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Sample records for monticello permeable reactive

  1. Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at...

  2. Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah

  3. Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Caon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill

  4. Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactive Barrier | Department of Energy Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier (13.57 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello

  5. Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Milling Site: Monticello, Utah | Department of Energy Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah (4.47 MB) More

  6. Field Projects: Monticello, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of zero-valent iron is helping to clean up groundwater at a former uranium and vanadium ore processing mill at Monticello, Utah. LM managed remediation of...

  7. Permeable Reactive Barriers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is a zone of reactive material placed underground to intercept and react with a contaminant plume in ground water. Typically, PRBs are emplaced by replacing soils...

  8. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barrier Field Projects Durango, Colorado Durango, Colorado DOE installed a PRB in October 1995 to treat ...

  9. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of providing radiological control at municipal and commercial excavations in Monticello ... Solid wastes were removed from the mill site and peripheral properties (OU II) and ...

  10. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of providing radiological control at municipal and commercial excavations in Monticello ... Solid wastes were removed from the MVP, mill site, and peripheral properties (OU II) and ...

  11. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    blank U.S. Department of Energy Monticello NPL Sites FFA ... 3.1.2 Temporary Storage Facility ... Situ Groundwater Treatment System ......

  12. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    blank U.S. Department of Energy Monticello NPL Sites FFA ... 3.1.2 Temporary Storage Facility ... Tables Table 1. Treatment System Compliance Summary ...

  13. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  14. monticello.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... indefinitely. Soil was generally cleaned up to standards in 40 CFR 192. Though this regulation is not strictly applicable to Monticello, the Monticello site was sufficiently ...

  15. EPA/ITRC-RTDF permeable reactive barrier short course. Permeable reactive barriers: Application and deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This report focuses on the following: Permeable Reactive Barriers: Application and Deployment; Introduction to Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for Remediating and Managing Contaminated Groundwater in Situ; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 1: Site Characterization for PRBs; Reactive Materials: Zero-Valent Iron; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 2: Laboratory and Pilot Scale Tests; Design Calculations; Compliance Monitoring, Performance Monitoring and Long-Term Maintenance for PRBs; PRB Emplacement Techniques; PRB Permitting and Implementation; Treatment of Metals; Non-Metallic Reactive Materials; Economic Considerations for PRB Deployment; and Bibliography.

  16. EPA/ITRC-RTDF permeable reactive barrier short course. Permeable reactive barriers: Application and deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This report focuses on the following: Permeable Reactive Barriers: Application and Deployment; Introduction to Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for Remediating and Managing Contaminated Groundwater in Situ; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 1: Site Characterization for PRBs; Reactive Materials: Zero-Valent Iron; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 2: Laboratory and Pilot Scale Tests; Design Calculations; Compliance Monitoring, Performance Monitoring and Long-Term Maintenance for PRBs; PRB Emplacement Techniques; PRB Permitting and Implementation; Treatment of Metals; Non-Metallic Reactive Materials; Economic Considerations for PRB Deployment; and Bibliography.

  17. monticello_esd.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ground Water, of the Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS). The MMTS, added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priorities List in 1989, is located in southeast...

  18. monticello_esd.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Reason for Issuing an ESD The Monticello mill was built in 1942 to provide vanadium during World War II. The mill was modified in the early 1950s to process uranium. Milling ...

  19. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier technology for use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DWYER,BRIAN P.

    2000-01-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated at laboratory scale to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The contaminants of concern (COCS) are uranium, TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, americium, and vinyl chloride. The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a peculiar humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site however, the iron filings were determined to be the least expensive media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the fill-scale demonstration of the reactive barrier technology. Additional design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were also determined and provided to the design team in support of the final design. The final design was completed by the Corps of Engineers in 1997 and the system was constructed in the summer of 1998. The treatment system began fill operation in December, 1998 and despite a few problems has been operational since. Results to date are consistent with the lab and pilot scale findings, i.e., complete removal of the contaminants of concern (COCs) prior to discharge to meet RFETS cleanup requirements. Furthermore, it is fair to say at this point in time that laboratory developed design parameters for the reactive barrier technology are sufficient for fuel scale design; however,the treatment system longevity and the long-term fate of the contaminants are questions that remain unanswered. This

  20. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-02-27

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money.

  1. Permeability Modification Using a Reactive Alkaline-Soluble Biopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snadra L. Fox; X. Xie; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; G. A. Bala

    2003-10-01

    Polymer injection has been used in reservoirs to alleviate contrasting permeability zones. Current technology relies on the use of cross-linking agents to initiate gelation. The use of biological polymers are advantageous in that they can block high permeability areas, are environmentally friendly, and have potential to form reversible gels without the use of hazardous cross-linkers. Recent efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have produced a reactive alkaline-soluble biopolymer from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC no. 31749 that gels upon decreasing the pH of the polymeric solution. The focus of this study was to determine the impact an alkaline-soluble biopolymer can have on sandstone permeability. Permeability modification was investigated by injecting solubilized biopolymer into Berea sandstone cores and defining the contribution of pH, salt, temperature, and Schuricht crude oil on biopolymer gelation. The biopolymer was soluble in KOH at a pH greater than 11.4 and gelled when the pH dropped below 10.8. The Berea sandstone core buffered the biopolymer solution, decreasing the pH sufficiently to form a gel, which subsequently decreased the permeability. The effluent pH of the control cores injected with 0.01 {und M} KOH (pH 12.0) and 0.10{und M} KOH (pH 13.0) decreased to 10.6 and 12.7, respectively. The permeability of the sandstone core injected with biopolymer was decreased to greater than 95% of the original permeability at 25 C in the presence of 2% NaCl, and Schuricht crude oil; however, the permeability increased when the temperature of the core was increased to 60 C. Residual resistance factors as high as 792 were seen in Berea cores treated with biopolymer. The buffering capacity of sandstone has been demonstrated to reduce the pH of a biopolymer solution sufficiently to cause the polymer to form a stable in-situ gel. This finding could potentially lead to alternate technology for permeability modification, thus

  2. Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site | Department of Energy of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable

  3. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Monticello

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monticello" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,554,"4,695",96.7,"BWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel" ,554,"4,695",96.7 "Data for 2010" "BWR = Boiling Water Reactor."

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, L.

    2001-04-12

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will also permit

  5. Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

  6. Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

  7. Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Final ReportPhase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical FlushingU. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 SupportJanuary 2004

  8. Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell Cover Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell...

  9. 2015 Annual Inspection report for the DOE Monticello, Utah, Mill Tailings Site and Monticello Vicinity Properties

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Annual Inspection Report for the DOE Monticello, Utah, Mill Tailings Site and Monticello Vicinity Properties December 2015 LMS/MNT/S13444 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy 2015 Annual Inspection-Monticello, Utah December 2015 Doc. No. S13444 Page i Contents Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................. ii Executive Summary

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Monticello

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Utah Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites A CERCLA and/or RCRA Site monticello_map Remediation at the Monticello Sites was conducted in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The sites transferred to the Office of Legacy Management in 2003 and require operation and maintenance of remedial action systems, routine inspection and maintenance, records-related

  11. MRAP MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MRAP MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT MayJune 2005 Report Period: May 1 -June 30, 2005 DOE Project Coordinator: Art Kleinrath HIGHLIGHTS DOE constmction, as ...

  12. FIVE YEAR REVIEW - MONTICELLO RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED PROPERTIES...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... to the TSF, or under emergency conditions may be ... through the Monticello Planning Commission (Zoning ... Joe and Todd are doing a great job. No problems. Question: ...

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Monticello

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Please be green. Do not print these documents unless absolutely necessary. Submit a FOIA ... Millsite July 2001 U.S. Department of Energy Proposes to Transfer Former Monticello ...

  14. Gas Turbines (DOE CHP Technology Fact Sheet Series) - Fact Sheet, 2016 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah (4.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Monticello Mill Site - UT 03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - UT 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Monticello Mill Site (UT.03) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites Documents Related to Monticello Mill Site Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Interim Remedial Action Progress Report July 1999-July 2000.

  16. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W. |; Placek, C.J. |

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy at Grand Junction 2003 Annual Inspection⎯Monticello, Utah

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    at Grand Junction 2003 Annual Inspection⎯Monticello, Utah November 2003 Page 1 2003 Annual Inspection of the Monticello Mill Tailings (USDOE) and Monticello Radioactively Contaminated Properties Sites Summary The Monticello site, which includes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS) and the Monticello Radioactively Contaminated Properties site, was inspected September 23-25, 2003. A follow-up inspection of the Soil and Sediment properties was conducted on

  18. Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation’s Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation’s Canon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill (April 2005)

  19. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2007-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  20. Microsoft Word - July-Sept 2012 FFA Monticello Quarterly Report...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ore processing mill and surrounding private and municipal properties in Monticello, Utah. ... Operable Unit II (Peripheral Properties, Private and City-Owned) Surveillance of the ...

  1. Changes in Vegetation at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Site...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Cover Using Caisson...

  2. Microsoft Word - Final monticello 10 7 04 JRW.DOC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Department's Grand Junction Projects Office had originally planned to have its prime contractor, Rust Geotech, Inc., perform this work. In July 1995, the City of Monticello's ...

  3. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron

  4. Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008

  5. Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Annual Groundwater...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of a buried water pipeline to an existing solar evaporation pond for water treatment. ... the Abajo Mountains, U.S. Department of Energy Monticello Mill Tailings Site OU III ...

