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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Volatile organic compound emissions from composting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is a review of the aerobic composting process and the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from this process. To understand why and (more)

Harris, Stephanie Rose Rene

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Regen, W.K.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Energy-efficient indoor volatile organic compound air cleaning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-efficient indoor volatile organic compound air cleaning using activated carbon fiber media with nightly regeneration Title Energy-efficient indoor volatile organic compound...

6

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Contribution of Semi-volatile Organic Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semi-volatile Organics in PM Semi-volatile Organics in PM This project is a cooperative effort between Brigham Young University (BYU) and researchers from the DOE-NETL Office of Science and and Engineering Research to determine the contribution of semi-volatile particulate organic compounds (SVOC) to total ambient suspended fine particulate mass at the NETL-Pittsburgh air monitoring facility. Project funding comes from DOE‘s University Coal Research (UCR) program. The hypothesis of the project is that fine particulate mass will be significantly under-determined in urban environments using single filter samplers such as the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method (FRM) because of the loss of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from the particles during sampling and storage. It is postulated that fine particulate mass, including the semi-volatile fine particulate organic species, are an appropriate surrogate for the components of fine particles which are associated with observed mortality and morbidity effects in epidemiological studies. Further, it is postulated that the most important fraction of the semi-volatile organic material with respect to exacerbation of health problems will be semi-volatile secondary compounds formed from reactions of volatile organic material with ozone and nitrogen oxides. Under-determination of these semi-volatile species will tend to over emphasize the importance of non-volatile fine particulate components such as sulfate or may reduce the significance of correlations with measured health effects.

7

Volatile organic compound remedial action project  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4083E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Parthasarathy, Srinandini, Randy L. Maddalena, Marion L. Russell, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors were evaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using the

9

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

Herndon, S. C.

10

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Title Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6257E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Amanda Parra, Marion L. Russell, and Wen-Yee Lee Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords indoor air quality, Passive Sampling, Uptake Rates, vocs Abstract Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick's Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

11

A two-dimensional volatility basis set Part 2: Diagnostics of organic-aerosol evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the use of a two-dimensional volatility-oxidation space (2-D-VBS) to describe organic-aerosol chemical evolution. The space is built around two coordinates, volatility and the degree of oxidation, both of which ...

Donahue, N. M.

12

Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Title Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., David Faulkner, Douglas P. Sullivan, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Marion L. Russell, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5517-5528 Abstract A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a floor area of 4,600 m2, was located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building's four air handling units (AHUs). VOC concentrations in the AHU returns were measured on seven days during a 13-week period. VOC emission factors were determined for individual zones on days when they were operating at near steady-state conditions. The emission factor data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds. Potential sources of the PC vectors were ascribed based on information from the literature supporting the associations. Two vectors with high loadings of compounds including formaldehyde, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- pentanediol monoisobutyrate, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (d5 siloxane), and isoprene likely identified occupant-related sources. One vector likely represented emissions from building materials. Another vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. The relationships between indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations and ventilation rate were qualitatively examined for eight VOCs. Of these, acetaldehyde and hexanal, which were likely associated with material sources, and d5 siloxane exhibited general trends of higher concentrations at lower ventilation rates. For other compounds, the operation of the building and variations in pollutant generation and removal rates apparently combined to obscure the inverse relationship between VOC concentrations and ventilation. This result emphasizes the importance of utilizing source control measures, in addition to adequate ventilation, to limit concentrations of VOCs of concern in office buildings

13

New Soil Volatile Organic Compound Samplers U S  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soil Volatile Organic Soil Volatile Organic Compound Samplers U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y * O f f i c e o f F o s s i l E n e r g y N a t i o n a l E n e r g y T e c h n o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y Successes AdvAnced ReseARch To support coal and power systems development, NETL's Advanced Research Program conducts a range of pre-competitive research focused on breakthroughs in materials and processes, coal utilization science, sensors and controls, computational energy science, and bioprocessing-opening new avenues to gains in power plant efficiency, reliability, and environmental quality. NETL also sponsors cooperative educational initiatives in University Coal Research, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Other Minority Institutions. Accomplishments P Process improvement P Cost reduction P Greater efficiency

14

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Michael G. Apte Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 43 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5626-5632 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THUVOC and aldehyde emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehydeconcentrations ranged from 378 µg m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 µg m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 µg m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 µg m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and materialspecific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was theonly one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 µg m-2 h-1 in the morning and 257 to 347 µg m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 µg/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 µg/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (materialsurface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde

15

Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

Residential pollutants and ventilation strategies: Volatile organic compounds and radon  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews literature that reports investigations of residential ventilation and indoor air quality. Two important residential pollutant classes, volatile organic compounds and radon, are examined. A companion paper examines moisture and combustion pollutants. Control strategies recommended from the review include appropriate building design to prevent or limit the sources of the pollutants within the space, proper operation and maintenance to prevent adverse conditions from developing during the building's life and appropriate use of ventilation. The characteristics of these pollutant sources suggest that ventilation systems in residences should have several properties. They should have the extra capacity available to reduce short bursts of pollution, be located close to the expected source of the contamination, and be inexpensive. Mitigation of radon is technically a major success using a form of task ventilation. Whole-house ventilation is, at best, a secondary form of control of excess radon in residences.

Grimsrud, D.T.; Hadlich, D.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Opportunities for reducing volatile organic compound emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions: a feasibility analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions. The pollution prevention (P2) methodology as defined by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment ... Keywords: emissions, manufacturing, office furniture, pollution prevention, volatile organic compound

Frank S. Luisser; Marc A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Predicting flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One requirement regarding the transportation of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste containers currently limits the total concentration of potentially flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and flammable gases in the headspace of the waste container. Typical VOCs observed in the drums include aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, cyclohexane, as well as chlorinated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes). Flammable gases, such as hydrogen and methane, may be generated in the containers by radiation-induced decomposition (radiolysis) of water and hydrocarbon waste forms. An experimental program was initiated to identify an accurate means for predicting flammability for gas mixtures containing one or more of the following species: hydrogen, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, toluene, or 2-butanone. The lower flammability limits (LFL) of gas mixtures containing equimolar quantity for each species were determined in a 19-liter laboratory flammability chamber using a strong spark ignition source. The group factor contribution method was determined to be more accurate than the LeChatelier method for estimating the LFL for these gas mixtures.

Liekhus, K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Zlochower, I. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.; Djordjevic, S.; Loehr, C. [Benchmark Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Source Footprint Considerations in the Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Fluxes from Forest Canopies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Above-canopy sampling of trace gases to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions should be interpreted in terms of footprint considerations. This can be accomplished by defining the upwind canopy areas effectively sampled under the ...

S. K. Kaharabata; P. H. Schuepp; J. D. Fuentes

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and ...

Scholten, Elke

22

Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

Fortner, E. C.

23

Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens

Ho, Cliff

25

Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

Ouellette, B.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Linear driving force models for dynamic adsorption of volatile organic compound traces by porous adsorbent beds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models for the dynamic adsorption of volatile organic compound (VOC) traces in air are considered. They are based on the linear driving force approximation associated with various adsorption isotherms characteristic of the couple VOC-adsorbent (Langmuir, ... Keywords: Comsol, Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm, Dynamic adsorption modelling, Finite element

Agns Joly; Alain Perrard

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A room temperature CuO nanowire sensor for organic volatile gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuO nanowires have been synthesised by the thermal method in 100% oxygen ambient at 600C. Gas sensing property has been examined by measuring the resistance change of the materials to 1% of butane gas and 1% of ethanol vapour separately under the ... Keywords: copper oxide (CuO) nanowires, room temperature gas sensor and organic volatile gas

C. F. Dee; T. Y. Tiong; M. M. Salleh; M. M. Yahya; B. Y. Majlis

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Integration of organic insulator and self-assembled gold nanoparticles on Si MOSFET for novel non-volatile memory cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have fabricated a hybrid non-volatile gold nanoparticle floating-gate memory metal insulator semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET) device combining silicon technology and organic thin film deposition. The nanoparticles are deposited by chemical ... Keywords: hybrid Silicon-organic memory, nanocrystal memory, nanoparticles, non-volatile memory

S. Kolliopoulou; P. Dimitrakis; P. Normand; H.-L. Zhang; N. Cant; S. D. Evans; S. Paul; C. Pearson; A. Molloy; M. C. Petty; D. Tsoukalas

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Detection and classification of volatile organic compounds using Indium Tin Oxide sensor array and artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reveals the novel approach of fabricating Indium Tin Oxide thin films grown on glass substrate at 648 K temperatures using direct evaporation method for detection of small concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their ... Keywords: ANNs, ITO thin films, VOC mixtures, VOCs, artificial neural networks, direct evaporation, indium tin oxide, sensor arrays, thin film sensors, volatile organic compounds

H. J. Pandya

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Title Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds...

31

The effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide mixing ratios on the emission of Volatile organic compounds from Corymbia citriodora and Tristaniopsis laurina.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Bibliography: p. 120-124. Introduction Environmental factors affecting the emission of biogenic Volatile organic compounds Materials and experimental procedures Quantification using sold-phase microextraction (more)

Camenzuli, Michelle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST OTHER CHANGES TO VOC MONITORING PROGRAM Page 1 of 21 VOC 3·1: PMR Section 3, Topic 1, Table 1 Recalculated Waste Matrix Code Group Weighting Factors based on the 2004 Compliance Recertification Contact Handled (CH) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Inventory (m 3 ) The new weighting factors appear to be based on CH TRU waste only and do not include remote handled (RH) TRU waste. There was no discussion in the PMR addressing possible differences in Waste Matrix Code Group (WMCG) for RH TRU that could potentially impact the weighting factors. Please provide data characterizing the differences in emissions between the two types of waste, in support of the assertion that modeling data from CH TRU waste adequately

33

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building Title Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3979e Year of Publication 2010 Authors Ortiz, Anna C., Marion L. Russell, Wen-Yee Lee, Michael G. Apte, and Randy L. Maddalena Pagination 29 Date Published 09/2010 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 μg/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to >500 μg/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~ 15 μg/m2/h while the new wood material emitted > 100 μg/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs

34

Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

MARUSICH, R.M.

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist.

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

37

A General, Cryogenically-Based Analytical Technique for the Determination of Trace Quantities of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical technique for the determination of trace (sub-ppbv) quantities of volatile organic compounds in air was developed. A liquid nitrogen-cooled trap operated at reduced pressures in series with a Dupont Nafion-based drying tube and a ...

Randolph A. Coleman; Wesley R. Cofer III; Robert A. Edahl Jr.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: THE NEW X-WAND HVOC SCREENING DEVICE  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed new methodology and a test kit to screen soil or water samples for halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in the field. The technology has been designated the X-Wand{trademark} screening tool. The new device uses a heated diode sensor that is commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. This sensor is selective to halogens. It does not respond to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, such as those in gasoline, and it is not affected by high humidity. In the current work, the heated diode leak detectors were modified further to provide units with rapid response and enhanced sensitivity. The limit of detection for trichloroethylene TCE in air is 0.1 mg/m{sup 3} (S/N = 2). The response to other HVOCS relative to TCE is similar. Variability between sensors and changes in a particular sensor over time can be compensated for by normalizing sensor readings to a maximum sensor reading at 1,000 mg/m{sup 3} TCE. The soil TCE screening method was expanded to include application to water samples. Assuming complete vaporization, the detection limit for TCE in soil is about 1 ug/kg (ppb) for a 25-g sample in an 8-oz jar. The detection limit for TCE in water is about 1 ug/L (ppb) for a 25-mL sample in an 8-oz jar. This is comparable to quantitation limits of EPA GC/MS laboratory methods. A draft ASTM method for screening TCE contaminated soils using a heated diode sensor was successfully submitted for concurrent main committee and subcommittee balloting in ASTM Committee D 34 on Waste Management. The method was approved as ASTM D 7203-05, Standard Test Method for Screening Trichloroethylene (TCE)-Contaminated Soil Using a Heated Diode Sensor.

John F. Schabron; Susan S. Sorini; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

40

Comparison of sampling methods for semi-volatile organic carbonAssociated with PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the influence of denuder sampling methods and filter collection media on the measurement of semi-volatile organic carbon (SVOC) associated with PM2.5. Two types of collection media, charcoal (activated carbon) and XAD, were used both in diffusion denuders and impregnated back-up filters in two different samplers, the VAPS and the PC-BOSS. The two organic diffusion denuders were XAD-coated glass annular denuders and charcoal-impregnated cellulose fiber filter(CIF) denuders. In addition, recently developed XAD-impregnated quartz filters were compared to CIF filters as back-up filter collection media. The two denuder types resulted in equivalent measurement of particulate organic carbon and particle mass. The major difference observed between the XAD and charcoal BOSS denuders is the higher efficiency of charcoal for collection of more volatile carbon. This more volatile carbon does not contribute substantially to the particle mass or SVOC measured as OC on quartz filters downstream of the denuders. This volatile carbon does result in high OC concentrations observed in charcoal filters placed behind quartz filters downstream of the XAD denuders and would result in overestimating the SVOC in that configuration.

Lewtas, Joellen; Booth, Derrick; Pang, Yanbo; Reimer, Steve; Eatough, Delbert J.; Gundel, Lara A.

2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mass transport of volatile organic compounds between the saturated and vadose zones. Master`s thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in the saturated zone are transported into the vadose zone primarily by gaseous phase diffusion. If the saturated zone is remediated, VOCs present in the vadose zone may become a secondary source of contamination for the groundwater. The amount of VOCs that remain in the vadose zone is dependent on site hydrology, soil properties, and the chemical properties of the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to determine what conditions caused VOC concentrations in the vadose zone to significantly recontaminate the saturated zone. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the transport of a VOC, trichioroethylene, between the saturated and vadose zones under a variety of conditions. The model featured steady-state unsaturated water flow and transient contaminant transport. Transport mechanisms included aqueous phase advection-dispersion and gaseous phase diffusion. Partitioning between the water, gas, and soil compartments were modeled as equilibrium processes. Sensitivity analyses were performed on several variables including soil type (homogeneous and heterogeneous profiles), water infiltration rate and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant rate, and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant in the presence of heterogeneous soils, low infiltration rates and deep vadose zones.

Harner, M.S.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Membrane System for Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases.: Phase 1.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. This report covers the first phase of a two-phase project. The first phase involved the laboratory demonstration of the water separation section of the unit, the production and demonstration of new membrane modules to improve the separation, the design studies required for the demonstration system, and initial contacts with potential field sites. In the second phase, the demonstration system will be built and, after a short laboratory evaluation, will be tested at two field sites.

Wijmans, J.G.; Goakey, S.; Wang, X.; Baker, R.W.; Kaschemekat, J.H.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Modeling Organic Aerosols in a Megacity: Comparison of Simple and Complex Representations of the Volatility Basis Set Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is modified to include a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment of secondary organic aerosol formation. The VBS approach, coupled with SAPRC-99 gas-phase chemistry mechanism, is used to model gas-particle partitioning and multiple generations of gas-phase oxidation of organic vapors. In addition to the detailed 9-species VBS, a simplified mechanism using 2 volatility species (2-species VBS) is developed and tested for similarity to the 9-species VBS in terms of both mass and oxygen-to-carbon ratios of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. WRF-Chem results are evaluated against field measurements of organic aerosols collected during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign in the vicinity of Mexico City. The simplified 2-species mechanism reduces the computational cost by a factor of 2 as compared to 9-species VBS. Both ground site and aircraft measurements suggest that the 9-species and 2-species VBS predictions of total organic aerosol mass as well as individual organic aerosol components including primary, secondary, and biomass burning are comparable in magnitude. In addition, oxygen-to-carbon ratio predictions from both approaches agree within 25%, providing evidence that the 2-species VBS is well suited to represent the complex evolution of organic aerosols. Model sensitivity to amount of anthropogenic semi-volatile and intermediate volatility (S/IVOC) precursor emissions is also examined by doubling the default emissions. Both the emission cases significantly under-predict primary organic aerosols in the city center and along aircraft flight transects. Secondary organic aerosols are predicted reasonably well along flight tracks surrounding the city, but are consistently over-predicted downwind of the city. Also, oxygen-to-carbon ratio predictions are significantly improved compared to prior studies by adding 15% oxygen mass per generation of oxidation; however, all modeling cases still under-predict these ratios downwind as compared to measurements, suggesting a need to further improve chemistry parameterizations of secondary organic aerosol formation.

Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Gustafson, William I.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Saide, Pablo; Hodzic, Alma

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

44

Evolution and Transport of Pollutants over a Mediterranean Coastal Area: The Influence of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions on Ozone Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computational simulation of a typical sea-breeze situation and the transport and evolution of photochemical pollutants on the Spanish east coast is performed, and the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on the ozone ...

Spyros Andronopoulos; Artemis Passamichali; Nikos Gounaris; John G. Bartzis

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics  

SciTech Connect

Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced {approximately}7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe{reg_sign} rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC. The contaminant plume there is approximately 10 m deep, 50 m wide and contains up to 4 {micro}g/L total BTEX and 75 {micro}g/L dissolved iron. An extensive pilot test was first performed to estimate the zone of influence for a single well. At this site an air injection rate of 1.2 L/min resulted in a water flow rate of 1 to 2 L/min based on bromide dilution tests in the GCW. The GCW increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the discharge water to between 6 and 8 {micro}g/L and reduced contaminant concentrations to less than 20 {micro}g/L total BTEX. Monitoring results from a 73 day pilot test were then used to define the zone of influence for a single DP-GCW and to design a full scale barrier system.

Borden, R.C.; Cherry, R.S.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics  

SciTech Connect

Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced ~7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC. The contaminant plume there is approximately 10 m deep, 50 m wide and contains up to 4 g/L total BTEX and 75 g/L dissolved iron. An extensive pilot test was first performed to estimate the zone of influence for a single well. At this site an air injection rate of 1.2 L/min resulted in a water flow rate of 1 to 2 L/min based on bromide dilution tests in the GCW. The GCW increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the discharge water to between 6 and 8 g/L and reduced contaminant concentrations to less than 20 g/L total BTEX. Monitoring results from a 73 day pilot test were then used to define the zone of influence for a single DP-GCW and to design a full scale barrier system.

Borden, R. E.; Cherry, Robert Stephen

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3. Emissions of phenol were also found to be slightly higher than values reported in earlier studies1,2,3. This study can assist in retrospective formaldehyde exposure assessments of THUs where estimates of the occupants indoor formaldehyde exposures are needed.

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building  

SciTech Connect

The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 mu g/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to>500 mu g/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~;;15 mu g/m2/h while the new wood material emitted>100 mu g/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs.

Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

49

Quantifying requirements volatility effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements ... Keywords: ?-ratio, ?-ratio, Compound monthly growth rate, IT dashboard, IT portfolio management, Quantitative IT portfolio management, Requirements churn, Requirements creep, Requirements metric, Requirements scrap, Requirements volatility, Requirements volatility dashboard, Scope creep, Volatility benchmark, Volatility tolerance factor

G. P. Kulk; C. Verhoef

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

51

Infrared Spectroscopy of Wild 2 Particle Hypervelocity Tracks in Stardust Aerogel: Evidence for the presence of Volatile Organics in Comet Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared spectroscopy maps of some tracks, made by cometary dust from 81P/Wild 2 impacting Stardust aerogel, reveal an interesting distribution of volatile organic material. Out of six examined tracks three show presence of volatile organic components possibly injected into the aerogel during particle impacts. When particle tracks contained excess volatile organic material, they were found to be -CH{sub 2}-rich. Off-normal particle tracks could indicate impacts by lower velocity particles that could have bounced off the Whipple shield, therefore carry off some contamination from it. However, this theory is not supported by data that show excess organic-rich material in normal and off-normal particle tracks. It is clear that the population of cometary particles impacting the Stardust aerogel collectors also include grains that contained little or none of this volatile organic component. This observation is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of the collected grains, as seen by a multitude of other analytical techniques. We propose that at least some of the volatile organic material might be of cometary origin based on supporting data shown in this paper. However, we also acknowledge the presence of carbon (primarily as -CH{sub 3}) in the original aerogel, which complicates interpretation of these results.

Bajt, S; Sandford, S A; Flynn, G J; Matrajt, G; Snead, C J; Westphal, A J; Bradley, J P

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

52

Recovery of semi-volatile organic compounds during sample preparation: Compilation for characterization of airborne particulate matter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide volatility and polarity range. To meet these challenges, solutions of n-alkanes (nC{sub 12} to nC{sub 40}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs (naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene) were reduced in volume from a solvent mixture (equal volumes of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol), to examine recovery after reduction in volume. When the extract solution volume reached 0.5 mL the solvent was entirely methanol, and the recovery averaged 60% for n-alkanes nC{sub 12} to nC{sub 25} and PAHs from naphthalene to chrysene. Recovery of higher MW compounds decreased with MW, because of their insolubility in methanol. When the walls of the flasks were washed with 1 mL of equal parts hexane and dichloromethane (to reconstruct the original solvent composition), the recovery of nC{sub 18} and higher MW compounds increased dramatically, up to 100% for nC{sub 22}-nC{sub 32} and then slowly decreasing with MW due to insolubility. To examine recovery during extraction of the components of the High Capacity Integrated Gas and Particle Sampler, the same standards were used to spike its denuders and filters. For XAD-4 coated denuders and filters, normalized recovery was > 95% after two extractions. Recovery from spiked quartz filters matched the recovery from the coated surfaces for alkanes nC{sub 18} and larger, and for fluoranthene and larger PAHs. Lower MW compounds evaporated from the quartz filter with the spiking solvent. This careful approach allowed quantification of organics by correcting for volatility- and solubility-related sample preparation losses. This method is illustrated for an ambient sample collected with this sampler during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000.

Swartz, Erick; Stockburger, Leonard; Gundel, Lara

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

Testoni, A. L.

