin toxicity were recorded in these patients. Results: With HT there was a significant correlation between calculated and measured dose in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.67, P<.001; r = 0.44, P=.03, respectively) and the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.73, P<.001; r = 0.88, P<.001, respectively). With 3D-CRT there was a significant correlation in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.45, P=.03; r = 0.68, P<.001, respectively); the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.62, P=.001; r = 0.86, P<.001, respectively); and the mid neck (r = 0.42, P=.04, respectively). On average, HT-calculated dose overestimated the measured dose by 14%; 3D-CRT underestimated the dose by 0.4%. There was a borderline association between highest measured skin dose and moist desquamation (P=.05). Skin-sparing HT had greater skin homogeneity (homogeneity index of 1.39 vs 1.65, respectively; P=.005) than 3D-CRT plans. HT plans had a lower skin{sub V50} (1.4% vs 5.9%, respectively; P=.001) but higher skin{sub V40} and skin{sub V30} (71.7% vs 64.0%, P=.02; and 99.0% vs 93.8%, P=.001, respectively) than 3D-CRT plans. Conclusion: The 3D-CRT TPS more accurately reflected skin dose than the HT TPS, which tended to overestimate dose received by 14% in patients

  1. Radiation Therapy Risk Factors for Development of Lymphedema in Patients Treated With Regional Lymph Node Irradiation for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Ravi A.; Miller, Cynthia L.; Skolny, Melissa N.; Warren, Laura E.G.; Horick, Nora; Jammallo, Lauren S.; Sadek, Betro T.; Shenouda, Mina N.; O'Toole, Jean; Specht, Michelle C.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: We previously evaluated the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) with the addition of regional lymph node irradiation (RLNR) and found an increased risk when RLNR is used. Here we analyze the association of technical radiation therapy (RT) factors in RLNR patients with the risk of LE development. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2012, we prospectively screened 1476 women for LE who underwent surgery for breast cancer. Among 1507 breasts treated, 172 received RLNR and had complete technical data for analysis. RLNR was delivered as supraclavicular (SC) irradiation (69% [118 of 172 patients]) or SC plus posterior axillary boost (PAB) (31% [54 of 172]). Bilateral arm volume measurements were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients' RT plans were analyzed for SC field lateral border (relative to the humeral head), total dose to SC, RT fraction size, beam energy, and type of tangent (normal vs wide). Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associated risk factors for LE. Results: Median postoperative follow-up was 29.3 months (range: 4.9-74.1 months). The 2-year cumulative incidence of LE was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15%-32%) for SC and 20% (95% CI: 11%-37%) for SC plus PAB (SC+PAB). None of the analyzed variables was significantly associated with LE risk (extent of humeral head: P=.74 for <1/3 vs >2/3, P=.41 for 1/3 to 2/3 vs >2/3; P=.40 for fraction size of 1.8 Gy vs 2.0 Gy; P=.57 for beam energy 6 MV vs 10 MV; P=.74 for tangent type wide vs regular; P=.66 for SC vs SC+PAB). Only pretreatment body mass index (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, P=.0007) and the use of axillary lymph node dissection (HR: 7.08, 95% CI: 0.98-51.40, P=.05) were associated with risk of subsequent LE development. Conclusions: Of the RT parameters tested, none was associated with an increased risk of LE development. This study underscores the need for future work investigating alternative RLNR risk factors for LE.

  2. X:\ARM_19~1\P283-315.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    r) CE(r)J[ m (r) p (r) c (r)]T 2 (r)/r 2 n b n b µs µs Session Papers 297 (1) Cirrus and Aerosol Lidar Profilometer - Analysis and Results J. D. Spinhirne and V. S. Scott NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland J. A. Reagan and A. Galbraith Department. of Electrical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Introduction A cloud and aerosol lidar data set from over a year of near continuous operation of a micro pulse lidar (MPL) instrument at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed

  3. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1996-12-17

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  4. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1998-10-06

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  5. The FIonorable W

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . L1 >.t,,:.r*. L * . .* -+rT[ $ @ . . . 8, r ' ! f? , 13% ii&-q 4 ;' ;' . 0; .' - .s* I -- 8 ..h! ,z * _ The Secretary of Energi' . Washington, bC 20585 . * & 3hTap. *-. October 10, 1997 ' , :- 1 . , The FIonorable W illiam S. Cohen a: .. Secretary ofDefense se . Washington, D.C. 203Oi .. . , JkarMr.Secietaxy ~ , ; , * _ ' . The Congress recently sent to the President for signature the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, 1998. Among other provisions, this bill would

  6. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Alternatives for Data Access and Distribution from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Archive R.A. McCord, G. Palanisamy, R.C. Ward, R.T. Cederwall, D.P. Kaiser, and S.T. Moore Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Archive are seeking to give scientists an alternative mechanism to access and download ARM measurements that would be more flexible and efficient for both the data users and the

  7. DOE/EIA-0202(84/2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2QH Short-Term Energy Outlook Quarterly Projections May 1984 Published: June 1984 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort .iort .iort- iort- iort- '.ort- ort- .m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term i-Term rTerm -Term xrm uergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  8. DOE/EIA-0202|83/2Q)-1 Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    |83/2Q)-1 Short-Term Energy Outlook Volume 1-Quarterly Projections May 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. t rt jrt .ort lort iort iort lOrt iort '.ort- ort Tt . m .erm Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term -Term -Term nergy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy ^nergy Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook

  9. 1.TIF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 OF 11 DOCUMENT #: DOE/EIS-0113 TITLE: Final EIS Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes MULTNOMAH MONTHLYMEETING Religious Smaetyaf Friend., fpuakeral No rt h lesions Yeedy Meeting `ISl25.E Stark Straef, Portland, OR gnI5 Clerk J ... t nations. Treasurer Michael Well. Mr. R. A. Holton U.S.Departmentof Energy Richland Opemdom Office P.O. Box 550 Rieldxna,WA 99752 Dear Mr. Holton, No 2.3.2.8 and in. RE c il - CCE RL AUG 11966 p15^ - ^nmiDfrsioro July M, 1986 Moodily

  10. Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive All targets must be achieved simultaneously Characteristics Units Calendar year 2002 status a 2005 2010 Membrane Areal Resistance in cell, operating temperature Ω-cm 2 0.1 0.1 0.1 RT Ω-cm 2 0.07 0.07 0.07 -20 o C Ω-cm 2 0.01 0.01 0.01 Cost b $/kW 200 100 10 Operating Temperature o C 80 120 120 Durability hours 1000 d >4000 e >5000 f Survivability c temperature - lower upper o C -20 ? -30 175 -40 200 Total catalyst

  11. pN0(i+) Breast Cancer: Treatment Patterns, Locoregional Recurrence, and Survival Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karam, Irene; Lesperance, Maria F.; Berrang, Tanya; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott; Truong, Pauline T.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To examine treatment patterns, recurrence, and survival outcomes in patients with pN0(i+) breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 5999 women with AJCC (6th edition) pT1-3, pN0-N1a, M0 breast cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2006. Of these, 4342 (72%) had pN0, 96 (2%) had pN0(i+), 349 (6%) had pNmic (micrometastases >0.2 mm to ?2 mm), and 1212 (20%) had pN1a (1-3 positive macroscopic nodes) disease. Treatment characteristics and 5-year Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence (RR), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and overall survival were compared between nodal subgroups. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox regression modeling. A 1:3 case-match analysis examined outcomes in pN0(i+) cases compared with pN0 controls matched for similar tumor and treatment characteristics. Results: Median follow-up was 4.8 years. Adjuvant systemic therapy use increased with nodal stage: 81%, 92%, 95%, and 94% in pN0, pN0(i+), pNmic, and pN1a disease, respectively (P<.001). Nodal radiation therapy (RT) use also increased with nodal stage: 1.7% in pN0, 27% in pN0(i+), 33% in pNmic, and 63% in pN1a cohorts (P<.001). Five-year Kaplan-Meier outcomes in pN0 versus pN0(i+) cases were as follows: local recurrence 1.7% versus 3.7% (P=.20), RR 0.5% versus 2.2% (P=.02), and LRR 2.1% versus 5.8% (P=.02). There were no RR events in 26 patients with pN0(i+) disease who received nodal RT and 2 RR events in 70 patients who did not receive nodal RT. On multivariable analysis, pN0(i+) was not associated with worse locoregional control or survival. On case-match analysis, LRR and overall survival were similar between pN0(i+) and matched pN0 counterparts. Conclusions: Nodal involvement with isolated tumor cells is not a significant prognostic factor for LRR or survival in this study's multivariable and case-match analyses. These data do not support the routine use of nodal RT in the setting of pN0(i+) disease. Prospective studies are needed to define optimal

  12. [18F]-Fluoromisonidazole Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Visualization of Tumor Hypoxia in Patients With Chordoma of the Mobile and Sacrococcygeal Spine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheney, Matthew D.; Chen, Yen-Lin; Lim, Ruth; Winrich, Barbara K.; Grosu, Anca L.; Trofimov, Alexei V.; Depauw, Nicolas; Shih, Helen A.; Schwab, Joseph H.; Hornicek, Francis J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate [18F]-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FMISO-PET/CT) detection of targetable hypoxic subvolumes (HSVs) in chordoma of the mobile or sacrococcygeal spine. Methods and Materials: A prospective, pilot study of 20 patients with primary or locally recurrent chordoma of the mobile or sacrococcygeal spine treated with proton or combined proton/photon radiation therapy (RT) with or without surgery was completed. The FMISO-PET/CT was performed before RT and after 19.8-34.2 GyRBE (relative biologic effectiveness). Gross tumor volumes were delineated and HSVs defined including voxels with standardized uptake values ≥1.4 times the muscle mean. Clinical characteristics and treatments received were compared between patients with and without HSVs. Results: The FMISO-PET/CT detected HSVs in 12 of 20 patients (60%). Baseline and interval HSV spatial concordance varied (0%-94%). Eight HSVs were sufficiently large (≥5 cm{sup 3}) to potentially allow an intensity modulated proton therapy boost. Patients with HSVs had significantly larger gross tumor volumes (median 410.0 cm{sup 3} vs 63.4 cm{sup 3}; P=.02) and were significantly more likely to have stage T2 tumors (5 of 12 vs 0 of 8; P=.04). After a median follow-up of 1.8 years (range, 0.2-4.4 years), a local recurrence has yet to be observed. Three patients developed metastatic disease, 2 with HSVs. Conclusions: Detection of targetable HSVs by FMISO-PET/CT within patients undergoing RT with or without surgery for treatment of chordoma of the mobile and sacrococcygeal spine is feasible. The study's inability to attribute interval HSV changes to treatment, rapidly changing hypoxic physiology, or imaging inconsistencies is a limitation. Further study of double-baseline FMISO-PET/CT and hypoxia-directed RT dose escalation, particularly in patients at high risk for local recurrence, is warranted.