  6. Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site | Department of Energy Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for

  7. Completion of the Five-Year Reviews for the Monticello, Utah, Radioactively Contaminated Properties Site (Monticello Vicinity Properties) and the Monticello Mill Tailings Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Five-year reviews for the two Monticello, Utah, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites were completed in June 2012 by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Utah Department of Environmental Quality.

  8. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation

  9. This fact sheet describes wetlands in and around Monticello, Utah, and what the

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    wetlands in and around Monticello, Utah, and what the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is doing to restore wetlands that are adversely affected by Monticello cleanup project activities. The purpose of the Monticello cleanup projects is to minimize risks to the public and the environment from exposure to uranium mill tailings and radon gas. The cleanup is being performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund.

  10. Microsoft Word - Apr-June 2012 Monticello Quarterly_S09178_FFA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ore processing mill and surrounding private and municipal properties in Monticello, Utah. ... Operable Unit II (Peripheral Properties, Private and City-Owned) Surveillance of the ...

  11. Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

  12. This Month on Energy Savers: December 2010 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah | Department of Energy Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah (1.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive

  13. Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit Ill Interim Remedial Action

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Site Operable Unit Ill Interim Remedial Action Mark Perfxmed Under DOE Contrici No. DE-AC13-96CJ873.35 for th3 U.S. De[:ar!menf of Energy app~oveJioi'ptiL#ic re1ease;dCinWlionis Unlimilra' This page intentionally left blank Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit I11 Interim Remedial Action Annual Status Report August 1999 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office Grand Junction Office Project Number MSG-035-0011-00-000 Document Number Q0017700 Work Performed Under

  14. Monticello Mill Tailings, Operable Unit III Surface and Ground Water Remedial Investigation Addendum/Focused Feasibility Study

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    S H E E T November 2003 Figure 1. Monticello Millsite Location Background The Monticello Mill Tailings Site is a former ore-buying station and vanadium and uranium mill that operated from about 1942 through 1959 (see Figure 1). The former millsite and nearby properties are being cleaned up as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Monticello Mill Tailings Site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priorities

  15. Monticello, Utah, National Priorities List Sites Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) Quarterly Report: January-March 2016

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    6 April 2016 LMS/MNT/S14013 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Monticello NPL Sites FFA Quarterly Report: January-March 2016 April 2016 Doc. No. S14013 Page i Contents Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................. ii 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................1 1.1 Quarterly

  16. Monticello, Utah, National Priorities List Sites Federal Facility...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Reactive Barrier The PRB was installed in 1999 as a technology demonstration project. ... remediation system was installed in May 2005 as a technology demonstration project. ...

  17. Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill | Department of Energy Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter

  18. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Monticello AEC Ore Buying Station - UT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    03A AEC Ore Buying Station - UT 03A Site ID (CSD Index Number): UT.03A Site Name: Monticello AEC Ore Buying Station Site Summary: The history of domestic uranium procurement under U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) contracts identifies a number of ore buying stations (sampling and storage sites) that were operated during the period late-1949 through the mid-1960s. During this period the AEC established ore-buying stations in new uranium producing areas where it appeared that ore production

  19. Monticello, Utah, National Priorities List Sites Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) Quarterly Report: July 1…September 30, 2015

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    (FFA) Quarterly Report: July 1-September 30, 2015 October 2015 LMS/MNT/S13350 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Monticello NPL Sites FFA Quarterly Report: July-September 2015 October 2015 Doc. No. S13350 Page i Contents Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................. ii 1.0 Introduction

  20. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Lowe, K.S.; Murdoch, L.D.; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  1. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operable Unit II (Peripheral Properties, Private and City-Owned) Periodic surveillance of ... S07978 Page 3 Contaminated alluvial groundwater is extracted and treated on private ...

  2. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented remedial actions at the MVP ... associated leachate management system, the temporary waste storage facility TSF, and support ...

  3. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy ... 3.1.2 Temporary Storage Facility ... Situ Groundwater Treatment System ......

  4. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... DOE U.S. Department of Energy EPA U.S. Environmental ... Collection and Removal System LDS Leak Detection System ... Unit TSF Temporary Storage Facility UDEQ Utah ...

  5. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy ... 3.1.2 Temporary Storage Facility ... 3.3.3 Ex Situ Remediation System ......

  6. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    30, 2009 U.S. Department of Energy Doc. No. S05572 July 2009 Page 2 1.4 Temporary Storage Facility (TSF) * ... Situ Groundwater Treatment System * The ex situ treatment ...

  7. MONTICELLO PROJECTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The pond (Adams Pond) receives some water Montezuma Creek by the landowner that is applied to alfalfa and pa livestock consumption. This land use change was first recognized in the ...

  8. In Situ Reduction of Aquifer Sediments to Create a Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Chromate (CrO4 2-): BenchScale Tests to Determine Barrier Longevity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Williams, Mark D.; Devary, Brooks J.

    2005-01-02

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine sediment geochemical properties needed to develop a design for implementation of the in-situ oxidation–reduction (redox) manipulation (ISRM) technology for chromate (CrO42–) remediation at a Superfund site and three other sites. A generalized hydrogeologic description of the Superfund site consist of a silty clay upper confining layer to a depth of ~6.71 m, the A1 unit from ~6.71 m to ~8.23 m, the A2 unit from ~8.23 m to ~10.67 m, and the A3 unit from ~10.67 m to ~12.19 m below ground surface. The A/B aquitard was encountered at a depth of ~12.19 m. The A1, A2, and A3 hydrostratigraphic units are all sandy gravels, but with considerable difference in fines content and subsequently, hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic tests conducted in pilot test site monitoring wells indicate that the A1 unit has a 10 times lower hydraulic conductivity than the A2 unit, while the A3 unit hydraulic conductivity is significantly higher than that observed in the A2 unit (i.e., a trend of increasing permeability with depth). Calculated hydraulic conductivities, based on sieve analysis, show this same spatial trend. Results from a tracer injection test and electromagnetic borehole flow meter tests conducted at the site indicate a relatively high degree of formation heterogeneity. Laboratory experiments showed that chemical reduction yielded a redox capacity (0.26% iron(II)) that falls within the range of values observed in sediments analyzed from sites where field-scale deployment of the ISRM technology is currently in progress or being considered (0.1% Hanford 100D area, 0.24% Ft Lewis, 0.4% Moffett Federal Airfield). There was relatively little spatial variability in reducible iron (Fe) content between the three aquifer units. This mass of reducible Fe represents a sufficient quantity for a treatment zone emplaced to remain anoxic for 430 pore volumes, which would be expected to last tens of years, depending on aquifer flow rates and the

  9. Pyrotechnic deflagration velocity and permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begeal, D R; Stanton, P L

    1982-01-01

    Particle size, porosity, and permeability of the reactive material have long been considered to be important factors in propellant burning rates and the deflagration-to-detonation transition in explosives. It is reasonable to assume that these same parameters will also affect the deflagration velocity of pyrotechnics. This report describes an experimental program that addresses the permeability of porous solids (particulate beds), in terms of particle size and porosity, and the relationship between permeability and the behavior of pyrotechnics and explosives. The experimental techniques used to acquire permeability data and to characterize the pyrotechnic burning are discussed. Preliminary data have been obtained on the burning characteristics of titanium hydride/potassium perchlorate (THKP) and boron/calcium chromate (BCCR). With THKP, the velocity of a pressure wave (from hot product gases) in the unburned region shows unsteady behavior which is related to the initial porosity or permeability. Simultaneous measurements with pressure gauges and ion gauges reveal that the pressure wave precedes the burn front. Steady burning of BCCR was observed with pressure gauge diagnostics and with a microwave interferometry technique.

  10. Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.; Kastens, M.K.; Sheader, L.R.L.; Benson, C.H.; Albright, W.H.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr{sup -1}), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of <3.0 mm yr{sup -1}. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

  11. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    . Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around the Monticello coal fired power plant. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. The study found the following: (1) There was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Monticello plant, excess soil Hg was associated with soil characteristics with higher values near the lake. Vegetation concentration showed some correlation with soil concentrations having higher mercury in vegetation when the soil mercury. (2) Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. The total deposition within 50 Km of the plant was predicted to be 4.2% of the total emitted. In the deposition, RGM is responsible for 98.7% of the total deposition, elemental mercury accounts for 1.1% and particulate mercury accounts for 0.2%. Less than 1% of the elemental mercury emitted was predicted to deposit within 50 km.

  12. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock (Technical Report) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a ... Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values ...

  13. Liquid-permeable electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folser, George R.

    1980-01-01

    Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

  14. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  15. MONTICELLO NPL SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Peripheral Properties (Private and City-owned) * No land usesupplemental standards issues to report. TSF * The TSF hold 1.5 cubic yards of contaminated material transferred in ...

  16. MONTICELLO NPL SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Former Millsite * No land use issues to report. Peripheral Properties (private and city-owned) * No land usesupplemental standards issues to report. Temporary Storage Facility * ...

  17. MONTICELLO NPL SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Former Millsite * No significant activity or issues to report. * The former millsite restorations are in good condition. Peripheral Properties (Private and City-owned) * No ...

  18. monticello_superfund.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and limited amounts were used for construction, resulting in contamination of more ... of soils and checking for unauthorized construction. * Providing oversight of any ...