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

54

Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

55

Modeling the heat and mass transfers in temperature-swing adsorption of volatile organic compounds onto activated carbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical model was built to simulate the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto activated carbons in a fixed bed. This model was validated on a set of experimental data obtained for the adsorption of acetone, ethyl formate, and dichloromethane onto five commercial activated carbons. The influence of operating conditions was modeled with various VOC contents at the inlet of the adsorber and superficial velocities of the gas-phase from 0.14 to 0.28 m.s{sup -1}. Breakthrough times and maximum temperature rises were computed with a coefficient of determination of 0.988 and 0.901, respectively. The simulation was then extended to the adsorption of mixtures of VOCs. From the comparison of simulation and experimental results, the advantage of accounting for dispersions of heat and mass is shown and the importance in taking into account the temperature effect on the equilibrium data is demonstrated. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sylvain Giraudet; Pascaline Pre; Pierre Le Cloirec [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Evaluation of EPA Region IV Standard Operating Procedures for decontamination of field equipment when sampling for volatile organic compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decontamination procedures for use at CERCLA sites where the US Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region IV is the lead agency are specified in their Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) document. Under certain circumstances, the objectives of proper decontamination can be obtained without utilizing the full procedure as specified in the SOP. Because some treatment methods may introduce low levels of organic constituents into water (e.g., chlorination), the use of treated potable water would actually have an adverse effect on the decontamination procedure compared to the use of an untreated potable supply. Certified organic-free water, the cost of which ranges from five dollars per gallon to over sixty dollars per gallon may also be unnecessary in some cases. Distilled water samples from seven different suppliers (at a cost of less than a dollar per gallon) were analyzed for Target Compound List (TCL) volatile, organic compounds (VOCs) or benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Fifty of the samples analyzed for BTEX contained no detectable amounts of these compounds, and twenty-six of the samples analyzed for TCL VOCs contained no detectable concentration. The use of solvent rinses may cause false positives during sampling. Field experiments have shown that isopropanol may degrade to acetone under some circumstances. In many cases, particularly when sampling ground water or decontaminating drilling equipment, the elimination of this step should not adversely affect sample quality. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Brice, D.A. (Westinghouse Materials Co. of Ohio, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Feed Materials Production Center); Kelley, M.E. (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

58

Assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

This report documents Phase 1 of a project conducted by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of VOC solvents from process gas streams. In Phase 1, MTI has evaluated solvent recovery applications within New York State (NYS), identified host sites willing to implement their application, and conducted a preliminary design of the equipment required. The design and applications were evaluated for technical and economic feasibility. The solvent recovery heat pump system concept resulting from the Phase 1 work is one of a mobile unit that would service multiple stationary adsorbers. A large percentage of solvent recovery applications within the state can be serviced by on-site carbon bed adsorbers that are desorbed at frequencies ranging from once per to once per month. In this way, many users can effectively share'' the substantial capital investment associated with the system's reverse Brayton hardware, providing it can be packaged as a mobile unit. In a typical operating scenario, a carbon adsorption module will be located permanently at the industrial site. The SLA will be ducted through the adsorber and the solvents removed, thus eliminating an air emission problem. Prior to VOC breakthrough, by schedule or by request, the mobile unit would arrive at the site to recover the concentrated solvent. An engine driven, natural gas fueled system, the mobile unit utilizes conditioned engine exhaust gases as the inert gas for desorption. Hot inert gas is directed through the carbon bed, heating it and volatilizing the adsorbed solvent. Using a revere Brayton-cycle refrigeration system to create low temperatures, the solvent vapors are condensed and collected from the inert gas stream. The solvent can then be recycled to the production process or sold for other uses and the adsorber returned to service.

Not Available

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents Phase 1 of a project conducted by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of VOC solvents from process gas streams. In Phase 1, MTI has evaluated solvent recovery applications within New York State (NYS), identified host sites willing to implement their application, and conducted a preliminary design of the equipment required. The design and applications were evaluated for technical and economic feasibility. The solvent recovery heat pump system concept resulting from the Phase 1 work is one of a mobile unit that would service multiple stationary adsorbers. A large percentage of solvent recovery applications within the state can be serviced by on-site carbon bed adsorbers that are desorbed at frequencies ranging from once per to once per month. In this way, many users can effectively ``share`` the substantial capital investment associated with the system`s reverse Brayton hardware, providing it can be packaged as a mobile unit. In a typical operating scenario, a carbon adsorption module will be located permanently at the industrial site. The SLA will be ducted through the adsorber and the solvents removed, thus eliminating an air emission problem. Prior to VOC breakthrough, by schedule or by request, the mobile unit would arrive at the site to recover the concentrated solvent. An engine driven, natural gas fueled system, the mobile unit utilizes conditioned engine exhaust gases as the inert gas for desorption. Hot inert gas is directed through the carbon bed, heating it and volatilizing the adsorbed solvent. Using a revere Brayton-cycle refrigeration system to create low temperatures, the solvent vapors are condensed and collected from the inert gas stream. The solvent can then be recycled to the production process or sold for other uses and the adsorber returned to service.

Not Available

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Hybrid membranes and their use in volatile organic compound/air separations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid organic/inorganic membranes were produced by chemical grafting of octadecyltrichlorosilane onto ?-alumina membranes. Separation factors are presented showing strong evidence of capillary condensation in ungrafted membranes. The grafted membranes exhibit a much improved separation factor, over the bare membranes, in the low-toluene feed concentration range. The separation factor appeared to decrease slightly with increasing feed toluene concentration, and it was approximately 1/8 the magnitude of the separation factors reported for polydimethylsiloxane under similar feed conditions.

Krohn, John Eric

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

1995-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

63

Mass transfer of volatile organic compounds from drinking water to indoor air: The role of residential dishwashers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated tap water may be a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential indoor air. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from this source, a two-phase mass balance model was developed based on mass transfer kinetics between each phase. Twenty-nine experiments were completed using a residential dishwasher to determine model parameters. During each experiment, inflow water was spiked with a cocktail of chemical tracers with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In each case, the effects of water temperature, detergent, and dish-loading pattern on chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined. Dishwasher headspace ventilation rates were also measured using an isobutylene tracer gas. Chemical stripping efficiencies for a single cycle ranged from 18% to 55% for acetone, from 96% to 98% for toluene, and from 97% to 98% for ethylbenzene and were consistently 100% for cyclohexane. Experimental results indicate that dishwashers have a relatively low but continuous ventilation rate that results in significant chemical storage within the headspace of the dishwasher. In conjunction with relatively high mass transfer coefficients, low ventilation rates generally lead to emissions that are limited by equilibrium conditions after approximately 1--2 min of dishwasher operation.

Howard-Reed, C.; Corsi, R.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Moya, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

SciTech Connect

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone should be achieved as the result of the source reduction procedure.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

DOUGLAS, J.G.

2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

67

Characterization of the Sources and Concentrations of Formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds in four new manufactured houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concentrations of formaldehyde, 52 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOCs (TVOC) were measured in four new manufactured houses on three occasions over a period of approximately nine months following completion of their construction. The houses were furnished, but unoccupied, model homes produced by a single U.S. manufacturer. Several of the houses incorporated interior finish materials with lower VOC emissions than standard materials. One house had a modified ventilation system. Ventilation rates were measured concurrently with the collection of air samples. A steady-state mass-balance model was used to calculate the area-specific emission rates of the target compounds and TVOC. The emissions of formaldehyde and VOCs from a specimen of plywood used as the floor sheeting were additionally quantified. The median formaldehyde concentration in the four houses was 37 parts-per-billion ( ppb). The formaldehyde concentrations were all less than the most restrictive guideline for this compound of 50 ppb. The concentrations of many of the target VOCs were low. Thirty-one of the VOCs had median concentrations that were at or below 1 ppb. Seven of the compounds were among the most abundant VOCs in all four houses. These compounds were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, ethylene glycol, hexanal, 2-butanone, and acetic acid. The concentrations of the aldehydes, hexanal, octanal and nonanal, in the four houses were either near or exceeded their respective odor thresholds. The concentrations of acetic acid increased with time. In the final sampling period, the odor threshold for acetic acid was exceeded in all of the houses. The range of TVOC concentrations in the four houses was 0.8 to 3 mg m{sup -3}, with a median value of 1.6 mg m{sup -3}. These concentrations were somewhat lower than TVOC concentrations previously measured in several new site-built houses, and the median concentration was only about twice the typical value for existing residences. The house with the modified ventilation system and several lower emitting materials had consistently low TVOC concentrations that were near 1 mg m{sup -3}. There were no large decreases with time in the emission rates of the individual VOCs or TVOC during the course of the study. However, the emission rates were often lowest in the final sampling with the notable exception of the acetic acid emission rate that increased with time. The source of the aldehydes was most likely engineered wood products, such as the plywood floor sheeting and possibly other structural or interior components. The source of the acetic acid was uncertain. The effects of the source substitution treatments were measurable but turned out to be relatively minor due to the predominance of other sources.

Hodgson, A.T.; Beal, D.; Chandra, S.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic compounds in residences Title The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic...

69

Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum ...  

Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a Process for its Preparation Brookhaven National Laboratory. Contact BNL About ...

70

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

71

Study of volatile organic compound emissions from consumer and commercial products. Economic incentives to reduce VOC emissions from consumer and commercial products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report presents a preliminary assessment of the feasibility and desirability of employing Federal economic incentive programs to reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the use of consumer and commercial products. The principal tasks of the study are to examine alternative economic incentives and to compare them to a hypothetical command-and-control program, VOC content standards, which would consist of product-specific limitations on maximum VOC content (grams of VOC per unit of product). It is the basis of comparison because the ultimate purpose of this investigation is to search for the most desirable instrument in the set of potential instruments, which obviously would include instruments based on command-and-control. The purposes of comparison are to determine how well the instruments accomplish certain policy objectives and to appraise their ability to cope with the complexities inherent in the task of environmental regulation.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission...

73

Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

Gerstein, Bernard C. (Ames, IA); Macaulay, David B. (Arlington Heights, IL)

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Why sequence carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? Many microbes that use carbon monoxide as an energy source are found in high temperature environments such as geothermal areas. Researchers think that these carboxydotrophs may be involved in reducing potentially toxic carbon monoxide hotspots by combine with water to form hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which are in turn used for thermophilic energy conservation and carbon sequestration mechanisms. The project focuses on sequencing two closely related microbes, one of which is Carboxydothermus hydrogenformans. A strain of C. hydrogenformans has been grown in hydrogen-enriched synthesis gas (syngas), which contains a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Researchers are interested in sequencing both microbial strains to track the genome's evolution and

75

Use of Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Volatile Organic Compound Sources at the La Porte Super Site During the Texas Air Quality Study 2000  

SciTech Connect

Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was deployed for continuous real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a site near the Houston Ship Channel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000. Overall, 28 ions dominated the PTR-MS mass spectra and were assigned as anthropogenic aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, xylenes) and hydrocarbons (propene, isoprene), oxygenated compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, C7 carbonyls), and three nitrogencontaining compounds (e.g., HCN, acetonitrile and acrylonitrile). Biogenic VOCs were minor components at this site. Propene was the most abundant lightweight hydrocarbon detected by this technique with concentrations up to 100+ nmol mol-1, and was highly correlated with its oxidation products, formaldehyde (up to ~40 nmol mol-1) and acetaldehyde (up to ~80 nmol/mol), with typical ratios close to 1 in propene-dominated plumes. In the case of aromatic species the high time resolution of the obtained data set helped in identifying different anthropogenic sources (e.g., industrial from urban emissions) and testing current emission inventories. A comparison with results from complimentary techniques (gas chromatography, differential optical absorption spectroscopy) was used to assess the selectivity of this on-line technique in a complex urban and industrial VOC matrix and give an interpretation of mass scans obtained by soft chemical ionization using proton-transfer via H3O+. The method was especially valuable in monitoring rapidly changing VOC plumes which passed over the site, and when coupled with meteorological data it was possible to identify likely sources.

Karl, Thomas G.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, Eric; Stutz, Jochen P.; Shetter, Rick; Hall, Samual R.; Goldan, P. D.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Lindinger, Werner

2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

76

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

77

Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Nguyen, Trung V. (College Station, TX); Guante, Jr., Joseph (Denver, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide guidance for land and water resources management. Atmospheric pressure and water table fluctuations are two important natural processes at the upper and lower boundaries of the unsaturated zone, respectively. However, their significance has been neglected in previous studies. This dissertation systematically investigates their influence on the gas phase flow and transport of VOCs in soil and ground water remediation processes using analytically and numerically mathematical modeling. New semi-analytical and numerical solutions are developed to calculate the subsurface gas flow field and the gas phase transport of VOCs in active soil vapor extraction (SVE), barometric pumping (BP) and natural attenuation taking into account the atmospheric pressure and the water table fluctuations. The accuracy of the developed solutions are checked by comparing with published analytical solutions under extreme conditions, newly developed numerical solutions in COMSOL Multiphysics and field measured data. Results indicate that both the atmospheric pressure and the tidal-induced water table fluctuations significantly change the gas flow field in active SVE, especially when the vertical gas permeability is small (less than 0.4 Darcy). The tidal-induced downward moving water table increases the depth-averaged radius of influence (ROI) for the gas pumping well. However, this downward moving water table leads to a greater vertical pore gas velocity away from the gas pumping well, which is unfavorable for removing VOCs. The gas flow rate to/from the barometric pumping well can be accurately calculated by our newly developed solutions in both homogeneous and multi-layered unsaturated zones. Under natural unsaturated zone conditions, the time-averaged advective flux of the gas phase VOCs induced by the atmospheric pressure and water table fluctuations is one to three orders of magnitude less than the diffusive flux. The time-averaged advective flux is comparable with the diffusive flux only when the gas-filled porosity is very small (less than 0.05). The density-driven flux is negligible.

You, Kehua

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

What Is Price Volatility  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

What Is Price Volatility? What Is Price Volatility? The term "price volatility" is used to describe price fluctuations of a commodity. Volatility is measured by the day-to-day percentage difference in the price of the commodity. The degree of variation, not the level of prices, defines a volatile market. Since price is a function of supply and demand, it follows that volatility is a result of the underlying supply and demand characteristics of the market. Therefore, high levels of volatility reflect extraordinary characteristics of supply and/or demand. Prices of basic energy (natural gas, electricity, heating oil) are generally more volatile than prices of other commodities. One reason that energy prices are so volatile is that many consumers are extremely limited in their ability to substitute other fuels when the price, of natural gas

80

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Carbon Monoxide in type II supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infrared spectra of two type II supernovae 6 months after explosion are presented. The spectra exhibit a strong similarity to the observations of SN 1987A and other type II SNe at comparable epochs. The continuum can be fitted with a cool black body and the hydrogen lines have emissivities that are approximately those of a Case B recombination spectrum. The data extend far enough into the thermal region to detect emission by the first overtone of carbon monoxide. The molecular emission is modeled and compared with that in the spectra of SN 1987A. It is found that the flux in the CO first overtone is comparable to that found in SN 1987A. We argue that Carbon Monoxide forms in the ejecta of all type II SNe during the first year after explosion.

J. Spyromilio; B. Leibundgut; R. Gilmozzi

2001-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

83

Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

Elek, Louis F. (Peekskill, NY); Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Volatility and commodity price dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commodity prices tend to be volatile, and volatility itself varies over time. changes in volatility can affect market variables by directly affecting the marginal value of storage, and by affecting a component of the total ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new ...

Tsimpidi, A. P.

86

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 N, 97.489 W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

87

Oil Price Volatility  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April 2009 1 FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY ► ► Market fundamentals Market fundamentals . . Fluctuations in supply, Fluctuations in supply, demand, and market power demand, and market power Some fundamentals related to expectations of Some fundamentals related to expectations of

88

Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

Schrock, R. R.

1982-00-00T23:59:59.000Z

90

Emissions of volatile and potentially toxic organic compounds from waste-water treatment plants and collection systems (Phase 2). Volume 1. Project summaries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Phase II research project on emission of potentially toxic organic compounds (PTOCs) from wastewater treatment plants were fivefold: (1) assessment of the importance of gaseous emissions from municipal wastewater collection systems; (2) resolution of the discrepancy between the measured and estimated emissions (Phase I), from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP) operated by the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (CSDLAC); (3) determination of airborne concentrations of PTOCS immediately downwind of an activated sludge aeration process at the City of Los Angeles' Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP); (4) a modeling assessment of the effects of transient loading on emissions during preliminary and primary treatment at a typical municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP); (5) a preliminary investigation of effects of chlorination practices on haloform production. Volume 1, for which the abstract was prepared, contains a summary of results from each project; Volume 2 contains the discussion regarding the modeling of collection system emissions; Volume 3 addresses methods development and field sampling efforts at the JWPCP and HTP, data on emissions from a mechanically ventilated sewer and results of some preliminary haloform formation studies in wastewaters; and Volume 4 discusses aspects of the emissions modeling problem.

Chang, D.P.Y.; Schroeder, E.D.; Corsi, R.L.; Guensler, R.; Meyerhofer, J.A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

92

Petroleum Outlook:.More Volatility?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Outlook: More Volatility? Outlook: More Volatility? 3/19/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Petroleum Outlook: More Volatility? Product Price Volatility-This Year and in the Future WTI Crude Oil Price: Potential for Volatility Around Base Case OPEC Crude Oil Production 1998-2001 Annual World Oil Demand Growth by Region, 1991-2001 Low Total OECD Oil Stocks* Keep Market Balance Tight Fundamentals Explain High Crude Oil Prices Product Price Spreads Over Crude Oil Reflect Product Market-Based Volatility U.S. Distillate Inventories Distillate Winter Demand Stronger Than Temperatures Would Imply High Production Offset Lack of Inventory High Production Came From High Yields & High Inputs High Margins Bring High Imports Gasoline Price Volatility Is a Concern This Summer Gasoline Volatility

93

Implied volatility in oil markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modelling the implied volatility surface as a function of an option's strike price and maturity is a subject of extensive research in financial markets. The implied volatility in commodity markets is much less studied, due to a limited liquidity and ...

Svetlana Borovkova; Ferry J. Permana

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization October 5, 2010 - 10:56am Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this mean for me? Getting your heating pipes fixed can not only save you money, but also improve your health. "If we'd had a couple cold nights where I would've had to use my heat more than usual, it probably would've put me to sleep and left me there -- it was just too much carbon monoxide coming out in the house," says Mark Pickartz, of Van Buren, Ark. Pickartz's home was weatherized in February by his local community action agency, Crawford-Sebastian Community Development Council (C-SCDC). When energy auditors arrived to his house, they found that his home's heater was severely leaking the poisonous gas. C-SCDC, based in Fort Smith, Ark.,

95

Photochemistry and Transport of Carbon Monoxide in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional model calculations of the photochemistry and transport of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere are presented. Results are compared to available observations at midlatitudes, where both ...

S. Solomon; R. R. Garcia; J. J. Olivero; R. M. Bevilacqua; P. R. Schwartz; R. T. Clancy; D. O. Muhleman

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Inhibition of Premixed Carbon Monoxide-Hydrogen-Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The fuel gas is carbon monoxide (Mathe- son UHP, 99.9% CO, with the sum of ... filters) gener- ates the schlieren image of the flame for capture by a ...

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

97

Sitewide railroad ties volatile organic package  

SciTech Connect

The initial GC/MS calibration and continuing calibration met all protocols. The calibration working standard is made from 9 separate mixes. One of the mixes (Restek semivolatile mix 3) was doubled, increasing the calibration concentration curve by a factor of two. None of the compounds of interest were affected, and all of the forms have been adjusted. All mass spectral tuning requirements were met for all standards and samples. Internal standard criteria were met for field blank R5306. Perylene-d12 was out on the low side. This sample was reanalyzed and all internal standard criteria were met. The R5302rerr was reported instead of R5302re (the original run of the re-extract) because R5302re failed its internal standard criteria. RSBLK03rr was reported instead of RSBLK03 (the original run of the method blank) because RSBLK03 failed its internal standard criteria. Internal standard criteria for all other samples in this package were met.

Vogel, R.E.

1994-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Indoor Air Quality and Volatile Organic Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The unit was sized to comply with the outdoor air requirements in ASHRAE Standard 62.2 Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low ...

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations and Emission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 4 Page 5. and air conditioning equipment, and price. ... quantified. Acetic acid, an apparently abundant VOC, also was not quantified. The target VOCs ...

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

100

Organization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization Print Organization Print 2012-12 org chart A complete ALS organization chart (June 2013) is available in PDF. Appointed and elected members of advisory panels provide guidance to Berkeley Lab and ALS management in developing the ALS scientific and user programs. ALS Staff Photo staff photo thumb Click on the image to see a recent photo of ALS staff in front of the dome. The photo was taken on May 14, 2013. ALS Management and Advisory Team Steve Kevan, Deputy Division Director, Science Michael J. Banda, Deputy Division Director, Operations Robert W. Schoenlein, Senior Staff Scientist, Next Generation Light Source Initiative Janos Kirz, Scientific Advisor Paul Adams, Division Deputy for Biosciences ALS Scientific, Technical, and User Support Groups Accelerator Physics

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Classification of Volatile Engine Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile particles cannot be detected at the engine exhaust by an aerosol detector. They are formed when the exhaust is mixed with ambient air downstream. Lack of a precise definition of volatile engine particles has been an impediment to engine manufacturers and regulatory agencies involved in the development of an effective control strategy. It is beyond doubt that volatile particles from combustion sources contribute to the atmospheric particulate burden, and the effect of that contribution is a critical issue in the ongoing research in the areas of air quality and climate change. A new instrument, called volatile particle separator (VPS), has been developed. It utilizes a proprietary microporous metallic membrane to separate particles from vapors. VPS data were used in the development of a two-parameter function to quantitatively classify, for the first time, the volatilization behavior of engine particles. The value of parameter A describes the volatilization potential of an aerosol. A nonvolatile particle has a larger A-value than a volatile one. The value of parameter k, an effective evaporation energy barrier, is found to be much smaller for small engine particles than that for large engine particles. The VPS instrument provides a means beyond just being a volatile particle remover; it enables a numerical definition to characterize volatile engine particles.

Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Metal price volatility : a study of informative metrics and the volatility mitigating effects of recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal price volatility is undesirable for firms that use metals as raw materials, because price volatility can translate into volatility of material costs. Volatile material costs and can erode the profitability of the ...