  13. Ventilation/Perfusion Positron Emission Tomography—Based Assessment of Radiation Injury to Lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siva, Shankar; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Kron, Tomas; Bressel, Mathias; Callahan, Jason; MacManus, Michael P.; Shaw, Mark; Plumridge, Nikki; Hicks, Rodney J.; Steinfort, Daniel; Ball, David L.; Hofman, Michael S.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate {sup 68}Ga-ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) as a novel imaging modality for assessment of perfusion, ventilation, and lung density changes in the context of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: In a prospective clinical trial, 20 patients underwent 4-dimensional (4D)-V/Q PET/CT before, midway through, and 3 months after definitive lung RT. Eligible patients were prescribed 60 Gy in 30 fractions with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Functional images were registered to the RT planning 4D-CT, and isodose volumes were averaged into 10-Gy bins. Within each dose bin, relative loss in standardized uptake value (SUV) was recorded for ventilation and perfusion, and loss in air-filled fraction was recorded to assess RT-induced lung fibrosis. A dose-effect relationship was described using both linear and 2-parameter logistic fit models, and goodness of fit was assessed with Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Results: A total of 179 imaging datasets were available for analysis (1 scan was unrecoverable). An almost perfectly linear negative dose-response relationship was observed for perfusion and air-filled fraction (r{sup 2}=0.99, P<.01), with ventilation strongly negatively linear (r{sup 2}=0.95, P<.01). Logistic models did not provide a better fit as evaluated by AIC. Perfusion, ventilation, and the air-filled fraction decreased 0.75 ± 0.03%, 0.71 ± 0.06%, and 0.49 ± 0.02%/Gy, respectively. Within high-dose regions, higher baseline perfusion SUV was associated with greater rate of loss. At 50 Gy and 60 Gy, the rate of loss was 1.35% (P=.07) and 1.73% (P=.05) per SUV, respectively. Of 8/20 patients with peritumoral reperfusion/reventilation during treatment, 7/8 did not sustain this effect after treatment. Conclusions: Radiation-induced regional lung functional deficits occur in a dose-dependent manner and can be estimated by simple linear models with 4D-V/Q PET

  14. Assessing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dental disease in minutes Understanding climate change Keeping watch on the world SPRING 2007 S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R C H & D E V E LO P M E N T MAG A Z I N E - VO LUM E 9 , N O. 1 Sandia Technology (ISSN: 1547-5190) is a quarterly maga- zine published by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the Department of Energy. With main facilities in

  15. Conversion efficiency improvement of inverted CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells with room temperature sputtered ZnO by adding the C{sub 60} interlayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Wei-Chih Chen, Peter; Lin, Kun-Wei; Wang, Yuan-Ting; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2015-12-21

    We have demonstrated the performance of inverted CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite-based solar cells (SCs) with a room temperature (RT) sputtered ZnO electron transport layer by adding fullerene (C{sub 60}) interlayer. ZnO exhibits a better matched conduction band level with perovskite and Al work function and around energy offset of 2.2 eV between highest occupied molecular orbital level of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite and valance band level of ZnO. However, the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite layer will be damaged during direct RT sputtering deposition of ZnO. Therefore, the C{sub 60} interlayer having matched conduction band level with ZnO and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite added between the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite and RT sputtered ZnO layers for protection prevents sputtering damages on the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite layer. The short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}, 19.41 mA/cm{sup 2}) and open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}, 0.91 V) of the SCs with glass/ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/perovskite/C{sub 60}/RT sputtered ZnO/Al structure is higher than the J{sub SC} (16.23 mA/cm{sup 2}) and V{sub OC} (0.90 V) of the reference SC with glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/C{sub 60}/bathocuproine (BCP)/Al structure. Although the SCs with the former structure has a lower fill factor (FF%) than the SCs with the latter structure, its conversion efficiency η% (10.93%) is higher than that (10.6%) of the latter.

  16. Section 61

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieval of Cloud Properties from Ground-Based Lidar/Radiometer Data C.M.R. Platt, S.A. Young, R.T. Austin, S.C. Marsden, G.R. Patterson, J.A. Bennett, B. Petraitis, and B. Turner CSIRO, Division of Atmospheric Research Aspendale, Victoria, Australia Abstract The retrieval of cloud properties from Lidar/Radiometer data by the LIRAD method is described. Several data sets taken by the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research are now available for such retrievals as a result of several major field

  17. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anacak, Yavuz; Miller, Robert C.; Constantinou, Nikos; Mamusa, Angela M.; Epelbaum, Ron; Li Yexiong; Calduch, Anna Lucas; Kowalczyk, Anna; Weber, Damien C.; Kadish, Sidney P.; Poortmans, Philip; Kamer, Serra; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

  18. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH Al\rD SAFETY DlVlSlON

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    em IVIL, u-3 1' 1L, I -' I ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH Al\rD SAFETY DlVlSlON 1956 1. H.# fL22 Industrial Hygiene or Medical Dept. Sample Nor& 3 Date Collected- 5117 by --Route to CES CES r Location IQJKER-PEMJNS Co- Type of Sample-waternalyzed for F Alpha Remarks -&I GG -- u - Beta Samples of water discharged to river during Steam clean- No, Ra ing of equipment. Oil PH Be Th Sample No. Hour Sample Description (RT Please analyze for gm/U/gal. BP-1 P- RO-Kneader BP-2 K-

  19. GlNTRM FILES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    : .; GlNTRM FILES .- Red Rwtaaie!a .=?%A .-m JJullen mtoxges8ntuuo -006 .017 .olb J-m .021 .OLt .Ol2 *Jeta Lhh .029 .0X9 ,026 ~k~exwteethaae~oyeencloee~ttothxflcmrof bUckaide. After the deccxmdnatimpxcblarrrro mlved.the rt8tma dt&itO lo- &ctioacoilrpasdistuEeed. 1. . ,, -. . . ' The conparty visited 3~ciali.z.e~ ja the a.ppLicatica of Znductiw beat. The purpose of this trip wa s to advise on haaBh and safety measures for the preoceeptance testing of inductioo heat treating equipment

  20. I

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    955L'Enfm Plnm,S.ry.. Washin@ on,D.C. 200242174, Tekphone:(202)488-6000 7117-03.87.cdy.43 j 23 September 1987 I ccA Mr. Andrew Wallo, III. NE-23 Division of Facility & Site Decommissioning Projects U.S. Department of Energy Germantown; Maryland 20545 Dear Mr. Wallo: ELIMINATION RECOMMENDATION -- COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITI:S MA.a-05 kl p.o- The attached elimination reconnnendation was prepared in accordance. - rtL.05 with your suggestion during our meeting on 22 September. The recommendation

  1. I I)

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    I) c Y LI c L II I Y c m c m ic w m c F OAK RtDGE NATIONAl LABORATORY QBfilATEO fly ~TIN MANIETTA ENEaGY SYSTEMS, INC. FOR THE UNUEO STATES DEPARTMENT of ENERGY ., / "I <: Li i * m . ORNL/TM-10439 RESULTS OF THE INDOOR RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE W . R. GRACE CO. CURTIS BAY SITE BALTIMORE, MARYLAND W . D. Cottrell R. D. Foley C. A. Johnson This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Techni-

  2. IvPE-cEAEs?nILE!! P

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Cw-rent: _______ rT--- Owner contacted 0 yes J7' j-r~~; if ye.. date contacted ___ IvPE-cEAEs?nILE!! P Research & Development 0 Production scale testing Cl Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies 0 Sample & Analysis 0 Production 0 Disposal/Storage 0 Prime ,!Z! Subcontract& JZl Purchase Order q Facility Type q Manufacturing q University 0 Research Organization 0 Government Sponsored Facility 0 Other --------------------- [7 Other information (i.e., cost + fixed fee,

  3. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor Carrigan, C.R.; Hardee, H.C.; Reynolds, G.D.; Steinfort, T.D. Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 Primm, R.T. III [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Lloyd, R.C.; Clayton, E.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] High density arrays of

  4. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yiwei, Ding

    1994-03-03

    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity ({sigma} = 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) after doping with AsF{sub 5}. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 {times} 10{sup 3} to 5.3 {times} 10{sup 3}. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  5. FFACO-DOENV--964 Rev2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T R O D U C T I O N T h is F e d e ra l F a c il it y A g re e m e n t a n d C o n se n t O rd e r (A g re e m e n t) is m a d e a n d e n te re d in to b y a n d a m o n g th e S ta te o f N e v a d a , a c ti n g b y a n d th ro u g h th e D e p a rt m e n t o f C o n se rv a ti o n a n d N a tu ra l R e so u rc e s, D iv is io n o f E n v ir o n m e n ta l P ro te c ti o n (N D E P ), th e U n it e d S ta te s D e p a rt m e n t o f E n e rg y (D O E ), a n d th e U n it e d S ta te s D e p a

  6. Health status of young children with cancer following discontinuation of therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastore, G.; Zurlo, M.G.; Acquaviva, A.; Calculli, G.; Castello, M.; Ceci, A.; Di Tullio, M.L.; Gandus, S.; Macchia, P.; Di Montezemolo, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports late effects and health status of 198 children who had cancer or leukemia diagnosed under 2 years of age and their therapies electively withdrawn. This series (92 neuroblastoma (NBL), 57 Wilms' tumor (WT), 46 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 3 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) was followed for 1-12 years after discontinuation of therapy. Thirty-three children were diagnosed before 1973, 92 between 1973 and 1977, and 73 after 1977 in 16 Italian Pediatric Oncology Centers. As of December 1983, 176 children were reported to be alive and without evidence of primary cancer by physicians responsible for their care. One child died from a second primary tumor, two from late recurrences of the primary cancer, and three from other causes; eight were alive with evidence of primary cancer; and eight were lost to follow-up. Kyphoscoliosis was found in 22 children and other musculoskeletal anomalies in 8. Neurological sequelae were observed in 8 of 35 children with ALL treated with radiotherapy (RT) and intrathecal methotrexate. All but one were in continuous complete remission when they developed seizures (three cases), leukoencephalopathy (three cases), or intracerebral calcifications (two cases). One child had cardiomyopathy and subsequently died from cardiac failure: he had received doxorubicin (400 mg/m2) and mediastinal RT (13 Gy) for NBL. Growth impairments were observed in children with NBL and WT.

  7. GaAsSb/GaAsN short-period superlattices as a capping layer for improved InAs quantum dot-based optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utrilla, A. D.; Ulloa, J. M. Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.

    2014-07-28

    The application of a GaAsSb/GaAsN short-period superlattice capping layer (CL) on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) is shown to be an option for providing improved luminescence properties to this system. Separating both GaAsSb and GaAsN ternaries during the growth in 2 monolayer-thick phases solves the GaAsSbN immiscibility-related problems. Strong fluctuations in the CL composition and strain field as well as in the QD size distribution are significantly reduced, and a more regular CL interface is also obtained. Room-temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) is obtained for overall N contents as high as 3%, yielding PL peak wavelengths beyond 1.4 μm in samples with a type-II band alignment. High external quantum efficiency electroluminescence and photocurrent from the QD ground state are also demonstrated at RT in a single QD-layer p-i-n device. Thus, it becomes possible to combine and transfer the complementary benefits of Sb- and N-containing GaAs alloys to InAs QD-based optoelectronics.