  19. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Monticello

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    date","License expiration date" 1,554,"4,695",96.7,"BWR","applicationvnd.ms-excel","applicationvnd.ms-excel" ,554,"4,695",96.7 "Data for 2010" "BWR Boiling Water Reactor."

  20. MONTICELLO NPL SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... subcontractors, UDOT, and Questar (natural gas provider) worked through November but have ... Baee: GS.O Cool*Ba&QI 65.0 Methoctr Integration DEC-31-2008 11:'46AM FAXi IO: SM ...

  1. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  2. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  3. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.

  4. Novel additives to retard permeable flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golombok, Michael; Crane, Carel; Ineke, Erik; Welling, Marco; Harris, Jon

    2008-09-15

    Low concentrations of surfactant and cosolute in water, can selectively retard permeable flow in high permeability rocks compared to low permeability ones. This represents a way forward for more efficient areal sweep efficiency when water flooding a reservoir during improved oil recovery. (author)

  5. Thermally induced mechanical and permeability changes around...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A numerical investigation is conducted on the impacts of the thermal loading history on the evolution of mechanical response and permeability field of a fractured rock mass ...

  6. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  7. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  8. Magma energy and geothermal permeability enhancement programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments during FY85 and project plans for FY86 are described for the Magma Energy Extraction and Permeability Enhancement programs. (ACR)

  9. Permeability Calculation in a Fracture Network - 12197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheo Kyung; Kim, Hyo Won [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Laminar flow of a viscous fluid in the pore space of a saturated fractured rock medium is considered to calculate the effective permeability of the medium. The effective permeability is determined from the flow field which is calculated numerically by using the finite element method. The computation of permeability components is carried out with a few different discretizations for a number of fracture arrangements. Various features such as flow field in the fracture channels, the convergence of permeability, and the variation of permeability among different fracture networks are discussed. The longitudinal permeability in general appears greater than the transverse ones. The former shows minor variations with fracture arrangement whereas the latter appears to be more sensitive to the arrangement. From the calculations of the permeability in a rock medium with a fracture network (two parallel fractures aligned in the direction of 45-deg counterclockwise from the horizontal and two connecting fractures(narrowing, parallel and widening) the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium not only depends on the primary orientation of the main fractures but also is noticeably influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The transverse permeability (the permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the externally imposed macro-scale pressure gradient) is only a fraction of the longitudinal one, but is sensitive to the arrangement of the connecting fractures. 3. It is important to figure out the pattern of the fractures that connect (or cross) the main fractures for reliable calculation of the transverse permeability. (authors)

  10. Mark 22 Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckner, M.R.

    2001-07-02

    Calculations for reactivity held in control rods have underpredicted the observed Mark 22 reactivity. Reactivity predictions by charge designers have accounted for this by including large biases which change with exposure and reactor region. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the methods and data used in the reactivity calculations. The goal was to identify errors and improvements and make necessary corrections.

  11. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  12. CERCLA Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CERCLA Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan CERCLA Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan CERCLA Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan CERCLA Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (905.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Closure Sites Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site

  13. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study We ...

  14. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Test device for measuring permeability of a ... Marketing Summary: Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability ...

  15. Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study ...

  16. Review of hydrogen isotope permeability through materials (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Review of hydrogen isotope permeability through materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Review of hydrogen isotope permeability through materials You are accessing ...

  17. Experiments and modeling of variably permeable carbonate reservoir samples in contact with CO₂-acidified brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Megan M.; Hao, Yue; Mason, Harris E.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-12-31

    Reactive experiments were performed to expose sample cores from the Arbuckle carbonate reservoir to CO₂-acidified brine under reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The samples consisted of dolomite with varying quantities of calcite and silica/chert. The timescales of monitored pressure decline across each sample in response to CO₂ exposure, as well as the amount of and nature of dissolution features, varied widely among these three experiments. For all samples cores, the experimentally measured initial permeability was at least one order of magnitude or more lower than the values estimated from downhole methods. Nondestructive X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) imaging revealed dissolution features including “wormholes,” removal of fracture-filling crystals, and widening of pre-existing pore spaces. In the injection zone sample, multiple fractures may have contributed to the high initial permeability of this core and restricted the distribution of CO₂-induced mineral dissolution. In contrast, the pre-existing porosity of the baffle zone sample was much lower and less connected, leading to a lower initial permeability and contributing to the development of a single dissolution channel. While calcite may make up only a small percentage of the overall sample composition, its location and the effects of its dissolution have an outsized effect on permeability responses to CO₂ exposure. The XRCT data presented here are informative for building the model domain for numerical simulations of these experiments but require calibration by higher resolution means to confidently evaluate different porosity-permeability relationships.

  18. System for reactivating catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  19. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO? sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  20. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  1. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  2. Permeability upscaling for near-wellbore heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soeriawinata, T.; Kelkar, M.; Kasap, E.

    1997-12-01

    Reservoir simulations are limited to large-scale gridblocks because of prohibitive computational costs of fine-grid simulations. Rock properties, such as permeability, are measured on a scale smaller than coarse-scale simulation gridblocks. Therefore, the properties defined on a smaller scale are upscaled to a coarser scale. Few prior studies on permeability upscaling paid special attention to the problem of radial flow in the vicinity of a wellbore. This study presents an analytical method to calculate effective permeability of a coarse-grid wellblock from its constituent fine gridblocks. The method uses the incomplete-layer upscaling procedure, which is modified for radial flow around wellbore but applied to permeability heterogeneity defined in a Cartesian grid scheme. The method is validated by numerical simulations of primary and secondary recovery processes involving two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) systems. The simulation results with permeabilities from radial flow upscaling for wellblocks agreed better with the simulation results with the original permeabilities than results from linear-flow upscaling.

  3. Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

    1999-03-09

    This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

  4. An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2005-12-22

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

  5. Surfactant-modified zeolites as permeable barriers to organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, R.S.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1995-10-01

    We have shown in laboratory experiments that natural zeolites treated with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) are effective sorbents for nonpolar organics, inorganic cations, and inorganic anions. Due to their low cost ({approximately}$0.75/kg) and granular nature, HDTMA-zeolites appear ideal candidates for reactive, permeable subsurface barriers. The HDTMA-zeolites are stable over a wide range of pH (3-13), ionic strength (1 M Cs{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+}), and in organic solvents. Surfactant-modified zeolites sorb nonpolar organics (benzene, toluene, xylene, chlorinated aliphatics) via a partitioning mechanism, inorganic cations (Pb{sup 2+}) via ion exchange and surface complexation, and inorganic anions (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) via surface precipitation.The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of surfactant-modified zeolite as a permeable barrier to ground water contaminants.

  6. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  7. Reactive facies: An approach for parameterizing field-scale reactive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport models using geophysical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactive facies: An approach for parameterizing field-scale reactive transport models ...

  8. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline hpwgw_permeability_integrity_feng.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen

  9. Experiments and modeling of variably permeable carbonate reservoir samples in contact with CO₂-acidified brines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Megan M.; Hao, Yue; Mason, Harris E.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-12-31

    Reactive experiments were performed to expose sample cores from the Arbuckle carbonate reservoir to CO₂-acidified brine under reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The samples consisted of dolomite with varying quantities of calcite and silica/chert. The timescales of monitored pressure decline across each sample in response to CO₂ exposure, as well as the amount of and nature of dissolution features, varied widely among these three experiments. For all samples cores, the experimentally measured initial permeability was at least one order of magnitude or more lower than the values estimated from downhole methods. Nondestructive X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) imaging revealed dissolution featuresmore » including “wormholes,” removal of fracture-filling crystals, and widening of pre-existing pore spaces. In the injection zone sample, multiple fractures may have contributed to the high initial permeability of this core and restricted the distribution of CO₂-induced mineral dissolution. In contrast, the pre-existing porosity of the baffle zone sample was much lower and less connected, leading to a lower initial permeability and contributing to the development of a single dissolution channel. While calcite may make up only a small percentage of the overall sample composition, its location and the effects of its dissolution have an outsized effect on permeability responses to CO₂ exposure. The XRCT data presented here are informative for building the model domain for numerical simulations of these experiments but require calibration by higher resolution means to confidently evaluate different porosity-permeability relationships.« less

  10. Review of existing reactive transport software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glassley, W., LLNL

    1998-02-03

    Simulations of thermal and hydrological evolution following the potential emplacement of a subterranean nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV provide data that suggest the inevitability of dependent, simultaneous chemical evolution in this system. These chemical changes will modify significantly both the magnitude and structure of local porosity and permeability; hence, they will have a dynamic feedback effect on the evolving thermal and hydrological regime. Yet, despite this intimate interdependence of transport and chemical processes, a rigorous quantitative analysis of the post- emplacement environment that incorporates this critical feedback mechanism has not been completed to date. As an initial step in this direction, the present document outlines the fundamental chemical and transport processes that must be accounted for in such an analysis, and reviews the inventory of existing software that encodes these processed in explicitly coupled form. A companion report describes the prioritization of specific capabilities that are needed for modeling post-emplacement reactive transport at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Endothelial cell permeability to water and antipyrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrick, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    The endothelium provides a structural barrier between plasma constituents and the tissues. The permeability characteristics of the the endothelial cells regulate the transcellular movement of materials across this barrier while other movement is paracellular. In this study the permeability of the endothelial cells to tritiated water (/sup 3/HHO) and /sup 14/C-labeled antipyrine (AP) was investigated. The cells were isolated non-enzymatically from calf pulmonary artery and were maintained in culture and used between the seventh and fifteenth passage. The cells were removed from the T-flasks with a rubber policeman, titurated with a 22g needle and centrifuged. The cells were mixed with an extracellular marker, drawn into polyethylene tubing and packed by centrifugation for use in the linear diffusion technique. All measurements were made at 37 C. The diffusion coefficients for /sup 3/HHO through the packed cells (D), the intracellular material (D/sub 2/), and the extracellular material (D/sub 1/) were 0.682, 0.932 and 2.45 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ and for AP were 0.273, 0.355 and 1.13 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ respectively. The permeability coefficient calculated by the series-parallel pathway model for /sup 3/HHO was higher than that for AP and for both /sup 3/HHO and AP were lower than those calculated for isolated lung cells and erythrocytes.