Fleming, Nathan Richard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A Smart Sensor System for Carbon Monoxide Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper illustrates a smart sensor system for carbon monoxide detection. An innovative technological approach has been pursued to fabricate gas sensors on silicon substrate, compatible with IC fabrication. A mixed analog-digital electronic interface processes ... Keywords: sensor interfaces, sensors, sigma-delta converters

G. C. Cardinali; L. Dori; M. Fiorini; I. Sayago; G. Faglia; C. Perego; G. Sberveglieri; V. Liberali; F. Maloberti; D. Tonietto

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of molybdenum and molybdenum monoxide anions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Received 30 May 1995; accepted 23 October 1995 The 351 nm photoelectron spectra of Mo and MoO have been measured. The electron affinity of atomic molybdenum is 0.748 2 e- denum monoxide illustrates these difficulties especially well, since the molybdenum atomic ground state

Lineberger, W. Carl

106

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Sentiment proxies: computing market volatility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Macroeconomic announcements can have an influential effect on the price, and related volatility, of an object traded in financial markets. Modeling the impact of a relevant announcement on a specific commodity is of interest in building financial models ...

Stephen Kelly; Khurshid Ahmad

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Volatility of Aqueous Acetic Acid, Formic Acid, and Sodium Acetate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This report examines the volatility of some of the principal cycle organic corrodents: acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium acetate.

2000-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reduction of carbon dioxide. IR-SpectroelectrochemicalElectrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide mediated by Re(Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Mediated by (

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Carbon monoxide study - Seattle, Washington, October 6-November 2, 1977. Part 1. Executive summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of EPA 910/9-78-054b, a study of the carbon monoxide problem in downtown Seattle.

Wilson, C.B.; Schweiss, J.W.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides  

SciTech Connect

The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Transient PrOx carbon monoxide measurement, control, and optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel processing systems for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems require control of the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 100 ppm to 10 ppm in the anode feed. Conventional hydrocarbon fuel processors use a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to react CO with water to form H2 and reduce the CO concentration. The CO conversion is limited by equilibrium at the outlet temperature of the WGS reactor. The WGS outlet CO concentration can range from over 1% to 2000 ppm depending on the system and its operating parameters. At these concentrations, CO poisons low temperature PEM fuel cells and the concentrations needs to be reduced further.

Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Volatility in natural gas and oil markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine  

SciTech Connect

The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of (3H)cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time.

Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

An experimental investigation of the ignition properties of hydrogen and carbon monoxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for syngas turbine applications S.M. Walton *, X. He, B.T. Zigler, M.S. Wooldridge Department of Mechanical of simulated syngas mixtures of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and carbon. Keywords: Carbon monoxide; Hydrogen; Syngas; Ignition; Rapid compression facility 1. Introduction Syngas

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

116

717 Notices to Readers Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Deaths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Monoxide monoxide Poisoning (CO) is an odorless, Continued colorless, nonirritating gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. CO exposure is responsible for more fatal unintentional poisonings in the United States than any other agent, with the highest incidence occurring during the cold-weather months (1). Although most of these deaths occur in residences or motor vehicles (2), two incidents among campers in Georgia illustrate the danger of CO in outdoor settings. This report describes the two incidents, which resulted in six deaths, and provides recommendations for avoiding CO poisoning in outdoor settings. Cases 14. On the afternoon of March 14, 1999, a 51-year-old man, his 10-year-old son, a 9-year-old boy, and a 7-year-old girl were found dead inside a zipped-up, 10-foot by 14-foot, two-room tent at their campsite in southeast Georgia (a pet dog also died). A propane gas stove, still burning, was found inside the tent; the stove apparently had been brought inside to provide warmth. The occupants had died during the night. Postmortem carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels measured 50%, 63%, 69%, and 63%, respectively, in the four decedents (in the general U.S. population, COHb concentrations

Basidiobolomycosis Arizona; North Carolinia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Perturbation Expansion for Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We fit the volatility fluctuations of the S&P 500 index well by a Chi distribution, and the distribution of log-returns by a corresponding superposition of Gaussian distributions. The Fourier transform of this is, remarkably, of the Tsallis type. An option pricing formula is derived from the same superposition of Black-Scholes expressions. An explicit analytic formula is deduced from a perturbation expansion around a Black-Scholes formula with the mean volatility. The expansion has two parts. The first takes into account the non-Gaussian character of the stock-fluctuations and is organized by powers of the excess kurtosis, the second is contract based, and is organized by the moments of moneyness of the option. With this expansion we show that for the Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 option data, a Delta-hedging strategy is close to being optimal.

Jizba, Petr; Haener, Patrick

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Perturbation Expansion for Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We fit the volatility fluctuations of the S&P 500 index well by a Chi distribution, and the distribution of log-returns by a corresponding superposition of Gaussian distributions. The Fourier transform of this is, remarkably, of the Tsallis type. An option pricing formula is derived from the same superposition of Black-Scholes expressions. An explicit analytic formula is deduced from a perturbation expansion around a Black-Scholes formula with the mean volatility. The expansion has two parts. The first takes into account the non-Gaussian character of the stock-fluctuations and is organized by powers of the excess kurtosis, the second is contract based, and is organized by the moments of moneyness of the option. With this expansion we show that for the Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 option data, a Delta-hedging strategy is close to being optimal.

Petr Jizba; Hagen Kleinert; Patrick Haener

2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

119

Interaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with the (1010) face of ruthenium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interaction was studied at 23.5, 200, and -135/sup 0/C with low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy. (AES). Carbon monoxide adsorbs associatively at 23.5/sup 0/C, but is apparently dissociated by the LEED beam and hydrogen adsorbed from the ambient after a few minutes for less than 10 Langmuirs of carbon monoxide. For large doses of carbon monoxide at 23.5/sup 0/C, 10 Langmuirs or more, the LEED beam does not disociate carbon monoxide, but carbon monoxide and hydrogen adsorbed from the ambient do appear to be removed from the surface by the LEED beam. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen on the surface together will react and form surface complexes with distinctive LEED patterns at 23.5/sup 0/C though some of the interactions appear to be LEED beam induced. If sufficient hydrogen is present, some of these complexes are lost from the surface probably as methane and water. Carbon monoxide will react with itself and hydrogen at 23.5/sup 0/C with carbon being lost from the surface probably as carbon dioxide. At 200/sup 0/C, neither carbon monoxide nor hydrogen will absorb on Ru (1010) in significant amounts at the low dose pressures used. However, if the Ru(1010) crystal is allowed to cool below 70/sup 0/C, ambient carbon monoxide and hydrogen will adsorb on Ru (1010) and form LEED patterns like those formed at 23.5/sup 0/C. At -135/sup 0/C, carbon monoxide will react with itself and hydrogen readily most of the time producing surface complexes with distinctive LEED paterns. If a moderate amount of hydrogen is present, some of these complexes are lost from the surface, probably as methane. If a large amount of hydrogen is present, some of these complexes are lost from the surface probably as carbon dioxdie. 17 figures, 8 tables.

Tomcsik, T.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

123

Price Volatility In - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The principal drivers behind this volatility are supply and demand fundamentals, which include the weather, storage activities, and the perception of market conditions.

124

Product Price Volatility - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Product Price Volatility-This Year and in the Future. Crude Oil -- Continued tight balance leaves world on thin edge Distillate Winter Price Retrospective Why a ...

125

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex real-world aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

126

Modeling Ambient Carbon Monoxide Trends to Evaluate Mobile Source Emissions Reductions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regression models have been used with poor success to detect the effect of emission control programs in ambient concentration measurements of carbon monoxide. An advanced CO regression model is developed whose form is based on an understanding of ...

Robin L. Dennis; Mary W. Downton

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

128

Basin-Scale Carbon Monoxide Distributions in the Parallel Ocean Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a primary photochemical constituent in upper-ocean and tropospheric geocycling, carbon monoxide is of interest to a variety of global change research communities. Dynamic three-dimensional simulations of its marine concentration patterns, ...

Shaoping Chu; Scott Elliott; David Erickson

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Forecasting future volatility from option prices, Working  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Weisbach are gratefully acknowledged. I bear full responsibility for all remaining errors. Forecasting Future Volatility from Option Prices Evidence exists that option prices produce biased forecasts of future volatility across a wide variety of options markets. This paper presents two main results. First, approximately half of the forecasting bias in the S&P 500 index (SPX) options market is eliminated by constructing measures of realized volatility from five minute observations on SPX futures rather than from daily closing SPX levels. Second, much of the remaining forecasting bias is eliminated by employing an option pricing model that permits a non-zero market price of volatility risk. It is widely believed that option prices provide the best forecasts of the future volatility of the assets which underlie them. One reason for this belief is that option prices have the ability to impound all publicly available information including all information contained in the history of past prices about the future volatility of the underlying assets. A second related reason is that option pricing theory maintains that if an option prices fails to embody optimal forecasts of the future volatility of the underlying asset, a profitable trading strategy should be available whose implementation would push the option price to the level that reflects the best possible forecast of future volatility.

Allen M. Poteshman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Natural Gas Has Been The Most Volatile Of Energy Prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Price volatility in the natural gas market generally exceeds volatility in markets for other energy as well as other commodity markets. In fact, ...

132

SOFT X-RAY IRRADIATION OF PURE CARBON MONOXIDE INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGUES  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing evidence for the existence of large organic molecules in the interstellar and circumstellar medium. Very few among such species are readily formed in conventional gas-phase chemistry under typical conditions of interstellar clouds. Attention has therefore focused on interstellar ices as a potential source of these relatively complex species. Laboratory experiments show that irradiation of interstellar ice analogues by fast particles or ultraviolet radiation can induce significant chemical complexity. However, stars are sources of intense X-rays at almost every stage of their formation and evolution. Such radiation may thus provide chemical changes in regions where ultraviolet radiation is severely inhibited. After H{sub 2}O, CO is often the most abundant component of icy grain mantles in dense interstellar clouds and circumstellar disks. In this work we present irradiation of a pure carbon monoxide ice using a soft X-ray spectrum peaked at 0.3 keV. Analysis of irradiated samples shows formation of CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}O, C{sub 3}O{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}O, and CO{sub 3}/C{sub 5}. Comparison of X-rays and ultraviolet irradiation experiments, of the same energy dose, shows that X-rays are more efficient than ultraviolet radiation in producing new species. With the exception of CO{sub 2}, X-ray photolysis induces formation of a larger number of products with higher abundances, e.g., C{sub 3}O{sub 2} column density is about one order of magnitude higher in the X-ray experiment. To our knowledge this is the first report on X-ray photolysis of CO ices. The present results show that X-ray irradiation represents an efficient photo-chemical way to convert simple ices to more complex species.

Ciaravella, A.; Candia, R.; Collura, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy); Jimenez-Escobar, A.; Munoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Strada n.54, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Giarrusso, S. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Barbera, M., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, Sezione di Astronomia, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Removal of volatile materials from forepump oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of clearing condensable vapors from forepump oil is described. Air is bubbled though the oil reservoir removing volatile material from the oil and allowing continuous pumping of materials by non?vented pumps.

Paul P. Nicole

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Contribution of Semi-volatile Organic Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project In a collaborative effort between ChemImage Biothreat, LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project will acquire the ability to discern between chemical/biological threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. The project will focus on potential background interferences, specifically from the ambient backgrounds collected at NETL-supported ambient air collection facilities. Potential substrate interferences such as pollen, insecticides and industrial PM will be addressed. Using Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) and fluorescence chemical imaging, a background - void of pathogen spores - will be collected and compared to known pathogens. Interactions causing possible false positives will be identified and studied. This study would systematically identify potential problems and provide a baseline of ambient particulates found in the mid-eastern United States .

135

Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methods were used for VOC concentration measurements, and passive perfluorocarbon tracer gas emitters with active sampling were used to determine the overall air exchange rate...

136

Semi-Volatile Organic and Particulate Pollutants in Greater Houston...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Mexico, the LaPorte Airport site was upwind of most of the nearby petrochemical refineries that line the shipping channel between Galveston Bay and central Houston. EPA...

137

Determinants for nasal trigeminal detection of volatile organic compounds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIGURE 2b-APPENDIX Small jars nonanal 1-octanol eugenollarge vessels or small jars. Notice that the same order ofversus when using the small jars. Each point represents the

Cometto-Muiz, J Enrique; Cain, William S; Abraham, Michael H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Hydrogen and Methane Data Validation Checklist (WP 12-VC3209) * EDD Review and Data Package Validation Table (WP 12-VC3209) * VacuumPressure Comparison between Field and...

139

Implementation of Source Reduction Practices for Volatile Organic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

compounds (VOCs) of potential concern in new houses include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and naphthalene. These VOCs are emitted by a variety of wood products and...

140

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

June 2003VOLATILITY IN NATURAL GAS AND OIL MARKETS * by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in volatility during the time of the Enron collapse, and whether natural gas and crude oil price volatilities are interrelated. I also measure the persistence of shocks to volatility and discuss its implications for gas- and oil-related contingent claims.

Robert S. Pindyck; Robert S. Pindyck

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microcomputer-based control system utilizing a distributed intelligence architecture has been developed to control combustion in hydrocarbon fuel-fired boilers and heaters to significantly reduce fuel usage. The system incorporates a unique flue gas analyzer that mounts directly in the flue or stack to continuously measure carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, opacity and temperature. The control console interfaces directly with the boiler's existing analog control system to provide precise air fuel ratio control based on carbon monoxide measurements. Significant decreases in excess air result in reduced fuel usage while meeting steam demand. Actual performance on industrial boilers shows increases in efficiency of from 1% to 3% with substantial fuel savings.

DeVivo, D. G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Seasonal Volatility in Energy Prices: Modeling Seasonality in Natural Gas and Electricity Price Volatility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modeling and measurement of price uncertainty are essential prerequisites to asset valuation and risk management in electric power. Practical, realistic models must take into account the systematic time patterns exhibited by price volatility. This report uses new data and techniques to reexamine the seasonal nature of energy price volatility.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Indonesia Forest Fires Exacerbate Carbon Monoxide Pollution over Peninsular Malaysia during July to September 2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind carried the smoke further afield from forest fires in Sumatra caused worse air pollution in Malaysia reached extremely hazardous levels and forced schools and an airport to close. There were 3,258 'hot spots' recorded by NOAA satellites in the province ... Keywords: AIRS, Carbon monoxide, Peninsular

Jasim M. Rajab; M. Z. MatJafri; H. S. Lim; K. Abdullah

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Compressed Air Sample Technology for Isotopic Analysis of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology for the collection of large (1000 L) air samples for isotopic analysis of atmospheric carbon monoxide is presented. A low-background, high-pressure, high-flow sampling system with a residual background of less than 2 ppbv CO has ...

John E. Mak; Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, RyanAGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, Ryanwake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, RyanAGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, Ryanof unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

1957-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Asymptotic Behavior of the Stock Price Distribution Density and Implied Volatility in Stochastic Volatility Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the asymptotic behavior of distribution densities arising in stock price models with stochastic volatility. The main objects of our interest in the present paper are the density of time averages of the squared volatility process and the density of the stock price process in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model. We find explicit formulas for leading terms in asymptotic expansions of these densities and give error estimates. As an application of our results, sharp asymptotic formulas for the implied volatility in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model are obtained.

Gulisashvili, Archil, E-mail: guli@math.ohiou.ed [Ohio University, Department of Mathematics (United States); Stein, Elias M., E-mail: stein@math.princeton.ed [Princeton University, Department of Mathematics (United States)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Dual volatility and dependence parameters and the copula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce some new species into the zoo of stochastic volatility and dependence parameters. We start with average absolute deviation and Gini index, which are elementary volatility parameters of first and second order in spirit of dual theory of choice ...

Dieter Denneberg; Nikola Leufer

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Apartment volatility determinants across the United States markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much research has been done to examine the volatilities of return on public and private real estate investments. However, little is known about market volatility in real estate in general and in apartment real estate in ...

Luo, Mai, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

There's more to volatility than volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is widely believed that fluctuations in transaction volume, as reflected in the number of transactions and to a lesser extent their size, are the main cause of clustered volatility. Under this view bursts of rapid or slow price diffusion reflect bursts of frequent or less frequent trading, which cause both clustered volatility and heavy tails in price returns. We investigate this hypothesis using tick by tick data from the New York and London Stock Exchanges and show that only a small fraction of volatility fluctuations are explained in this manner. Clustered volatility is still very strong even if price changes are recorded on intervals in which the total transaction volume or number of transactions is held constant. In addition the distribution of price returns conditioned on volume or transaction frequency being held constant is similar to that in real time, making it clear that neither of these are the principal cause of heavy tails in price returns. We analyze recent results of Ane and Geman (2000) an...

Gillemot, L; Lillo, F; Gillemot, Laszlo; Lillo, Fabrizio

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Enhancing recommender systems under volatile userinterest drifts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a systematic study of how to enhance recommender systems under volatile user interest drifts. A key development challenge along this line is how to track user interests dynamically. To this end, we first define four types of interest ... Keywords: interest drift, interest pattern, recommender system

Huanhuan Cao; Enhong Chen; Jie Yang; Hui Xiong

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Chemical States of Volatile and Corrosive Fission Products in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Chemical States of Volatile and Corrosive Fission Products in Thorium Based Fuels from Thermodynamic Studies ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

158

A New Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer to Measure the Volatile Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Fraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) was developed with the intention to measure the fraction of sulfuric acid in marine fine aerosols (Dp < 150 nm). This work focused on the design and calibration of an aerosol conditioner ...

D. A. Orsini; A. Wiedensohler; F. Stratmann; D. S. Covert

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

162

Modeling Terrestrial Biogenic Sources of Oxygenated Organic Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOCs) likeacetone have been recognized as important atmospheric constituents due to their ability to sequester reactive nitrogen in the form peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and to be a source ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; David Bubenheim; Hanwant B. Singh; Ranga Myneni

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

Capp, John P. (Morgantown, WV); Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

Paulozzi, L.J. (Vermont Health Dept., Burlington, VT (United States)); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615  

SciTech Connect

Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

Wayland, B.B.

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Approximating stochastic volatility by recombinant trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general method to construct recombinant tree approximations for stochastic volatility models is developed and applied to the Heston model for stock price dynamics. In this application, the resulting approximation is a four tuple Markov process. The ?first two components are related to the stock and volatility processes and take values in a two dimensional Binomial tree. The other two components of the Markov process are the increments of random walks with simple values in {-1; +1}. The resulting effi?cient option pricing equations are numerically implemented for general American and European options including the standard put and calls, barrier, lookback and Asian type pay-o?ffs. The weak and extended weak convergence are also proved.

Akyildirim, Erdinc; Soner, H Mete

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Volatility Due to Offshoring: Theory and Evidence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existing models of offshoring are not equipped to explain how global production sharing affects the volatility of economic activity. This paper develops a trade model that can account for why offshoring industries in low wage countries such as Mexico experience fluctuations in employment that are twice as large as in high wage countries such as the United States. We argue that a key to explaining this outcome is that the extensive margin of offshoring responds endogenously to shocks in demand and transmits those shocks across borders in an amplified manner. Empirical evidence supports the claim that the extensive margin of offshoring is an active margin of adjustment, and quantitative simulation experiments show that the degree of movement of this margin in the data is sufficient to explain relative employment volatility in Mexico and the U.S. JEL classification: F1, F4

Paul R. Bergin; Robert C. Feenstra; Gordon H. Hanson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Fuel and Power Price Volatilities and Convergence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As more energy is traded in competitive markets, the financial performance of generation companies will be increasingly determined by how well they understand and exploit the price behavior of those markets. How volatile are fuel and power prices? How do they correlate with one another? This report addresses these questions in several wholesale electricity and fuel markets and discusses implications of changing patterns of price behavior to fuel and asset management.

1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

Analyzing and Forecasting Volatility Spillovers, Asymmetries and Hedging in Major Oil Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets.

Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer; Roengchai Tansuchat; Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer; Roengchai Tansuchat

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Volatiles trapped in coals: Second quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

We have been able to collect and characterize volatiles that are evolved in the grinding of coal. We have developed a very sensitive method for collecting volatiles evolved in grinding. A sealed, gas tight, grinding apparatus has been built. With this system we can collect volatiles freed from the coal matrix during grinding. To do this a 125 cm/sup 3/ sample of coal is placed in to a 1 liter sealable ball mill jar. The jar is evacuated and the coal ground for 1 hr. The jar is then removed from the ball mill and evacuated into our sample collection system. Gas from the jar is pumped through two stages of dust filtering into a liquid nitrogen cold trap charged with 5 ml of methylene chloride. After warming the trap is shaken so that any gas from the sample mixes with and dissolves in the methylene chloride. One microliter samples of the methylene chloride are injected into a Finnegan GCMS. Preliminary analysis of mass spectra from peaks in the RIC show the presence of hydrocarbons. It was possible to definitively identify cyclohexene. The total amount of hydrocarbons seen is low. The attached figure is the mass spectra of the cyclohexene that was collected from the ground coal. 1 fig.

Sutter, J.R.; Halpern, J.B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

Reboul, S

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

Quick, E.E.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Did Household Consumption Become More Volatile?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I show that after accounting for predictable variation arising from movements in real interest rates, preferences, income shocks, liquidity constraints and measurement errors, volatility of household consumption in the US increased between 1970 and 2004. For households headed by nonwhite and/or poorly educated individuals, this rise was significantly larger. This stands in sharp contrast with the dramatic fall in instability of the aggregate U.S. economy over the same period. Thus, while aggregate shocks affecting households fell over time, idiosyncratic shocks increased. This finding may lead to significant welfare implications.

Olga Gorbachev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Temporal...

175

Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Growth...

176

Analysis of Price Volatility in Natural Gas Markets  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article presents an analysis of price volatility in the spot natural gas market, with particular emphasis on the Henry Hub in Louisiana.

Erin Mastrangelo

2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

177

Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, (more)

Eden, Maya Rachel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Price and volatility relationships in the Australian electricity market.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a collection of papers that has been published, accepted or submitted for publication. They assess price, volatility and market relationships in the (more)

Higgs, Helen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather and violent solar storms By John Greenwald December 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One Computer...

180

Mass yields of secondary organic aerosols from the oxidation of alpha-pinene and real plant emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a significant source of global secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, quantifying their aerosol forming potential remains a challenge. This study presents smog chamber ...

