Sample records for monoxide volatile organic

  1. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Laramie, WY); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  2. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  3. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy....

  4. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem.

  5. aqueous volatile organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mirna 1997-01-01 39 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites...

  6. ambient volatile organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensitivity, allowing 38 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites...

  7. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in diesel exhaust deer08strzelec.pdf More Documents...

  8. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  9. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herndon, S. C.

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

  10. Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995 P A U L, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 µg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known

  11. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

  12. Fiber optic micromirror sensor for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Buss, R. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the growing concern over environmental pollution, there is a need for sensors to locate and measure the distribution of a wide range of pollutants. In this paper the authors report a fiber optic sensor, based on a thin film micromirror, which responds to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This generic class of sensor will be useful for monitoring applications where the pollutant has already been identified.

  13. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry and Physics Vehicular emission of volatile organicY. , and Huang, Y. S. : Emission factors and characteristicslight-duty vehicle emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 30,

  14. Apparatus for sensing volatile organic chemicals in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Kottenstette, Richard; Patel, Sanjay V.

    2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical-sensing apparatus is formed from the combination of a chemical preconcentrator which sorbs and concentrates particular volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and one or more chemiresistors that sense the VOCs after the preconcentrator has been triggered to release them in concentrated form. Use of the preconcentrator and chemiresistor(s) in combination allows the VOCs to be detected at lower concentration than would be possible using the chemiresistor(s) alone and further allows measurements to be made in a variety of fluids, including liquids (e.g. groundwater). Additionally, the apparatus provides a new mode of operation for sensing VOCs based on the measurement of decay time constants, and a method for background correction to improve measurement precision.

  15. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  16. Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

  17. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  18. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, E. C.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

  19. A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions an abundant source of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). These emissions are known to vary in quantity and composition due to both biogenic and anthropogenic stressors. In this study, BVOC emissions from bristlecone

  20. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

  1. Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens

  2. Analysis of the atmospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    chemicals based on measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P H. B. Singh,1 L. J. Salas,1 R. B. Chatfield measurements of a large number of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOC) were carried out in the Pacific of OVOC is comparable to that of methane and far exceeds that of NMHC. A comparison of these data

  3. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA b Institute for Energy and the EnvironmentVolatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas Joyanto production of VOAs by microorganisms in mudstones, and net consumption of VOAs by SO4 reducing bacteria (SRB

  4. Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compounds; Groundwater management; Drinking water. Introduction Approximately one-half of the U and Hitt 2006 , or more complex process-based analyses utilizing groundwater models Eberts et al. 2005Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Use in Vulnerability

  5. Monitoring of volatile organic pollutants in groundwater by passive diffusive bags (PDBs) Catherine Berho, Anne Togola, Benjamin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on classical water samples. These results highlighted that PDBs allow the measurement of the BTEX and volatileMonitoring of volatile organic pollutants in groundwater by passive diffusive bags (PDBs) Catherine used for groundwater monitoring such as low-flow peristaltic pumps can sample water slowly from wells

  6. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  7. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis Dale (Albuquerque, NM); Thornberg, Steven Michael (Peralta, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for on-line quantitative monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) includes pressure reduction means for carrying a gaseous sample from a first location to a measuring input location maintained at a low pressure, the system utilizing active feedback to keep both the vapor flow and pressure to a chemical ionization mode mass spectrometer constant. A multiple input manifold for VOC and gas distribution permits a combination of calibration gases or samples to be applied to the spectrometer.

  8. Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, Edward Charles

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) was a project within...

  9. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL LINES A Thesis by ANUPAM MAROLY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL...

  10. A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage-planar organic molecule with electron donor and acceptor capabilities was synthesized for nano-scale data storage the demand of expansive storage capacity in the future. Recently, organic materials have received much

  11. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  12. Field evaluation of ground water sampling devices for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muska, C F; Colven, W P; Jones, V D; Scogin, J T; Looney, B B; Price, V Jr