  12. Patterns of permeability in eolian deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goggin, D.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Kocurek, G.; Lake, L.W.

    1988-06-01

    The eolian, Jurassic Page sandstone of northeastern Arizona is marked by a highly ordered heterogeneity. The heterogeneity is expressed by the intricate association of stratification types, which are a direct result of the depositional processes. The dominant stratification types in eolian reservoirs are grainflow, grainfall, and wind-ripple deposits, which form on the lee faces of migrating dunes; interdune deposits, which form between migrating dunes; and extra-erg deposits, which occur sporadically when other depositional environments encroach upon an eolian system. These stratification types each have a unique permeability range, which implies that the fluid migration routes in eolian reservoirs will be dictated by the geometry and types of stratification present. One of the most important aspects of this study is the correlation of qualitative geologic descriptions with quantitative variables such as permeability. About 2,000 measurements were made with a field minipermeameter on an outcrop of the Page sandstone. These data show that three distinct permeability modes directly relate to the different stratification types.

  13. Evaluating Permeability Enchancement Using Electrical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Pritchett

    2008-09-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development projects involve the artificial stimulation of relatively impermeable high-temperature underground regions (at depths of 2-4 kilometers or more) to create sufficient permeability to permit underground fluid circulation, so that hot water can be withdrawn from production wells and used to generate electric power. Several major research projects of this general type have been undertaken in the past in New Mexico (Fenton Hill), Europe, Japan and Australia. Recent U.S. activities along these lines focus mainly on stimulating peripheral areas of existing operating hydrothermal fields rather than on fresh 'greenfield' sites, but the long-term objective of the Department of Energy's EGS program is the development of large-scale power projects based on EGS technology (MIT, 2006; NREL, 2008). Usually, stimulation is accomplished by injecting water into a well at high pressure, enhancing permeability by the creation and propagation of fractures in the surrounding rock (a process known as 'hydrofracturing'). Beyond just a motivation, low initial system permeability is also an essential prerequisite to hydrofracturing. If the formation permeability is too high, excessive fluid losses will preclude the buildup of sufficient pressure to fracture rock. In practical situations, the actual result of injection is frequently to re-open pre-existing hydrothermally-mineralized fractures, rather than to create completely new fractures by rupturing intact rock. Pre-existing fractures can often be opened using injection pressures in the range 5-20 MPa. Creation of completely new fractures will usually require pressures that are several times higher. It is preferable to undertake development projects of this type in regions where tectonic conditions are conducive to shear failure, so that when pre-existing fractures are pressurized they will fail by shearing laterally. If this happens, the fracture will often stay open afterwards even if

  14. Reactive power compensator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  15. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  16. Methods and apparatuses for reagent delivery, reactive barrier formation, and pest control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler [Pasco, WA; Kaplan, Daniel I [Aiken, SC; Last, George [Richland, WA

    2002-07-09

    A reagent delivery method includes positioning reagent delivery tubes in contact with soil. The tubes can include a wall that is permeable to a soil-modifying reagent. The method further includes supplying the reagent in the tubes, diffusing the reagent through the permeable wall and into the soil, and chemically modifying a selected component of the soil using the reagent. The tubes can be in subsurface contact with soil, including groundwater, and can be placed with directional drilling equipment independent of groundwater well casings. The soil-modifying reagent includes a variety of gases, liquids, colloids, and adsorbents that may be reactive or non-reactive with soil components. The method may be used inter alia to form reactive barriers, control pests, and enhance soil nutrients for microbes and plants.

  17. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Townsend, Carl W.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

  18. Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, G.M.; Kollie, T.G.; Watkin, D.C.; Walton, D.G.

    1998-05-12

    Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the ``body-filled panel.`` Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials. 4 figs.

  19. Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Watkin, David C.; Walton, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the "body-filled panel". Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials.

  20. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, L. |; Siegrist, B.; Vesper, S.

    1997-12-31

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

  1. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  2. Reactive power compensating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  3. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  4. Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared By Terry Brown, Jeffrey Morris, Patrick Richards and Joel...

  5. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held ... More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery ...

  6. Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Y-8) were evaluated to characterize lithology, texture, alteration, and the degree and nature of fracturing and veining. Porosity and matrix permeability measurements and...

  7. TEST DEVICE FOR MEASURING PERMEABILITY OF A BARRIER MATERIAL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search TEST DEVICE FOR ... Transfer Website Abstract: A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. ...

  8. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fractured...

  9. Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  10. Evaluation of methods for measuring relative permeability of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dept.; Howarth, S.M. Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States) 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; WIPP; RESERVOIR ROCK; ANHYDRITE; PERMEABILITY; MEASURING METHODS; SITE...

  11. Reactive power pricing and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, S.; Papalexopoulos, A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper explores the technical and economic issues of determining reactive power pricing structures in an open-access environment. It is believed that reactive power pricing and management under open-access will depend upon two important developments: (1) the functional unbundling of facilities that support the reactive power and voltage control service, and (2) grid rules to facilitate the coordination between generation and transmission systems for reliable system operation. The paper discusses the characteristics of reactive power that must be considered in order to develop a framework for reactive power pricing and management. Several cost allocation methods for valuing reactive power are presented. Two workable reactive power pricing structures are also proposed. The first is based on performance standards and the second is based on the local reactive power market concept.

  12. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

    1989-09-12

    An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

  13. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2008-02-05

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  14. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  15. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  16. Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1993-06-08

    Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

  17. Permeability of hydrogen isotopes through nickel-based alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edge, E.M.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1983-04-01

    Permeabilities and diffusivities of deuterium in several nickel-based alloys were measured in this investigation. Measurements were made by the gas-phase breakthrough technique in the temperature range 200 to 450/sup 0/C with applied pressures ranging from 1 to 100 kPa. The results were extrapolated to predict the permeabilities (K) of the alloys at room temperature. The alloy with the smallest deuterium permeability is Carpenter 49, for which K = 4.3 x 10/sup -18/ mol s/sup -1/ m/sup -1/ Pa/sup -//sup 1/2/ at 22/sup 0/C. The permeability of deuterium in Kovar or Ceramvar is about 80% greater than that for Carpenter 49. Premeabilities of Inconel 625, Inconel 718, Inconel 750 and Monel K-500 are all equal to about 5 x 10/sup -17/ mol m/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ Pa/sup -//sup 1/2/ at 22/sup 0/C. The validity (from a statistical standpoint) of the extrapolation of the permeabilities to room temperature is considered in detail. Published permeabilities of stainless steels and nickel-iron alloys are also reviewed. The greatest differences in permeabilities among the nickel-based alloys appear to be associated with the tendency for some alloys to form protective oxide layers. Permeabilities of deuterium through laminates containing copper are smaller than for any of the iron-nickel alloys.

  18. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  19. IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2002-09-30

    Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

  20. Permeable sorptive walls for treatment of hydrophobic organic contaminant plumes in groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grathwohl, P.; Peschik, G.

    1997-12-31

    Highly hydrophobic contaminants are easily adsorbed from aqueous solutions. Since for many of these compounds sorption increases with increasing organic carbon content natural materials such as bituminous shales and coals may be used in permeable sorptive walls. This, however, only applies if sorption is at equilibrium, which may not always be the case in groundwater treatment using a funnel-and-gate system. In contrast to the natural solids, granular activated carbons (GACs) have very high sorption capacities and reasonably fast sorption kinetics. The laboratory results show that application of GACs (e.g. F100) is economically feasible for in situ removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site (MGP). For less sorbing compounds (such as benzene, toluene, xylenes) a combination of adsorption and biodegradation is necessary (i.e. sorptive + reactive treatment).

  1. Fracture-enhanced porosity and permeability trends in Bakken Formation, Williston basin, western North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freisatz, W.B.

    1988-07-01

    Fractures play a critical role in oil production from the Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston basin. The Bakken Formation in the study area is known for its low matrix porosity and permeability, high organic content, thermal maturity, and relative lateral homogeneity. Core analysis has shown the effective porosity and permeability development within the Bakken Formation to be related primarily to fracturing. In theory, lineaments mapped on the surface reflect the geometry of basement blocks and the zones of fracturing propagated upward from them. Fracturing in the Williston basin is thought to have occurred along reactivated basement-block boundaries in response to varying tectonic stresses and crustal flexure throughout the Phanerozoic. Landsat-derived lineament maps were examined for the area between 47/degrees/ and 48/degrees/ north lat. and 103/degrees/ and 104/degrees/ west long. (northern Billings and Golden Valley Counties, and western McKenzie County, North Dakota) in an attempt to identify large-scale fracture trends. In the absence of major tectonic deformation in the craton, a subtle pattern of fracturing has propagated upward through the sedimentary cover and emerged as linear topographic features visible on these large-scale, remote-sensed images.