  8. Fractionated changes in prostate cancer radiotherapy using cone-beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Tzung-Chi; Chou, Kuei-Ting; Yang, Shih-Neng; Chang, Chih-Kai; Liang, Ji-An; Zhang, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    The high mobility of the bladder and the rectum causes uncertainty in radiation doses prescribed to patients with prostate cancer who undergo radiotherapy (RT) multifraction treatments. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose received by the bladder, rectum, and prostate from multifraction treatments using daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Overall, 28 patients with prostate cancer who planned to receive radiation treatments were enrolled in the study. The acquired CBCT before the treatment delivery was registered with the planning CT to map the dose distribution used in the treatment plan for estimating the received dose during clinical treatment. For all 28 patients with 112 data sets, the mean percentage differences (± standard deviation) in the volume and radiation dose were 44% (± 41) and 18% (± 17) for the bladder, 20% (± 21) and 2% (± 2) for the prostate, and 36% (± 29) and 22% (± 15) for the rectum, respectively. Substantial differences between the volumes and radiation dose and those specified in treatment plans were observed. Besides the use of image-guided RT to improve patient setup accuracy, further consideration of large changes in bladder and rectum volumes is strongly suggested when using external beam radiation for prostate cancer.

  9. Recombination radius of a Frenkel pair and capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by vacancy clusters in bcc Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-08-04

    The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is a fundamental parameter for the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) and mean field rate theory (RT) methods that are used to investigate irradiation damage accumulation in neutron irradiated nuclear materials. The recombination radius in bcc Fe has been studied both experimentally and numerically, however there is no general consensus about its value. The detailed atomistic processes of recombination also remain uncertain. Values from 1:0a? to 3:3a? have been employed as a recombination radius in previous studies using OKMC and RT. The recombination process of a Frenkel pair is investigated at the atomic level using the self-evolved atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method in this paper. SEAKMC calculations reveal that a self-interstitial atom recombines with a vacancy in a spontaneous reaction from several nearby sites following characteristic pathways. The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is estimated to be 2.26a? by taking the average of the recombination distances from 80 simulation cases. This value agrees well with the experimental estimate. In addition, we apply these procedures to the capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by a vacancy cluster. The capture radius is found to gradually increase with the size of the vacancy cluster. The fitting curve for the capture radius is obtained as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster.

  10. Unfolding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase RNase H domain – how to lose a molecular tug-of-war

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Xunhai; Pedersen, Lars C.; Gabel, Scott A.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; DeRose, Eugene F.; London, Robert E.

    2016-01-14

    Formation of the mature HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) p66/p51 heterodimer requires subunit-specific processing of the p66/p66' homodimer precursor. Since the ribonuclease H (RH) domain contains an occult cleavage site located near its center, cleavage must occur either prior to folding or subsequent to unfolding. Recent NMR studies have identified a slow, subunit-specific RH domain unfolding process proposed to result from a residue tug-of-war between the polymerase and RH domains on the functionally inactive, p66' subunit. Here, we describe a structural comparison of the isolated RH domain with a domain swapped RH dimer that reveals several intrinsically destabilizing characteristics of themore » isolated domain that facilitate excursions of Tyr427 from its binding pocket and separation of helices B and D. These studies provide independent support for the subunit-selective RH domain unfolding pathway in which instability of the Tyr427 binding pocket facilitates its release followed by domain transfer, acting as a trigger for further RH domain destabilization and subsequent unfolding. As further support for this pathway, NMR studies demonstrate that addition of an RH active site-directed isoquinolone ligand retards the subunit-selective RH' domain unfolding behavior of the p66/p66' homodimer. As a result, this study demonstrates the feasibility of directly targeting RT maturation with therapeutics.« less

  11. High reliability plastic packaging for microelectronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.; Tuck, M.

    1997-07-01

    Goal was Assembly Test Chips (ATCs) which could be used for evaluating plastic encapsulation technologies. Circuits were demonstrated for measuring Au-Al wirebond and Al metal corrosion failure rates during accelerated temperature and humidity testing. The test circuits on the ATC02.5 chip were very sensitive to extrinsic or processing induced failure rates. Accelerated aging experiments were conducted with unpassivated triple track Al structures on the ATC02.6 chip; the unpassivated tracks were found to be very sensitive to particulate contamination. Some modifications to existing circuitry were suggested. The piezoresistive stress sensing circuitry designed for the ATC04 test chip was found suitable for determining the change in the state of mechanical stress at the die when both initial and final measurements were made near room temperature (RT). Attempt to measure thermal stress between RT and a typical polymer glass transition temperature failed because of excessive die resistor- substrate leakage currents at the high temperature end; suitable circuitry changes were developed to overcome this problem. One temperature and humidity experiment was conducted with Sandia developed static radom access memory parts to examine non-corrosion CMOS failures; this objective was not achieved, but corrosion failure at the metal to Si contacts on the die surface could be detected. This 2-year effort resulted in new designs for test circuits which could be used on an advanced ATC for reliability assessment in Defense Programs electronics development projects.

  12. Temperature dependence of the Tafel slope and electrochemical barrier symmetry factor,. beta. , in electrode kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, B.E. ); Tessier, D.F. ); Wilkinson, D.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The significance of the new-established situation that the Tafel slopes, b, ( = d{eta}/d In i) for simple charge-transfer processes at electrodes are usually not represented with respect to variation with temperature, T, by the conventional relation b = RT/{beta} cpF, where {beta} is a constant-valued electrochemical charge-transfer barrier-symmetry coefficient, is examined in the light of recent comments on the problem. Clear evidence is given that b has the form b = RT({beta}sub H + T{beta}{sub s})F for proton transfer at Hg in water and various other solvents, where {beta}{sub H} and T{beta}{sub s} are enthalpic components of the overall {beta}, corresponding to experimentally observable potential-dependence of both the enthalpy and the entropy of activation, respectively. The frequent deviation from conventional behavior thus arises because the entropy of activation, as well as the energy of activation, can be potential-dependent, a situation that, until recently, has been neglected in inter-pretations of electrode-kinetic experiments. The origin of the conventional effect of potential on electrode reaction rates, through the change of electrode work function,{Phi}, with overpotential or electrode potential, V, ({Phi}{sub v} = {Phi}{sub v = O}{plus minus} eV), is examined critically in relation to the potential-dependent surface-potential component, {chi}{sub d}, in {Phi}, which can also be T-dependent.

  13. Zinc protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from Cr(III)(phenanthroline){sub 3}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankaramanivel, Sundararaj; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2010-03-15

    We have studied the effect of Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} [(tris(1,10-phenanthroline) chromium(III) chloride)] on lymphocytes in order to find out if metallothioneins (MTs) are produced in the process. We also investigated whether zinc pretreatment is able to protect cells from apoptosis reported to occur for this compound. Our results indicate that MT synthesis is induced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3}, and it has been identified as the MT-3 isoform through RT-PCR which has not been reported earlier. By zinc pretreatment, this apoptosis is reversed as inferred from cytotoxicity studies, Annexin-V/PI staining, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation pattern and ultrastructural investigations using TEM and SEM. The zinc pretreatment reduces the amount of ROS produced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} . The MT-1a and 1b synthesized by zinc (also evidenced through RT-PCR experiments) is possibly able to scavenge ROS which is one of the early signaling molecules that lead to apoptosis. Zinc pretreatment also reverses the changes in downstream signaling events such as mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels and the activation of caspase-3. This is the first report on the induction of MT-3 in lymphocytes due to a metal stress or any other stimuli. Even though MT-3 is synthesized here, apoptosis still occurs due to ROS production on Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} exposure when the cells have not been primed with zinc.

  14. Impact of Radiotherapy on Fertility, Pregnancy, and Neonatal Outcomes in Female Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wo, Jennifer Y.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation has many potential long-term effects on cancer survivors. Female cancer patients may experience decreased fertility depending on the site irradiated. Oncologists should be aware of these consequences and discuss options for fertility preservation before initiating therapy. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive review of the existing literature was conducted. Studies reporting the outcomes for female patients treated with cranio-spinal, abdominal, or pelvic radiation reporting fertility, pregnancy, or neonatal-related outcomes were reviewed. Results: Cranio-spinal irradiation elicited significant hormonal changes in women that affected their ability to become pregnant later in life. Women treated with abdomino-pelvic radiation have an increased rate of uterine dysfunction leading to miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and placental abnormalities. Early menopause results from low-dose ovarian radiation. Ovarian transposition may decrease the rates of ovarian dysfunction. Conclusions: There is a dose-dependent relationship between ovarian radiation therapy (RT) and premature menopause. Patients treated with RT must be aware of the impact of treatment on fertility and explore appropriate options.

  15. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in the Repairs of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, George J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Simonen, Fredric A.

    2006-02-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a generalized flaw size and density distribution for the population of U.S. reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict vessel specific flaw rates for use in probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations that estimate vessel failure probability. Considerable progress has been made on the construction of an engineering data base of fabrication flaws in U.S. nuclear RPVs. The fabrication processes and product forms used to construct U.S. RPVs are represented in the data base. A validation methodology has been developed for characterizing the flaws for size, shape, orientation, and composition. The relevance of construction records has been established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. The fabrication flaws were detected in material removed from cancelled nuclear power plants using high sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing, and validated by other nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, and complemented by destructive testing. This paper describes research that has generated data on welding flaws, which indicated that the largest flaws occur in weld repairs. Recent research results confirm that repair flaws are complex in composition and may include cracks on the repair ends. Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear power plant components requires radiographic examinations (RT) of welds and requires repairs for RT indications that exceed code acceptable sizes. PNNL has previously obtained the complete construction records for two RPVs. Analysis of these records show a significant change in repair frequency.

  16. Atom Probe Tomography Examination of Carbon Redistribution in Quenched and Tempered 4340 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Amy J.; Miller, Michael K.; Alexander, David J.; Field, Robert D.; Clarke, Kester D.

    2012-08-07

    Quenching and tempering produces a wide range of mechanical properties in medium carbon, low alloyed steels - Study fragmentation behavior as a function of heat-treatment. Subtle microstructural changes accompany the mechanical property changes that result from quenching and tempering - Characterize the location and distribution of carbon and alloying elements in the microstructure using atom probe tomography (APT). Perform complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tempering influences the mechanical properties and fragmentation of quenched 4340 (hemi-shaped samples). APT revealed carbon-enriched features that contain a maximum of {approx}12-14 at.% carbon after quenching to RT (the level of carbon is perhaps associated with the extent of autotempering). TEM confirmed the presence of twinned martensite and indicates {var_epsilon} ({eta}) transition carbides after oil quenching to RT. Tempering at 325 C resulted in carbon-enriched plates (> 25 at.% C) with no significant element partitioning (transition carbides?). Tempering at 450 C and 575 C resulted in cementite ({approx} 25 at.% C) during late stage tempering; Cr, Mn, Mo partitioned to cementite and Si partitioned to ferrite. Tempering at 575 C resulted in P segregation at cementite interfaces and the formation of Cottrell atmospheres.