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies conducted under laboratory conditions demonstrated that the type of device used to sample ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds can significantly influence and analytical results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, both commercial and developmental ground water sampling devices as part of an ongoing ground water contamination investigation and remediation program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Ground water samples were collected using six types of sampling devices in monitoring wells of different depths and concentrations of volatile organic contaminants (primarily trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). The study matrix was designed to statistically compare the reuslts of each sampling device under the test conditions. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria were used to determine the relative performance of each device. Two categories of sampling devices were evaluated in this field study, positive displacement pumps and grab samplers. The positive displacement pumps consisted of a centrifugal (mechanical) pump and a bladder pump. The grab samples tested were a syringe sampler, a dual-check valve bailer, a surface bomb sampler, and a pressurized bailer. Preliminary studies were conducted to establish the analytical and sampling variability associated with each device. All six devices were then used to collect ground water samples in water table (unconfined), semi-confined aquifer, and confined aquifer monitoring wells. Results were evaluated against a set of criteria that included intrasampling device variability (precision), volatile organic concentration (accuracy), sampling and analytical logistics, and cost. The study showed that, by using careful and reproducible procedures, overall sampling variability is low regardless of sampling device.

  13. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC MATERIAL TO AMBIENT PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert J. Eatough; William K. Modey; Rebecca Sizemore; Michael Simpson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both annual 24-h average and seasonal diurnal samples collected at NETL during the research program have been analyzed. The fine particulate components determined include PM{sub 2.5} mass, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, elemental and organic carbonaceous material and trace elements. The analysis of the nitrate and organic material includes both the identification of nonvolatile material retained by the particle collection filter and semi-volatile material lost from the particles during sample collection. The results obtained in these analyses indicate that both the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material in the fine particles sampled at the NETL site originate from mobile emissions in the local area. However, the majority of the nonvolatile material is associated with primary emissions and the majority of the semi-volatile material is secondary, being formed from photochemical processes in the atmosphere. In contrast, the fine particulate sulfate does not originate from the local area but is transported into the study region, mostly from sources in the Ohio River Valley. These observations have been supported by both detailed meteorological and apportionment analysis of the data.

  14. Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Osborne, S.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates.

  15. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  17. Origins of volatile organic compounds emerging from tank 241-C-106 during sluicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAUFFER, L.A.

    1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were released from the ventilation stack of tank 241-C-106 during sluicing operations on November 18, 1998. Workers experienced serious discomfort. They reported an obnoxious acrid odor and the 450 ppm VOC in ventilation stack 296-C-006 exceeded the level approved in the air discharge permit. Consequently, the operation was terminated. Subsequent analyses of samples collected opportunistically from the stack indicated many organic compounds including heptenes, heptanones, and normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and their remnants were present. Subsequently, a process test designed to avoid unnecessary worker exposure and enable collection of analytical samples from the stack, the breathing area, and the receiver tank was conducted on December 16, 1998. The samples obtained during that operation, in which the maximum VOC content of the stack was approximately 35 ppm, have been analyzed by teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Special Analytic Services (SAS). This report examines the results of these investigations. Future revisions of the report will examine the analytical results obtained for samples collected during sluicing operations in March. This report contains the available evidence about the source term for these emissions. Chapter 2 covers characterization work, including historical information about the layers of waste in the tank, the location of organic compounds in these layers, the total organic carbon (TOC) content and the speciation of organic compounds. Chapter 3 covers the data for the samples from the ventilation stack, which has the highest concentrations of organic compounds. Chapter 4 contains an interpretation of the information connecting the composition of the organic emissions with the composition of the original source term. Chapter 5 summarizes the characterization work, the sample data, and the interpretation of the results.

  18. Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

  19. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  20. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH reactivity in the downwind plume. The model results generally showed good agreement with experimental results for the total VOC OH reactivity downwind and gave insight into the distributions of VOC chemical classes downwind. A box model with detailed gas phase chemistry (NCAR Master Mechanism), initialized with concentrations observed at one of the ground sites in the MCMA, was used to examine the expected evolution of specific VOCs over a 1-2 day period. The models clearly supported the experimental evidence for NMHC oxidation leading to the formation of OVOCs downwind, which then become the primary fuel for ozone production far away from the MCMA.