  2. Creation of a subsurface permeable treatment barrier using in situ redox manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Cole, C.R.; Williams, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of in situ redox manipulation is to create a permeable treatment zone in the subsurface for remediating redox-sensitive contaminants in groundwater. The permeable treatment zone is created just downstream of the contaminant plume or contaminant source through the injection of reagents and/or microbial nutrients to alter the redox potential of the aquifer fluids and sediments. Contaminant plumes migrating through this manipulated zone can then be destroyed or immobilized. In a field test at the Hanford Site, {approximately}77,000 L of buffered sodium dithionite solution were successfully injected into the unconfined aquifer at the 100-H Area in September 1995. The target contaminant was chromate. No significant plugging of the well screen or the formation was detected during any phase of the test. Dithionite was detected in monitoring wells at least 7.5 m from the injection point. Data were obtained from all three phases of the test (i.e., injection, reaction, withdrawal). Preliminary core data show that from 60% to 100% of the available reactive iron in the targeted aquifer sediments was reduced by the injected dithionite. One year after the injection, groundwater in the treatment zone remains anoxic. Total and hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater have been reduced from a preexperiment concentration of {approximately}60 {mu}g/L to below the detection limit of the analytical methods.

  3. MSG MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITIES AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Total G:tllons Pumped from LCRI as Measured by Flowmeter Momhly Basis Pond4 LOS Pond 4 Evapomtion Pond Eleva: '" MoMh Total for A"'"'8o Gallons Per DA WeeklvBasis WeeklyBISis ...

  4. MSGOUID MONTICELLO PROJECTS *FEDERAL FACILITIES AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 0 Pump hllll failed w q:np LDS 1 2Z2 31.7 13S Plmq:l hu fail

  5. MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITIES AGREEMENT REPORT Report...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITIES AGREEMENT REPORT Report Period: January 1- March 31, 2006 DOE Project Coordinator: Ray Plieness HIGHLIGHTS The Federal Facilities Agreement meeting was ...

  6. MSG MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, and the Environmental Protection Agency. ... 0 1312005 0 0 l102005 0 0 11712005 43 Power bump activated pump 0 0.0 0.0 1242005 0 ...

  7. Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... from the waste material is transferred to an adjacent engineered solar evaporation pond. ... U.S. Department of Energy Offce of Legacy Management 2597 Legacy Way, Grand Junction, CO ...

  8. MSG MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    millsite during the week of July 25. The subcontractor returned in September 27 and sprayed again, focusing on undesirable plants that may adversely affect the wetland areas. ...

  9. MSG MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    on this document (September 29, 2004), the MMTS was designated as "construction complete." ... thereby providing a designation of "construction complete" for the MMTS. The annual ...

  10. MSG MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    of Transportation regulations training for the transportation of radioactive materials. ... Benny Musselman) successfully completed the training course. A "redlined" copy of Chapter ...

  11. MSG MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    In accordance with the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Operating Procedures, DOE provided Hazardous Materials Driver Training and Radiological Worker II training to City of ...

  12. Monticello National Priorities List (NPL) Sites

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... subcontractors, UDOT, and Questar (natural gas provider) resumed upgrading utilities and ... Base: 65. 0 Cool Base: 65. 0 Hethod: Integration TWB 12:30p l:OOp 3:00p ll:30a 1:30a ...

  13. MSG MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... ViBiblt Piping Visible Liner Lifo S*vor Station Bvidoli.C<) of erosion of: Top ofl'ond 4 ... FRX:4355872780 1.gs l'"' ND* IJO . : ,. . ** JO f)D" ND ID: SM STOLLER PRGE:003 R95%

  14. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared: 10/28/09 Low Cost Non-Reactive Coating for Refractory Metals A non-reactive coating for refractory metals has been developed at The Ames Laboratory. Contamination of rare earth and reactive metals and their alloys has been a chronic problem that results from their interaction with the crucibles or other vessels used in high temperature processing or during other applications. As a consequence, processing and other costs are high due to the need to replace equipment or containers, or

  15. Microsoft Word - S0171500.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOE-LM/GJ850-2005 ESL-RPT-2005-03 Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah April 2005 Prepared for U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Denver, Colorado Under Interagency Agreement DW89953767018 By U. S. Department of Energy Grand Junction, Colorado Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado

  16. Microsoft Word - S02808.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Sciences Laboratory Environmental Sciences Laboratory Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction, Colorado Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah November 2006 DOE-LM/1379-2006 ESL-RPT-2006-03 Work Performed nder DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. by the S.M. Stoller Corporation u DE AC01 02GJ79491 - - Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This page

  17. Control of membrane permeability in air-stable droplet interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Control of membrane permeability in air-stable droplet interface bilayers Air-stable droplet interface bilayers (airDIBs) on oil-infused surfaces are versatile model ...

  18. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee

    2007-06-19

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  19. Porosity, permeability, and their relationship in granite, basalt, and tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report discusses the porosity, storage, and permeability of fractured (mainly crystalline) rock types proposed as host rock for nuclear waste repositories. The emphasis is on the inter-relationships of these properties, but a number of reported measurements are included as well. The porosity of rock is shown to consist of fracture porosity and matrix porosity; techniques are described for determining the total interconnected porosity through both laboratory and field measurement. Permeability coefficient, as obtained by experiments ranging from laboratory to crustal scale, is discussed. Finally, the problem of determining the relationship between porosity and permeability is discussed. There is no simple, all encompassing relationship that describes the dependence of permeability upon porosity. However, two particular cases have been successfully analyzed: flow through a single rough fracture, and flow through isotropic porous rock. These two cases are discussed in this report.

  20. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  1. The Convergence of Heat, Groundwater & Fracture Permeability. Innovative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Play Fairway Modelling Applied to the Tularosa Basin Phase 1 Project Report (Other) | SciTech Connect Other: The Convergence of Heat, Groundwater & Fracture Permeability. Innovative Play Fairway Modelling Applied to the Tularosa Basin Phase 1 Project Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Convergence of Heat, Groundwater & Fracture Permeability. Innovative Play Fairway Modelling Applied to the Tularosa Basin Phase 1 Project Report This report summarizes the activities

  2. Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability, Webinar Presentation by Arrelaine A. Dameron (7,247 KB) PDF Document Publication NREL's e-Ca Test: A Scalable, High-Sensitivity Water Permeation Measurement Methodology (511

  3. Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exchangers - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion Exchangers Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary For more than 10 years, a partnership between Kazakh and US researchers has led to the synthesis and testing of highly permeable ion-exchangers. These materials possess an increased

  4. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Li, Fangxing; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce

  5. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  6. The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

    2009-09-25

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the services of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical support for the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) activity within the Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project. A portion of the support provided in FY2009, was to extend the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using an alternative approach. This alternative approach incorporates the Brooks and Corey (1964), van Genuchten (1980), and a modified van Genuchten water-retention models into the interfacial-area-based relative permeability model presented by Embid (1997). The general performance of the incorporated models is shown using typical hydraulic parameters. The relative permeability models for the wetting phase were further examined using data from literature. Results indicate that the interfacial-area-based model can describe the relative permeability of the wetting phase reasonably well.

  7. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearingsediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas productionfrom gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeabilityparameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by meansof inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictionswith observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-raycomputed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and thehydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-rayCT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations arenon-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydratesaturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at twolocations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parametersets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydratesaturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parametersrequire further refinement of the experimental design, and betterdescription of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  8. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic; Davy, C.A.; Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean

    2012-07-15

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  9. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  10. Geotechnology for low-permeability gas reservoirs, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Harstad, H.; Lorenz, J.; Warpinski, N.; Boneau, T.; Holcomb, D.; Teufel, L.; Young, C.

    1995-06-01

    The permeability, and thus the economics, of tight reservoirs are largely dependent on natural fractures, and on the in situ stresses that both originated fractures and control subsequent fracture permeability. Natural fracture permeability ultimately determines the gas (or oil) producibility from the rock matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to predict, both prior to drilling and during reservoir production, (1) the natural fracture characteristics, (2) the mechanical and transport properties of fractures and the surrounding rock matrix, and (3) the present in situ stress magnitudes and orientations. The combination of activities described in this report extends the earlier work to other Rocky Mountain gas reservoirs. Additionally, it extends the fracture characterizations to attempts of crosswell geophysical fracture detection using shear wave birefringence and to obtaining detailed quantitative models of natural fracture systems for use in improved numerical reservoir simulations. Finally, the project continues collaborative efforts to evaluate and advance cost-effective methods for in situ stress measurements on core.

  11. Apparatus for providing directional permeability measurements in subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-01-01

    Directional permeability measurements are provided in a subterranean earth formation by injecting a high-pressure gas from a wellbore into the earth formation in various azimuthal directions with the direction having the largest pressure drop being indicative of the maximum permeability direction. These measurements are provided by employing an inflatable boot containing a plurality of conduits in registry with a like plurality of apertures penetrating the housing at circumferentially spaced-apart locations. These conduits are, in turn, coupled through a valved manifold to a source of pressurized gas so that the high-pressure gas may be selectively directed through any conduit into the earth formation defining the bore with the resulting difference in the pressure drop through the various conduits providing the permeability measurements.