Kroll, Jesse

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Credit Constraints, Learning and Aggregate Consumption Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper documents three empirical facts. First, consumption volatility relative to income volatility rose from 1947-1960 and then fell dramatically by 75 percent from the 1960s to the 1990s. Second, the correlation between consumption growth and personal income growth fell by about 75 percent over the same time period. Finally, absolute deviations of consumption changes from their mean exhibit two breaks in U.S. data, and the mean size of the absolute deviations has again fallen by about 75 percent. First, I find that a standard benchmark permanent income hypothesis model is unable to explain these facts. Then, I examine the ability of two hypotheses: a fall in credit constraints and changing beliefs about the permanence of income shocks to explain these facts. I find evidence for both explanations and find that these facts can be almost completely explained by a model with learning about the nature of income shocks and a reduction in credit constraints. Importantly, I find that estimated changes in beliefs about the permanence of income shocks have substantial explanatory power for consumption changes.

Daniel L. Tortorice

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Leverage Causes Fat Tails and Clustered Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We build a very simple model of leveraged asset purchases with margin calls. Investment funds use what is perhaps the most basic financial strategy, called 'value investing', i.e. systematically attempting to buy underpriced assets. When funds do not borrow, the price fluctuations of the asset are normally distributed and uncorrelated across time. All this changes when the funds are allowed to leverage, i.e. borrow from a bank, to purchase more assets than their wealth would otherwise permit. When funds use leverage, price fluctuations become heavy tailed and display clustered volatility, similar to what is observed in real markets. Previous explanations of fat tails and clustered volatility depended on 'irrational behavior', such as trend following. We show that the immediate cause of the increase in extreme risks in our model is the risk control policy of the banks: A prudent bank makes itself locally safer by putting a limit to leverage, so when a fund exceeds its leverage limit, it must partially repay it...

Thurner, Stefan; Geanakoplos, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Goodness-of-fit test for stochastic volatility models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a goodness of fit test for continuous time stochastic volatility models based on discretely sampled observations. The proposed test is constructed by measuring deviations between the empirical and true characteristic functions ... Keywords: 62E20, 62G09, 62G10, Bootstrap, Empirical characteristic function, Goodness-of-fit, Stochastic volatility models, V-statistics

Liang-Ching Lin, Sangyeol Lee, Meihui Guo

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Advances in Volatility Modeling for Energy Markets: Methods for Reproducing Volatility Clustering, Fat Tails, Smiles, and Smirks in Energy Price Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop a new model of energy price volatility. For many years, EPRI has worked with a flexible and tractable volatility model that successfully captures the term "structure of volatility," including the properties commonly referred to as "mean reversion" and "seasonality." However, that model does not capture random volatility, evidenced by volatility clustering, nor does it capture skewness and excess kurtosis i...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the ?uctuations in electricity bills that are conceivable.concern about analyzing electricity bill volatility of largeat a The issue of electricity bill volatility from RTP

Borenstein, Severin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

189

Empirical Analysis of Stochastic Volatility Model by Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The stochastic volatility model is one of volatility models which infer latent volatility of asset returns. The Bayesian inference of the stochastic volatility (SV) model is performed by the hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm which is superior to other Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in sampling volatility variables. We perform the HMC simulations of the SV model for two liquid stock returns traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and measure the volatilities of those stock returns. Then we calculate the accuracy of the volatility measurement using the realized volatility as a proxy of the true volatility and compare the SV model with the GARCH model which is one of other volatility models. Using the accuracy calculated with the realized volatility we find that empirically the SV model performs better than the GARCH model.

Takaishi, Tetsuya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Pyrolysis of Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand was subjected to programmed temperature pyrolysis and the volatile products were detected by tandem on-line mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in real time analyses. A heating rate of 4/degree/C/min from room temperature to 900/degree/C was employed. Evolution of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, nitrogen-, sulfur- and oxygen-containing compounds was monitored by MS or MS/MS detection. Evolution of volatile organic compounds occurred in two regimes: 1) low temperature (maximum evolution at 150 to 175/degree C), corresponding to entrained organics, and 2) high temperature (maximum evolution at 440 to 460/degreeC), corresponding to cracking of large organic components. Pyrolysis yields were dominated by the evolution of light hydrocarbons. Alkanes and alkenes of two carbons and higher had temperatures of maximum evolution at approximately 440/degree/C, and methane at approximately 474/degree/C. Aromatic hydrocarbons had temperatures of maximum evolution slightly higher, at approximately 450/degree/C. In general, H/sub2/, CO, and CO/sub2/ exhibited evolution associated with hydrocarbon cracking reactions, and high temperature evolution associated with mineral decomposition, the water-gas shift reaction, and gasification reactions. Compared to other domestic tar sands, the gas evolution relected more mineral decomposition character for Sunnyside tar sand. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.; Crawford, R.W.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nitride: Influence of Surface Hydroxyls on Low Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the synthesis of 2.5 nm gold clusters on the oxygen free and chemically labile support carbon nitride (C3N4). Despite having small particle sizes and high enough water partial pressure these Au/C3N4 catalysts are inactive for the gas phase and liquid phase oxidation of carbon monoxide. The reason for the lack of activity is attributed to the lack of surface OH groups on the C3N4. These OH groups are argued to be responsible for the activation of CO in the oxidation of CO. The importance of basic OH groups explains the well document dependence of support isoelectric point versus catalytic activity.

Singh, Joseph A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

EXAFS of carbon monoxide oxidation on supported Pt fuel cell electrocatalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential dependence of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) obtained at the Pt L{sub III} absorption edge for a carbon supported Pt electrocatalyst exposed to carbon monoxide is presented. The data have been analyzed using the difference file method to separate the dominant contributions of the Pt neighbors from contributions to the EXAFS from the adsorbed species. The presence of adsorbed CO is clearly observed with a Pt-C distance of 1.85 {angstrom} at potentials less than 0.5 V vs. RHE. Increasing the potential above 0.5 V resulted first in the removal of the adsorbed CO and at more positive potentials, e.g., 1.05 V, in the formation of an oxide layer, as evidenced by the presence of a Pt-O coordination shell at 2.00 {angstrom}. These results demonstrate that in situ EXAFS of supported Pt electrocatalysts may be used to probe adsorbate structures.

Maniguet, S.; Mathew, R.J.; Russell, A.E.

2000-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

193

Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Role of carboxydobacteria in consumption of atmospheric carbon monoxide by soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carbon monoxide consumption rates of the carboxydobacteria Pseudomonas (Seliberia) carboxydohydrogena, P. carboxydovorans, and P. carboxydoflava were measured at high (50%) and low (0.5 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/) mixing ratios of CO in air. CO was only consumed when the bacteria had been grown under CO-autotrophic conditions. At low cell densities the CO comsumption rates measured at low CO mixing ratios were similar in cell suspensions and in mixtures of bacteria in soil. CO consumption observed in natural soil (loess, eolian sand, chernozem) as well as in suspensions or soil mixtures of carboxydobacteria showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Considering the difference of the K/sub m/, values and the observed V/sub max/ values, carboxydobacteria cannot contribute significantly to the consumption of atmospheric CO.

Conrad, R. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz, Germany); Meyer, O.; Seiler, W.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

Hanley, W.R.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

197

Forecasting volatility with the multifractal random walk model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of forecasting volatility for the multifractal random walk model. In order to avoid the ill posed problem of estimating the correlation length T of the model, we introduce a limiting object defined in a quotient space; formally, this object is an infinite range logvolatility. For this object and the non limiting object, we obtain precise prediction formulas and we apply them to the problem of forecasting volatility and pricing options with the MRW model in the absence of a reliable estimate of the average volatility and T.

Duchon, Jean; Vargas, Vincent

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the heterogeneous oxidation of oxidized organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The competition between the addition of polar, oxygen-containing functional groups (functionalization) and the cleavage of CC bonds (fragmentation) has a governing influence on the change in volatility of organic species ...

Kroll, Jesse

199

Elemental analysis of aerosol organic nitrates with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four hydroxynitrates (R(OH)R'ONO2) representative of atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation products were synthesized, nebulized and sampled into an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass ...

Rollins, A. W.

200

Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Details Activities (4) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Major-element and volatile (H2O, CO2, S) compositions of glasses from the submarine flanks of Kilauea Volcano record its growth from pre-shield into tholeiite shield-stage. Pillow lavas of mildly alkalic basalt at 2600-1900 mbsl on the upper slope of the south flank are an intermediate link between deeper alkalic volcaniclastics and the modern tholeiite shield. Lava clast glasses from the west flank of Papau Seamount are subaerial Mauna Loa-like tholeiite and mark the contact between the two

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A note on wealth in a volatile economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I show that if the capital accumulation dynamics is stochastic a new term, in addition to that given by accounting prices, has to be introduced in order to derive a correct estimate of the genuine wealth of an economy. In a simple model with multiplicative accumulation dynamics I show that: 1) the value function is always a decreasing function of volatility 2) the accounting prices are affected by volatility 3) the new term always gives a negative contribution to wealth changes. I discuss results for models with constant elasticity utility functions. When the elasticity of marginal utility is larger than one, accounting prices increase with volatility whereas when it is less than one accounting prices decrease with volatility. These conclusions are not altered when adopting optimal saving rates.

Marsili, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, I illustrate that an efficient allocation of liquidity ...

Eden, Maya Rachel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The impact of fuel price volatility on transportation mode choice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, the price of oil has driven large fluctuations in the price of diesel fuel, which is an important cost component in freight logistics. This thesis explores the impact of fuel price volatility on supply ...

Kim, Eun Hie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Volatility of Aerosols in the Arid Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile properties of aerosols at an isolated rural site in south-central New Mexico were measured with a light-scattering particle counter equipped with a temperature-controlled heated inlet. Intermittent measurements throughout a one-year ...

R. G. Pinnick; S. G. Jennings; G. Fernandez

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be as high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

Weaver, Paul F. (13130 W. 66th Pl., Golden, CO 80401)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

Weaver, P.F.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

209

The fractional volatility model: An agent-based interpretation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on criteria of mathematical simplicity and consistency with empirical market data, a model with volatility driven by fractional noise has been constructed which provides a fairly accurate mathematical parametrization of the data. Here, some features of the model are discussed and, using agent-based models, one tries to find which agent strategies and (or) properties of the financial institutions might be responsible for the features of the fractional volatility model.

Mendes, R Vilela

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

MST: Organizations: Organic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adhesive Bonding Adhesive Bonding Composites Encapsulation Materials Characterization Mechanical Testing Molding, Thermoforming, & Compounding Organizations Organic Materials Composite-to-metal adhesive bond Experimental/analytical study of composit-to-metal adhesive bond. The Organic Materials department in the Advanced Manufacturing and Processing Laboratory provides innovative prototype fabrication, full service small lot production, materials technology, processing expertise, and a broad range of organic material characterization and mechanical testing techniques. We encapsulate, we join and bond, we foam, we analyze and image, we build composite structures. We strive to make you, our customers, successful! We partner with you to find the right combination of materials, processing, and fixturing that will result in the highest value

211

Retrieval of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Profiles from High-Resolution Interferometer Observations: A New Digital Gas Correlation (DGC)Method and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions can be retrieved from observations by spaceborne gas correlation radiometers and high-resolution interferometers. The Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is a gas correlation ...

Jinxue Wang; John C. Gille; Paul L. Bailey; Liwen Pan; David Edwards; James R. Drummond

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

213

Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

Jernigan, G.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Carbon monoxide in indoor ice skating rinks: Evaluation of absorption by adult hockey players  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 122 male, adult hockey players active in recreational leagues of the Quebec City region (Canada), before and after 10 weekly 90-minute games in 10 different rinks. We also determined exposure by quantifying the average CO level in the rink during the games. Other variables documented included age, pulmonary function, aerobic capacity, and smoking status. Environmental concentrations varied from 1.6 to 131.5 parts per million (ppm). We examined the absorption/exposure relationship using a simple linear regression model. In low CO exposure levels, physical exercise lowered the alveolar CO concentration. However, we noted that for each 10 ppm of CO in the ambient air, the players had adsorbed enough CO to raise their carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels by 1 percent. This relationship was true both for smokers and non-smokers. We suggest that an average environmental concentration of 20 ppm of CO for the duration of a hockey game (90 minutes) should be reference limit not to be exceeded in indoor skating rinks.

Levesque, B.; Dewailly, E.; Lavoie, R.; Prud'Homme, D.; Allaire, S. (Centre hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Review Article A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX) is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for CO-PROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright 2011 by BCREC UN-

A. Mishra; R. Prasad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Highly ordered magnetic mesoporous silicas for effective elimination of carbon monoxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalysts based on crystalline nanoparticles of Fe metal supported on mesoporous silica have been developed. The synthetic process involves hydrogen reduction processing for high abundant Fe metal nanoparticles within the mesopores, in which impregnated Fe salt in the inner nanopores of mesoporous silica is thermally treated under hydrogen at 500 Degree-Sign C. Detailed characterization was achieved by XRD, XPS, BET, and HR-TEM techniques. The catalytic efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the used amounts and reaction time. The results show that more than 90% of the carbon monoxide was eliminated at room temperature during a period 80 min with 0.5 g of catalyst. - Graphical abstract: Strategy for the preparation of highly abundant Fe nanoparticle embedded MS catalyst by hydrogen reduction process and HR-TEM images of cross-sectional and top view. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MS based heterogeneous catalyst with Fe nanoparticles were demonstrated for CO elimination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly Fe nanoparticle embedded MS catalyst prepared by hydrogen reduction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematic characterization was achieved by XRD, XPS, BET, and HR-TEM analyses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 90% of the CO was eliminated at RT during 80 min with 0.5 g of catalyst.

Lee, Jiho [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul 153-801 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Ho Chang, Jeong, E-mail: jhchang@kicet.re.kr [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul 153-801 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Improved Predictions of Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Flow and Transport: Implementation of Kinetic Volatilization and Multicomponent NAPL Behavior  

SciTech Connect

Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. The RI/FS process and remedial investigations for the 200-PW-1, 200 PW-3, and 200-PW-6 Operable Units are described in the Plutonium/Organic-Rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Groups Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) by incorporating kinetic volatilization of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and multicomponent flow and transport. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Previous numerical simulation results with the STOMP simulator have overestimated the effect of soil vapor extraction (SVE) on subsurface CT, showing rapid removal of considerably more CT than has actually been recovered so far. These previous multiphase simulations modeled CT mass transfer between phases based on equilibrium partitioning. Equilibrium volatilization can overestimate volatilization because mass transfer limitations present in the field are not considered. Previous simulations were also conducted by modeling the NAPL as a single component, CT. In reality, however, the NAPL mixture disposed of at the Hanford site contained several non-volatile and nearly insoluble organic components, resulting in time-variant fluid properties as the CT component volatilized or dissolved over time. Simulation of CT removal from a DNAPL mixture using single-component DNAPL properties typically leads to an overestimation of CT removal. Other possible reasons for the discrepancy between observed and simulated CT mass removal during SVE are differences between the actual and simulated (1) SVE flow rates, (2) fluid-media properties, and (3) disposal history (volumes, rates, and timing). In this report, numerical implementation of kinetic volatilization and multicomponent DNAPL flow and transport into the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) is described. The results of several test cases are presented and explained. The addition of these two major code enhancements increases the ability of the STOMP simulator to model complex subsurface flow and transport processes involving CT at the Hanford site.

Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

218

Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Integrated system for the destruction of organics by hydrolysis and oxidation with peroxydisulfate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Hsu, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (0) Abstract: A system for analysis of inclusion gas contents based upon quadrupole mass spectrometry has been designed, assembled and tested during the first 7 months of funding. The system is currently being tested and calibrated using inclusions with known gas contents from active geothermal systems. Analyses are in progress on inclusions from the Salton Sea, Valles Caldera, Geysers, and Coso geothermal systems. Author(s): Mckibben, M. A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fumarole discharges (95-560°C) collected from the dacite dome inside Mount St. Helens crater show temporal changes in their isotopic and chemical compositions. A ΔD vs. Δ18O plot shows that condensed waters from the gases are mixtures of meteoric and magmatic components, but that the apparent magmatic end-member in 1994 was depleted by about 7‰ in ΔD relative to the apparent end-member in 1980. Based on ΔD modeling, approximately 63% of shallow, post-1980 magma has yet to degas.

222

Study of cesium volatility from sodium carbonate based melts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study was to obtain thermodynamic data on cesium volatility from sodium carbonate-based molten salts for application to the Rockwell-ETEC molten salt oxidation process. At 1073 to 1373 K, volatility tests were conducted on a horizontal and a vertical transpiration apparatus using a carrier gas composed of CO{sub 2}(g) and H{sub 2}O(g) which was passed over or bubbled through a sodium carbonate bath containing cesium carbonate and various additives. The major vapor species was identified to be CsOH(g) except when greater than 3% chloride is present in the melt, then the major vapor species is CsCl(g). The decrease in volatility of cesium as a function of cesium concentration in Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3{minus}}Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures follows Raoult`s law very closely. Thus, this system exhibits close to ideal solution behavior. Addition of 22.5 wt % sodium sulfate decreases the cesium volatility by just under a factor of 2, and the addition of 10.0 wt % sodium chloride increases the cesium volatility about an order of magnitude. The addition of 2.0 wt % ash, molecular sieve, or silica show little or no effect. However, the data indicate that higher concentrations of ash will decrease the cesium volatility. For the addition of 22.5 wt % sodium sulfate the activity coefficient, {gamma}(Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sup {1/2}}, is calculated to be 0.720 {plus_minus} 0.068, and for the addition of 10.0 wt % sodium chloride, the activity coefficient, {gamma}(CsCl), is calculated to be 8.118 {plus_minus} 2.317. Assuming that Henry`s law applies, these activity coefficients are used to extrapolate the effect on cesium retention in the molten salt oxidizer of sulfate and chloride at lower cesium concentrations.

Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Krikorian, O.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fleming, D.L.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework that describes the atmospheric evolution of OA and is constrained and motivated by new, high time resolution, experimental characterizations of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of large amounts of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass that has comparable concentrations to sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. Our new model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in the atmosphere and the laboratory and can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Qi; Kroll, Jesse H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, Allison; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Dunlea, E. J.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, Paul I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Yutaka; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, Robert; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, Joel; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, Scott C.; Trimborn, Achim; Williams, L. R.; Wood, Ezra C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Volatility Effects on the Escape Time in Financial Market Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We shortly review the statistical properties of the escape times, or hitting times, for stock price returns by using different models which describe the stock market evolution. We compare the probability function (PF) of these escape times with that obtained from real market data. Afterwards we analyze in detail the effect both of noise and different initial conditions on the escape time in a market model with stochastic volatility and a cubic nonlinearity. For this model we compare the PF of the stock price returns, the PF of the volatility and the return correlation with the same statistical characteristics obtained from real market data.

Spagnolo, Bernardo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Summary Short?Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is often noted that energy prices are quite volatile, reflecting market participants adjustments to new information from physical energy markets and/or markets in energyrelated financial derivatives. Price volatility is an indication of the level of uncertainty, or risk, in the market. This paper describes how markets price risk and how the marketclearing process for risk transfer can be used to generate price bands around observed futures prices for crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities. These bands provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty regarding the range in which markets expect prices to trade. The Energy Information Administrations (EIA) monthly Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) publishes base case projections for a variety of energy prices that go out 12 to 24 months (every January the STEO forecast is extended through December of the following year). EIA has recognized that all price forecasts are highly uncertain and has described the uncertainty by identifying the market factors that may significantly move prices away from their expected paths, such as economic growth, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) behavior, geo-political events, and hurricanes.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Organization Chart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Mission Organization Staff - Organization Chart About Us Bob Cottingham, 865-241-0554 Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Meghan Drake 865-241-8288 Michael...

227

Science Organizations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organizations Science Organizations National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place...

228

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Low-Volatility Motor Oils. Development and Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

saturated hydrocarbons. Viscosity index. 1. >0.03. <90. 80 120. 2. ?0.03. ?90 ... GOST 2079988 does not set a volatility level for this oil, which is within the limits of .... Short Handbook of the Properties of Lubricating Materials and Fuels [

231

Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.a Hedge Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger,wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger, Ryanwake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility duringyears) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e. , what

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger, Ryanof unprecedented natural gas price volatility during thethe cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Does stock market volatility with regime shifts signal the business cycle in Taiwan?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a Switching Regime ARCH (SWARCH) model and other time series models, this paper sets out to investigate the volatility of Taiwan's monthly stock market returns, with the empirical results demonstrating that our SWARCH-L specification ... Keywords: Markov switching, Taiwan, business cycle, e-finance, electronic finance, regime shifts, stock market volatility, stock markets, stock volatility

Yih-Wen Shyu; Kuangyu Hsia

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Option Returns and the Cross-Sectional Predictability of Implied Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- tive forecast of the change in implied volatility and short in straddles with a large negative forecast://www.krannert.purdue.edu/faculty/saretto/. #12;1 Introduction Volatility is central to the pricing of options as there is a one-to-one correspondence between the price of an option and the volatility of the underlying asset. In the context of Black

Kearns, Michael

236

Variations in volatiles in magma bodies based on studies of melt inclusions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Knowledge of volatile concentrations in magmas are important in the prediction of explosive volcanism, and contribute to the understanding of the carbon dioxide budget of the atmosphere. Some important variables that are controlled by volatiles are: crystallization temperature of phases, composition of liquids minimum, and viscosity. Volatiles are also catalysts for reactions.

Vogel, T.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1989-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

QUANTIFYING THE VALUE THAT WIND POWER PROVIDES AS A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 LBNL-50484 QUANTIFYING THE VALUE THAT WIND POWER PROVIDES AS A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, Ryan Wiser, and William Golove Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001 ­ have mostly been qualitative in nature

238

Thermodynamic investigation into steam-methane reforming and the synthesis of methane from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

In this study the stream-methane equilibrium reaction was investigated by considering both methane synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide and by considering steam-methane reforming from methane and steam. A FORTRAN computer program was written to carry out all the calculations over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and initial compositions. The products of each process as a function of pressure, temperature, and starting ratio of reactant gases were calculated, as well as the heats involved. In both processes the minimum ratios above which no carbon precipitates were determined as a function of temperature and pressure were given.

Wu, L.H.; Lietzke, M.H.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Organization | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

About Us Organization Organization Leadership Organization History Careers Contact Us Organization...