  1. Detection of Volatile Organics Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Array System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, LAWRENCE F.; BARTHOLOMEW, JOHN W.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; COLBURN, CHRISTOPHER W.; CROOKS, R.M.; MARTINEZ, R.F.; OSBOURN, GORDON C.; RICCO, A.J.; STATON, ALAN W.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical sensing system based on arrays of surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines has been developed for identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The individual SAW chemical sensors consist of interdigital transducers patterned on the surface of an ST-cut quartz substrate to launch and detect the acoustic waves and a thin film coating in the SAW propagation path to perturb the acoustic wave velocity and attenuation during analyte sorption. A diverse set of material coatings gives the sensor arrays a degree of chemical sensitivity and selectivity. Materials examined for sensor application include the alkanethiol-based self-assembled monolayer, plasma-processed films, custom-synthesized conventional polymers, dendrimeric polymers, molecular recognition materials, electroplated metal thin films, and porous metal oxides. All of these materials target a specific chemical fi.mctionality and the enhancement of accessible film surface area. Since no one coating provides absolute analyte specificity, the array responses are further analyzed using a visual-empirical region-of-influence (VERI) pattern recognition algorithm. The chemical sensing system consists of a seven-element SAW array with accompanying drive and control electronics, sensor signal acquisition electronics, environmental vapor sampling hardware, and a notebook computer. Based on data gathered for individual sensor responses, greater than 93%-accurate identification can be achieved for any single analyte from a group of 17 VOCs and water.

  2. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  3. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  4. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Kehua

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide...

  5. Installation and Operation of Sorbathene Solvent Vapor Recovery Units to Recover and Recycle Volatile Organic Compounds at Operating Sites within the Dow Chemical Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, T. L.; Larrinaga, L.

    the SORBATHENE vacuum swing adsorption as an economical alternative for the recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from storage, loading, and process vents streams. This paper discusses the application of the technology on nineteen units to collect...

  6. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.] [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)] [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  7. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  8. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  9. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 mu g/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to>500 mu g/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~;;15 mu g/m2/h while the new wood material emitted>100 mu g/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs.

  10. A theoretical study of discrete air phase migration contaminated with a volatile organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drazenovic, Mirna

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saturated porous media, while the second part presents volatile contaminant transport in bubbly air flow. The first part of the study is developed in order to determine bubble rise velocity in four flow regimes i.e., steady state, quasi-steady state...

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Wild 2 Particle Hypervelocity Tracks in Stardust Aerogel: Evidence for the presence of Volatile Organics in Comet Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajt, S; Sandford, S A; Flynn, G J; Matrajt, G; Snead, C J; Westphal, A J; Bradley, J P

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectroscopy maps of some tracks, made by cometary dust from 81P/Wild 2 impacting Stardust aerogel, reveal an interesting distribution of volatile organic material. Out of six examined tracks three show presence of volatile organic components possibly injected into the aerogel during particle impacts. When particle tracks contained excess volatile organic material, they were found to be -CH{sub 2}-rich. Off-normal particle tracks could indicate impacts by lower velocity particles that could have bounced off the Whipple shield, therefore carry off some contamination from it. However, this theory is not supported by data that show excess organic-rich material in normal and off-normal particle tracks. It is clear that the population of cometary particles impacting the Stardust aerogel collectors also include grains that contained little or none of this volatile organic component. This observation is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of the collected grains, as seen by a multitude of other analytical techniques. We propose that at least some of the volatile organic material might be of cometary origin based on supporting data shown in this paper. However, we also acknowledge the presence of carbon (primarily as -CH{sub 3}) in the original aerogel, which complicates interpretation of these results.

  12. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

  13. Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibley, V. R., LLNL

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

  14. Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

  15. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  16. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rohay, V.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  17. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford`s plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford`s 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  18. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  19. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Routh, J.; Grossman, E. L.; Ulrich, G. A.; Suflita, J. M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?171. Carothers, W.W., Kharaka, Y.K., 1978. Aliphatic acid anions in oil-field waters?implications for origin of natural gas. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 62, 2441?2453. Cedarstrom, D.J., 1946. Genesis of groundwaters in the coastal plain of Virginia. Econ. Geol.... Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 127?149. Takijima, Y., 1964. Studies on organic acids in paddy field soils with reference to their inhibitory eC128ects on the growth of rice plants Part 1. Growth inhibitory action of organic acids and adsorption and decomposition...

  20. Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low volatility organic acids in clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low, a water-soluble product of isoprene, oxidizes further in the aqueous phase to pyruvic acid. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the aqueous-phase oxidation of pyruvic acid create large uncertainties in the in- cloud

  1. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  2. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from stationary combustion sources: Numerical modeling capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kee, R.J.; Lutz, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Senkan, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collaborative research program initiated to study the emissions of a wide variety of chemical species from stationary combustion systems. These product species have been included in the Clean Air act legislation and their emissions must be rigidly controlled, but there is a need for much better understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that produce and consume them. We are using numerical modeling study the chemical reactions and fluid mechanical factors that occur in industrial processes: we are examining systems including premixed and diffusion flames, stirred reactors and plug flow reactors in these modeling studies to establish the major factors leading to emissions of these chemicals. In addition, we are applying advanced laser diagnostic techniques to validate the model predictions and to study the possibilities of developing sophisticated sensors to detect emissions of undesirable species in real time. This paper will discuss the organization of this collaborative effort and its results to date.