  12. Upscaling verticle permeability within a fluvio-aeolian reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S.D.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Jensen, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    Vertical permeability (k{sub v}) is a crucial factor in many reservoir engineering issues. To date there has been little work undertaken to understand the wide variation of k{sub v} values measured at different scales in the reservoir. This paper presents the results of a study in which we have modelled the results of a downhole well tester using a statistical model and high resolution permeability data. The work has demonstrates and quantifies a wide variation in k{sub v} at smaller, near wellbore scales and has implications for k{sub v} modelling at larger scales.

  13. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  14. Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

  15. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  16. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC NEUTRONIC REACTIVITY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dessauer, G.

    1960-05-10

    A method is given for production-line determination of the specific neutronic reactivity of such objects as individual nuclear fuel or neutron absorber elements and is notable for rapidity and apparatus simplicity. The object is incorporated in a slightly sub-critical chain fission reactive assembly having a discrete neutron source, thereby establishing a K/sub eff/ within the crucial range of 0.95 to 0.995. The range was found to afford, uniquely, flux- transient damped response in a niatter of seconds simultaneously with acceptable analytical sensitivity. The resulting neutron flux measured at a situs spaced from both object and source within the assembly serves as a calibrable indication of said reactivity.

  18. In-situ method to remove iron and other metals from Solution in Groundwater down Gradient from Permeable Reactive Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Clay E.; Morrison, Stanley J.

    1999-09-22

    This invention is directed to a process for treating the flow of anaerobic groundwater through an aquifer with a primary treatment media, preferably iron, and then passing the treated groundwater through a second porous media though which an oxygenated gas is passed in order to oxygenate the dissolved primary treatment material and convert it into an insoluble material thereby removing the dissolved primary treatment material from the groundwater.

  19. In-situ method to remove iron and other metals from solution in groundwater down gradient from permeable reactive barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Clay E.; Morrison, Stanley J.

    2001-07-03

    This invention is directed to a process for treating the flow of anaerobic groundwater through an aquifer with a primary treatment media, preferably iron, and then passing the treated groundwater through a second porous media though which an oxygenated gas is passed in order to oxygenate the dissolved primary treatment material and convert it into an insoluble material thereby removing the dissolved primary treatment material from the groundwater.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  1. Biopolymer system for permeability modification in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepp, A.K.; Bryant, R.S.; Llave, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    New technologies are needed to reduce the current high rate of well abandonment. Improved sweep efficiency, reservoir conformance, and permeability modification can have a significant impact on oil recovery processes. Microorganisms can be used to selectively plug high-permeability zones to improve sweep efficiency and impart conformance control. Studies of a promising microbial system for polymer production were conducted to evaluate reservoir conditions in which this system would be effective. Factors which can affect microbial growth and polymer production include salinity, pH, temperature, divalent ions, presence of residual oil, and rock matrix. Flask tests and coreflooding experiments were conducted to optimize and evaluate the effectiveness of this system. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) was used to visualize microbial polymer production in porous media. Changes in fluid distribution within the pore system of the core were detected.

  2. Tubular hydrogen permeable metal foil membrane and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieri, Stephen N.; Birdsell, Stephen A.; Barbero, Robert S.; Snow, Ronny C.; Smith, Frank M.

    2006-04-04

    A tubular hydrogen permeable metal membrane and fabrication process comprises obtaining a metal alloy foil having two surfaces, coating the surfaces with a metal or metal alloy catalytic layer to produce a hydrogen permeable metal membrane, sizing the membrane into a sheet with two long edges, wrapping the membrane around an elongated expandable rod with the two long edges aligned and overlapping to facilitate welding of the two together, placing the foil wrapped rod into a surrounding fixture housing with the two aligned and overlapping foil edges accessible through an elongated aperture in the surrounding fixture housing, expanding the elongated expandable rod within the surrounding fixture housing to tighten the foil about the expanded rod, welding the two long overlapping foil edges to one another generating a tubular membrane, and removing the tubular membrane from within the surrounding fixture housing and the expandable rod from with the tubular membrane.

  3. The hydrogen permeability of Pd{sub 4}S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Casey; Miller, James; Gellman, Andrew; Morreale, Bryan

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen permeates rapidly through pure Pd membranes, but H{sub 2}S, a common minor component in hydrogen-containing streams, produces a Pd{sub 4}S film on the Pd surface that severely retards hydrogen permeation. Hydrogen still permeates through the bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd structure, indicating that the Pd{sub 4}S surface is active for H{sub 2} dissociation; the low hydrogen permeability of the Pd4S film is responsible for the decreased rate of hydrogen transport. In this work, the hydrogen permeability of Pd{sub 4}S was determined experimentally in the 623-773 K temperature range. Bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd foils were produced by exposing pure Pd foils to H{sub 2}S. H{sub 2} fluxes through the bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd foils were measured during exposure to both pure H{sub 2} and a 1000 ppm H{sub 2}S in H{sub 2} gas mixture. Our results show that H{sub 2}S slows hydrogen permeation through Pd mainly by producing a Pd{sub 4}S film on the Pd surface that is roughly an order-of-magnitude less permeable to hydrogen (k{sub Pd{sub 4}S} = 10{sup ?7.5} exp(?0.22 eV/k{sub B}T) molH{sub 2}/m/s/Pa{sup 1/2}) than pure Pd. The presence of H{sub 2}S in the gas stream results in greater inhibition of hydrogen transport than can be explained by the very low permeability of Pd{sub 4}S. H{sub 2}S may block H2 dissociation sites at the Pd{sub 4}S surface.

  4. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  5. A Collection of Complex Permittivity and Permeability Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, W.; Byrd, J.; Johnson, J.; Smithwick, J.

    1993-02-01

    We present the results of measurements of the complex permittivity and permeability over a frequency range of 0.1-5.1 GHz for a range of microwave absorbing materials used in a variety of accelerator applications. We also describe the automated measurement technique which uses swept-frequency S-parameter measurements made on a strip transmission line device loaded with the material under test.

  6. Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisoning within an Individual Catalyst Particle using X-ray Microscopy | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal Poisoning within an Individual Catalyst Particle using X-ray Microscopy Wednesday, August 21, 2013 - 1:30pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-226 Presented by Darius Morris, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a refining process for converting large and/or heavy

  7. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Z. Feng*, L.M. Anovitz*, J.G. Blencoe*, S. Babu*, and P. S. Korinko** * Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Savannah River National Laboratory August 30, 2005 2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Partners and Collaborators * Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Project lead * Savannah River National Laboratory - Low H 2 pressure permeation test * Edison Welding Institute - Pipeline materials * Lincoln Electric Company -

  8. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Team: Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, Z. Feng, M. L. Santella and S. A. David (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, M&C Division - Steels, Welding & Computational Mechanics) J. G. Blencoe and Larry. M. Anovitz (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division - High Pressure Permeation Testing) P. S. Korinko (Savannah River National Laboratory - Low Pressure Permeation Testing) Hydrogen Pipeline R&D, Project Review Meeting Oak

  9. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  10. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  11. Wave-induced pore pressure and effective stresses in a porous seabed with variable permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, D.S.; Seymour, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    An evaluation of wave-induced soil response is particularly useful for geotechnical and coastal engineers involved in the design of foundations for offshore structures. To simplify the mathematical procedure, most theories available for the wave/seabed interaction problem have assumed a porous seabed with uniform permeability, despite strong evidence of variable permeability. This paper proposes an analytical solution for the wave induced soil response in a porous seabed with variable permeability. Verification is available through reduction to the simple case of uniform permeability. The numerical results indicate that the effect of variable soil permeability on pore pressure and effective stresses is significant.

  12. Reactive composite compositions and mat barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, Christine A.; Narasimhan, Rajendran; Karraker, David G.

    2001-01-01

    A hazardous material storage area has a reactive multi-layer composite mat which lines an opening into which a reactive backfill and hazardous material are placed. A water-inhibiting cap may cover the hazardous material storage area. The reactive multi-layer composite mat has a backing onto which is placed an active layer which will neutralize or stabilize hazardous waste and a fronting layer so that the active layer is between the fronting and backing layers. The reactive backfill has a reactive agent which can stabilize or neutralize hazardous material and inhibit the movement of the hazardous material through the hazardous material storage area.

  13. Development of a new graded-porosity FeAl alloy by elemental reactive synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, P Z; He, Y H; Gao, H Y; Zou, J; Xu, N P; Jiang, Y; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2009-01-01

    A new graded-porosity FeAl alloy can be fabricated through Fe and Al elemental reactive synthesis. FeAl alloy with large connecting open pores and permeability were used as porous supports. The coating was obtained by spraying slurries consisting of mixtures of Fe powder and Al powder with 3 5 m diameter onto porous FeAl support and then sintered at 1100 C. The performances of the coating were compared in terms of thickness, pore diameter and permeability. With an increase in the coating thickness up to 200 m, the changes of maximum pore size decreased from 23.6 m to 5.9 m and the permeability decreased from 184.2 m3m 2kPa 1h 1 to 76.2 m3m 2kPa 1h 1, respectively, for a sintering temperature equal to 1100 C. The composite membranes have potential application for excellent filters in severe environments.