240

Internal energy and parameters of the order-disorder phase transition in titanium monoxide TiO{sub y}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantum-mechanical ab initio calculations are used to simulate the free energy functions for titanium monoxide TiO{sub y}. The effect of the long-range order of the Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} type superstructure on the internal energy of the compound is studied by the supercell method. The dependences of the configuration entropy and free energy on the long-range order parameter are determined. It is found that the order-disorder phase transition in titanium monoxide must occur in accordance with the mechanism of the first-order phase transition with a critical value of the long-range order parameter of 0.971. The calculated parameters of the phase transition are compared with the experimental data and the results obtained using the model of point charges and by calculating the Madelung energy. It is concluded that the short-range order and the phonon entropy must be taken into account in calculating the equilibrium phase diagrams for strongly nonstoichiometric compounds.

Kostenko, M. G.; Rempel, A. A., E-mail: rempel@ihim.uran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid-State Chemistry, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Lukoyanov, A. V. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

One-dimensional turbulence model simulations of autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide fuel mixtures in a turbulent jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide in a turbulent jet with preheated co-flow air is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. The simulations are performed at atmospheric pressure based on varying the jet Reynolds number and the oxidizer preheat temperature for two compositions corresponding to varying the ratios of H{sub 2} and CO in the fuel stream. Moreover, simulations for homogeneous autoignition are implemented for similar mixture conditions for comparison with the turbulent jet results. The results identify the key effects of differential diffusion and turbulence on the onset and eventual progress of autoignition in the turbulent jets. The differential diffusion of hydrogen fuels results in a reduction of the ignition delay relative to similar conditions of homogeneous autoignition. Turbulence may play an important role in delaying ignition at high-turbulence conditions, a process countered by the differential diffusion of hydrogen relative to carbon monoxide; however, when ignition is established, turbulence enhances the overall rates of combustion of the non-premixed flame downstream of the ignition point. (author)

Gupta, Kamlesh G.; Echekki, Tarek [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Relaxation dynamics of aftershocks after large volatility shocks in the SSEC index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relaxation dynamics of aftershocks after large volatility shocks are investigated based on two high-frequency data sets of the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite (SSEC) index. Compared with previous relevant work, we have defined main financial shocks based on large volatilities rather than large crashes. We find that the occurrence rate of aftershocks with the magnitude exceeding a given threshold for both daily volatility (constructed using 1-minute data) and minutely volatility (using intra-minute data) decays as a power law. The power-law relaxation exponent increases with the volatility threshold and is significantly greater than 1. Taking financial volatility as the counterpart of seismic activity, the power-law relaxation in financial volatility deviates remarkably from the Omori law in Geophysics.

Mu, Guo-Hua

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Analysis of Realized Volatility in Two Trading Sessions of the Japanese Stock Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze realized volatilities constructed using high-frequency stock data on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. In order to avoid non-trading hours issue in volatility calculations we define two realized volatilities calculated separately in the two trading sessions of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, i.e. morning and afternoon sessions. After calculating the realized volatilities at various sampling frequencies we evaluate the bias from the microstructure noise as a function of sampling frequency. Taking into account of the bias to realized volatility we examine returns standardized by realized volatilities and confirm that price returns on the Tokyo Stock Exchange are described approximately by Gaussian time series with time-varying volatility, i.e. consistent with a mixture of distributions hypothesis.

Takaishi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Zeyu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

BIOFILTRATION OF VOLATILE POLLUTANTS: Fundamental Mechanisms for Improved Design, Long-term Operation, Prediction, and Implementation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biofiltration systems can be used for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); however, the systems are poorly understood and are normally operated as ''black boxes''. Common operational problems associated with biofilters include fouling, deactivation, and overgrowth, all of which make them ineffective for continuous, long-term use. The objective of this investigation was to develop generic methods for long-term stable operation, in particular by using selective limitation of supplemental nutrients while maintaining high activity. As part of this effort, we have provided a deeper fundamental understanding of the important biological and transport mechanisms in biodestruction of sparingly soluble VOCs and have extended this approach and mathematical models to additional systems of high priority EM relevance--direct degradation and cometabolic degradation of priority pollutants such as BTEX and chlorinated organics. Innovative aspects of this project included development of a user-friendly two-dimensional predictive model/program for MS Windows 95/98/2000 to elucidate mass transfer and kinetic limitations in these systems, isolation of a unique microorganism capable of using sparingly soluble organic and chloroorganic VOCs as its sole carbon and energy source, and making long-term growth possible by successfully decoupling growth and degradation metabolisms in operating trickle bed bioreactors.

Davison,Brian H.

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Final Report for Organic Partitioning Resulting from Operation of an INTEC Double-needle Sampler  

SciTech Connect

The double needle sampler testing is a continuation of previous test series that investigated the fate of organic species in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) system at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This test series was designed to investigate the effects of operation of the double needle sampling systems on volatile organic constituents in an acidic feed matrix.

Michael B. Heiser

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

NIST Organization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... What We Do; Organization Chart; Budget Information; Office of the Director; Laboratories & Major Programs; Locations; Staff Directory; Working With ...

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Symposium Organizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volunteer Training Module. March 2013. 1. Your Professional Partner for Career Advancement. Symposium Organizer. Online Training Module. March 2013...

248

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Fresh Look at Integrating Supply-Side and Demand-Side Resources Speaker(s): Bill Kelly Robert Redlinger Date: January 19, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn The restructuring of the California electricity industry has not proceeded as intended. A generation capacity shortage, combined with spiraling natural gas costs and a flawed electricity market structure, have led to unprecedented wholesale electricity prices, power outages, and a political and financial crisis for the State. This crisis will not be solved through increasing electricity supply alone. Energy industry observers agree that 1.) energy efficiency, 2.) distributed on-site generation, and 3.) price

249

Volatile oils and retrograde gases - What's the difference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part 1 showed that at reservoir conditions, volatile oils exhibit bubble points and retrograde gases exhibit dew points. The article contained a graph of initial producing gas-oil ratio plotted against concentration of heptanes plus in the fluid. This paper reproduces a portion of that graph with the data points indicating that the fluid had a dew point or a bubble point at reservoir conditions. The scatter in the data reflects the compositional differences among the fluids and the differences in surface separation facilities and conditions. In this graph, only three fluids have dew points and initial producing gas-oil ratios less than 3,200 scf/STB, and only one fluid reaches a bubble point above this value. Therefore, a value of 3,200 scf/STB appears to be a good cutoff between volatile oils and retrograde gases.

McCain, W.D. Jr. (S.A. Holditch and Associates, College Station, TX (United States)); Bridges, B. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

LABORATORY-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE FUSED SALT VOLATILITY PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of processing enriched irradiated zirconium--uranium alloy fuel by the fused salt-fluoride volatility procedure has been demonstrated in laboratory tests with fuel having a burnup of over 10%. Uranium recoveries were greater than 99% and decontamination factors for radioactive fission products were 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 6/. The UF/sub 6/ product contained significant quantities of nonradioactive impurities; additional work in this area is needed. (auth)

Cathers, G.I.; Jolley, R.L.; Moncrief, E.C.

1962-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cavalier 2 Keystone 1 Keystone 2 Keystone 3 Pilgrim1 Pilgrim 2 Manufacturer Fleetwood Fleetwood FleetwoodKeystone Keystone Keystone Pilgrim Pilgrim a Area (m 2 )

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Energy Saving System to Remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Indoor Air  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a catalyst and deployment devices to improve indoor air quality and reduce ventilation energy needs.

253

In-situ remediation system for volatile organic compounds with deep recharge mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the treatment and remediation of a contaminated aquifer in the presence of an uncontaminated aquifer at a different hydraulic potential. The apparatus consists of a wellbore inserted through a first aquifer and into a second aquifer, an inner cylinder within the wellbore is supported and sealed to the wellbore to prevent communication between the two aquifers. Air injection is used to sparge the liquid having the higher static water level and, to airlift it to a height whereby it spills into the inner cylinder. The second treatment area provides treatment in the form of aeration or treatment with a material. Vapor stripped in sparging is vented to the atmosphere. Treated water is returned to the aquifer having the lower hydraulic potential.

Jackson, Jr., Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (Augusta, SC); Phifer, Mark A. (Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SCE has developed and implemented a research program for customer retention through VOC emission control. Following characterization of problematic emission sources, SCE has identified and evaluated a number of alternative solutions and is currently implementing four demonstrations for promising technologies. The SCE program focuses on three major strategies: (1) reformulation, (2) application improvements, and (3) add-on controls. Vendors were identified, contacted, and evaluated for system performance. Industrial targets were selected based on need for assistance, magnitude of emissions, and number of facilities affected. Many facility operators were approached, interviewed, and analyzed. Three technologies were selected for installation at four host sites, with continuous monitoring of inlet and outlet VOC quantities. SCE intends to continue this demonstration project and to develop an effective technology transfer program to our industrial and commercial customers.

Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A tall tower flux measurement setup was established in metropolitan Houston, Texas, to measure trace gas fluxes from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in (more)

Park, Chang Hyoun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polishand aged (~20 year old) plywood wall paneling was present inboard Description New plywood paneling with new polish 1 New

Ortiz, Anna C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Common Indoor Sources of volatile organic compounds: emission rates and techniques for reducing consumer exposures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 1.3-cm thick, smooth plywood. These paints were appliedlatex paint combination. The plywood floor was covered withpaint consisted of two plywood panels each with surface

Hodgson, A.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Volatile organic compound concentrations and emission rates measured over one year in a new manufactured house  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

living area. The subfloor is plywood; 17 % of the floor areafiberboard passage doors, and plywood sub flooring underA possible source is the plywood subfloor. However, terpene

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nabinger, Steven J.; Persily, Andrew K.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orto the high surface area of plywood paneling, all THUs hadstandards for all plywood and particleboard materials using

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Techniques for reducing exposures to volatile organic compounds associated with new construction and renovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applied to gypsum board and plywood substrates. This wasapplied to 1.1-m 2 of plywood. The carpet and vinyl flooringThe SGLPs were applied to plywood. The two non-VOC paints,

Hodgson, A.T.; Shimer, D.A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Volatile organic chemical emissions from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials and implications for indoor air quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fiberboard, hardboard and plywood are the predominantliterature for OSB and for plywood, a composite wood productthe predominant southern pine plywood, as it typically is

Hodgson, Alfred T.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development Hardwood Plywood Lawrence Berkeley Nationalconstructed of 1/8-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orone material, the Cavalier plywood cabinet wall (490 g m -2

Maddalena, Randy L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Critical Review on Studies of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Sorption by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-1097) Jinsong Zhang Jianshun Zhang, Ph.D. Qingyan Chen, Ph.D. Xudong Yang, Ph.D. Student Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE ABSTRACT The purpose of the investigation is to analyze

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

264

Regional Analysis of Nonmethane Volatile Organic Compounds in the Lower Troposphere of the Southeast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, acetylene, propane, i-butane, and n-butane with a winter maximum and a summer minimum. An analysis

Aneja, Viney P.

265

Supplementary Material1 "The Atmospheric Potential of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds from Needles of2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Needles of2 White Pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan" by Toma and Bertman3 4 Table S1: Parameters. The retention time and8 mass spectrum of -phellandrene were obtained using Angelica seed oil (Shiono Koryo9 and -cadinene were identified using Hinoki essential oil12 (Shiono Koryo Kaisha, Ltd.). Germacrene-D-4-ol

Meskhidze, Nicholas

266

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hippelein 4 . Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found informaldehyde, phenol, and TMPB-DIB. As reported by Maddalenamay have contributed to high TMPB-DIB emission factors. The

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit J. J. Harrison & P. F. Bernath  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemistry, University of York, YO10 5DD, UK The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a Canadian. The HITRAN database is a good source of such spectroscopic data; however the current state of its ethane parameters and a 2975.5 ­ 2977.5 cm-1 microwindow, centred on the PQ3 branch. Retrievals using the new cross

268

Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Implications of Low Volatility SOA and Gas-Phase Fragmentation Reactions on SOA Loadings and their Spatial and Temporal Evolution in the Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory and field measurements by a number of groups show that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) evaporates orders of magnitude slower than traditional models assume. In addition, chemical transport models using volatility basis set (VBS) SOA schemes neglect gas-phase fragmentation reactions, which are known to be extremely important. In this work, we present modeling studies to investigate the implications of non-evaporating SOA and gas-phase fragmentation reactions. Using the 3-D chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, we show that previous parameterizations, which neglect fragmentation during multi-generational gas-phase chemistry of semi-volatile/inter-mediate volatility organics ("aging SIVOC"), significantly over-predict SOA as compared to aircraft measurements downwind of Mexico City. In sharp contrast, the revised models, which include gas-phase fragmentation, show much better agreement with measurements downwind of Mexico City. We also demonstrate complex differences in spatial SOA distributions when we transform SOA to non-volatile secondary organic aerosol (NVSOA) to account for experimental observations. Using a simple box model, we show that for same amount of SOA precursors, earlier models that do not employ multi-generation gas-phase chemistry of precursors ("non-aging SIVOC"), produce orders of magnitude lower SOA than "aging SIVOC" parameterizations both with and without fragmentation. In addition, traditional absorptive partitioning models predict almost complete SOA evaporation at farther downwind locations for both "non-aging SIVOC" and "aging SIVOC" with fragmentation. In contrast, in our revised approach, SOA transformed to NVSOA implies significantly higher background concentrations as it remains in particle phase even under highly dilute conditions. This work has significant implications on understanding the role of multi-generational chemistry and NVSOA formation on SOA evolution in the atmosphere.

Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Easter, Richard C.; Beranek, Josef; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.

2013-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

271

Organization Chart  

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spacer spacer spacer About DOE Organization News Contact Us Search Search Go spacer U.S. Department of Energy header image Science & Technology Energy Sources Energy Efficiency...

272

Well Productivity in Gas-Condensate and Volatile Oil Reservoirs:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wells in gas condensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex behaviours due to condensate deposit as the bottomhole pressure drops below the dew point. The formation of this liquid saturation can lead to a severe loss of well productivity and therefore lower gas recovery. A similar behaviour is observed in volatile oil reservoirs below the bubble point. Understanding these behaviours and extracting values of controlling parameters is necessary to evaluate well potential and design effective programmes to improve productivity. The Centre of Petroleum Studies at Imperial College London has been involved in research in these areas since 1997, sponsored mainly by consortia of oil companies. Results from this work have already greatly improved the understanding of well behaviour in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs and the ability to interpret well tests in such reservoirs. Work to-date has focused on vertical and horizontal wells in sandstone reservoirs. Much work remains to understand the behaviours of fractured wells and wells in naturally fractured reservoirs. The objective of this proposal is to complete the work performed to-date in sandstone reservoirs and to extend it to new well and reservoir characteristics, in order to develop a better understanding of near-wellbore effects in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs from well testing, and to use this understanding to develop new methods for predicting and improving well productivity in such reservoirs. The work will be performed by staff, MSc and PhD students from the Centre for Petroleum Studies at Imperial College, with input and guidance from industry partners.

Prof A. C. Gringarten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Tight Coal Market: Volatility Spike or Trend?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spot coal market experienced a major price spike beginning in late 2000 and early 2001. This run-up in coal prices caught most producers and generators by surprise. While spot prices have declined from their peak, they remain well above historical levels. It is not clear whether this run-up in prices was merely a short-term event reflecting an increase in coal price volatility or the start of a new trend in coal pricing generally. This report analyzes possible causes of the price spike, the likelihoo...

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Improvement of SOFC Electrodes through Catalyst Infiltration & Control of Cr Volatilization from FeCr Components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the improvement of SOFC electrodes through catalyst infiltration and control of Cr volatilization from FeCr components.

Visco, S.J.; Jacobson, C.; Kurokawa, H.; Sholklapper, T.; Lu, C.; De Jonghe, L.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

275

Stock market volatility and price discovery : three essays on the effect of macroeconomic information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simple Microstructure Model of Price Determination . . 3.11Stock Market Volatility and Price Discovery: Three Essays onConstruction Spending PRICES CPI MONETARY POLICY FFR Source:

Rangel, Jose Gonzalo

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Oil consumption, pollutant emission, oil proce volatility and economic activities in selected Asian Developing Economies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is now well established in the literature that oil consumption, oil price shocks, and oil price volatility may impact the economic activities negatively. Studies (more)

Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Asymptotic expansion for pricing options for a mean-reverting asset with multiscale stochastic volatility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work investigates the valuation of options when the underlying asset follows a mean-reverting log-normal process with a stochastic volatility that is driven by two stochastic processes with one persistent factor and one fast mean-reverting factor. ... Keywords: Mean reversion, Multiscale asymptotic, Option pricing, Stochastic volatility

Mei Choi Chiu; Yu Wai Lo; Hoi Ying Wong

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Volatility dynamics of the US business cycle: A multivariate asymmetric GARCH approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most empirical investigations of the business cycles in the United States have excluded the dimension of asymmetric conditional volatility. This paper analyses the volatility dynamics of the US business cycle by comparing the performance of various multivariate ... Keywords: Constant correlations, E32, E37, Index of industrial production, Multivariate asymmetric GARCH, US business cycle non-linearities, Varying-correlations

Kin-Yip Ho; Albert K. Tsui; Zhaoyong Zhang

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

280

Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

Herce, Miguel Angel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Use of Volatile Tracers to Determine the Contribution of Environment Tobacco Smoke to Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in Smoking Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Health Laboratory Branch California Department of Health ServicesHealth Laboratory Branch California Department of Health Services

Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Alevantis, L.E.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Ten Brinke, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Use of Volatile Tracers to Determine the Contribution of Environment Tobacco Smoke to Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in Smoking Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cigarettes (University of Kentucky 1R4F) were machineand a reference cigarette (University of Kentucky 1R4F) were

Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Alevantis, L.E.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Ten Brinke, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

284

Regulation, Volatility and Efficiency in Continuous-Time Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the efficiency of markets with friction, particularly power markets. We model the market as a dynamic system with $(d_t;\\,t\\geq 0)$ the demand process and $(s_t;\\,t\\geq 0)$ the supply process. Using stochastic differential equations to model the dynamics with friction, we investigate the efficiency of the market under an integrated expected undiscounted cost function solving the optimal control problem. Then, we extend the setup to a game theoretic model where multiple suppliers and consumers interact continuously by setting prices in a dynamic market with friction. We investigate the equilibrium, and analyze the efficiency of the market under an integrated expected social cost function. We provide an intriguing efficiency-volatility no-free-lunch trade-off theorem.

Kizilkale, Arman C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

286

FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation and recovery of uraniunn from contaminants introduced by neutron irradiation by a halogenation and volatilization method are described. The irradiated uranium is dissolved in bromine trifluoride in the liquid phase. The uranium is converted to the BrF/sub 3/ soluble urmium hexafluoride compound whereas the fluorides of certain contaminating elements are insoluble in liquid BrF/sub 3/, and the reaction rate of the BrF/sub 3/ with certain other solid uranium contamirnnts is sufficiently slower than the reaction rate with uranium that substantial portions of these contaminating elements will remain as solids. These solids are then separated from the solution by a distillation, filtration, or centrifugation step. The uranium hexafluoride is then separated from the balance of the impurities and solvent by one or more distillations.

Katz, J.J.; Hyman, H.H.; Sheft, I.

1958-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Explanatory Factors and Causality in the Dynamics of Volatility Surfaces Implied from OTC Asian---Pacific Currency Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatility implied from observed option contracts systematically varies with the contracts' strike price and time to expiration, giving rise to an instantaneously non-flat implied volatility surface (IVS) that exhibits substantial time variation. We ... Keywords: Causality, Factor model, Implied volatility surfaces

Georgios Chalamandaris; Andrianos E. Tsekrekos

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994  

SciTech Connect

Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Roles of Surface Step on Pt Nanoparticles in Electro-oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design of highly active nanoscale catalysts for electro-oxidation of small organic molecules is of great importance to the development of efficient fuel cells. Increasing steps on single-crystal Pt surfaces is shown to enhance the activity of CO and methanol electro-oxidation up to several orders of magnitude. However, little is known about the surface atomic structure of nanoparticles with sizes of practical relevance, which limits the application of fundamental understanding in the reaction mechanisms established on single-crystal surfaces to the development of active, nanoscale catalysts. In this study, we reveal the surface atomic structure of Pt nanoparticles supported on multiwall carbon nanotubes, from which the amount of high-index surface facets on Pt nanoparticles is quantified. Correlating the surface steps on Pt nanoparticles with the electrochemical activity and stability clearly shows the significant role of surface steps in enhancing intrinsic activity for CO and methanol electro-oxidation. Here, we show that increasing surface steps on Pt nanoparticles of {approx}2 nm can lead to enhanced intrinsic activity up to {approx}200% (current normalized to Pt surface area) for electro-oxidation of methanol.

Lee, S.W.; Vescovo, E.; Chen, S.; Sheng, W.; Yabuuchi, N.; Kim, Y.T.; Mitani, T.; Shao-Horn, Y.

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

291

Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Federal Reserve Bank of DallasTime-Varying Oil Price Volatility and Macroeconomic Aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We illustrate the theoretical relation among output, consumption, investment, and oil price volatility in a real business cycle model. The model incorporates demand for oil by a firm, as an intermediate input, and by a household, used in conjunction with a durable good. We estimate a stochastic volatility process for the real price of oil over the period 1986-2011 and utilize the estimated process in a non-linear approximation of the model. For realistic calibrations, an increase in oil price volatility produces a temporary decrease in durable spending, while precautionary savings motives lead investment and real GDP to rise. Irreversible capital and durable investment decisions do not overturn this result.

Michael Plante; Michael Plante; Nora Traum; We Thank Ron Alquist; Sebnem Kalemli-ozcan; Junghoon Lee; James Murray

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Indoor Environment Program. 1992 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides.

Daisey, J.M.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Applicant Organization: | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applicant Organization: Applicant Organization: Applicant Organization: More Documents & Publications BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Applicant Organization: Applicant Organization:...

297

Formaldehyde and VOC Emissions from a Siemens-Westinghouse 501F Combustion Turbine with Lean Pre-Mix Combustors and SCR and CO Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of flue gas formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurements conducted at a Siemens-Westinghouse 501F gas-fired combustion turbine with lean pre-mix low-NOx combustors and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and carbon monoxide (CO) catalysts.

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

A statistical analysis of the natural gas futures market : the interplay of sentiment, volatility and prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper attempts to understand the price dynamics of the North American natural gas market through a statistical survey that includes an analysis of the variables influencing the price and volatility of this energy ...