  4. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in soil vapor in the vicinity of a defense fuel supply point, Hanahan, South Carolina. Water resources investigations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.F.; Aelion, C.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the results of a reconnaissance study to identify areas of potential contamination of the water table aquifer by volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) beneath a Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties near Hanahan, S.C. Six areas in and around the DFSP facility were investigated with soil-vapor techniques. The northern boundary area has been studied extensively and was, therefore, not included in the investigation.

  5. Environmental chamber studies of atmospheric reactivities of volatile organic compounds: Effects of varying chamber and light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.; Luo, D.; Malkina, I.; Pierce, J. [California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photochemical oxidant models are essential tools for assessing effects of emissions changes on ground-level ozone formation. Such models are needed for predicting the ozone impacts of increased alternative fuel use. The gas-phase photochemical mechanism is an important component of these models because ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed from the gas-phase photochemical reactions of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in air. The chemistry of ground level ozone formation is complex; hundreds of types of VOCs being emitted into the atmosphere, and most of their atmospheric reactions are not completely understood. Because of this, no chemical model can be relied upon to give even approximately accurate predictions unless it has been evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data. Therefore an experimental and modeling study was conducted to assess how chemical mechanism evaluations using environmental chamber data are affected by the light source and other chamber characteristics. Xenon arc lights appear to give the best artificial representation of sunlight currently available, and experiments were conducted in a new Teflon chamber constructed using such a light source. Experiments were also conducted in an outdoor Teflon Chamber using new procedures to improve the light characterization, and in Teflon chambers using blacklights. These results, and results of previous runs other chambers, were compared with model predictions using an updated detailed chemical mechanism. The magnitude of the chamber radical source assumed when modeling the previous runs were found to be too high; this has implications in previous mechanism evaluations. Temperature dependencies of chamber effects can explain temperature dependencies in chamber experiments when Ta-300{degree}K, but not at temperatures below that.

  6. Evaluation of emplacement sensors for detecting radiation and volatile organic compounds and for long-term monitoring access tubes for the BWCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, D.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document evaluates sensors for detecting contaminants in the excavated waste generated by the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS). The Barrier Placement Machine (BPM) removes spoils from under a landfill or plume and places it on a conveyor belt on the left and right sides of the BPM. The spoils will travel down the conveyor belts past assay monitors and be deposited on top of the site being worked. The belts are 5 ft wide and transport approximately 15 ft3 /minute of spoils. This corresponds to a 10 ft per hour BPM advance rate. With a 2 in. spoils height the belt speed would be 3.6 in. per second. The spoils being removed are expected to be {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} (no radiation or volatile organics above background levels). To ensure that the equipment is not digging through a contaminated area, assay equipment will monitor the spoils for mg radiation and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The radiation monitors will check for gross radiation indication. Upon detection of radiation levels above a predetermined setpoint, further evaluation will be performed to determine the isotopes present and their quantity. This will require hand held monitors and a remote monitoring station. Simultaneously, VOC monitors will monitor for predetermined volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. A Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) monitor is recommended for this operation. Specific site requirements and regulations will determine setpoints and operation scenarios. If VOCs are detected, the data will be collected and recorded. A flat panel display will be mounted in the BPM operator`s cab showing the radio nuclide and VOC monitoring data. As the BPM advances, a 3-in. diameter PVC tube will be placed on the bottom of the barrier slot in front of the 12 to 16-in. containment barrier being emplaced.