  17. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Scale Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Mahderekal, Dr. Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Building space cooling is, and until 2040 is expected to continue to be, the single largest use of electricity in the residential sector in the United States (EIA Energy Outlook 2015 .) Increases in electric-grid peak demand leads to higher electricity prices, system inefficiencies, power quality problems, and even failures. Thermally-activated systems, such as gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP), can reduce peak demand. This study describes the performance of a residential scale GHP. It was developed as part of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) that was authorized by the Department of Energy (DOE) between OAK Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southwest Gas. Results showed the GHP produced 16.5 kW (4.7 RT) of cooling capacity at 35 C (95 F) rating condition with gas coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.99. In heating, the GHP produced 20.2 kW (5.75 RT) with a gas COP of 1.33. The study also discusses other benefits and challenges facing the GHP technology such as cost, reliability, and noise.

  18. Laser-Activated Shape Memory Polymer Microactuator for Thrombus Removal Following Ischemic Stroke: Preliminary In Vitro Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, W; Metzger, M F; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2004-09-23

    Due to the narrow (3-hour) treatment window for effective use of the thrombolytic drug recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), there is a need to develop alternative treatments for ischemic stroke. We are developing an intravascular device for mechanical thrombus removal using shape memory polymer (SMP). We propose to deliver the SMP microactuator in its secondary straight rod form (length = 4 cm, diameter = 350 {micro}m) through a catheter distal to the vascular occlusion. The microactuator, which is mounted on the end of an optical fiber, is then transformed into its primary corkscrew shape by laser heating (diode laser, {lambda} = 800 nm) above its soft phase glass transition temperature (T{sub gs} = 55 C). Once deployed, the microactuator is retracted and the captured thrombus is removed to restore blood flow. The SMP is doped with indocyanine green (ICG) dye to increase absorption of the laser light. Successful deployment of the microactuator depends on the optical properties of the ICG-doped SMP and the optical coupling efficiency of the interface between the optical fiber and the SMP. Spectrophotometry, thermal imaging, and computer simulation aided the initial design effort and continue to be useful tools for optimization of the dye concentration and laser power. Thermomechanical testing was performed to characterize the elastic modulus of the SMP. We have demonstrated laser-activation of the SMP microactuator in air at room temperature, suggesting this concept is a promising therapeutic alternative to rt-PA.

  19. Determination of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H by hydrogen depth profiling with a tritium imaging plate technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higaki, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2015-03-15

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) and an oxide dispersion strengthened F82H (ODS-F82H) have been determined from depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen with a tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) in the temperature range from 298 K to 523 K. Data on hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D, in F82H, are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =1.1*10{sup -7}exp(-16[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT). The present data indicate almost no trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion due to an excess entry of energetic hydrogen by the plasma loading, which results in saturation of the trapping sites at the surface and even in the bulk. In the case of ODS-F82H, data of hydrogen diffusion coefficients are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =2.2*10{sup -7}exp(-30[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT) indicating a remarkable trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion caused by tiny oxide particles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the bulk of F82H. Such oxide particles introduced in the bulk may play an effective role not only on enhancement of mechanical strength but also on suppression of hydrogen penetration by plasma loading.

  20. The evolution of internal stress and dislocation during tensile deformation in a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel investigated by high-energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-12-01

    An application of high-energy wide angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the tensile deformation of 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel is presented. With tensile loading and in-situ Xray exposure, the lattice strain development of matrix was determined. The lattice strain was found to decrease with increasing temperature, and the difference in Young's modulus of six different reflections at different temperatures reveals the temperature dependence of elastic anisotropy. The mean internal stress was calculated and compared with the applied stress, showing that the strengthening factor increased with increasing temperature, indicating that the oxide nanoparticles have a good strengthening impact at high temperature. The dislocation density and character were also measured during tensile deformation. The dislocation density decreased with increasing of temperature due to the greater mobility of dislocation at high temperature. The dislocation character was determined by best-fit methods for different dislocation average contrasts with various levels of uncertainty. The results shows edge type dislocations dominate the plastic strain at room temperature (RT) and 300 C, while the screw type dislocations dominate at 600 C. The dominance of edge character in 9Cr F/M ODS steels at RT and 300 C is likely due to the pinning effect of nanoparticles for higher mobile edge dislocations when compared with screw dislocations, while the stronger screw type of dislocation structure at 600 C may be explained by the activated cross slip of screw segments.

  1. A Population-Based Study of the Fractionation of Postlumpectomy Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, Allison; Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario ; Kong, Weidong; Whelan, Timothy; Mackillop, William J.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal fractionation schedule of post lumpectomy radiation therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the fractionation of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) in Ontario, before and after the seminal Ontario Clinical Oncology Group (OCOG) trial, which showed the equivalence of 16- and 25-fraction schedules. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted by linking electronic treatment records to a population-based cancer registry. The study population included all patients who underwent lumpectomy for invasive breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between 1984 and 2008. Results: Over the study period, 41,747 breast cancer patients received post lumpectomy radiation therapy to the breast only. Both 16- and 25-fraction schedules were commonly used throughout the study period. In the early 1980s, shorter fractionation schedules were used in >80% of cases. Between 1985 and 1995, the proportion of patients treated with shorter fractionation decreased to 48%. After completion of the OCOG trial, shorter fractionation schemes were once again widely adopted across Ontario, and are currently used in about 71% of cases; however, large intercenter variations in fractionation persisted. Conclusions: The use of shorter schedules of post lumpectomy RT in Ontario increased after completion of the OCOG trial, but the trial had a less normative effect on practice than expected.

  2. Momentum-independent reflectionless transmission in the non-Hermitian time-reversal symmetric system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.Z.; Song, Z.

    2013-12-15

    We theoretically study the non-Hermitian systems, the non-Hermiticity of which arises from the unequal hopping amplitude (UHA) dimers. The distinguishing features of these models are that they have full real spectra if all of the eigenvectors are time-reversal (T) symmetric rather than parity-time-reversal (PT) symmetric, and that their Hermitian counterparts are shown to be an experimentally accessible system, which have the same topological structures as that of the original ones but modulated hopping amplitudes within the unbroken region. Under the reflectionless transmission condition, the scattering behavior of momentum-independent reflectionless transmission (RT) can be achieved in the concerned non-Hermitian system. This peculiar feature indicates that, for a certain class of non-Hermitian systems with a balanced combination of the RT dimers, the defects can appear fully invisible to an outside observer. -- Highlights: We investigate the non-Hermitian system with time reversal symmetry. The Hermitian counterpart is experimentally accessible system. The behavior of momentum-independent reflectionless transmission can be achieved. A balanced combination of reflectionless transmission dimers leads to invisibility. It paves an alternative way for the design of invisible cloaking devices.

  3. Recombination radius of a Frenkel pair and capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by vacancy clusters in bcc Fe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-01-01

    The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is a fundamental parameter for the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) and mean field rate theory (RT) methods that are used to investigate irradiation damage accumulation in neutron irradiated nuclear materials. The recombination radius in bcc Fe has been studied both experimentally and numerically, however there is no general consensus about its value. The detailed atomistic processes of recombination also remain uncertain. Values from 1:0a₀ to 3:3a₀ have been employed as a recombination radius in previous studies using OKMC and RT. The recombination process of a Frenkel pair is investigated at the atomicmore » level using the self-evolved atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method in this paper. SEAKMC calculations reveal that a self-interstitial atom recombines with a vacancy in a spontaneous reaction from several nearby sites following characteristic pathways. The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is estimated to be 2.26a₀ by taking the average of the recombination distances from 80 simulation cases. This value agrees well with the experimental estimate. In addition, we apply these procedures to the capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by a vacancy cluster. The capture radius is found to gradually increase with the size of the vacancy cluster. The fitting curve for the capture radius is obtained as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster.« less

  4. PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN PLASMOID EJECTIONS DERIVED FROM RADIO DRIFTING PULSATING STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishizuka, N.; Karlický, M.; Bárta, M.; Janvier, M.

    2015-02-01

    We report observations of slowly drifting pulsating structures (DPSs) in the 0.8-4.5 GHz frequency range of the RT4 and RT5 radio spectrographs at Ondřejov Observatory, between 2002 and 2012. We found 106 events of DPSs, which we classified into four cases: (I) single events with a constant frequency drift (12 events), (II) multiple events occurring in the same flare with constant frequency drifts (11 events), (III) single or multiple events with increasing or decreasing frequency drift rates (52 events), and (IV) complex events containing multiple events occurring at the same time in a different frequency range (31 events). Many DPSs are associated with hard X-ray (HXR) bursts (15-25 keV) and soft X-ray (SXR) gradient peaks, as they typically occurred at the beginning of HXR peaks. This indicates that DPS events are related to the processes of fast energy release and particle acceleration. Furthermore, interpreting DPSs as signatures of plasmoids, we measured their ejection velocity, their width, and their height from the DPS spectra, from which we also estimated the reconnection rate and the plasma beta. In this interpretation, constant frequency drift indicates a constant velocity of a plasmoid, and an increasing/decreasing frequency drift indicates a deceleration/acceleration of a plasmoid ejection. The reconnection rate shows a good positive correlation with the plasmoid velocity. Finally we confirmed that some DPS events show plasmoid counterparts in Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images.

  5. Transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis in Viola yedoensis Makino (Fam. Violaceae) responsive to cadmium (Cd) pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Jian; Luo, Mao; Zhu, Ye; He, Ying; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun

    2015-03-27

    Viola yedoensis Makino is an important Chinese traditional medicine plant adapted to cadmium (Cd) pollution regions. Illumina sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of V. yedoensis Makino. We sequenced Cd-treated (VIYCd) and untreated (VIYCK) samples of V. yedoensis, and obtained 100,410,834 and 83,587,676 high quality reads, respectively. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 109,800 unigenes were finally generated with an average length of 661 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning unigenes with public protein databases including NR, NT, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. In addition, 892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between the two libraries of untreated (VIYCK) and Cd-treated (VIYCd) plants. Moreover, 15 randomly selected DEGs were further validated with qRT-PCR and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. This study firstly generated a successful global analysis of the V. yedoensis transcriptome and it will provide for further studies on gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in Violaceae. - Highlights: • A de novo assembly generated 109,800 unigenes and 5,4479 of them were annotated. • 31,285 could be classified into 26 COG categories. • 263 biosynthesis pathways were predicted and classified into five categories. • 892 DEGs were detected and 15 of them were validated by qRT-PCR.

  6. OCT4A contributes to the stemness and multi-potency of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Kwang-Won; Lee, Sae-Rom; Bhandari, Dilli Ram; Roh, Kyoung-Hwan; Park, Sang-Bum; So, Ah-Young; Jung, Ji-Won; Seo, Min-Soo; Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul ; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Laboratory of Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul ; Lee, Yong-Soon; Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul ; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul

    2009-06-19

    The OCT4A gene, a POU homeodomain transcription factor, has been shown to be expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESC) as well as hUCB-MSCs. In this study, the roles played by OCT4A in hUCB-MSCs were determined by stably inhibiting OCT4A with lenti-viral vector-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA). A decreased rate of cell proliferation was observed in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs. Down-regulation of CCNA2 expression in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR analysis in three genetically independent hUCB-MSC clones. Adipogenic differentiation was also suppressed in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs. The up-regulation of DTX1 and down-regulation of HDAC1, 2, and 4 expressions may be related to this differentiation deformity. The expression of other transcription factors, including SOX2, REX1 and c-MYC, was also affected by OCT4 inhibition in hUCB-MSCs. In conclusion, these finding suggest that OCT4A performs functionally conserved roles in hUCB-MSCs, making its expression biologically important for ex vivo culture of hUCB-MSCs.