  14. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  15. Reactive barrier technologies for treatment of contaminated groundwater at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marozas, D.C.; Bujewski, G.E.; Castaneda, N.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is supporting the investigation of reactive barrier technologies to mitigate the risks associated with mixed organic/radioactive waste at several DOE sites. Groundwater from a small contaminated plume at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is being used to evaluate passive reactive material treatment. Permeable reactive barriers which intercept contaminants and destroy the VOC component while containing radionuclides are attractive for a number of reasons relating to public and regulatory acceptance. In situ treatment keeps contaminants away from the earth`s surface, there is no above-ground treatment equipment that could expose workers and the public and operational costs are expected to be lower than currently used technologies. This paper will present results from preliminary site characterization and in-field small-scale column testing of reactive materials at RFETS. Successful demonstration is expected to lead to full-scale implementation of the technology at several DOE sites, including Rocky Flats.

  16. Em Response of a Conductive, Permeable Spherical Shell

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-24

    This code calculates the spectral response of conductive, permeable, shell in a conductive whole space using a closed form solution. The source is either a uniform field (approximately valid when the size of the sphere is small compared to the distance to the source) or the field of dipole (and by superposition, the field of a finite loop). The code is particularly useful in showing that the typical UXO (usually shells), the response is significantlymore » different at intermediate to late times compared to solids of the same materials.« less

  17. Evaporite Caprock Integrity. An experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Megan M.; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A.

    2012-07-25

    Characterization and geochemical data are presented from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO 2-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO 2-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well asmore » porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO 2-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO 2-enhanced oil recovery operations.« less

  18. Permeability of CoNbZr amorphous thin films over a wide frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyama, H.; Tsujimoto, H.; Shirae, K.

    1987-09-01

    CoNbZr amorphous films have attracted the attention of many researchers because of their high saturation magnetization, high permeability, low coercivity, and nearly zero magnetostriction. For these films to be used, one of the important magnetic properties is the behavior of the permeability over a wide frequency range. We have measured the permeability of a square-shaped magnetic film (13 mm x 55 mm) sputtered on a glass substrate from 1 MHz to 400 MHz using a stripline. Over 400 MHz, the permeability of the magnetic film was measured using a ring-shaped sample mounted in a coaxial fixture. The wall motion permeability of CoNbZr amorphous films decreases from 1 kHz to nearly zero at 1 MHz. The rotation permeability is constant to 100 MHz and ferromagnetic resonance is observed near 1 GHz.

  19. Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. hawaii_geophysics_planetology_peer2013.pdf (439.06 KB) More Documents & Publications Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and

  20. Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Gregory M.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Grzyb, Justin A.

    2016-07-05

    An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

  1. Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

    2013-04-30

    An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

  2. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition, and cell death in Cu-exposed trout hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumschnabel, Gerhard . E-mail: Gerhard.Krumschnabel@uibk.ac.at; Manzl, Claudia; Berger, Christian; Hofer, Bettina

    2005-11-15

    We have previously shown that, in trout hepatocytes, exposure to a high dose of copper (Cu) leads to disruption of Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis and elevated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the latter ultimately causing cell death. In the present study, we aimed at identifying, using a lower Cu concentration, the role of mitochondria in this scenario, the potential involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and the mode of cell death induced by the metal. Incubation with 10 {mu}M Cu resulted in a strong stimulation of ROS formation, and after 2 h of exposure a significant increase of both apoptotic and necrotic cells was seen. Co-incubation of Cu-treated hepatocytes with the iron-chelator deferoxamine significantly inhibited ROS production and completely prevented cell death. The origin of the radicals generated was at least partly mitochondrial, as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ROS production was diminished by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, but since this also aggravated the elevation of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} induced by Cu, it did not preserve cell viability. In a sub-population of cells, Cu induced a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and occurrence of the MPT. Cyclosporin A, which did not inhibit ROS formation, prevented the onset of the MPT and inhibited apoptotic, but not necrotic, cell death. Cu-induced apoptosis therefore appears to be dependent on induction of the MPT, but the prominent contribution of mitochondria to ROS generation also suggests an important role of mitochondria in necrotic cell death.

  3. Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon hawaiigeophysicsplane...

  4. Shear induced permeability test: Stripa Granite X-ray CT files and explanation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tim Kneafsey

    2014-01-21

    This folder contains X-ray CT images and an explanation related to the shear induced permeability testing of Stripa granite

  5. Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs … A Laboratory Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs … A Laboratory Study presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  6. Shock Desensitization Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shock Desensitization Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling on Self-Sustaining LX-17 Detonation Waves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shock Desensitization Experiments ...

  7. Interfacial Structure and Reactivity | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a robust, molecular-scale understanding of its structure and reactivity? Research Context The transport of ions across the electrodeelectrolyte interface can lead to kinetic...

  8. Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing SummaryORNL researchers have developed a pioneering power alternative to batteries using directional reactive power. Batteries are currently the primary option for...

  9. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  10. Report on Hydrologic Flow in Low-Permeability Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-13

    We demonstrate that under normal conditions (under which there are no intersections between tunnels/drifts and conductive geological structures, such as faults), the water flow velocity in the damage zone, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, is extremely small such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. We show that unless non-Darcian flow behavior is considered, significant errors can occur in the “measured” relative-permeability values. We propose a hypothesis to consider the temperature impact based on limited test results from the petroleum literature. To consider the bedding effects, we present an empirical relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient for non-Darcian water flow in anisotropic cases.

  11. Amino resin modified polymer gels for permeability control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1989-03-07

    An aqueous cross-linked gel formed by a polysaccharide polymer, an aminoplast resin, and transitional metal ions is described, comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross-linkable polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of polysaccharide bipolymers and cellulose derivatives having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the polymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in a formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  12. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1988-01-05

    A process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a water flood oil recovery operation wherein the process comprises injecting into the formation a gellable composition is described comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in the formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  13. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2011-11-01

    -sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

  14. System and method for measuring permeability of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2013-07-09

    Systems and methods are provided for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. Systems typically provide a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  15. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2008-08-05

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  16. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale E. Brown (Pyrotek); Puja B. Kadolkar (ORNL)

    2005-12-15

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to

  17. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  18. Computational Modeling of Fluid Flow through a Fracture in Permeable Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H

    2010-01-01

    Laminar, single-phase, finite-volume solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid flow through a fracture within permeable media have been obtained. The fracture geometry was acquired from computed tomography scans of a fracture in Berea sandstone, capturing the small-scale roughness of these natural fluid conduits. First, the roughness of the two-dimensional fracture profiles was analyzed and shown to be similar to Brownian fractal structures. The permeability and tortuosity of each fracture profile was determined from simulations of fluid flow through these geometries with impermeable fracture walls. A surrounding permeable medium, assumed to obey Darcy’s Law with permeabilities from 0.2 to 2,000 millidarcies, was then included in the analysis. A series of simulations for flows in fractured permeable rocks was performed, and the results were used to develop a relationship between the flow rate and pressure loss for fractures in porous rocks. The resulting frictionfactor, which accounts for the fracture geometric properties, is similar to the cubic law; it has the potential to be of use in discrete fracture reservoir-scale simulations of fluid flow through highly fractured geologic formations with appreciable matrix permeability. The observed fluid flow from the surrounding permeable medium to the fracture was significant when the resistance within the fracture and the medium were of the same order. An increase in the volumetric flow rate within the fracture profile increased by more than 5% was observed for flows within high permeability-fractured porous media.

  19. General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-22

    GRASP (General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program) is primarily intended as a molecular dynamics package for complex force fields, The code is designed to provide good performance for large systems, either in parallel or serial execution mode, The primary purpose of the code is to realistically represent the structural and dynamic properties of large number of atoms on timescales ranging from picoseconds up to a microsecond. Typically the atoms form a representative sample of some material,more » such as an interface between polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silica. GRASP differs from other parallel molecular dynamics codes primarily due to it’s ability to handle relatively complicated interaction potentials and it’s ability to use more than one interaction potential in a single simulation. Most of the computational effort goes into the calculation of interatomic forces, which depend in a complicated way on the positions of all the atoms. The forces are used to integrate the equations of motion forward in time using the so-called velocity Verlet integration scheme. Alternatively, the forces can be used to find a minimum energy configuration, in which case a modified steepest descent algorithm is used.« less

  20. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and

  1. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  2. Noise modeling from high-permeability shields using Kirchhoff equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandin, Henrik J; Volegov, Petr L; Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Savukov, Igor M; Schultz, Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Progress in the development of high-sensitivity magnetic-field measurements has stimulated interest in understanding magnetic noise of conductive materials, especially of magnetic shields (DC or rf) based on high-permeability materials and/or high-conductivity materials. For example, SQUIDs and atomic magnetometers have been used in many experiments with mu-metal shields, and additionally SQUID systems frequently have rf shielding based on thin conductive materials. Typical existing approaches to modeling noise only work with simple shield and sensor geometries while common experimental setups today consist of multiple sensor systems arbitrary shapes and complex shield geometries. With complex sensor arrays used in, for example, MEG and Ultra Low Field MRI studies the knowledge of the noise correlation between sensors is as important as the knowledge of the noise itself. This is crucial for incorporating efficient noise cancelation schemes for the system. We developed an approach that allows us to calculate the Johnson noise for any geometrically shaped shield and multiple sensor systems. The approach uses a fraction of the processing power of other approaches and with a multiple sensor system our approach not only calculates the noise for each sensor but it also calculates the noise correlation matrix between sensors. Here we will show the algorithm and examples where it can be implemented.