Fazzio, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nutritional Status of some Aromatic Plants Grown to Produce Volatile Oils under Treated Municipal Wastewater irrigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

any reduction in quantity and quality of volatile oils.on the quantity and quality of the essential oil for fiveon the quantity and quality of the essential oil of five

Khalifa, Ramadan Khalifa Mohamed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Currency options volatility forecasting with shift-invariant wavelet transform and neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes four currency options volatility forecasting models. These models are based on shift-invariant wavelet transform and neural networks techniques. The trous algorithm is used to realize the shift-invariant wavelet transform. ...

Fan-Yong Liu; Fan-Xin Liu

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

then pay/receive the real- time price for deviations fromI assume that the retail real-time prices customers face arewould likely dampen real-time price volatility and the

Borenstein, Severin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Volatility of hotel market fundamentals and the determinants of variations between markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How can volatility as well as other dynamics and characteristics in hotel market fundamentals affecting risk be better understood? This paper explores that fundamental question along with other more specific questions that ...

Cason, Brian (Brian Paul)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Combustion of volatile matter during the initial stages of coal combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Both the secondary pyrolysis and combustion of the volatiles from a bituminous coal will be studied. Devolatilization and secondary pyrolysis experiments will be conducted in a novel flow reactor in which secondary pyrolysis of the volatiles occurs after devolatilization is complete. This allows unambiguous measurements of the yields from both processes. Measurements will be made for reactor temperatures from 1500 to 1700 K, and a nominal residence time of 200 msec. These conditions are typical of coal combustion. Yields of tar, soot, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbons will be determined as a function of reactor temperature. The yields will be reported as a function of the temperature of the reactor. The instrumentation for temperature measurements will be developed during future studies. Combustion studies will be conducted in a constant volume bomb, which will be designed and constructed for this study. Tar and soot will be removed before introducing the volatiles to the bomb, so that only the combustion of the light gas volatiles will be considered. The burning velocities of light gas volatiles will be determined both as functions of mixture stoichiometry and the temperature at which the volatiles are pyrolysed. 90 refs., 70 figs., 13 tabs.

Marlow, D.; Niksa, S.; Kruger, C.H.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

1987-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

305

Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1800 eV photon energy range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transmittance of silicon monoxide films prepared by thermal evaporation was measured from 7.1 to 800 eV and used to determine the optical constants of the material. SiO filmsdeposited onto C-coated microgrids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions were measured in situ from 7.1 to 23.1 eV. Grid-supported SiO filmsdeposited in high vacuum conditions were characterized ex situ from 28.5 to 800 eV. At each photon energy

Mnica Fernndez-Perea; Manuela Vidal-Dasilva; Juan I. Larruquert; Jos A. Aznrez; Jos A. Mndez; Eric Gullikson; Andy Aquila; Regina Soufli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Reading Comprehension - Organs and Organ Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

together in a group make up an organ system. Examples of organ systems are cats and dogs the circulatory system and the respiratory system the stomacular system and...

307

Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Hulin & D. R. Ilgen (Eds.) Computational Modeling in Organizational Behavior: The Third Scientific for that pattern to his or her superior, receives feedback as what whether the task was really of type A or B. At the apex of the organization is a single superior or CEO. Below the CEO there is a network that connects

Sadeh, Norman M.

308

Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing  

SciTech Connect

Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure April 24, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. RICHLAND, Wash. and LOS ALAMOS, N.M. - Through the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation

310

Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Waterford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Schenectady, NY)

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

313

LONG-TERM STABILITY TESTING RESULTS USING SURROGATES AND SORBENTS FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ORGANIC AND AQUEOUS WASTESTREAMS - 10016  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

Burns, H.

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

314

Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: ? Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. ? Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions. ? Collect and analyze discharged glass to determine sulfur retention in the glass. ? Prepare and characterize feeds and glasses with the additives to confirm that the feeds and the glass melts are suitable for processing in the DM100 melter. ? Prepare and characterize glasses with the additives to confirm that the glasses meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements.

Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

315

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

316

Comparison of predicted and derived measures of volatile organic compounds inside four relocatable classrooms due to identified interior finish sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carpet bonded to the plywood subfloor with a solvent-freebond properly to the plywood, and the carpet was installedlikely derived from the plywood used as the substrate for

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.; Apte, Michael G.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A piece of new -inch (1.9-cm) plywood representative of theapplied to one surface of a plywood square using a 3/16-inchwas determined by weighing the plywood before and after the

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Comparisons of diffusive and advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is traditionally treated as the dominant mechanism of gas transport in unsaturated zones under natural conditions of the gas pressure are less than 5% [32], which is satisfied in natural attenuation. At the ground surface contri- bution of the advective flux is a more important concern in natural attenuation. According to Fig

Zhan, Hongbin

319

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the inventories use year-2000 energy forecasts (off a 1995 base) from the RAINS-Asia (regional air pollution running under optimal conditions; in- use engines operating in developing countries may eject more OC; published 4 September 2002. [1] Air from South Asia carries heavy loadings of organic and light

Dickerson, Russell R.

320

Optimising Flash non-volatile memory using machine learning: a project overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While near ubiquitous, the physical principles of Flash memory mean that its performance degrades with use. During fabrication and operation, its ability to be repeatedly programmed/erased (endurance) needs to be balanced with its ability to store information ... Keywords: Flash memory, endurance, machine learning, memory performance optimisation, non-volatile memory, retention

Tom Arbuckle; Damien Hogan; Conor Ryan

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

EFFECT OF O2 ON SIC VOLATILIZATION RATE. R.A. Mendybaev1,3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

previous work on the volatilization rate of SiC in reducing gases [1, 2] was restricted to IW-2.8 and IW-6 us to estimate lifetimes of interstellar SiC grains (several months at 1200¡C) in a gas of solar lifetimes of inter- stellar SiC grains were significantly different from those we calculated previously

Grossman, Lawrence

322

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUMMARY PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF « GNOTOXENIC » MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria of holoxenic animals, were implanted in the digestive tract of axenic mice. The in vivo production of VFA

Recanati, Catherine

323

Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes in Steam Cycles: The Solubility and Volatility of Cupric Oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport activity represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Recent utility experiences with severe copper turbine fouling and other related problems identified the need for basic fundamental research to improve industry understanding of the volatility and solubility of copper and its oxides.

2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

324

Oxidation, volatilization, and redistribution of molybdenum from TZM alloy in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, MoO{sub 3}(m), in air and the hydroxide, MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report the authors present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800 C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO{sub 3}(g) over pure solid MoO{sub 3} and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Schuetz, S.T.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Oxidation, Volatilization, and Redistribution of Molybdenum from TZM Alloy in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, (MoO3)m, in air and the hydroxide, MoO2(OH)2, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report we present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO3(g) over pure solid MoO3 and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO2(OH)2 from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Mccarthy, Kathryn Ann; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Bayesian Modelling Volatility of Growth Rate in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and etc., create a natural greenhouse effect and cause climate change. Therefore, modelling behavior of these gases could help policy makers to control greenhouse effects. In a ... Keywords: Stochastic volatility, Smooth transition autoregressive, Markov chain Monte Carlo, methods, Bayesian, ARCH, GARCH

Esmail Amiri

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Volatile impurities in the ceramic form for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP)  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal for the impurity tests performed at SRS was to determine the maximum level of volatile impurities that can be accommodated into the ceramic form without significantly affecting product properties. The properties investigated in this study are the apparent porosity and the phase assemblage.

Cozzi, A.D.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

328

Organization | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization Leadership Organization Contact Us The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity is comprised of six offices: The Office of the Director- contact us Office of...

329

SSRL Users' Organization Ballot  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2003 SSRL Users' Organization Executive Committee (SSRLUO-EC) Ballot The SSRL Users' Organization Executive Committee represents the scientific user community to the SSRL...

330

Organic emissions from coal pyrolysis: mutagenic effects. Environ. Health Perspect. 73  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four different types of coal have been pyrolyzed in a laminar flow, drop tube furnace in order to establish a relationship between polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) evolution and mutagenicity. Temperatures of 900K to 1700K and particle residence times up to 0.3 sec were chosen to best simulate conditions of rapid rate pyrolysis in pulverized (44-53,um) coal combustion. The specific mutagenic activity (i.e., the activity per unit sample weight) of extracts from particulates and volatiles captured on XAD-2 resin varied with coal type according to the order: subbituminous> high volatile bituminous> lignite> anthracite. Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous>> subbituminous = lignite>> anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis. Specific mutagenic activity peaked in a temperature range of 1300K to 1500K and generally appeared at higher temperatures and longer residence times than peak PAC production.

Andrew G. Braun; Mary J. Wornat; T Amitava Mitra; Adel F. Sarofimt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-56787 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(9) Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied "as-is" with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapour pressure within each chemical class.

332

Organic Electronics: Organic thin-film magnetometers  

SciTech Connect

Magnetometry usually requires large probes and bulky instrumentation. Organic diodes have now been used in small probes that can measure moderate magnetic fields with 10 ppm precision.

Shinar, Joseph

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

333

Standards Development Organization Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Standards Organizations NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) ... Fire News Annual directory NFPA Buyer's Guide ... Headquarters ...

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

334

Transportation Organization and Functions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Office of Packaging and Transportation list of organizations and functions, with a list of acronyms.

335

TREC Organization User Agreement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organization Application to use the TREC Information- Retrieval Text Research Collections. The _____ ...

336

Measurement of plutonium and americium volatilities under thermal process conditions. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have used the transpiration method to measure volatilities of Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}(s) and PuO{sub 2}/2% AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures of 1230--1430 K. We find the volatile species to be PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) at vapor pressures on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} atm and 10 {sup {minus}12} atm respectively under measurement conditions. For the Pu volatilization reaction, PuO{sub 2}(s) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain a free energy of reaction of {Delta}G{sup O}{sub T} = 231.3--0.0109 T in kj/mol, and for the Am volatilization reaction, AmO{sub 2}(s.s. in PuO{sub 2}) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain AG{sup O}{sub T} = 223.9--0.0109 T in kj/mol. We apply these results to the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator to assess the amount of volatile Pu and Am produced in the secondary combustor chamber. Taking operating conditions of 550C combustor temperature, 40 kmols/h of total gas flow at 1 atm pressure, 0.1 atm 0{sub 2}(9), 0.05 atm H{sub 2}0(g), PuO{sub 2} (s) containing 200 ppm AmO{sub 2} in the bed, and 6000 h of operating time per year, gives volatilization rates of 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}6}g Pu and 4 {times} 10 {sup {minus}9}g Am/y.

Krikorian, O.H.; Condit, R.H.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.; Magana, J.W.; Morris, W.F.; Adamson, M.G.

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

337

Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

John H. Seinfeld

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hydrogen Geysers: Explanation for Observed Evidence of Geologically Recent Volatile-Related Activity on Mercury's Surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High resolution images of Mercury's surface, from the MESSENGER spacecraft, reveal many bright deposits associated with irregular, shallow, rimless depressions whose origins were attributed to volatile-related activity, but absent information on the nature and origin of that volatile matter. Here I describe planetary formation, unlike the cited models, and show that primordial condensation from an atmosphere of solar composition at pressures of one atmosphere or above will lead to iron condensing as a liquid and dissolving copious amounts of hydrogen, which is subsequently released as Mercury's core solidifies and escapes from the surface, yielding the observed pit-like features with associated highly-reflecting matter. The exiting hydrogen chemically reduces some iron compound, probably iron sulfide, to the metal, which accounts for the bright deposits.

J. Marvin Herndon

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

340

Declining Volatility, a General Property of Disparate Systems: From Fossils, to Stocks, to the Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There may be structural principles pertaining to the general behavior of systems that lead to similarities in a variety of different contexts. Classic examples include the descriptive power of fractals, the importance of surface area to volume constraints, the universality of entropy in systems, and mathematical rules of growth and form. Documenting such overarching principles may represent a rejoinder to the Neodarwinian synthesis that emphasizes adaptation and competition. Instead, these principles could indicate the importance of constraint and structure on form and evolution. Here we document a potential example of a phenomenon suggesting congruent behavior of very different systems. We focus on the notion that universally there has been a tendency for more volatile entities to disappear from systems such that the net volatility in these systems tends to decline. We specifically focus on origination and extinction rates in the marine animal fossil record, the performance of stocks in the stock market, and...

Lieberman, Bruce S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The role of non-volatile memory from an application perspective  

SciTech Connect

Current, emerging, and future NVM (non-volatile memory) technologies give us hope that we will be able to architect HPC (high performance computing) systems that initially use them in a memory and storage hierarchy, and eventually use them as the memory and storage for the system, complete with ownership and protections as a HDD-based (hard-disk-drive-based) file system provides today.

Kettering, Brett M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

342

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioch

343

Organic photovoltaics and concentrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

Mapel, Jonathan King

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

Organization | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Organization Organization Organization Office of Indian Energy Organizational Structure As a program office at DOE responsible for implementing energy programs, the Office of Indian Energy is structurally organized under the Office of the Under Secretary. This programmatic structure also focuses and facilitates the coordination between the Office of Indian Energy and the other companion program offices such as the Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Electricity and Energy Reliability and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Office of Indian Energy is organized around its major statutory functions, namely, policy and programs: Indian Energy Policy. The Office of Indian Energy coordinates participation in the development, refinement, training, and advice

346

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

347

Adsorption of organic molecules may explain growth of newly nucleated clusters and new particle formation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adsorption Adsorption of organic molecules may explain growth of newly nucleated clusters and new particle formation Jian Wang 1 and Anthony S. Wexler 2 Received 21 February 2013; revised 4 April 2013; accepted 5 April 2013. [1] New particle formation consists of homogeneous nucleation of thermodynamically stable clusters followed by growth of these clusters to a detectable size. For new particle formation to take place, these clusters need to grow sufficiently fast to escape coagulation with preexisting particles. Previous studies indicated that condensation of low-volatility organic vapor may play an important role in the initial growth of the clusters. However, due to the relatively high vapor pressure and partial molar volume of even highly oxidized organic compounds, the strong Kelvin effect may prevent typical ambient organics from condensing on these small clusters. Here we show

348

APS Users Organization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APSUO APSUO By-Laws Steering Commitee Employment Meetings Compton Award Franklin Award APS Users Organization The APSUO is responsible for advising the APS Associate Laboratory Director in the following areas: The Organization will serve as an advocacy group for the Facility and its user community. The Organization will provide advice to the ALD on matters affecting the user community. The Organization will assure good communication between the APS user community and the APS management. APSUO By-Laws The by-laws upon which the APS User Organization is based. List of Steering Committee Members Steering committee for the APS Users Organization. Employment Bulletin Board APS-related employment opportunities. APSUO Steering Committee Meetings Minutes and presentations from the APSUO meetings.

349

Freeway Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting by Considering Traffic Volatility Dynamics and Missing Data Situations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-term traffic flow forecasting is a critical function in advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) and advanced traveler information systems (ATIS). Accurate forecasting results are useful to indicate future traffic conditions and assist traffic managers in seeking solutions to congestion problems on urban freeways and surface streets. There is new research interest in short-term traffic flow forecasting due to recent developments in ITS technologies. Previous research involves technologies in multiple areas, and a significant number of forecasting methods exist in literature. However, forecasting reliability is not properly addressed in existing studies. Most forecasting methods only focus on the expected value of traffic flow, assuming constant variance when perform forecasting. This method does not consider the volatility nature of traffic flow data. This paper demonstrated that the variance part of traffic flow data is not constant, and dependency exists. A volatility model studies the dependency among the variance part of traffic flow data and provides a prediction range to indicate the reliability of traffic flow forecasting. We proposed an ARIMA-GARCH (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average- AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) model to study the volatile nature of traffic flow data. Another problem of existing studies is that most methods have limited forecasting abilities when there is missing data in historical or current traffic flow data. We developed a General Regression Neural Network(GRNN) based multivariate forecasting method to deal with this issue. This method uses upstream information to predict traffic flow at the studied site. The study results indicate that the ARIMA-GARCH model outperforms other methods in non-missing data situations, while the GRNN model performs better in missing data situations.

Zhang, Yanru

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Organic dairy production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis was to gain further knowledge about the performance of cows in organic dairy production and their ability to adapt to (more)

Ahlman, Therese

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICE OPTIMIZATION .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polymer based organic photovoltaic (OPV) is making great progress on solar cell performance in the past decade. As a potential alternative to conventional expensive photovoltaic (more)

Nie, Wanyi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Organization | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About ORNL Fact Sheet Brochure Diversity Leadership Team Organization History Environmental Policy Corporate Giving Research Integrity Who we are, aren't About ORNL Home | ORNL |...

353

Technology acceptance in organizations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??New technology has changed how people do business. With rapid development of technology, it has been difficult for businesses and organizations to successfully implement technology (more)

Stewart, Laurie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Biogas and Cattle Organs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A study has been conducted to assess the possibilities to introduce dead cattle organs as the raw material for biogas generation at the rural (more)

Jamil, Adnan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected.

Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Supporting Organizations | National Security | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Initiatives Facilities Events and Conferences Supporting Organizations National Security Home | Science & Discovery | National Security | Supporting Organizations SHARE Supporting...

357

Organic vapor jet printing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

358

Selling body organs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selling body organs Selling body organs Name: Betty A Laliberte Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If a tissue donor dies and some of his/her tissue is donated, should the family be given money or some other benefit? I am a freshman at York HS and am doing a bioethics project. Replies: An interesting question. In my opinion, a family should not receive payment for organ donation. That would introduce an economic element into the decision, which does not seem appropriate. One problem is: Who will pay? The recipient? What if he can't afford it? Who gets the organ? The highest bidder? I guess part of my problem with selling organs and tissues is religious in nature. To me, my life and my body were given freely to me and they are not mine to sell to someone else. They certainly do not belong to my family to profit from.

359

Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE, Dow Jones and S&P500 index returns, are analysed using the CCC model of Bollerslev (1990), VARMA-GARCH model of Ling and McAleer (2003), VARMA-AGARCH model of McAleer, Hoti and Chan (2008), and DCC model of Engle (2002). Based on the CCC model, the estimates of conditional correlations for returns across markets are very low, and some are not statistically significant, which means the conditional shocks are correlated only in the same market and not across markets. However, the DCC estimates of the conditional correlations are always significant. This result makes it clear that the assumption of constant conditional correlations is not supported empirically. Surprisingly, the empirical results from the VARMA-GARCH and VARMA-AGARCH models provide little evidence of volatility spillovers between the crude oil and financial markets. The evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive shocks of equal magnitude on the conditional variances suggests that VARMA-AGARCH is superior to VARMA-GARCH and

Roengchai Tansuchat; Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer; Roengchai Tansuchat; Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Quantile Forecasting of Commodity Futures' Returns: Are Implied Volatility Factors Informative?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study develops a multi-period log-return quantile forecasting procedure to evaluate the performance of eleven nearby commodity futures contracts (NCFC) using a sample of 897 daily price observations and at-the-money (ATM) put and call implied volatilities of the corresponding prices for the period from 1/16/2008 to 7/29/2011. The statistical approach employs dynamic log-returns quantile regression models to forecast price densities using implied volatilities (IVs) and factors estimated through principal component analysis (PCA) from the IVs, pooled IVs and lagged returns. Extensive in-sample and out-of-sample analyses are conducted, including assessment of excess trading returns, and evaluations of several combinations of quantiles, model specifications, and NCFC's. The results suggest that the IV-PCA-factors, particularly pooled return-IV-PCA-factors, improve quantile forecasting power relative to models using only individual IV information. The ratio of the put-IV to the call-IV is also found to improve quantile forecasting performance of log returns. Improvements in quantile forecasting performance are found to be better in the tails of the distribution than in the center. Trading performance based on quantile forecasts from the models above generated significant excess returns. Finally, the fact that the single IV forecasts were outperformed by their quantile regression (QR) counterparts suggests that the conditional distribution of the log-returns is not normal.

Dorta, Miguel

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m{sup 3} room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h{sup -1} and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Organization | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Us » Organization Us » Organization Organization The organizational structure of the Office of Policy and International Affairs is as follows: *Office of Resource Management (PI-10) *Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Eurasia, Africa and the Middle East (PI-20) *Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Asia, Europe, and the Americas (PI-30) *Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Analysis (PI-40) *Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Climate Change Policy and Technology (PI-50) The organizational chart can be found here. A brief synopsis of each sub-organization follows. Office of Resource Management (PI-10) The mission of the Office of Resource Management is to support the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI) by: (1) minimizing the

363

Organization | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization Organization Organization View Office of Management Organization Chart in PDF format. Office of Resource Management and Planning The Office of Resource Management and Planning provides the leadership and centralized management and direction of the Office of Management (MA) planning, budgeting, financial, human resources, and program execution processes; ensures that these processes are effective, and fully integrated and consistent with the Department-wide processes and requirements. Office of Aviation Management The Department of Energy, Aviation Program is the management function for all fleet aircraft and contracted aviation services for the Department. The program and its management personnel operate world-wide. To take advantage of the best communications and information services available, we have

364

Geothermal Drilling Organization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

Sattler, A.R.

1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

CHANGES IN MOISTURE, CARBON, NITROGEN, SULPHUR, VOLATILES, AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF MISCANTHUS DURING TORREFACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Torrefaction tests were carried out on miscanthus samples in order to understand the changes in chemical composition at temperatures of 250350C and residence times of 30120 minutes. The raw material chemical composition was moisture content 7.97%, moisture-free carbon (C) 47.73%, hydrogen (H) 5.85%, nitrogen (N) 0.28%, sulphur (S) 0.02%, volatiles (V) 83.29% for volatiles, and moisture and ash-free (MAF) calorific value (CV) 8423 BTU/lb (19.59 MJ/kg). Torrefaction at temperatures of 250C and residence time of 30 minutes resulted in a significant decrease in moisture by about 82.68%, but the other components, C, H, N, S, and V changed only marginally. Increasing the torrefaction temperature to 350C and residence time to 120 minutes further reduced the moisture to a final value of 0.54% (a 93.2% reduction compared to original) and also resulted in a significant decrease in the other components, H, N, and V by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. The carbon content at 350C and 120 minutes increased by about 4% and sulfur values were below detection limits. The calorific values increased by about 5.59% at 250C and 30 minutes, whereas at 350C and 120 minutes, the increase was much greater (about 75.61%) and resulted in a maximum degree of carbonization of 1.60. The H/C ratio decreased with an increase in torrefaction temperature, where a minimum value of 0.6 was observed at 350C and 120 minutes. The regression equations developed with respect to torrefaction temperature and times have adequately described the changes in chemical composition. The surface plots developed based on the regression equations indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 300350C and residence times of 30120 minutes residence time can help to increase carbon content, calorific value, and degree of carbonization to > 49.4%, >11,990 BTU/lb (27 MJ/kg), and 1.4, and reduce moisture, nitrogen, volatile, and the H/C ratio to 0.5250.725, 2.93.9, 0.2250.235, and <1.4.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard Boardman; Christopher Wright; John Heintzelman

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Modeling Volatile Species Retention Experiments: Interim Progress Report (M3FT-12LA0202053)  

SciTech Connect

Metal nuclear fuel is a candidate transmutation fuel form for advanced fuel cycles. One constituent of the fuel, americium, has a high vapor pressure, and there is a concern that excessive volatility losses of americium will occur during casting of the metal. A number of experiments have been performed using americium and surrogate metals, including experiments slated for FY12, to address the concern. The present task is to model and numerically simulate these experiments. This report describes a system-level model of the relevant experiments that has been developed together with some results. It also describes some initial 3D, full-physics simulations of portions of the experiments that have been performed.

Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

367

EVALAUATION OF THE COMPONENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE OIL FROM ZANTHOXYLUMLIMONELLA FRUIT.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Essential oils constitute a relatively common group of natural products present in aromatic medicinal plants. They are volatile liquids usually with pleasant and sometimes intensive odors (aroma).Essential oils are well known for its activity in lungs related diseases.They maintained the ventilation and drainage of the sinuses, had an antiinflammatory effect on the trachea 5 and reduced asthma.The essential oil isolated from Zanthoxylumlimonellawere proved a large number of compounds. Many compounds were detected and proved by previous workers, some of them yet to be identified and screened.Traditional usage of the plant indicates various uses even some are contradictory.In the present study showed that the oil is moderately active against grampositive and significantly no action against gram-negative. KEY WORDS:,Gram-positive, Zanthoxylumlimonella,Gram-negative Essential oil.

Arunkumark. V; M. Paridhavi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX  

SciTech Connect

Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

Levi, A.; Podolak, M. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sasselov, D., E-mail: amitlevi.planetphys@gmail.com [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

369

Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the state-of-the-art techniques of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two well-characterized, ultra-low-sulfur No.2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found.

Mueller, C. J.; Cannella, W. J.; Bruno, T. J.; Bunting, B.; Dettman, H. D.; Franz, J. A.; Huber, M. L.; Natarajan, M.; Pitz, W. J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Wright, K.

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

ARM - ARM Organization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARMARM Organization ARMARM Organization Laboratory Partners Nine DOE national laboratories share the responsibility of managing and operating the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM Group Links Science Board SISC Charter Data Archive Data Management Facility Data Quality Program Engineering Support External Data Center ARM Organization The ARM Climate Research Facility operates field research sites around the world for global change research. Three primary locations-Southern Great Plains, Tropical Western Pacific, North Slope of Alaska-plus aircraft and the portable ARM Mobile Facilities-are heavily instrumented to collect massive amounts of atmospheric measurements needed to create data files. Scientists use these data to study the effects and interactions of sunlight, clouds, and radiant energy, as well as interdisciplinary research

371

Organic aerogel microspheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Treatment of organic waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

JGI - Organization Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization Structure Organization Structure clickable organizational chart Dan Rokhsar Genomic Technologies Department Nikos Kyrpides Jeremy Schmutz Plant Program Metagenome Program Igor Grigoriev Fungal Program LBNL Director P. Alivisatos Scientific Advisory Committee JGI Director, Eddy Rubin Deputy Director of Science Programs, Jim Bristow S. Canon NERSC JGI Support Team Ray Turner Operations Department Prokaryote Super Program Genomic Technologies Department Len Pennacchio Microbial Program Tanja Woyke Dan Rokhsar Eukaryote Super Program Susannah Tringe Chia-lin Wei Executive Management DOE JGI Director: Eddy Rubin Deputy of Science: Jim Bristow Deputy of Operations: Ray Turner Deputy of Genomic Technologies: Len Pennacchio Departments Operations Deputy of Operations Ray Turner

374

Organic metal neutron detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for detection of neutrons comprises: as an active neutron sensing element, a conductive organic polymer having an electrical conductivity and a cross-section for said neutrons whereby a detectable change in said conductivity is caused by impingement of said neutrons on the conductive organic polymer which is responsive to a property of said polymer which is altered by impingement of said neutrons on the polymer; and means for associating a change in said alterable property with the presence of neutrons at the location of said device.

Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

1984-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

375

MST: Organizations: Bio: Alex Rosler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alex Roesler Alex Roesler Alex is the manager of the Ceramic and Glass organization at Sandia National Laboratories. His organization provides expertise in a variety of materials...

376

Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the multistep heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The competition between the addition of polar, oxygen-containing functional groups (functionalization) and the cleavage of C-C bonds (fragmentation) has a governing influence on the change in volatility of organic species upon atmospheric oxidation, and hence on the loading of tropospheric organic aerosol. However the branching between these two channels is generally poorly constrained for oxidized organics. Here we determine functionalization/fragmentation branching ratios for organics spanning a range of oxidation levels, using the heterogeneous oxidation of squalane (C30H62) as a model system. Squalane particles are exposed to high concentrations of OH in a flow reactor, and measurements of particle mass and elemental ratios enable the determination of absolute elemental composition (number of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen atoms) of the oxidized particles. At low OH exposures, the oxygen content of the organics increases, indicating that functionalization dominates, whereas at higher exposures the amount of carbon in the particles decreases, indicating the increasing importance of fragmentation processes. Once the organics are moderately oxidized (O/C~;;0.4), fragmentation completely dominates, and the increase in O/C ratio upon further oxidation is due to the loss of carbon rather than the addition of oxygen. These results suggest that fragmentation reactions may be key steps in the atmospheric formation and evolution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA).

Kroll, Jesse H.; Smith, Jared D.; Che, Dung L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

Organic solvent topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

Cowley, W.L.

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

378

Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the stateof- the-art techniques of 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two wellcharacterized, ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Jim Franz. Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Vehicle Technologies, and by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the companies that employ the CRC members. The study was conducted under the auspices of CRC. The authors thank U.S. DOE program manager Kevin Stork for supporting the participation of the U.S. national laboratories in this study.

Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Bunting, Bruce G.; Dettman, Heather; Franz, James A.; Huber, Marcia L.; Natarajan, Mani; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Wright, Ken

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

379

Improved Organic Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal  

Solar Photovoltaic Improved Organic Photovoltaics B4 Materials For Organic Semiconductor Applications, Including Molecular Electronics And Organic Photovoltaics

380

DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

Mike Spritzer

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Organic solvent topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

COWLEY, W.L.

1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

382

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

383

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advocates of renewable energy have long argued that wind power and other renewable technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that wind and other renewables provide. This paper attempts to quantify this benefit by equating it with the cost of achieving price stability through other means, particularly gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps). We find that over the past two years, natural gas consumers have had to pay a premium of roughly 0.50 cents/kWh over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost is potentially large enough to tip the scales away from new investments in natural gasfired generation and in favor of investments in wind power and other renewable technologies.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

1 QUANTIFYING THE VALUE THAT WIND POWER PROVIDES AS A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advocates of renewable energy have long argued that wind power and other renewable technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001 have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that wind and other renewables provide. This paper attempts to quantify this benefit by equating it with the cost of achieving price stability through other means, particularly gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps). We find that over the past two years, natural gas consumers have had to pay a premium of roughly 0.50/kWh over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost is potentially large enough to tip the scales away from new investments in natural gasfired generation and in favor of investments in wind power and other renewable technologies.

Mark Bolinger; Ryan Wiser; William Golove; Mark Bolinger; Ryan Wiser; William Golove

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR THE HYDROFLUORINATOR OF THE FLUORIDE-VOLATILITY PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel elements clad with Zr or containing Zr as a diluent can be recovered by a fluoride-volatility process. The first step consists of hydrofluorination of the elements in a bath of molten fluoride salts using an HF sparge. In this case the two salt systems considered were NaF-ZrF/sub 4/ and NaF- LiF. Materials evaluated at Battelle for possible use in the construction of this hydrofluorinator include Inconel, A'' Nickel, copper, silver, Monel, Hastelloy B, Hastelloy W, INOR-1, and INOR-8. The metals were exposed to molten fluoride salts through which HF was bubbled continuously. The data indicate that the NaF-LiF systems are much more corrosive than the NaF-ZrF/sub 4/ system. The systems are most corrosive when the alkali fluoride component is high. An elevation in temperature increases the corrosion significantly as does an increase in the HF flow rate. Hydrogen in the HF flow stream retards the corrosion of the sodiumzirconium salts significantly, but appears to have less effect on the sodium -lithium systems. The areas at the interface of the liquid and vapor phases were most seriously damaged under the exposure conditions usually used. However, appreciable reduction in attack was experienced when zirconium was actually hydrofluorinated. INOR-8 was the most promising of the materials evaluated. (auth)

Miller, P.D.; Peterson, C.L.; Stewart, O.M.; Stephan, E.F.; Fink, F.W.

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

In vivo evaluation of a new method for chemical analysis of volatile components in the respiratory gas of mechanically ventilated patients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the volatile anaesthetic isoflurane as a marker substance a gas chromatographic method for analysis of exhaled gas in mechanically ventilated patients was evaluated. Twelve patients with and 10 patients without preceding isoflurane exposure ... Keywords: breath analysis, isoflurane, mechanical ventilation

J. K. Schubert; I. Esteban-Loos; K. Geiger; J. Guttmann

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zou Luquan [Shanghai Center of Solid Waste Disposal, Shanghai (China); Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Qian Guangren, E-mail: grqian@mail.shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Organization and Functions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Working to Ensure the Safety and Security of Hazardous Material Shipments Working to Ensure the Safety and Security of Hazardous Material Shipments Organization and Functions Mission Unit EM-30 Deputy Assistant Secretary/ADAS Waste Management Director Office of Packaging and Transportation EM-33 Regulations & Standards Support * ANSI * ASME/ ASTM * DHS * DOD FEMA * FMCSA * FRA * IAEA * ICAO * IMO * NRC * Orders * PHMSA TSA * UN TDG SCOE Packaging Certification * CoCs for Type B/AF Packages * DOE Exemptions * DOT Special Permits & COCA * QA * RAMPAC * SCALE * Technical Assistance * Training Program & Site Support * ATMS * EFCOG * EIS Reviews * IPT * Load Securement Guide * PMC * RADCALC * RADTRAN * Secure transport * Technical assistance * Tenders * TMC * TRAGIS

389

Very high resolution etching of magnetic nanostructures in organic gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two methods for high resolution dry etching of permalloy (NiFe) and iron (Fe) nanostructures are presented and discussed. The first involves the use of carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH"3) as etching gases, the second uses methane (CH"4), hydrogen ... Keywords: CH4/H2/O2, CO/NH3, Dry etching, Fe, NiFe

X. Kong; D. Krsa; H. P. Zhou; W. Williams; S. McVitie; J. M. R. Weaver; C. D. W. Wilkinson

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Reticulated Organic Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper shows how the self-assembled interlocking of two nanostructured materials can lead to increased photovoltaic performance. A detailed picture of the reticulated 6-DBTTC/C{sub 60} organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction, which produces devices approaching the theoretical maximum for these materials, is presented from near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The complementary suite of techniques shows how self-assembly can be exploited to engineer the interface and morphology between the cables of donor (6-DBTTC) material and a polycrystalline acceptor (C{sub 60}) to create an interpenetrating network of pure phases expected to be optimal for OPV device design. Moreover, we find that there is also a structural and electronic interaction between the two materials at the molecular interface. The data show how molecular self-assembly can facilitate 3-D nanostructured photovoltaic cells that are made with the simplicity and control of bilayer device fabrication. The significant improvement in photovoltaic performance of the reticulated heterojunction over the flat analog highlights the potential of these strategies to improve the efficiency of organic solar cells.

Schiros T.; Yager K.; Mannsfeld S.; Chiu C.-Y.; Ciston J.; Gorodetsky A.; Palma M.; Bullard Z.; Kramer T.; Delongchamp D.; Fischer D.; Kymissis I.; Toney M.F.; Nuckolls C.

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

391

MST: Organizations: Bio: Mike Kelly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paul C. McKey Paul McKey Paul is the manager of the Meso Manufacturing & Systems Development organization at Sandia National Laboratories. His organization, and his sister...

392

Analysis of C1, C2, and C10 through C33 particle-phase and semi-volatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engines Aftertreatment technology Diesel particulate filter Chemical speciation a b s t r a c t To meet by individual aftertreatment components using the same engine and fuel has been assessed and published engine emissions have made it necessary to implement exhaust aftertreat- ment technology to lower

Wu, Mingshen

393

Quantifying the ecosystem-scale emission and deposition fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) and their oxidation products above plant canopies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

schedule on the 18 m tall tower during BEARPEX 2009. Theschedule on the 18 m tall tower during BEARPEX 2009. The2010). A new 18 m tall scaffolding tower was built in 2007

Park, Jeong-Hoo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Occurrence and Potential Human-Health Relevance of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water from Domestic Wells in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Laboratory Reporting Level MCL, Maximum Contaminant Level MRL, Maximum Reporting Level MTBE, Methyl tert Figures 3 #12;Abstract BACKGROUND: As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic concentrations to U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and Health-Based Screening Levels. RESULTS: VOCs

395

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) for Indoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at Low Part-per-Billion Concentrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exited through a hole in a plywood panel fit to the doorway.19 m 2 all exposed surfaces), a plywood panel (5.9 m 2surfaces), a decorative plywood panel (5.9 m 2 all exposed

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) for Indoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at Low Part-per-Billion Concentrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alkene hydrocarbon; and n-butane, an alkane hydrocarbon. UV> 2-butanone > 1-butene > n-butane. The order followed thedipole interaction for 1-butane, and weak dispersive forces

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Organic Chemical Metrology - Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Group. Search for Staff Member. The Search box will accept a name, phone number, organization name, email address, etc.

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

398

Organization Chart | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Download Organization Charts Argonne National Laboratory Computing, Environment, and Life Sciences Energy Engineering and Systems Analysis Physical Science and Engineering...

399

MST: Organizations: Bio: Dianna Blair  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Machining Services Electronic Fabrication Manufacturing Process Science & Technology Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging Organic Materials Ceramic & Glass Meso Manufacturing &...

400

Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Nuclear Organization and Genome Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Organization and Genome Function Kevin Van Bortle and Victor G. Corces Department-range interactions and have proposed roles in nuclear organization. In this review, we explore recent findings for the roles of insulators in nuclear organization. 163 Annu.Rev.CellDev.Biol.2012.28:163-187.Downloadedfromwww

Corces, Victor G.

402

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may be used to selectively remove water from a fermentation broth thus concentrating calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Compared to competing technologies that extract undissociated acids from a volatile fatty acid fermentation broth, extracting water with tertiary amines allows for higher pH levels in the broth resulting in greater productivity. Specifically, triethylamine and N,N-diethyl-methylamine in a 1:2 volumetric mixture are superior to any other examined mixture or single amine for extracting water at 40[]C, the proposed fermentation temperature (Lee, 1993; Davison et al., 1966, 1967). Once the acid salts have been concentrated, a variety of techniques are available to convert the concentrated salts into other products such as ketones, alcohols, and acids. At low temperatures, the low-molecular-weight amine mixture has a high affinity for water. By raising the temperature 20 to 25[]C, the water separates from the amine allowing for convenient solvent regeneration of the amine. The distribution coefficients, [] , measure the selectivity of concentrating calcium salts in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients generally vary as follows: [] thus, there is less selectivity as the aliphatic group increases in size. The amine mixture was used to extract water from actual fermentation broth to determine whether possible surfactants in the broth interfere with the extraction. Prior to extraction, the fermentation broth was adjusted to pH 11.5 by adding a small amount of lime. The high pH precipitate protein which can be recycled to the fermentor or collected for animal feed. Through 15 extraction runs, no degradation of the amine was observed.

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design and operation of a batch, anaerobic, in vitro fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by a mixed culture of ruminal microflora. The bagasse was supplemented with a small amount of alfalfa (0.16 g alfalfa/g bagasse) to provide necessary nutrients. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) product concentrations, yields and proportions of each acid for six different bagasse concentrations (10, 20, 35, 50, 75, and 100 g/L) are reported. Bagasse was treated with calcium hydroxide to increase the digestibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. The treatment conditions were: Ca(OH)2 loading = 10 g/100 g dry bagasse, water loading = 8.5 g/g dry bagasse, temperature 100'C, and treatment time = 1 hour. Compared to untreated bagasse, the lime-treated bagasse gave higher total VFA concentrations, faster rates of acidogenesis, and more stable molar proportions of individual VFA'S. The highest total VFA concentration obtained from lime-treated bagasse was 690 mM (45 g/L). By applying the lime pretreatment, the total VFA concentrations increased over 80% for a 10 g dry bagasse/L loading fermentation (from 4.5g VFA/L to 8.5 g VFAAL) With lime pretreatment, approximately 71 to 96% of the final total VFA yields were accomplished within the initial three days of fermentation, whereas only 52 to 67% were achieved without pretreatment during the same time period. At all solid loadings, the VFA molar compositions resulting from lime-treated bagasse were quite constant: acetate, 64-70%; propionate, 21-28%; butyrate, 6.5-7.6%; and other acids were about 1% each. In this thesis, we examined the effect of higher substrate concentration up to 100 g dry bagasse/L. For untreated bagasse, the VFA yields were fairly constant regardless of substrate concentration (ca. 0.37 g VFA/g dry substrate). However, for lime-treated bagasse, the total VFA yields decreased as the substrate concentrations increased. The best total VFA yield obtained from 10 g/L lime-treated bagasse was 0.63 g VFA/g dry raw substrate (or 0.82 g VFA/g dry ash-free substrate or 0.94 g VFA/g dry ash-free, lignin- free substrate). This is greater than yields previously reported in the literature using lignocellulosic substrates, and hence demonstrates the superiority of this very effective lime pretreatment.

Lee, Chang-Ming

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Limiting currency volatility to stimulate goods market integration: a price based approach. NBER Working Paper No. 8468  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies the effect of instrumental and institutional stabilization of exchange rate volatility on the integration of goods markets. Rather than using data on volume of trade, this paper employs a 3-dimensional panel of prices of 95 very disaggregated goods (e.g., light bulbs) in 83 cities around the world during 1990-2000. We find that the impact of an institutional stabilization currency board or dollarization promotes market integration far beyond an instrumental stabilization. Among them, long-term currency unions are more effective than more recent currency boards. All have room to improve relative to a U.S. benchmark.

David C. Parsley; Shang-jin Wei

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

MST: Organizations: Bio: Mike Kelly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mike Kelly Mike is the manager of the Organic Materials Department in the Manufacturing Science and Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories. This department provides...

406

Organic Mathematics: Photo Album - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conference dinner at the Beijing Restaurant: Organizer Jen Chang (CECM) taking care of all these hungry stomachs. Jeff Lagarias (AT&T) lifts his teacup to...

407

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Organization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization PHOTO: Aerial view of SLAC Campus SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. The...

408

Organization Chart | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Source (APS) organization comprises three divisions and one project office. Accelerator Systems Division (ASD) ASD provides engineering and physics support for the APS, and...

409

Organic Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Organic Power Place Ireland Sector Biomass, Hydro, Wind energy Product Irish project developer active in wind energy, combined heat and power from biomass and pumped hydro...

410

www.ucei.org Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: One of the most critical concerns that customers have voiced in the debate over real-time retail electricity pricing is that they would be exposed to risk from fluctuations in their electricity cost. The concern seems to be that a customer could find itself consuming a large quantity of power on the day that prices skyrocket and thus receive a monthly bill far larger than it had budgeted for. I analyze the magnitude of this risk, using demand data from 1142 large industrial customers, and then ask how much of this risk can be eliminated through various straightforward financial instruments. I find that very simple hedging strategies can eliminate more than 80 % of the bill volatility that would otherwise occur. Far from being complex, mystifying financial instruments that only a Wall Street analyst could love, these are simple forward power purchase contracts, and are already offered to retail customers by a number of fully-regulated utilities that operate real-time pricing programs. I then show that a slightly more sophisticated application of these forward power purchases can significantly enhance their effect on reducing bill volatility. 1

Severin Borenstein; Severin Borenstein

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Influence of Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry on the Removal of Gallium by Volatility from Weapons-Grade Plutonium Dissolved in Molten Chlorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been proposed that GaCl{sub 3} can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl{sub 3} is quite volatile (boiling point: 201 deg. C), the behavior of GaCl{sub 3} dissolved in chloride salts is quite different because of solution effects and is critically dependent upon the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis acid/base character). In this technical note, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis acid and Lewis base salts is contrasted. It is found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and promoted in acidic melts. These results have an important influence on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems.

Williams, David F.; Cul, Guillermo D. del [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Toth, Louis M. [Electrochemical Systems (United States); Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Census and viewing of organisms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Census and viewing of organisms Census and viewing of organisms Name: m hariaczyi Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many organisms exist in the world today? What is the most powerful microscope that could be used for viewing organism? Replies: The most powerful microscope is called an electron microscope, which can be used for viewing entire organisms, although few organisms are small enough to see all of them at high magnifications allowed by this microscope. So most often its used to look at fixed sections of organisms. Since the electron microscope only works in a vacuum, with no air, you cannot look at live organisms. To do that, probably the most powerful microscope is called a Nomarski, or in technical terms, a "differential interference contrast" microscope. This is a modification of a normal light microscope that allows better contrast in living tissue. It is not any more powerful than a light microscope, and is much less powerful than an electron microscope, but it allows you to see living things much better.

413

Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Organization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization and Contacts Organization Chart for the Vehicle Technologies Program Fuel Technologies and Deployment, Technology Managers Advanced Combustion Engines, Technology...

414

Renewable Energy Nongovernmental Organization Network (RENOVE...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nongovernmental Organization Network (RENOVE) Jump to: navigation, search Name Renewable Energy Nongovernmental Organization Network (RENOVE) Place Brasilia, Brazil Phone number...