  7. Raster-scanning serial protein crystallography using micro- and nano-focused synchrotron beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coquelle, Nicolas; Brewster, Aaron S.; Kapp, Ulrike; Shilova, Anastasya; Weinhausen, Britta; Burghammer, Manfred; Colletier, Jacques -Philippe

    2015-04-25

    High-resolution structural information was obtained from lysozyme microcrystals (20 µm in the largest dimension) using raster-scanning serial protein crystallography on micro- and nano-focused beamlines at the ESRF. Data were collected at room temperature (RT) from crystals sandwiched between two silicon nitride wafers, thereby preventing their drying, while limiting background scattering and sample consumption. In order to identify crystal hits, new multi-processing and GUI-driven Python-based pre-analysis software was developed, named NanoPeakCell, that was able to read data from a variety of crystallographic image formats. Further data processing was carried out using CrystFEL, and the resultant structures were refined to 1.7 Åmore » resolution. The data demonstrate the feasibility of RT raster-scanning serial micro- and nano-protein crystallography at synchrotrons and validate it as an alternative approach for the collection of high-resolution structural data from micro-sized crystals. Advantages of the proposed approach are its thriftiness, its handling-free nature, the reduced amount of sample required, the adjustable hit rate, the high indexing rate and the minimization of background scattering.« less

  8. Large enhancement of Blocking temperature by control of interfacial structures in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Shouguo Han, Gang; Jiang, Shaolong; Yang, Kang; Liu, Qianqian; Yu, Guanghua; Liu, Jialong; Wang, Rongming

    2015-09-15

    The Blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers was greatly enhanced from far below room temperature (RT) to above RT by inserting 1 nm thick Mg layer at IrMn/MgO interface. Furthermore, the exchange bias field (H{sub eb}) was increased as well by the control of interfacial structures. The evidence for a significant fraction of Mn-O bonding at IrMn/MgO interface without Mg insertion layer was provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bonding between Mn and O can decrease the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, leading to lower value of T{sub B} in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers. Ultrathin Mg film inserted at IrMn/MgO interface acting as an oxygen sinking layer can suppress the oxidation reactions between Mn and O and reduce the formation of Mn-O bonding greatly. The oxidation suppression results in the recovery of the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, which can enhance T{sub B} and H{sub eb}. Furthermore, the high resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the Mg insertion layer can efficiently promote a high-quality MgO (200) texture. This study will enhance the understanding of physics in antiferromagnet-based spintronic devices.

  9. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Retrieval System Receiver Trailer and Transport Trailer Operations and Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DALE, R.N.

    2000-05-01

    A system to accommodate the removal of long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) from Hanford underground radioactive waste storage tanks was designed, procured, and demonstrated, via a project activity during the 1990s. The system is the Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS). LLCERS will be maintained and operated by Tank Farms Engineering and Operations organizations and other varied projects having a need for the system. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the LLCERS Receiver Trailer (RT) and Transport Trailer (TT) resides with the RPP Characterization Project Operations organization. The purpose of this document is to provide vendor supplied operating and maintenance (O & M) information for the RT and TT in a readily retrievable form. This information is provided this way instead of in a vendor information (VI) file to maintain configuration control of the operations baseline as described in RPP-6085, ''Configuration Management Plan for Long Length Contaminated Equipment Receiver and Transport Trailers''. Additional Operations Baseline documents are identified in RPP-6085.

  10. On virial analysis at low aspect ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Reusch, Joshua A.; Thome, Kathreen E.

    2016-07-28

    The validity of virial analysis to infer global MHD equilibrium poloidal beta βp and internal inductance ℓi from external magnetics measurements is examined for low aspect ratio configurations with A < 2. Numerical equilibrium studies at varied aspect ratio are utilized to validate the technique at finite aspect ratio. The effect of applying high-A approximations to low-A experimental data is quantified and demonstrates significant over-estimation of stored energy (factors of 2–10) in spherical tokamak geometry. Experimental approximations to equilibrium-dependent volume integral terms in the analysis are evaluated at low-A. Highly paramagnetic configurations are found to be inadequately represented through themore » virial mean radius parameter RT. Alternate formulations for inferring βp and ℓi that are independent of RT to avoid this difficulty are presented for the static isotropic limit. Lastly, these formulations are suitable for fast estimation of tokamak stored energy components at low aspect ratio using virial analysis.« less

  11. An Optimized Autoregressive Forecast Error Generator for Wind and Load Uncertainty Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Mello, Phillip; Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents a first-order autoregressive algorithm to generate real-time (RT), hour-ahead (HA), and day-ahead (DA) wind and load forecast errors. The methodology aims at producing random wind and load forecast time series reflecting the autocorrelation and cross-correlation of historical forecast data sets. Five statistical characteristics are considered: the means, standard deviations, autocorrelations, and cross-correlations. A stochastic optimization routine is developed to minimize the differences between the statistical characteristics of the generated time series and the targeted ones. An optimal set of parameters are obtained and used to produce the RT, HA, and DA forecasts in due order of succession. This method, although implemented as the first-order regressive random forecast error generator, can be extended to higher-order. Results show that the methodology produces random series with desired statistics derived from real data sets provided by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The wind and load forecast error generator is currently used in wind integration studies to generate wind and load inputs for stochastic planning processes. Our future studies will focus on reflecting the diurnal and seasonal differences of the wind and load statistics and implementing them in the random forecast generator.

  12. Crystal structures of the reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia-virus related virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Chung, Suhman; Miller, Maria; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-06-19

    The ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) plays a critical role in the life cycle by degrading the RNA strands of DNA/RNA hybrids. In addition, RNase H activity is required to precisely remove the RNA primers from nascent (-) and (+) strand DNA. We report here three crystal structures of the RNase H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) RT, namely (i) the previously identified construct from which helix C was deleted, (ii) the intact domain, and (iii) the intact domain complexed with an active site {alpha}-hydroxytropolone inhibitor. Enzymatic assays showed that the intact RNase H domain retained catalytic activity, whereas the variant lacking helix C was only marginally active, corroborating the importance of this helix for enzymatic activity. Modeling of the enzyme-substrate complex elucidated the essential role of helix C in binding a DNA/RNA hybrid and its likely mode of recognition. The crystal structure of the RNase H domain complexed with {beta}-thujaplicinol clearly showed that coordination by two divalent cations mediates recognition of the inhibitor.

  13. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  14. A Novel Risk Stratification to Predict Local-Regional Failures in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder After Radical Cystectomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei; Keefe, Stephen M.; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin E.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Vaughn, David J.; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LF) following radical cystectomy (RC) plus pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with or without chemotherapy for invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma are more common than previously reported. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LF but currently has no defined role because of previously reported morbidity. Modern techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest in RT. We assessed the risk of LF and determined those factors that predict recurrence to facilitate patient selection for future adjuvant RT trials. Methods and Materials: From 1990-2008, 442 patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma at University of Pennsylvania were prospectively followed after RC plus PLND with or without chemotherapy with routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred thirty (29%) patients received chemotherapy. LF was any pelvic failure detected before or within 3 months of distant failure. Competing risk analyses identified factors predicting increased LF risk. Results: On univariate analysis, pathologic stage {>=}pT3, <10 nodes removed, positive margins, positive nodes, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and mixed histology significantly predicted LF; node density was marginally predictive, but use of chemotherapy, number of positive nodes, type of surgical diversion, age, gender, race, smoking history, and body mass index were not. On multivariate analysis, only stage {>=}pT3 and <10 nodes removed were significant independent LF predictors with hazard ratios of 3.17 and 2.37, respectively (P<.01). Analysis identified 3 patient subgroups with significantly different LF risks: low-risk ({<=}pT2), intermediate-risk ({>=}pT3 and {>=}10 nodes removed), and high-risk ({>=}pT3 and <10 nodes) with 5-year LF rates of 8%, 23%, and 42%, respectively (P<.01). Conclusions: This series using routine CT and MRI surveillance to detect LF confirms that such failures are relatively common

  15. Low p53 Binding Protein 1 (53BP1) Expression Is Associated With Increased Local Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neboori, Hanmanth J.R.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wu Hao; Yang Qifeng; Aly, Amal; Goyal, Sharad; Schiff, Devora; Moran, Meena S.; Golhar, Ryan; Chen Chunxia; Moore, Dirk; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the expression of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) has prognostic significance in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (BCS+RT). Methods and Materials: A tissue microarray of early-stage breast cancer treated with BCS+RT from a cohort of 514 women was assayed for 53BP1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Through log-rank tests and univariate and multivariate models, the staining profile of each tumor was correlated with clinical endpoints, including ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival (IBRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 477 (93%) evaluable tumors, 63 (13%) were scored as low. Low expression of 53BP1 was associated with worse outcomes for all endpoints studied, including 10-year IBRFS (76.8% vs. 90.5%; P=.01), OS (66.4% vs. 81.7%; P=.02), CSS (66.0% vs. 87.4%; P<.01), DMFS (55.9% vs. 87.0%; P<.01), and RFS (45.2% vs. 80.6%; P<.01). Multivariate analysis incorporating various clinico-pathologic markers and 53BP1 expression found that 53BP1 expression was again an independent predictor of all endpoints (IBRFS: P=.0254; OS: P=.0094; CSS: P=.0033; DMFS: P=.0006; RFS: P=.0002). Low 53BP1 expression was also found to correlate with triple-negative (TN) phenotype (P<.01). Furthermore, in subset analysis of all TN breast cancer, negative 53BP1 expression trended for lower IBRFS (72.3% vs. 93.9%; P=.0361) and was significant for worse DMFS (48.2% vs. 86.8%; P=.0035) and RFS (37.8% vs. 83.7%; P=.0014). Conclusion: Our data indicate that low 53BP1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for local relapse among other endpoints in early-stage breast cancer and TN breast cancer patients treated with BCS+RT. These results should be verified in larger cohorts of patients to validate their clinical

  16. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.; Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  17. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Yinbin; Ye, Bei; Mei, Zhigang; Hofman, Gerard; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2015-12-10

    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident

  18. Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening Among Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wattson, Daniel A.; Hunink, M.G. Myriam; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Das, Prajnan; Hodgson, David C.; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors face an increased risk of treatment-related lung cancer. Screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) may allow detection of early stage, resectable cancers. We developed a Markov decision-analytic and cost-effectiveness model to estimate the merits of annual LDCT screening among HL survivors. Methods and Materials: Population databases and HL-specific literature informed key model parameters, including lung cancer rates and stage distribution, cause-specific survival estimates, and utilities. Relative risks accounted for radiation therapy (RT) technique, smoking status (>10 pack-years or current smokers vs not), age at HL diagnosis, time from HL treatment, and excess radiation from LDCTs. LDCT assumptions, including expected stage-shift, false-positive rates, and likely additional workup were derived from the National Lung Screening Trial and preliminary results from an internal phase 2 protocol that performed annual LDCTs in 53 HL survivors. We assumed a 3% discount rate and a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results: Annual LDCT screening was cost effective for all smokers. A male smoker treated with mantle RT at age 25 achieved maximum QALYs by initiating screening 12 years post-HL, with a life expectancy benefit of 2.1 months and an incremental cost of $34,841/QALY. Among nonsmokers, annual screening produced a QALY benefit in some cases, but the incremental cost was not below the WTP threshold for any patient subsets. As age at HL diagnosis increased, earlier initiation of screening improved outcomes. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to the lung cancer incidence and mortality rates and expected stage-shift from screening. Conclusions: HL survivors are an important high-risk population that may benefit from screening, especially those treated in the past with large radiation fields including mantle or involved-field RT. Screening