  7. Modeling kinetic partitioning of secondary organic aerosol and size distribution dynamics: representing effects of volatility, phase state, and particle-phase reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Shilling, John E.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence is mounting that the majority of the climatically active aerosols are produced through the growth of smaller particles via secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gas-to-particle conversion of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The timescale of SOA partitioning and the associated size distribution dynamics are expected to depend on the gas-phase oxidation of the precursor VOCs and their products, volatility of these organic solutes, composition and phase state of the pre-existing particles, and diffusivity and reactivity of the solute within the particle phase. This paper describes a new framework for modeling kinetic gas-particle partitioning of SOA, with an analytical treatment for the diffusion-reaction process within the particle phase. The formulation is amenable for eventual use in regional and global climate models, although it currently awaits implementation of the actual particle-phase reactions that are important for SOA formation. In the present work, the model is applied to investigate the competitive growth dynamics of the Aitken and accumulation mode particles while the Kelvin effect and coagulation are neglected for simplicity. The timescale of SOA partitioning and evolution of number and composition size distributions are evaluated for a range of solute volatilities (C*), particle-phase bulk diffusivities (Db), and particle-phase reactivity, as exemplified by a pseudo-first-order rate constant (kc). Results show that irreversible condensation of non-volatile organic vapors (equivalent to ) produces significant narrowing of the size distribution. At the other extreme, non-reactive partitioning of semi-volatile organic vapors is volume-controlled in which the final (equilibrium) size distribution simply shifts to the right on the diameter axis while its shape remains unchanged. However, appreciable narrowing of the size distribution may occur when the pre-existing particles are highly viscous semi-solids such that small particles reach quasi-equilibrium much faster than the large ones. In the case of reactive partitioning (finite ), the size distribution experiences permanent narrowing, which is especially pronounced for Db < 10-13 cm2 s-1 and kc > 0.01 s-1. As a result, both number and composition size distributions are needed to effectively constrain and evaluate the next generation of SOA models that treat phase state thermodynamics, particle-phase diffusion and particle-phase chemical reactions.

  8. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  9. Comparison of predicted and derived measures of volatile organic compounds inside four relocatable classrooms due to identified interior finish sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor exposures to toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of general concern. Recently, VOCs in portable or relocatable classrooms (RCs) have received particular attention. However, very little was known about indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and the sources, composition, and indoor concentrations of VOCs in RCs. This project task focused on developing and demonstrating a process for selecting interior finish materials for RCs that have relatively low impacts with respect to their emissions of toxic and odorous VOCs. This task was part of a larger project to demonstrate the potential for simultaneous improvements in IEQ and energy efficiency in four new RCs equipped both with a continuously ventilating advanced heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system (HVAC) and a standard HVAC system. These HVACs were operated on alternate weeks. One RC per pair was constructed with standard interior finish materials, and the other included alternate interior materials identified in our prior laboratory study to have low VOC emissions. The RCs were sited in side-by-side pairs at two elementary schools in distinct northern California climate zones. Classroom VOC emission rates (mg hr{sup -1}) and concentrations were predicted based on VOC emission factors ({micro}g m{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) measured for individual materials in the laboratory, the quantities of installed materials and design ventilation rates. Predicted emission rates were compared to values derived from classroom measurements of VOC concentrations and ventilation rates made at pre-occupancy, eight weeks, and 27 weeks. Predicted concentrations were compared to measured integrated VOC indoor minus outdoor concentrations during school hours in the fall cooling season with the advanced HVAC operated. These measured concentrations also were compared between standard and material-modified RCs. Our combined laboratory and field process proved effective by correctly predicting that IEQ impacts of material VOC emissions would be minor when RCs were ventilated at or above code-minimum requirements. Assuming code-minimum ventilation rates are maintained, the benefits attributable to the use of alternate interior finish materials in RC's constructed by the manufacturer associated with this study are small, implying that it is not imperative to use such alternative finishing materials. However, it is essential to avoid materials that can degrade IEQ, and the results of this study demonstrate that laboratory-based material testing combined with modeling and field validation can help to achieve that aim.

  10. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  11. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  13. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  14. volatility. atthemoney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    volatility is lowest for at­the­money options. -- It becomes higher the further the option is in­ or out­of­the­money (concluded) . Suppose a year has 260 trading days. . A quick and dirty way is to replace # with a # # 365 260

  15. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y. [and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated.

  16. MEMBRANE INTRODUCTION MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ON-LINE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organic compounds (VOCs) have been detected in urban waters across the United States, including gasoline was partially supported by the NSF-Chemistry CARREER award # CHE-0.34131. #12;v VITA November 4, 1974.S. Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National School of Biological Sciences (Mexico). 2002 ­ 2005

  17. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  18. Development of an IMS Type System for Volatile Organic Compunds Detection: Simulation and Comparision of the Ion Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Guillermo P; Boggio, Norberto G; Vorobioff, Juan; Ortiz, Juan J; Gómez, Sergio; Aucar, Gustavo A; Lamagna, Alberto; Boselli, Alfredo

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a well-known, sensitive and rapid technique to detect dangerous organic compounds. We propose a system in which a crown type discharge generates a ionic flow that is swept towards an array of collectors by a transverse electric field. The ions are separated as they enter the cell according to their mobility. Thus, the distribution of the charge deposited at the detector assembly constitutes a {\\em fingerprint} for each organic compound. Simulations of our cell and experiments were performed for small amounts of acetone, ethanol and toluene. The dependence on the cell parameters of the current and charge versus time of flight was analyzed. Our simulation reproduces only qualitatively the experimental results. However, a PCA statistical analysis of the results obtained by simulation of the proposed design shows that the fingerprint is useful for a clear identification of such compounds.