415

In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

417

Organization Organization Address Place Zip Notes Website Region  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Organization Organization Address Place Zip Notes Website Region Organization Organization Address Place Zip Notes Website Region Adirondack North Country Association Adirondack North Country Association Main Street Suite Saranac Lake New York http www adirondack org Northeast NY NJ CT PA Area African Renewable Energy Alliance AREA African Renewable Energy Alliance AREA Online http area network ning com xg source msg mes network Alliance for Sustainable Colorado Alliance for Sustainable Colorado Wynkoop Street Denver Colorado Mission of is to catalyze the shift to a truly sustainable world by fostering collaboration among nonprofits businesses governments and academia http www sustainablecolorado org Rockies Area American Clean Skies Foundation American Clean Skies Foundation st Street NE Suite Washington District of Columbia http www cleanskies

418

KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED ORDINARY CHONDRITES; R.A. Mendybaev1,3, J.R. Beckett3, L. Grossman1,2, and E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED the possibility of a more direct indicator based on the observation [1, 2] that abundances of diamond and SiC of volatilization experiments to lay the groundwork necessary to understand the processes by which SiC is destroyed

Grossman, Lawrence

419

Manufacturing Science and Technology: Organizations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Machining Operations Machining Operations Machining Services Electronic Fabrication Manufacturing Process Science & Technology Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging Organic Materials Ceramic & Glass Meso Manufacturing & Systems Development Visiting Us AMTTP Center Organizational chart Organizations Our Business areas Manufacturing Science and Technology David Plummer, Director Manufacturing Enterprise Joe M. Harris, Senior Manager Machining Operations Mathew Donnelly, Manager Machining Services Daryl Reckaway, Acting Manager Electronic Fabrication Phillip L. Gallegos, Manager Manufacturing Process Science and Technology Mark F. Smith, Senior Manager Thin Film, Vacuum, and Packaging Mark F. Smith, Acting Manager Organic Materials Mike Kelly, Manager Ceramic and Glass Alex Roesler, Manager

420

ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Organic Carbon Concentration The concentration of carbon bound in organic compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments ACSM : Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Field Campaign Instruments AEROSCARBON : Aerosol Carbon Analyzer AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Datastreams AOS : Aerosol Observing System Datastreams

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

2013 BIOPESTICIDE AND ORGANIC SUPPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 2013 BIOPESTICIDE AND ORGANIC SUPPORT RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDELINES AND GRANT PROPOSAL.................................................................................. 37 Priorities for 2013,000 in total. The level of funding for 2013 is dependent on the amount of federal dollars allocated to IR-4

Garfunkel, Eric

422

Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited. They are expected to anticipate and react quickly to prevent a potential threat while staying accountable to their public stakeholders, many of whom remain unaware of the very threats the organization is trying to address. When budgets are flush, it is easy to believe that money will solve all problems; but during times of economic hardship, managers must rely on creative and cost-effective management approaches to implement their missions. Fortunately, managers of nonproliferation organizations can draw on a wealth of research on organizational design and culture to help them identify the management strategies most appropriate for them. Such research can help nonproliferation managers think about their own organizational structures and cultures and adapt accepted management principles to their unique organizational mission. This analytical process is not straight forward, as some managers may find themselves taking risks that others might not take, such as making ostensibly risky investments for the common good, or supporting creative thinking to help mission accomplishment. Some management principles that are relatively straightforward for other organizations may be difficult to envision and implement in a nonproliferation organization. Therefore, the goal of this study is to help nonproliferation managers identify management principles that can be implemented in a nonproliferation organization and, in the process, help maximize the value of the organization's products and effectiveness of its mission.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

423

Empirical essays in industrial organization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this dissertation, I present three empirical essays that encompass topics in industrial organization. The first essay examines the degree of competition and spatial differentiation in the retail industry by exploiting ...

Chiou, Lesley C

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reducing recombination in organic photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I consider two methods to improve organic photovoltaic efficiency: energy level cascades and promotion of triplet state excitons. The former relies on a thin layer of material placed between the active ...

Sussman, Jason M. (Jason Michael)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Ambient-pressure organic superconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of organic superconductors having the formula (ET).sub.2 MX.sub.2 wherein ET represents bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene, M is a metal such as Au, Ag, In, Tl, Rb, Pd and the like and X is a halide. The superconductor (ET).sub.2 AuI.sub.2 exhibits a transition temperature of 5 K which is high for organic superconductors.

Williams, Jack M. (Downers Grove, IL); Wang, Hsien-Hau (Willowbrook, IL); Beno, Mark A. (Woodridge, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

CORROSION ASSOCIATED WITH FLUORINATION IN THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

: : 9 7 7 8 6 9 : = 7 9 9used during the fluorination of fused-salt fuels and subsequent associated operations in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fluoride Volatility Process was evaluated. Corrosive attack is reported as mils per month based on molten salt residence time or mils per hour based on fluorine exposure time. Two fluorinators were used in the VPP to carry out the fluorination reactions. These vessels, Mark I and Mark II, were fabricated into right cylinders, approx 4 1/2 ft in height, from the same heat of L (low carbon nickel. The first vessel contained equimolar NaF- ZrF/sub 4/ or NaF-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (48-48-4 mole%) for approx 1250 hr at 600 to 725 deg C. Over a period of 61 hr, 57,500 standard liters of F/sub 2/ were sparged into the slats. This constituted a F/sub 2/:U mole ratio of 3:1 beyond theoretical requirements. The Mark II fluorinator contained fluoride salts of approxi-mately the same compositions plus small additions of PuF/sub 4/ during three runs. The salts were kept molten at 540 to 730 deg C for approx 1950 hr and about sixty 500 standard liters of F/sub 2/ were sparged into the Mark II melts in 92 hr. Both fluorinators sustained large corrosion losses consisting of extensive wall thinning, severe interior inter- granular attack, and a moderate exterior oxidation attack. Maximum deterioration on the Mark I vessel occurred in the middle vapor region at a calculated rate of 1.2 mils/hr, based on fluorine sparge time, or 46 mils/month, based on time of exposure to molten salts. The second vessel showed maximum attack in the salt-containing region at similarly calculated rates of 1.1 mils/hr and 60 mils/month. Some evidence was found to indicate that the intergranular attack may have resulted from sulfur in the systems. Bulk metal losses from the vessel's walls were believed to be the result of cyclic losses of NiF/sub 2/ ""protective'' films. The shift in maximum corrosion attack geometry in the two fluorinators is believed to have resulted from differences in operating conditions. The Mark II vessel experienced higher temperatures, longer fluorine exposure times, and uranium residence times in its salt baths. Specimens removed from the wall of the first fluorinator showed a variation in aversge ASTM grain-size number of 5 or 6 to >1, the largest grains being found in the middle vapor region. The second vessel had a more uniform grain-size pattern, average ASTM grain-size numbers varying from 3 to 5 to 2 to 4. The variations in grain sizes are believed to have resulted from variable heating rates during initial usage. Examinations of bench-scale reactors, where simulated fluorination environments were provided to study process variables and corrosion, showed that A nickel had the highest degree of corrosion resistance as a fluorinator materiai of construction when compared with Inconel and INOR-8. Intergranular penetration and subsequent sloughing of whole grains seemed to be the predominant mode of corrosive attack on the Inconel vessel. At the higher test temperatures, 600 deg C, INOR-8 miniature fluorinators showed large bulk metal losses plus selective losses of chromium, molybdenum, and iron from the exposed alloy surfaces. Evidence of a marked reduction in attack on nickel and INOR-8 was found during lower temperature studies at 450 to 525 deg C. Scouting corrosion tests were performed in the VPP's fluorinators using rod, sheet, or wire specimens of commercial and developmental alloys. These tests were subjected to serious limitations due to the lack of control over operating conditions and thus considerable variation in the corrosion of L nickel control specimens resulted. Those nickel-rich alloys containing iron and cobalt showed some superiority in corrosion resistsnce when com- pared with L nickel specimens. Nickel-rich alloys containing molybdenum additions showed variable behavior in the fluorination environment. Additional experimental nickelbase alloy corrosion specimens, containing magnesium,

Litman, A.P.; Goldman, A.E.

1961-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

427

Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes in Steam Cycles: The Final Report on the Solubility and Volatility of Copper (I) and Copper (II) Ox ides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Utility experiences over the last 10 years with severe copper turbine fouling and other related problems identified the need for basic fundamental research to improve industry understanding of the volatility and solubility of copper and its oxides.

2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

428

Storage of methane as volatile fatty acids for intermittent fuel use  

SciTech Connect

A process for on-site production of methane from sweet potato canning wastes was developed. In this process methane is stored conveniently as a liquid in the form of organic acids which are produced in an acid pond. When methane is needed, the acids are pumped into a methane pond underneath a sludge blanket, where high rates of methane production begin shortly after feeding. A demonstration plant has been designed and is being constructed using the existing pond system and facilities in a sweet potato canning factory in Louisiana. The methane produced is burned on-site to generate process steam for use in the main plant. 14 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

Nghiem, N.P.; Mehta, K.; Callihan, C.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 m spectral region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) is difference-frequency mixed (DFM) with the output of a 550-mW diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser in a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal to produce tunable cw radiation in the mid-infrared. The wavelength of the 860-nm ECDL can be coarse tuned between 860.78 to 872.82 nm allowing the sensor to be operated in the 4.4 ? 4.8 m region. Results from single-pass mid-IR direct absorption experiments for CO concentration measurements are discussed. CO measurements were performed in CO/CO2/N2 mixtures in a room temperature gas cell that allowed the evaluation of the sensor operation and data reduction procedures. Field testing was performed at two locations: in the exhaust of a well-stirred reactor (WSR) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and the exhaust of a gas turbine at Honeywell Engines and Systems. Field tests demonstrated the feasibility of the sensor for operation in harsh combustion environments but much improvement in the sensor design and operation was required. Experiments in near-adiabatic hydrogen/air CO2-doped flames were performed featuring two-line thermometry in the 4.8 m spectral region. The sensor concentration measurement uncertainty was estimated at 2% for gas cell testing. CO concentration measurements agreed within 15% of conventional extractive sampling at WSR, and for the flame experiments the repeatability of the peak absorption gives a system uncertainty of 10%. The noise equivalent CO detection limit for these experiments was estimated at 2 ppm per meter, for combustion gas at 1000 K assuming a SNR ratio of 1.

Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

Moss, T.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A., E-mail: alberto.fdezguelfo@uca.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alvarez-Gallego, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Department of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Romero Garcia, L.I. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Bio-Organic Chemistry Quarterly Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I). Johannes Ull~.ich, in Bio-Organic Chc! mistry Qiinrtcr-sodium E. A. Shneour, in Bio-Organic Chemistry Quarterly2, Edwige Tyszkiewicz, in Bio-Organic Chemistry Qnarterly

Various

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Form:Policy Organization | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Add a Policy Organization Input your policy organization name below to add to the registry. If your policy organization is already in the registry, the form will be populated with...

434

Design and development of an automotive organic Rankine-cycle powerplant with a reciprocating expander. Final report. Volume II. Detailed discussion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work performed for the design and development of an organic Rankine-cycle engine for automobile propulsion is reported. An automotive power plant using an organic Rankine-cycle system with a reciprocating expander has been designed, built, and tested on an engine dynamometer in a preprototype configuration. The system is designed to provide performance approximately equivalent to that of a 351-CID internal combustion engine in the reference car, a 1972 Ford Galaxie 500. A description of the preprototype system, major components, and results from component and system testing are presented. The fuel economy based on steady-state measurements is estimated to be 10.2 mpg over the federal driving cycle with a maximum of 16 mpg at 30 mph. Projections of steady-state emission measurements show compliance with the 1970 Clean Air Act standards for 1978 vehicle emissions. The levels for unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen were 41 percent, 6 percent, and 69 percent of the standards, respectively. At the conclusion of the preprototype phase of the program, a prototype design effort was initiated to upgrade and improve the performance of the preprototype system. The reference vehicle for this prototype design is a compact car in the weight class of a 1974 Ford Pinto. The results of this design study, including performance projections, are also presented.

Not Available

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2001, the Technical Area 3 steam plant was the primary source of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while research and development activities were the primary source of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from chemical use for research and development activities were also reported.

Margorie Stockton

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Organization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

develops accelerator diagnostics, and produces specialized control system software. Controls The Controls Group is responsible for the remote actuation, automatic control,...

437

Novel Functionalized Nanomaterials for Organic Decontamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... oxide (TiO2)-graphene-rhamnolipid for decontamination of organics (methyl orange, phenol and diesel) from water. The results show the advantage of organic...

438

PI Organization Chart | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chart PIOrg20130208.pdf More Documents & Publications Office of Policy and International Affairs Organization Chart Office of Policy and International Affairs Organization...

439

Organic pollutants in Swiss compost and digestate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting (aerobic treatment of organic wastes) and digestion (anaerobic treatment of organic wastes combined with biogas production) are important waste management strategies with increasing significance (more)

Brndli, Rahel Christine

440

Organic pollutants in Swiss compost and digestate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting (aerobic treatment of organic wastes) and digestion (anaerobic treatment of organic wastes combined with biogas production) are important waste management strategies with increasing significance (more)

Brndli, Rahel Christine

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "monoxide volatile organic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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441

Interested Parties - Organization for International Investment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Organization for International Investment Interested Parties - Organization for International Investment PI.pdf More Documents & Publications Financial and Activity Report - June...

442

SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Photovoltaics Research to Organic Photovoltaics Research to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Crystalline Silicon Thin Films Multijunctions Organic Photovoltaics Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Organic Photovoltaics Research Graphic showing the seven layers of an organic PV cell: electrode, donor, acceptor, active layer, PEDOT:PSS, transparent conductive oxide, and glass.

443

Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

1993-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Raman studies of organic superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

The temperature-dependence of the frequency of one of the components of the v9 (Ag) doublet in the Raman spectra of several organic superconductors has been measured. The frequency of this mode was observed to soften below 100K, in those compounds in which NMR data indicates antiferromagnetic oscillations in the same temperature range. This is evidence for spin-phonon interactions.

Lin, Y.; Eldridge, J. E.; Wang, H. H.; Kini, A. M.; Schlueter, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Univer. of British Columbia

2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Enabling information sharing within organizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizations which have invested heavily in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, intranets and Enterprise Information Portals (EIP) with standardized workflows, data definitions and a common data repository, have provided the technlogical capability ... Keywords: Benefit sharing, Cross-functional workgroups, Information complementarity, Information equity, Information sharing, Organizational outlook

Anitesh Barua; Suryanarayanan Ravindran; Andrew B. Whinston

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Organic Aerosol Partition Module Documentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM-2.5), data and analytical tools are needed to support their implementation. This report documents an EPRI modeling component for efficiently simulating aspects of organic aerosol formation. Without this component, simulations would tend to overestimate the contribution of power plant emissions to atmospheric aerosol mass.

1999-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

A PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS USING FLUID-BED DRYING AND VOLATILITY TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

A process scheme for the recovery of uranium from fuel elements has been developed. The scheme combines continuous fluid-bed drying and fluoride volatility techniques after initial dissolution of the fuel element in the appropriate aqueous system, hence the designation ADF, Aqueous Dry Fluorination Process. The application of this process to the recovery of uranium from highly enriched, low uranium-zirconium alloy plate-type fuels is described. ln the process, the feed solution is sprayed horizontally through a two-fluid nozzle and is atomized directly in the heated fluidized bed. The spray droplets are dried on the fluidized particles and form a dense coating. Excessive particle growth was limited by the use of air attrition-jets inserted directly in the bed. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions containing l.2 to 3.6 M zirconiuni, 0.007 to 0.03 M uranium, and free acid concentrations from 1 to about l0 M were successfully processed in a 6-in.-diameter Inconel fluid-bed spray dryer. Rates equivalent to about 3.l kg/hr of zirconium were achieved, 160 ml/min with the most concentrated feed solution. Experiments were successfully carried out from 240 to 450 deg C. A new design for a two-fluid nozzle was developed. Extensive work was done to identify the various zirconium fluoride compounds formed. The granular dryer product was subsequently fluorinated at temperatures to 600 deg C in fluid beds and to 700 deg C in static beds to remove the uranium as the volatile hexafluoride. About 90 to 95% uranium removal was consistently achieved near 600 deg C. The relatively low uranium recovery under these conditions is a disadvantage for the application to zirconium-base fuels. It was found necessary to resort to static beds and higher temperatures to achieve greater removal. Since the fluorine attack on nickel, the material of construction, is prohibitive at temperatures above 600 deg C, a disposable fluorinator concept for use with static beds is described. Results of corrosion studies are reported. A preliminary chemical flowsheet with a design capacity of 1l00 kg of uranium (93% enriched) annually is presented. (auth)

Levitz, N.; Barghusen, J.; Carls, E.; Jonke, A.A.

1961-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Organization Organization Address Place Zip Notes Website Region  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AWEA American Wind Energy Association AWEA American Wind Energy Association AWEA M Street NW Suite Washington District of Columbia http www awea org Asociacion Argentina de Energia Eolica Asociacion Argentina de Energia Eolica Buenos Aires Argentina http www argentinaeolica org ar Clean Tech Trade Alliance Clean Tech Trade Alliance Wheaton Way Bremerton Washington Internationally focused hybrid trade alliance that will create a successful Clean Technology business cluster http www cleantechtradealliance org Pacific Northwest Area Clean Technology Sustainable Industries Organization Clean Technology Sustainable Industries Organization Coolidge Hwy Royal Oak Michigan http www ct si org Green Integrated Design Green Integrated Design Tempe Arizona http www GreenIntegratedDesign com Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition Cummings

449

Organization Organization Address Place Zip Notes Website Region  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Institute Breakthrough Institute th Street Suite Oakland Institute Breakthrough Institute th Street Suite Oakland California http www thebreakthrough org Bay Area California Fuel Cell Partnership California Fuel Cell Partnership Industrial Blvd West Sacramento California Collaboration of organizations that work together to promote the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles http www fuelcellpartnership net Bay Area ClimateWorks ClimateWorks Montgomery Street Suite San Francisco California http www climateworks org Bay Area Rahus Institute Rahus Institute Center Ave Martinez California Research and educational organization with a focus on resource efficiency http www californiasolarcenter org index html Bay Area San Francisco Biofuels Cooperative San Francisco Biofuels Cooperative Post St San Francisco California Mission is to facilitate access to

450

Organization Organization Address Place Zip Notes Website Region  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental Foundation Bonneville Environmental Foundation Environmental Foundation Bonneville Environmental Foundation SW st Avenue Portland Oregon https www b e f org Pacific Northwest Area Earth Share Oregon Earth Share Oregon SW Washington Street Portland Oregon Federation of leading local and national non profit conservation groups that provides a convenient way to support conservation and healthy communities http www earthshare oregon org Pacific Northwest Area Renewable Northwest Project Renewable Northwest Project SW Oak St Ste Portland Oregon Nonprofit Advocacy Organization http www RNP org Pacific Northwest Area Solar Oregon Solar Oregon SE Grand Ave Portland Oregon Non profit membership organization providing public education and community outreach to encourage Oregonians to choose solar energy http www solaroregon org Pacific

451

Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

452

Volatile compound evolution from the programmed temperature pyrolysis of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands at a 10 degrees C/min heating rate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Big Clifty (Kentucky) and McKittrick (California) tar sands were pyrolyzed at a 10{degrees}C/min heating rate from room temperature to 900{degrees}C. The volatile compounds were detected on-line and in real time by tandem mass spectrometry using MS and MS/MS detection. This paper reports the programmed temperature pyrolysis behaviors of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands and compares their results. 48 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Safety Organization and Contact Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization and Contact Information Print Organization and Contact Information Print Safety Staff Contact Information Contact Extension Location CONTROL ROOM (24/7) 4969 80-140 Floor Operations Floor Operators 7464 (RING) 80-159 Building Manager This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it 7358 80-151 Work Planning/Permit/span> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it 7358 6793 80-151 80-233 ALS-EHS Program This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it (Interim Manager, EHS Program Management) This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it (Interim Manager, Accelerator Facility Safety)

454

Safety Organization and Contact Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization and Contact Information Print Organization and Contact Information Print Safety Staff Contact Information Contact Extension Location CONTROL ROOM (24/7) 4969 80-140 Floor Operations Floor Operators 7464 (RING) 80-159 Building Manager This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it 7358 80-151 Work Planning/Permit/span> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it 7358 6793 80-151 80-233 ALS-EHS Program This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it (Interim Manager, EHS Program Management) This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it (Interim Manager, Accelerator Facility Safety)

455

Kitchen antics: humor in organizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humor is usually associated with trivial or non-rographics. serious banter', it is however a significant factor in the construction of a social reality. 'This thesis demonstrates this significance as it attempts to increase the ability to understand how humor is used and elects the organizational culture. This thesis is based on an stenographic study of a hotel kitchen. Humor is examined from the perspective of how it functions within a social context. Humor from this case study is classified according to a coding system developed within this study to reveal five types of organizational humor-cooperative, conformity, cyclic, distant and insurgent. The interplay between these humor types creates a humor culture within the organization, which is indicative of the organization's culture as a whole.

Lynch, Owen Hanley, 1972-

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study demonstrates that the coexistence of two types of methanogens, i.e. hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens is necessary to respond successfully to perturbation and leads to stable process performance.

Lerm, S.; Kleyboecker, A. [International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR), GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Miethling-Graff, R. [International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR), GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut fuer Laendliche Raeume, Wald und Fischerei Institut fuer Biodiversitaet, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Alawi, M.; Kasina, M.; Liebrich, M. [International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR), GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Wuerdemann, H., E-mail: wuerdemann@gfz-potsdam.de [International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR), GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Interpretation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Diesel Exhaust Photooxidation in an Environmental Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from diesel exhaust in a smog chamber was investigated. Particle volume measurement based on mobility diameter is shown to underestimate SOA formation from diesel exhaust due to the external void space of agglomerate particles, in which case mass-based measurement technique is necessary. Rapid determination of particle effective density as a function of particle mass was performed by an Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (APM-SMPS) to obtain particle mass concentration and fractal dimension. Continuous aging of aerosol was observed in terms of atomic ratio (O/C), from 0.05 to 0.25 in 12 hours, underscoring the importance of multi-generational oxidation of low-volatile organic vapors emitted from diesel engine as the significant source of oxygenated SOA. Experimental conditions possibly have strong impacts on physical evolution of diesel particulates in a smog chamber. Higher particle effe