  19. Patch-based generation of a pseudo CT from conventional MRI sequences for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreasen, Daniel; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon A. L.; Edmund, Jens M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are not uniquely related to electron density. To solve the task, voxel-based or atlas-based models have typically been used. The voxel-based models require a specialized dual ultrashort echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization and the atlas-based models require deformable registrations of conventional MRI scans. In this study, we investigate the potential of a patch-based method for creating a pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI scans without using deformable registrations. We compare this method against two state-of-the-art methods within the voxel-based and atlas-based categories. Methods: The data consisted of CT and MRI scans of five cranial RT patients. To compare the performance of the different methods, a nested cross validation was done to find optimal model parameters for all the methods. Voxel-wise and geometric evaluations of the pCTs were done. Furthermore, a radiologic evaluation based on water equivalent path lengths was carried out, comparing the upper hemisphere of the head in the pCT and the real CT. Finally, the dosimetric accuracy was tested and compared for a photon treatment plan. Results: The pCTs produced with the patch-based method had the best voxel-wise, geometric, and radiologic agreement with the real CT, closely followed by the atlas-based method. In terms of the dosimetric accuracy, the patch-based method had average deviations of less than 0.5% in measures related to target coverage. Conclusions: We showed that a patch-based method could generate an accurate pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and

  20. Incidence and Treatment Patterns in Hospitalizations for Malignant Spinal Cord Compression in the United States, 1998-2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mak, Kimberley S.; Lee, Leslie K.; Mak, Raymond H.; Wang, Shuang; Pile-Spellman, John; Abrahm, Janet L.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Balboni, Tracy A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To characterize patterns in incidence, management, and costs of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) hospitalizations in the United States, using population-based data. Methods and Materials: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, an all-payer healthcare database representative of all U.S. hospitalizations, MSCC-related hospitalizations were identified for the period 1998-2006. Cases were combined with age-adjusted Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer death data to estimate annual incidence. Linear regression characterized trends in patient, treatment, and hospital characteristics, costs, and outcomes. Logistic regression was used to examine inpatient treatment (radiotherapy [RT], surgery, or neither) by hospital characteristics and year, adjusting for confounding. Results: We identified 15,367 MSCC-related cases, representing 75,876 hospitalizations. Lung cancer (24.9%), prostate cancer (16.2%), and multiple myeloma (11.1%) were the most prevalent underlying cancer diagnoses. The annual incidence of MSCC hospitalization among patients dying of cancer was 3.4%; multiple myeloma (15.0%), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (13.9%), and prostate cancer (5.5%) exhibited the highest cancer-specific incidence. Over the study period, inpatient RT for MSCC decreased (odds ratio [OR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.81), whereas surgery increased (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.84). Hospitalization costs for MSCC increased (5.3% per year, p < 0.001). Odds of inpatient RT were greater at teaching hospitals (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.67), whereas odds of surgery were greater at urban institutions (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.29-2.58). Conclusions: In the United States, patients dying of cancer have an estimated 3.4% annual incidence of MSCC requiring hospitalization. Inpatient management of MSCC varied over time and by hospital characteristics, with hospitalization costs increasing. Future studies are required to determine the impact of treatment patterns on MSCC

  1. Section 34

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x ' j N r'1 C xr j N s'1 A &1 rs N s (2 &2 x ) 2 ' C xx & j N r,s'1 C xr C xs A &1 rs F(x) ' exp(&x 2 / R 2 c ) % e < exp(&x 2 / R 2 n ) Session Papers 149 (1) (2) (3) Estimation of Errors in Objectively Analyzed Fields and Sensitivity to Number and Spacing of Stations M.J. Leach, J.J. Yio, and R.T. Cederwall Atmospheric Science Division Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Motivation Single-column models (SCMs) are designed to test param-

  2. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness of ASTM A533, Grade B Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, S.M.; Link, R.E.

    1999-05-01

    The dynamic fracture toughness of an ASTM A533, Grade B steel plate was determined at several temperatures in the ductile-brittle transition region. Crack-tip loading rates ranged from approximately 10(sup3) to 10(sup5) MPa m/s. The fracture toughness was shown to decrease with increased loading rate. The dynamic fracture toughness was compared with results from previous investigations, and it was shown that the decrease in toughness due to increased loading rate at the highest test temperature was not as severe as reported in previous investigations. It was also shown that the reference temperature. T(sub0) was better index of the fracture toughness vs. temperature relationship than the nil-ductility temperature, RT(subNDT), for this material.

  3. Three-Stage Production Cost Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Benefits of Intra-Hour Scheduling between Balancing Authorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Guo, Tao

    2015-07-30

    This paper introduces a Production Cost Modeling (PCM) approach to evaluate the benefits of intra-hour scheduling between Balancing Authorities (BAs). The system operation is modeled in a three-stage sequential manner: day ahead (DA)-hour ahead (HA)-real time (RT). In addition to contingency reserve, each BA will need to carry out “up” and “down” load following and regulation reserve capacity requirements in the DA and HA time frames. In the real-time simulation, only contingency and regulation reserves are carried out as load following is deployed. To model current real-time operation with hourly schedules, a new constraint was introduced to force each BA net exchange schedule deviation from HA schedules to be within NERC ACE limits. Case studies that investigate the benefits of moving from hourly exchange schedules between WECC BAs into 10-min exchange schedules under two different levels of wind and solar penetration (11% and 33%) are presented.

  4. Y.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ' .;-;< 14 ,I> ,,.. ~&.<,y---.--- * 1 .?_ _ 1 c ,-J ..^1, j ' ii ,; ! :I : j' / - \* !- v- e . . *' ' -y " Y. ;: -.-, yl-j ' " : -2 F*;f yTJ IEYi~i~~, , .- -.~,ir:.~l -. ( z;y;,y:' y:i;?; p;l,r.LI :JC p2lOs;ilCT:i ItIC, . I i<,;;j:e;f:I;:l::, lj,yf, *t .. -77 ,.I .Y- ,P ' ?,u ,. P' r' -' I i F1.2.9: -__ ;!,IY?.879 (a> s :-;A ' c:; :; ,;r,t cc "q q?J r>ci ' I SV. ($! . f ._- . ' 1 -.<- J&q-I-/ /I r -r.s.~a,.&~z~---..- CT -3 im ILJ J ' Y.2 ?I!-,- r;7

  5. Voyager 2 observations of plasmas and flows out to 104 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J. D.; Decker, R. B. E-mail: robert.decker@apljhu.edu

    2014-09-10

    Voyager 2 has crossed through 20 AU of the heliosheath; assuming the same heliosheath thickness as at Voyager 1, it is now two-thirds of the way to the heliopause. The plasma data are generally of good quality, although the increasing flow angle of the plasma makes analysis more difficult. The average plasma speed has remained constant but the flow angles have increased to almost 60 in the RT plane and to almost 30 in the RN plane. The average density and thermal speed have been constant since a density increase observed in 2011. Comparison of V2 plasma flows derived from plasma science experiment (PLS) data and Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) proton anisotropies give good agreement except when heavy ion contributions or non-convective proton anisotropies are observed in the LECP data.

  6. Ultrasonic examination of the heavy section test blocks for hydroprocessing reactors used by the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Imgram, A.

    1995-12-01

    An 18-inch (457 mm) thick Cr-Mo steel test block with an austenitic stainless steel ID cladding was designed and fabricated at the direction of the Material Properties Council in cooperation with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) Committee on Nondestructive Examination of Components. The test block contains several embedded flaws located near both ID and OD surfaces. Chevron Research and Technology Company and WesDyne International conducted the initial UT Examinations on this block at Chevron. In addition, a 10-inch (254 mm) thick block with embedded flaws was also examined. All the flaws m the two blocks were either cracks or lack of fusion. The examination results demonstrate the feasibility of UT to detect and size flaws in hydroprocessing reactor vessels and provide a basis to compare the relative capabilities of UT with the radiographic (RT) inspections currently required by the fabrication code.

  7. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the {beta}3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMB3) in herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulkkinen, L.; Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J.

    1994-11-15

    Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by blister formation within the dermal-epidermal basement membrane. Based on immunofluorescence analysis recognizing laminin 5 epitopes (previously known as nicein/kalinin), the genes for this lamina lucida protein have been proposed as candidate genes in H-JEB. Amplification of mRNA by RT-PCR, followed by direct nucleotide sequencing, revealed a homozygous C-to T transition resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA{r_arrow}TGA) on both alleles. This mutation was verified at the genomic DNA level, and both parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. This is the first description of a mutation in the laminin {beta}3 chain gene (LAMB3) of laminin 5 in an H-JEB patient. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  8. A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.

    1996-04-01

    An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.

  9. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1998-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  10. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  11. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    2000-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  12. Direct Drive Cylindrical Implosions on the Omega Laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.W.

    1999-05-10

    The primary goals of this report are to (1) understand experimental radiography better (radiograph known static targets); and (2) to better understand the sources and effects of short wavelength perturbations on the long wavelength RT growth. Some secondary goals are to initiate Richtmyer-Meshkov mix targets; test beryllium cylinder implosions (if available); and observe emission spectroscopy from chlorinated foam to study implosions. To achieve these goals the authors: (1) shot mix targets with late backlighter and confirmed set up of radiography, begin static targets; (2) did a sequence of unperturbed and perturbed targets of different smoothness and thickness, fill in static, beryllium, and chlorinated foam targets; and (3) repeated step number 2 at a different backlighter time.

  13. Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-10-27

    This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

  14. Combined Heating and Power Using Microturbines in a Major Urban Hotel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweetser, Richard; Wagner, Timothy; Leslie, Neil; Stovall, Therese K

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a cooperative effort to install and operate a Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at a major hotel in San Francisco, CA. The packaged CHP System integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller was directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, and could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 Refrigeration Tons (RT) of chilled water at a 59oF (15oC) ambient temperature. For the year, the CHP efficiency was 54 percent. Significant lessons learned from this test and verification project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

  15. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosfjord, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  16. Validation of detailed thermal hydraulic models used for LMR safety and for improvement of technical specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, F.E.