  19. Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

  20. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  1. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  2. Distribution, Magnitudes, Reactivities, Ratios and Diurnal Patterns of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Valley of Mexico During the MCMA 2002 & 2003 Field Campaigns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Allwine, Eugene J.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Knighton, Walter B.; Rogers, T.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, Mary A.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that some alkanes are underestimated in the emissions inventory, while some olefins and aromatics are overestimated.

  3. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  4. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Nguyen, Trung V. (College Station, TX); Guante, Jr., Joseph (Denver, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  5. Volatile Organic Emissions from Carpets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodgson, A.T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irritation by airborne allyl acetate, allyl alcohol, andcompounds. For example, allyl acetate (2-propenyl acetate),acetate, was found to be highly irritating as were other allyl

  6. ARM - Measurement - Volatile organic compounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility ARM

  7. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  8. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in the building. The plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations. Continuous measurements of Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) were made selected indoor and outdoor locations.

  9. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In. - Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. 3A,Monoxide." Applied Industrial Hygiene, 4,119-125. Jabara, J.Monoxide Detection. Industrial Hygiene Journal Match-April,

  10. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monoxide in Seatde Ice Skating Rinks." American Journal ofHockey Players in Ice Skating Rinks." Veterinary and Human

  11. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

  12. Microsoft Word - DOE EA 1606 FONSI_Dec2011.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    aircraft, portable generators, and portable pumps. Emissions will include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and...

  13. atmospheric carbon monoxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion-fuel and- biofuel combustion sources in North America, Europe, Asia (including Indonesia and the Middle Palmer, Paul 14...

  14. Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium on Alumina. Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium...

  15. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

  16. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks.

  17. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Piotrowski, J. [Tenneco Packaging, Inc., Tomahawk, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  18. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsimpidi, A. P.

    New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new ...

  19. accelerates carbon monoxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon monoxide First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public...

  20. acute carbon monoxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acute carbon monoxide First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Carbon Monoxide Environmental...

  1. accidental carbon monoxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accidental carbon monoxide First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Carbon Monoxide...

  2. Adsorption of Nitrogen Monoxide and Carbon Monoxide on Copper-Exchanged ZSM-5: A Cluster and Embedded Cluster Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Adsorption of Nitrogen Monoxide and Carbon Monoxide on Copper-Exchanged ZSM-5: A Cluster study on the adsorption of NO and CO in Cu-ZSM-5, using an ab initio embedded cluster methodology are small for adsorption energies of CO and NO. For adsorption of CO, the calculated binding energy of 32

  3. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  4. Analysis of C1, C2, and C10 through C33 particle-phase and semi-volatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    from heavy-duty diesel engines Z. Gerald Liu a,*, Devin R. Berg a , Victoria N. Vasys a , Melissa E 18 November 2009 Keywords: Organic compound emissions Particulate matter emissions Heavy-duty diesel engines Aftertreatment technology Diesel particulate filter Chemical speciation a b s t r a c t To meet

  5. Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    reforming) or with air and water (autothermal reforming). In the second step, carbon monoxide is reduced

  6. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  7. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  8. Extremely stable Nafion based carbon monoxide sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Wal; P.D. de Rooij, N.F.; Koudelka-Hep, M. [Univ. of Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At present carbon monoxide sensing devices are readily available for many industrial applications. The sensors used in these devices include electrochemical sensors, semiconductor sensors, calorimetric detectors and infra red detectors. From these devices the electrochemical sensors are of specific interest because of their high selectivity and low power consumption. This makes them suitable for use in battery operated devices, e.g. for domestic safety. However, their relatively high price and frequent need for recalibration seriously hamper their utilisation on a large scale. The relatively high price of electrochemical CO sensors is caused by the complexity of fabrication. They are composed of a cylindrical housing, with one end the counter and reference electrodes, and on the other the working electrode. The electrodes are made out of Teflon bonded platinum black on a Teflon substrate and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution. The aim of this work was to develop electrochemical CO sensors, that are small and cheaper than the existing products. The approach concentrated on three main aspects: (a) simplification of the device assembly by investigating the of using a planar sensor design, (b) use of mass production compatible fabrication, and (c) replacement of the sulfuric acid.