  3. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  4. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  5. Characterization of tungsten films and their hydrogen permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemani?, Vincenc Kova?, Janez; Lungu, Cristian; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Zajec, Bojan

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of tritium migration and its retention within fusion reactors is uncertain due to a significant role of the structural disorder that is formed on the surface layer after plasma exposure. Tungsten films deposited by any of the suitable methods are always disordered and contain a high density of hydrogen traps. Experiments on such films with hydrogen isotopes present a suitable complementary method, which improves the picture of the hydrogen interaction with fusion relevant materials. The authors report on the morphology, composition, and structure of tungsten films deposited by the thermionic vacuum arc method on highly permeable Eurofer substrates. Subsequently, hydrogen permeation studies through these films were carried out in a wide pressure range from 20 to 1000 mbars at 400?C. The final value of the permeation coefficient for four samples after 24?h at 400?C was between P?=?3.2??10{sup ?14}?mol?H{sub 2}/(m?s?Pa{sup 0.5}) and P?=?1.1??10{sup ?15}?mol H{sub 2}/(m s Pa{sup 0.5}). From the time evolution of the permeation flux, it was shown that diffusivity was responsible for the difference in the steady fluxes, as solubility was roughly the same. This is confirmed by XRD data taken on these samples.

  6. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  7. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  8. Gelled polymer systems for permeability modification in petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; Thiele, J.L.; McCool, C.S.; Mertes, K.B.

    1991-09-01

    The research program described in this report was conducted to improve the performance and predictability of in situ gelation processes designed to increase volumetric sweep efficiency of fluid displacement processes. A principal objective of this research was to develop procedures for design and evaluation of permeability modification processes. Research was conducted in three broad areas: (1) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Gelling Systems (2) In situ Gelation and (3) Mathematical Modeling of In Site Gelation. Gelling systems used chromium as the crosslinking agent. Polyacrylamide and polysaccharides gelling systems were studied. Research was conducted on the chemical structure of polymer/metal ion complexes, kinetics of the reduction of Cr(6) to Cr(3) by thiourea, kinetics of oligomerization and uptake of chromium by polyacrylamide and rheology of chromium/polysaccharide gelling systems. Studies of polymer/metal ion complexes were conducted using solutions of pure monomer, dimer and trimer forms of chromium. A mathematical model was developed to examine the kinetics of Cr(3) oligomerization and uptake of chromium by polyacrylamide. Rheological studies were completed on chromium/polysaccharide gels. In situ gelation experiments were conducted using a bis-ethylenediamine chromium complex and chromium(3) polyacrylamide gelling systems in sandpacks. A numerical model of in situ gelation of chromium/polyacrylamide systems was developed for linear displacement in a sandpack. The numerical model is based on filtration mechanisms and is consistent with experimental data and models developed in this research program. 103 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Permeability of consolidated incinerator facility wastes stabilized with portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-04-19

    The Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) burns low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes as a method of treatment and volume reduction. The CIF generates secondary waste, which consists of ash and offgas scrubber solution. Currently the ash is stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process. The scrubber solution (blowdown) is sent to the SRS Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment as wastewater. In the past, the scrubber solution was also stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process as blowcrete, and will continue to be treated this way for listed waste burns and scrubber solutions that do not meet the ETF Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The disposal plan for Ashcrete and special case blowcrete is to bury these containerized waste forms in shallow unlined trenches in E-Area. The WAC for intimately mixed, cement-based wasteforms intended for direct disposal specifies limits on compressive strength and permeability. Simulated waste and actual CIF ash and scrubber solution were mixed in the laboratory and cast into wasteforms for testing. Test results and related waste disposal consequences are given in this report.

  10. Investigation of long term reactive stability of ceria for use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reactive stability of ceria for use in solar thermochemical cycles This content will ... reactive stability of ceria for use in solar thermochemical cycles Authors: Rhodes, ...

  11. Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement Core: ... Title: Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement ...

  12. The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and Temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and ...

  13. Inducing and Quantifying Forbidden Reactivity with Single Molecule...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inducing and Quantifying Forbidden Reactivity with Single Molecule Polymer Mechanochemistry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inducing and Quantifying Forbidden Reactivity ...

  14. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex ... Title: Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in ...

  15. Reactivity of perovskites with water: Role of hydroxylation in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of perovskites with water: Role of hydroxylation in wetting and implications ... Title: Reactivity of perovskites with water: Role of hydroxylation in wetting and ...

  16. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling of fault reactivation ...

  17. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium...

  18. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1984-01-01

    Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

  19. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Holdren, Jr., George R.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  20. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  1. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  2. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  3. Permeability computation on a REV with an immersed finite element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laure, P. [Laboratoire J.-A. Dieudonne, CNRS UMR 6621, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, Cedex 02 (France); Puaux, G.; Silva, L.; Vincent, M. [MINES ParisTech, CEMEF-Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux, CNRS UMR 7635, BP 207 1 rue Claude, Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France)

    2011-05-04

    An efficient method to compute permeability of fibrous media is presented. An immersed domain approach is used to represent the porous material at its microscopic scale and the flow motion is computed with a stabilized mixed finite element method. Therefore the Stokes equation is solved on the whole domain (including solid part) using a penalty method. The accuracy is controlled by refining the mesh around the solid-fluid interface defined by a level set function. Using homogenisation techniques, the permeability of a representative elementary volume (REV) is computed. The computed permeabilities of regular fibre packings are compared to classical analytical relations found in the bibliography.

  4. Stress- and Chemistry-Mediated Permeability Enhancement/Degradation in Stimulated Critically-Stressed Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derek Elsworth; Abraham S. Grader; Chris Marone; Phillip Halleck; Peter Rose; Igor Faoro; Joshua Taron; André Niemeijer; Hideaki Yasuhara

    2009-03-30

    This work has investigated the interactions between stress and chemistry in controlling the evolution of permeability in stimulated fractured reservoirs through an integrated program of experimentation and modeling. Flow-through experiments on natural and artificial fractures in Coso diorite have examined the evolution of permeability under paths of mean and deviatoric stresses, including the role of dissolution and precipitation. Models accommodating these behaviors have examined the importance of incorporating the complex couplings between stress and chemistry in examining the evolution of permeability in EGS reservoirs. This document reports the findings of experiment [1,2] and analysis [3,4], in four sequential chapters.

  5. Porosity and Permeability Evolution Accompanying Hot fluid Injection into Diatomite, SUPRI TR-123

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diabira, I.; Castanier, L.M.; Kovscek, A.R.

    2001-04-19

    An experimental study of silica dissolution was performed to probe the evolution of permeability and porosity in siliceous diatomite during hot fluid injection such as water or steam flooding. Two competing mechanisms were identified. Silica solubility in water at elevated temperature causes rock dissolution thereby increasing permeability; however, the rock is mechanically weak leading to compressing of the solid matrix during injection. Permeability and porosity can decrease at the onset of fluid flow. A laboratory flow apparatus was designed and built to examine these processes in diatomite core samples.

  6. Used to Calibrate Thermistors on In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The software package is comprised of three programs which together are used to calibrate thermistors in an In Situ Permable Flow Sensor. TBATH controls a temperature controlled bath/circulator. The code monitors the temperature of a set of previously calibrated thermistors located in a tank through which the fluid from the bath is circulated. After the temperature has reached and maintained thermal equilibrium for a specified period of time, the bath/circulator is instructed by the programmore » to change the temperature set point to the next specified temperature. An arbitrary number of temperature calibration points can be specified allowing thermistors to be calibrated on a continuous basis without human intervention. CALIB is used to merge two data files that are collected during a temperature calibration run. During calibration of the thermistors on an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor, the known temperatures in the temperaure controlled tank are recorded in one computer file in one format while the electrical resistance of the thermistors being calibrated is collected in a different file with a different format. This software reads in the two files and writes out a third file with all of the data in it that is required to calculate the calibration coefficients of the thermistors on the probe. POLYFIT is used to calculate the calibration coefficients which permit the temperature of a thermistor to ba calculated from its electrical resistance. During calibration of a thermistor, the electrical resistance of the thermistor is measured at four or more known temperatures and the data sent to this software. The program calculates the coefficients of a fourth order polynomial relating the inverse of the absolute temperature to the natural log of the electrical resistance. Once these coefficients are known, the polynomial can be evaluated with any measured electrical resistance to calculate the equivalent temperature.« less

  7. Modeling of coupled heat transfer and reactive transport processesin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subsequently, vapor migrates out of the matrix pore space, moving away from the tunnel through the permeable fracture network. This migration is propelled by buoyancy, by the ...

  8. Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-08-21

    Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature between the ideal conditions assumed for NPG desalination and the physical environment inherent to reverse osmosis (RO) systems. In particular, the water permeability of NPG has been calculated previously based on very high pressures (1000–2000 bars). Does NPG maintain its ultrahigh water permeability under real-world RO pressures (<100 bars)? Here, we answer this question by drawing results from molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that NPG maintains its ultrahigh permeability even at low pressures, allowing a permeate water flux of 6.0 l/h-bar per pore, or equivalently 1041 ± 20 l/m{sup 2}-h-bar assuming a nanopore density of 1.7 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}.

  9. Thickness dependence of hydrogen permeability for Ni-BaCe{sub...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Thickness dependence of hydrogen permeability for Ni-BaCesub 0.8Ysub 0.2Osub 3-delta. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thickness dependence of ...

  10. Poly 3D fault modeling scripts/data for permeability potential of Washington State geothermal prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-05

    Matlab scripts/functions and data used to build Poly3D models and create permeability potential GIS layers for 1) Mount St Helen's, 2) Wind River Valley, and 3) Mount Baker geothermal prospect areas located in Washington state.