    1995-12-31

    Detailed steady-state and transient coolant temperatures and flow rates from an operating reactor have been used to validate the multiple pin model in the SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis code. This multiple pin capability can be used for explicit calculations of axial and lateral temperature distributions within individual subassemblies. Thermocouples at a number of axial locations and in a number of different coolant sub-channels m the XXO9 instrumented subassembly in the EBR-II reactor provided temperature data from the Shutdown Heat Removal Test (SHRT) series. Flow meter data for XXO9 and for the overall system are also available from these tests. Results of consistent SASSYS-1 multiple pin analyses for both the SHRT-45 loss-of-flow-without-scram-test and the S14RT-17 protected loss-of-flow test agree well with the experimental data, providing validation of the SASSYS-1 code over a wide range of conditions.

  17. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  18. O and H diffusion in uraninite: Implications for fluid-uraninite interactions, nuclear waste disposal, and nuclear forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Bostick, Debra A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients for oxygen and hydrogen were determined from a series of natural uraninite H2O experiments between 50 and 700 C. Under hydrous conditions there are two diffusion mechanisms: (1) an initial extremely fast-path diffusion mechanism that overprinted the oxygen isotopic composition of the entire crystals regardless of temperature and (2) a slower volume-diffusive mechanism dominated by defect clusters that displace or eject nearest neighbor oxygen atoms to form two interstitial sites and two partial vacancies, and by vacancy migration. Using the volume diffusion coefficients in the temperature range of 400 600 C, diffusion coefficients for oxygen can be represented by D = 1.90e5 exp (123,382 J/RT) cm2/s and for temperatures between 100 and 300 C the diffusion coefficients can be represented by D = 1.95e10 exp (62484 J/ RT) cm2/s, where the activation energies for uraninite are 123.4 and 62.5 kJ/mol, respectively. Hydrogen diffusion in uraninite appears to be controlled by similar mechanisms as oxygen. Using the volume diffusion coefficients for temperatures between 50 and 700 C, diffusion coefficients for hydrogen can be represented by D = 9.28e6 exp (156,528 J/RT) cm2/s for temperatures between 450 and 700 C and D = 1.39e14 exp (34518 J/RT) cm2/s for temperatures between 50 and 400 C, where the activation energies for uraninite are 156.5 and 34.5 kJ/mol, respectively. Results from these new experiments have implications for isotopic exchange during natural UO2 water interactions. The exceptionally low d18O values of natural uraninites (i.e. 32& to 19.5&) from unconformity-type uranium deposits in Saskatchewan, in conjunction with theoretical and experimental uraninite water and UO3 water fractionation factors, suggest that primary uranium mineralization is not in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with coeval clay and silicate minerals. The low d18O values have been interpreted as resulting from the low temperature overprinting of primary uranium

  19. Low temperature and magnetic field behaviour of the (Cr{sub 84}Re{sub 16}){sub 89.6}V{sub 10.4} alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, B. S. Sheppard, C. J.; Prinsloo, A. R. E.; Lodya, L.

    2014-05-07

    Measurements of the temperature (T) dependence of the magnetic susceptibility (χ) and electrical resistance (R) on an antiferromagnetic (AFM) (Cr{sub 84}Re{sub 16}){sub 89.6}V{sub 10.4} alloy are reported in order to probe the existence of quantum critical behaviour (QCB) utilizing static magnetic fields (H) as a tuning parameter. The results indicate that an increase in H suppresses T{sub N} in such a way that it varies exponentially with increasing H. R(T) measurements show evidence of possible superconducting (SC) behaviour below 1 K at H = 0 T. These results therefore indicate the coexistence of the AFM and SC phases in the (Cr{sub 84}Re{sub 16}){sub 89.6}V{sub 10.4} alloy.

  20. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    petrol Witnessing a birth WINTER 2008 S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R C H & D E V E LO P M E N T MAG A Z I N E - VO LUM E 9 , N O. 4 Sunshine to petrol Beauty, molecules deep A l l i a n c e s > Sandia Technology (ISSN: 1547-5190) is a quarterly maga- zine published by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy. With main

  1. Jnited States Government

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jnited States Government Department of Energy memorandum OATE Ef:>L Y TO ~TTI\j OF UBJECT May 6, 198o ER-70 ~ Information on a Major N~w Initiativ~: Mapping and s~qu~ncing the Human G~nom~ TO Alvin W. Triv~lpi~r~, Dir~~tor Offir~ of En~rgy RPs~arch BACKGROUND: In thP ~arly 1970's Walt~r Gilb~rt, a form~r Harvard Univ~rsity physics prnf~ssor, and Fr~d Sang~r, a Cambridg~ biochemist, developPd important n~w approarhPs to DNA sequPnring. ThP m~thods, which allow rapid det~rminatinn of th~

  2. Direct Drive Heavy-Ion-Beam Inertial Fusion at High Coupling Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B. Grant; Logan, B. Grant; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2007-06-25

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry and Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX ICF target physics code shows the ion range increasing four-fold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16 to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  3. Physical and electronic properties of ZnO:Al/porous silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Choongmo; Park, Anna; Prabakar, K.; Lee, Chongmu . E-mail: cmlee@inha.ac.kr

    2006-02-02

    UV, violet and blue-green photoluminescence has been achieved at room temperature (RT) from ZnO:Al (AZO) films deposited by radio frequency (rf) co-sputtering. As the ZnO target power increases from 100 W, the violet luminescence vanishes and the blue and green-blue luminescences appear. The most intense UV and blue-green luminescence is obtained for the films deposited at higher sputtering powers depending upon the stoichiometry of the films as well as the crystalline quality. The as-prepared porous silicon (PS) emission band lies in the blue-green spectral region and is blue shifted due to the AZO deposition. The current-voltage characteristics of AZO/PS heterostructures have been studied. The ideality factor is found to be 19 and the series resistance as determined from the forward characteristics is 36 M{omega}.

  4. CILJCU~ATI, QUO J. A. Qu~glw, M

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    lo&&-, : i e r : gtdlm FILLS March 12, 1956 ~'RII~~~~~I~~D~.,A~ICAW~~TMDRLBS, CILJCU~ATI, QUO J. A. Qu~glw, M .D. c. E. aahwun ObJcrativr oi THpt On !iUesd8y, Fabmerg 28,19!36, th@ lILQMetallurgMalD@p~rtJmnt beipn bzdquotting green ult-ll( blend on e 350 ton hydmulla prau 8t the Ura &i&nnrlug DivUiou of Ameria8n Steel muUdPae8, c&alMatl, Ohio. Approll'tely a,ooo pound8 of greeu ult ub briqumtte4 bw13ry 8 -rioa of mvea day,. Par the pwpou ofwalutlngexpo88mmmafpemmm8 linrelvmd

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    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  6. I!' L;I)

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  7. IY:ILrnr IR-rl?l'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    IY:ILrnr IR-rl?l' w&m PadmmmTuJ tmml' aIs~#l!REm m-t, - 188kwxm BYI alahard 0. cr*rrror cy- r' , ' .~ -' - -' ^ , /' cs< 4. .c :' ; *. .h,- ' (z&&y .' ,/ ;f. .* &J >l a. L \' P" ,,,' ,.' I * :{' \ !' l t ..b c&~ tf ~ , r ,, r. ,* .;;;., k J ;, b $y$' Lrmprrw)rlt&tmxJ- a@. Frqrr at t&i8 raoLli:.y SC\ daummiI~Luualndr8rr~lfCUIf@@?~~oy-~ d )I t rq ,i .* 1 Virium~~bUrlJlOgarspvlr at ma rdutw. (500 p-4 3) i" 1 ) ,ip" 2. rt A8 - u %I* mm

  8. L

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    , . d Sepmber 20, 1976 . e E. K. Limp, Chfdf, Process Facilities Safety liranch, ~%&iCj kP3RT uF FlhimiiS : &TECH SPECSALlY S-EL Cuwr)wTIa:i On huyusf 19, 1976, Fred F, Ha_ytaod, DRdL, and I visttdd be A?j-TzcILi - planf in ' dardrvlltit, ;ic# YorX, to i3ake a orelir;linary assczimx~f of tile radIo?ocjical status of facilities ut47fzad durfnb3 lW-51 for X': contract mrk f WI 1 vi n.; urd a. GcLwter, Ham r4tina+r, ;iismssicms warz &id ' cliL1 :Ir. tionalj fir. Ted Ckx, mo Has fmf 1

  9. The mechanical properties of FeAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, I.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for FeAl. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in FeAl at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of FeAl but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.

  10. Magnetic properties of α−MnO{sub 2} and Co-doped α−MnO{sub 2} nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stella, C. Soundararajan, N. Ramachandran, K.

    2014-04-24

    α−MnO{sub 2} and Co-doped α−MnO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural characterization by XRD revealed the tetragonal structure of α−MnO{sub 2}. The formation of one dimensional (1D) NWs of pure and Co-doped α−MnO{sub 2} was confirmed from SEM. From UV-Vis absorption spectra, it is found that both pure and Co-doped α−MnO{sub 2} NWs showed blue shift compared to bulk, which revealed the quantum confinement in the synthesized samples. The magnetic properties were analyzed by VSM, which suggest that pure and doped α−MnO{sub 2} exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature (RT)

  11. A discussion on the origin of quantum probabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holik, Federico; Departamento de Matemtica - Ciclo Bsico Comn, Universidad de Buenos Aires - Pabelln III, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires ; Senz, Manuel; Plastino, Angel

    2014-01-15

    We study the origin of quantum probabilities as arising from non-Boolean propositional-operational structures. We apply the method developed by Cox to non distributive lattices and develop an alternative formulation of non-Kolmogorovian probability measures for quantum mechanics. By generalizing the method presented in previous works, we outline a general framework for the deduction of probabilities in general propositional structures represented by lattices (including the non-distributive case). -- Highlights: Several recent works use a derivation similar to that of R.T. Cox to obtain quantum probabilities. We apply Coxs method to the lattice of subspaces of the Hilbert space. We obtain a derivation of quantum probabilities which includes mixed states. The method presented in this work is susceptible to generalization. It includes quantum mechanics and classical mechanics as particular cases.

  12. SU-D-19A-07: Dosimetric Comparison of HDR Plesiotherapy and Electron Beam Therapy for Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, A; Jacob, D; Andreou, K; Raben, A; Chen, H; Koprowski, C; Mourtada, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Large superficial (skin, soft tissue sarcoma) lesions located on curved areas are hard to treat with electrons. The Freiburg Flap (Nucletron, Netherlands) is a flexible mesh style surface which can be easily shaped to fit curved surfaces for reproducible HDR fraction delivery. To understand the fundamental dosimetric differences, a dosimetric comparison was made between HDR plesiotherapy (Freiburg applicator for lesions over 4cm) and external electron beam radiotherapy over cases with varying target curvature (both stylized and clinical cases). Methods: Four stylized cases with variable complexity were created using artificial DICOM axial CT slices and RT structures (a square and three curved structures on a 4.5cm radius cylinder). They were planned using Oncentra v4.3 and exported to Pinnacle v9.6 for electrons planning. The HDR source dwell positions were optimized for the best coverage of the targets using graphical optimization. Electron treatment plans were created in Pinnacle using the same CT and RT structures of three HDR cases with surface lesions previously treated with the Freiburg flap. The En face electron plans used 6-12 MeV electrons and 0.51 cm bolus was added to increase surface dose. The electron plans were prescribed to an isodose line to conform to the target. Results: For all lesions, the average target dose coverage was similar (D90ave of 100% for HDR vs 101% for electrons). For lesions with high curvature, the HDR coverage was better (D90 102% vs D90 97% for electron). For all cases, adjacent structures high dose region was lower for HDR than electrons (D1cc 100% for HDR vs D1cc 111% for electrons). Conclusion: HDR plesiotherapy offers excellent target conformity for superficial targets similar to electrons. However, for lesions with complex curved surfaces, HDR has the advantage to achieve better dose distributions using graphical optimization to spare adjacent normal tissue while maximizing target coverage.

  13. Deformable Image Registration for Adaptive Radiation Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Accuracy and Precision in the Presence of Tumor Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mencarelli, Angelo; Kranen, Simon Robert van; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Beek, Suzanne van; Nico Rasch, Coenraad Robert; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To compare deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy and precision for normal and tumor tissues in head and neck cancer patients during the course of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with oropharyngeal tumors, who underwent submucosal implantation of small gold markers (average 6, range 4-10) around the tumor and were treated with RT were retrospectively selected. Two observers identified 15 anatomical features (landmarks) representative of normal tissues in the planning computed tomography (pCT) scan and in weekly cone beam CTs (CBCTs). Gold markers were digitally removed after semiautomatic identification in pCTs and CBCTs. Subsequently, landmarks and gold markers on pCT were propagated to CBCTs, using a b-spline-based DIR and, for comparison, rigid registration (RR). To account for observer variability, the pair-wise difference analysis of variance method was applied. DIR accuracy (systematic error) and precision (random error) for landmarks and gold markers were quantified. Time trend of the precisions for RR and DIR over the weekly CBCTs were evaluated. Results: DIR accuracies were submillimeter and similar for normal and tumor tissue. DIR precision (1 SD) on the other hand was significantly different (P<.01), with 2.2 mm vector length in normal tissue versus 3.3 mm in tumor tissue. No significant time trend in DIR precision was found for normal tissue, whereas in tumor, DIR precision was significantly (P<.009) degraded during the course of treatment by 0.21 mm/week. Conclusions: DIR for tumor registration proved to be less precise than that for normal tissues due to limited contrast and complex non-elastic tumor response. Caution should therefore be exercised when applying DIR for tumor changes in adaptive procedures.

  14. Raman spectroscopy, dielectric properties and phase transitions of Ag{sub 0.96}Li{sub 0.04}NbO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niewiadomski, Adrian; Kania, Antoni; Kugel, Godefroy E.; Hafid, Mustapha; Sitko, Dorota

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • First Raman scattering studies of Ag{sub 0.96}Li{sub 0.04}NbO{sub 3}, allowed us to correlate temperature evolution of relaxational frequency γ{sub R}(T) with the Nb-ion dynamics and showed its changes at freezing temperature and ferrielectric transition. - Abstract: Silver lithium niobates Ag{sub 1−x}Li{sub x}NbO{sub 3} are promising lead free piezoelectrics. Good quality Ag{sub 0.96}Li{sub 0.04}NbO{sub 3} ceramics were obtained. Dielectric and DSC studies showed that, in comparison to AgNbO{sub 3,} temperatures of phase transitions slightly decrease. Dielectric studies pointed to enhancement of polar properties. Remnant polarisations achieves value of 0.6 μC/cm{sup 2}. Maximum of ϵ(T) dependences related to the relaxor-like ferroelectric/ferrielectric M{sub 1}–M{sub 2} transition becomes higher and more frequency dependent. Analysis of Raman spectra showed that two modes at 50 and 194 cm{sup −1} exhibit significant softening. Low frequency part of the Raman spectra which involve central peak and soft mode were analysed using two models. CP was assumed as relaxational vibration and described by Debye function. The slope of temperature dependences of relaxational frequency γ{sub R}(T) changes at approximately 470 and 330 K, indicating that slowing down process of relaxational vibrations changes in the vicinity of partial freezing of Nb-ion dynamics T{sub f} and further freezing at ferroelectric/ferrielectric phase transition.

  15. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-06-11

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.0 , which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590 PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590 PTF TEF RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  16. SU-E-T-296: Single Field Per Day Vs. Multiple Fields Per Day and the Impact On BED in Proton Therapy Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grantham, K; Wooten, H; Zhao, T; Klein, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A common practice, in proton therapy, is to deliver a rotating subset of fields from the treatment plan for the daily fractions. This study compares the impact this practice has on the biological effective dose (BED) versus delivering all planned fields daily. Methods: For two scenarios (a phantom with a geometry approximating the anatomy of a prostate treatment with opposing lateral beams, and a clinical 3-field brain treatment), treatment plans were produced in Eclipse (Varian) to simulate delivery of one, two, and three fields per fraction. The RT-Dose file, structure set, and α/β ratios were processed using in-house MATLAB code to return a new RT-Dose file containing the BED (including a proton RBE of 1.1) which was imported back into Eclipse for analysis. Results: For targets and regions of field overlap in the treatment plan, BED is not affected by delivery regimen. In the phantom, BED in the femoral heads showed increased by 20% when a single field was used rather than two fields. In the brain treatment, the minimum BED to the left optic nerve and the pituitary gland increased by 13% and 10% respectively, for a one-field regime compared to three-fields per fraction. Comparing the two-field and threefield regimes, the optic nerve BED was not significantly affected and the minimum pituitary BED was 4% higher for two fields per day. Conclusion: Hypo-fractionation effects, in regions of non-overlap of fields, significantly increase the BED to the involved tissues by as much as 20%. Care should be taken to avoid inadvertently sacrificing plan effectiveness in the interest of reduced treatment time.

  17. Status of the Control System on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron; M. Bell; T. Gibney; R. Johnson; R.J. Marsala; D. Mastrovito; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; B. Penaflor; T. Stevenson

    2005-08-05

    In 2003, the NSTX plasma control system was used for plasma shape control using real-time equilibrium reconstruction (using the rtEFIT code - J. Ferron, et al., Nucl. Fusion 38 1055 (1998)). rtEFIT is now in routine use for plasma boundary control [D. A. Gates, et al., submitted to Nuclear Fusion (2005)]. More recently, the system has been upgraded to support feedback control of the resistive wall mode (RWM). This paper describes the hardware and software improvements that were made in support of these physics requirements. The real-time data acquisition system now acquires 352 channels of data at 5kHz for each NSTX plasma discharge. The latency for the data acquisition, which uses the FPDP (Front Panel Data Port) protocol, is measured to be {approx}8 microseconds. A Stand-Alone digitizer (SAD), designed at PPPL, along with an FPDP Input multiplexing module (FIMM) allows for simple modular upgrades. An interface module was built to interface between the FPDP output of the NSTX control system and the legacy Power Conversion link (PCLINK) used for communicating with the PPPL power supplies (first used for TFTR). Additionally a module has been built for communicating with the switching power amplifiers (SPA) recently installed on NSTX. In addition to the hardware developments, the control software [D. Mastrovito, Fusion Eng. And Design 71 65 (2004)] on the NSTX control system has been upgraded. The control computer is an eight processor (8x333MHz G4) built by Sky Computers (Helmsford, MA). The device driver software for the hardware described above will be discussed, as well as the new control algorithms that have been developed to control the switching power supplies for RWM control. An important initial task in RWM feedback is to develop a reliable mode detection algorithm.

  18. Multifocal Glioblastoma Multiforme: Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Progression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Andrel, Jocelyn; Andrews, David W.; Curran, Walter J.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Werner-Wasik, Maria

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the progression patterns in patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme who had undergone whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), the historical standard, versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and to identify predictive treatment and pretreatment factors. Methods and Materials: The records of 50 patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme treated with RT were reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed using survival methods and the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Results: The mean age was 61 years, and 71% had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of {>=}70. Of the 50 patients, 32% underwent WBRT and 68%, three-dimensional conformal RT. Progression was local in all evaluable patients, as determined by imaging in 38 patients and early neurologic progression in 12. The median time to progression (TTP) was 3.1 months, and the median survival time (MST) was 8.1 months. The significant independent predictors of TTP on multivariate analysis were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.001), the extent of surgery (p = 0.040), a radiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.027), and the lack of chemotherapy (p = 0.001). The significant independent predictors of a reduced MST were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.022) and the absence of salvage surgery (p = 0.011) and salvage chemotherapy (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Local progression was observed in all patients. On multivariate analysis, no significant difference was found in the TTP or MST between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and WBRT. The KPS was a consistent independent predictor of both TTP and MST. On the basis of the progression pattern, we do not recommend WBRT as a mandatory component of the treatment of multifocal glioblastoma multi0011for.

  19. Photoemission Study of the Rare Earth Intermetallic Compounds: RNi2Ge2 (R=Eu, Gd)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jongik Park

    2004-12-19

    EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} are two members of the RT{sub 2}X{sub 2} (R = rare earth, T = transition metal and X = Si, Ge) family of intermetallic compounds, which has been studied since the early 1980s. These ternary rare-earth intermetallic compounds with the tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure are known for their wide variety of magnetic properties, Extensive studies of the RT{sub 2}X{sub 2} series can be found in Refs [ 1,2,3]. The magnetic properties of the rare-earth nickel germanides RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} were recently studied in more detail [4]. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the electronic structure (both valence band and shallow core levels) of single crystals of EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and to check the assumptions that the f electrons are non-interacting and, consequently, the rigid-band model for these crystals would work [11], using synchrotron radiation because, to the best of our knowledge, no photoemission measurements on those have been reported. Photoemission spectroscopy has been widely used to study the detailed electronic structure of metals and alloys, and especially angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has proven to be a powerful technique for investigating Fermi surfaces (FSs) of single-crystal compounds.

  20. SU-E-I-82: Improving CT Image Quality for Radiation Therapy Using Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms and Slightly Increasing Imaging Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noid, G; Chen, G; Tai, A; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are developed to improve CT image quality (IQ) by reducing noise without diminishing spatial resolution or contrast. For CT in radiation therapy (RT), slightly increasing imaging dose to improve IQ may be justified if it can substantially enhance structure delineation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the IQ enhancement as a result of increasing imaging doses and using IR algorithms. Methods: CT images were acquired for phantoms, built to evaluate IQ metrics including spatial resolution, contrast and noise, with a variety of imaging protocols using a CT scanner (Definition AS Open, Siemens) installed inside a Linac room. Representative patients were scanned once the protocols were optimized. Both phantom and patient scans were reconstructed using the Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) methods. IQ metrics of the obtained CTs were compared. Results: IR techniques are demonstrated to preserve spatial resolution as measured by the point spread function and reduce noise in comparison to traditional FBP. Driven by the reduction in noise, the contrast to noise ratio is doubled by adopting the highest SAFIRE strength. As expected, increasing imaging dose reduces noise for both SAFIRE and FBP reconstructions. The contrast to noise increases from 3 to 5 by increasing the dose by a factor of 4. Similar IQ improvement was observed on the CTs for selected patients with pancreas and prostrate cancers. Conclusion: The IR techniques produce a measurable enhancement to CT IQ by reducing the noise. Increasing imaging dose further reduces noise independent of the IR techniques. The improved CT enables more accurate delineation of tumors and/or organs at risk during RT planning and delivery guidance.