  9. Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-6-5 Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls Di Liu Guangfa Tang Fuyun Zhao Doctoral Professor.... INTRODUCTION It has become evident that building products are major contributors to the pollution of the indoor air environment with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [1]. The indoor airflow and temperature distributions also have influence on the emission...

  10. Volatile Organic Compound Detection Using Nanostructured Copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Lee E.

    conductivity of these copolymers increased or decreased depending upon the polymer composition and the specific,3-6 conductive poly- mers (CPs),7-12 and carbon black-polymer composites.13,14 Metal oxide materials Carbon black-polymer composites have also attracted a lot of research interest as a promising sensing

  11. Studies of carbon monoxide diffusion in an urban area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, John Charles

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J 7 j 3 , '. ', 73 . J ('. J &", , i j 100 200 300 400 500 60il TPMI'FIC/15 Mi(( Fig. 13. Carbon monoxide concenrration vs Lraf6ic for gamp j er 2 from 6:15 A(1 - 11:15 AM CDT on July 20, 1969 (r = -0. 23) . !! a)9 6:00 H p o 4 O Q... (r = -0. 57) 28 Carbon monoxide concentration vs traffic for Sampler 3 from 7;30 AM ? 11:30 AM CDT on July 18, 1969 (r = +0. 87) 29 Figure Page 16. Carbon monoxide concentration vs traffic for Sampler 3 from 12:30 PN - 9:30 PN CDT on July 18...

  12. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  13. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  14. Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Chapter 2 Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction Financial market volatility is indispensable for asset and derivative pricing, asset allocation, and risk management. As volatility is not a directly is to calculate the daily volatility from the sample variance of intraday returns, the `realized' volatility

  15. Quantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    , SCIAMACHY CO total column retrievals are of sufficient quality to provide useful new information]. Ground-based FTIR measurements provide high quality total column measurements but have very limitedQuantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements A. T. J. de Laat,1,2 A

  16. Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    19, 2012) Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping in the remote tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) (2­4). IO further affects the oxidative capacity iodine species over the remote ocean remain poorly understood (11, 14) but are currently thought

  17. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  18. Volatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amlie CHARLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , reflecting rising demand for crude oil, particularly from developing nations. Oil prices have been veryVolatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amélie CHARLES Audencia Nantes, School of Management oil markets ­ Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  19. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  20. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  1. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  2. CALIBRATION OF VOLATILITY SURFACES Stphane CRPEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Printems, Jacques

    CALIBRATION OF VOLATILITY SURFACES Stéphane CR�PEY Université d'�vry & ARTABEL SA GT MATHFI Calibration, 5 June 2003 Figure 1: Volatility Smile #12;GT MATHFI Calibration 5 June 2003 1 Basics CR�PEY Page 1 #12;GT MATHFI Calibration 5 June 2003 Smile of implied volatility Stochastic volatility d

  3. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  4. Transient PrOx carbon monoxide measurement, control, and optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel processing systems for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems require control of the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 100 ppm to 10 ppm in the anode feed. Conventional hydrocarbon fuel processors use a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to react CO with water to form H2 and reduce the CO concentration. The CO conversion is limited by equilibrium at the outlet temperature of the WGS reactor. The WGS outlet CO concentration can range from over 1% to 2000 ppm depending on the system and its operating parameters. At these concentrations, CO poisons low temperature PEM fuel cells and the concentrations needs to be reduced further.

  5. Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China b Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B7 Received 17 February 2001 Abstract Carbon monoxide

  6. An experimental investigation of the ignition properties of hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    for syngas turbine applications S.M. Walton *, X. He, B.T. Zigler, M.S. Wooldridge Department of Mechanical of simulated syngas mixtures of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and carbon. Keywords: Carbon monoxide; Hydrogen; Syngas; Ignition; Rapid compression facility 1. Introduction Syngas

  7. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen - carbon monoxide-based gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.J.; Kubasco, A.J.; Lecren, R.T.; Notardonato, J.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental rig program has been conducted with the objective of evaluating the combustion performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Bluewater gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an ''optimum'' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit low NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  8. Volatility in natural gas and oil markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

  9. NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politis, Dimitris N; Thomakos, Dimitrios D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for VolatilityNoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility

  10. Perturbation Expansion for Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Jizba; Hagen Kleinert; Patrick Haener

    2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We fit the volatility fluctuations of the S&P 500 index well by a Chi distribution, and the distribution of log-returns by a corresponding superposition of Gaussian distributions. The Fourier transform of this is, remarkably, of the Tsallis type. An option pricing formula is derived from the same superposition of Black-Scholes expressions. An explicit analytic formula is deduced from a perturbation expansion around a Black-Scholes formula with the mean volatility. The expansion has two parts. The first takes into account the non-Gaussian character of the stock-fluctuations and is organized by powers of the excess kurtosis, the second is contract based, and is organized by the moments of moneyness of the option. With this expansion we show that for the Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 option data, a Delta-hedging strategy is close to being optimal.

  11. aquatic organisms potential: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential compared BVOC...

  12. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  13. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  14. Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeal, Karen Sue

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    research strands which contribute to the scientific and pedagogical understanding of complex Earth systems. In the first strand, a method that characterizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as ecological proxies of soil microbial ecosystems was validated...

  15. Correction to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Correction to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns, doi:10.1029/2007JD009378. [1] In the paper ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spec- trometer

  16. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  17. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

  18. Moment Methods for Exotic Volatility Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albanese, Claudio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest generation of volatility derivatives goes beyond variance and volatility swaps and probes our ability to price realized variance and sojourn times along bridges for the underlying stock price process. In this paper, we give an operator algebraic treatment of this problem based on Dyson expansions and moment methods and discuss applications to exotic volatility derivatives. The methods are quite flexible and allow for a specification of the underlying process which is semi-parametric or even non-parametric, including state-dependent local volatility, jumps, stochastic volatility and regime switching. We find that volatility derivatives are particularly well suited to be treated with moment methods, whereby one extrapolates the distribution of the relevant path functionals on the basis of a few moments. We consider a number of exotics such as variance knockouts, conditional corridor variance swaps, gamma swaps and variance swaptions and give valuation formulas in detail.

  19. Reductive coupling of carbon monoxide to C sub 2 products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, J.L.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress since the initiation of this two year award on May 1, 1988, has been divided into two areas for reporting purposes. We have been working on ideas described in the proposal submitted two years ago, and simultaneously we initiated chemistry in a distinct area in order to provide a springboard for the current proposal. Efforts directed toward reductive coupling of carbon monoxide have continued to focus on carbyne species as the central figure in coupling reactions. At the same time we have attempted to prepare intermediate oxidation state metal imido complexes with an eye to synthetic applications of nitrene transfer reagents. The results of carbyne chemistry, electrophilic addition reactions of anionic carbonyl and isonitrile complexes, and carbyne-carbonyl coupling reactions will be presented in this progress report, while the work with nitrene complexes will be included as preliminary results in the text of the accompanying proposal. The description of published work will be brief in this report; greater detail will be provided for unpublished material.

  20. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  1. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  2. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  3. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  4. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  5. On the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    On the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives SAM HOWISON Mathematical Institute, University a stochastic volatility model as our starting point; we also provide formulae for the case that the volatility follows a jump- diffusion process of the type described in [18]. The fact that stochastic volatility

  6. The profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tino, Peter

    implied volatility models . 1 Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF

  7. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  8. Metal volatilization and separation during incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Chu, H.W.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has reported that metals can account for almost all of the identified risks from a thermal treatment process. Fundamental research leading to better understanding of their behavior and improved control of their emissions is greatly needed. This paper reports studies on metal volatilization and separation during incineration. Metal volatilization studies were carried out in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, the dynamic volatilization characteristics of various metals during the combustion of metal-containing wood pellets were investigated in a high-temperature electric furnace. In addition to uncontrolled volatilization, the potential of employing chemical additives to bind metals and prevent them from volatilizing during combustion was also investigated. The second experiment involved the investigation of metal volatilization characteristics during the thermal treatment of metal-contaminated clay in a fluidized bed unit. The metal species tested in both experiments were compounds of lead and cadmium. Metal capture/separation studies were also carried out in two separate experiments. The first involved the use of sorbents in the combustion chamber to capture metals during the fluidized bed incineration of metal-containing wood pellets. The second experiments, however, employed sorbents to absorb metal vapors in a fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler. The objective of both the experiments is to characterize the metal absorption efficiency associated with the processes.

  9. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    , acetone + propanal, dimethylsulfide, and m/z 109 (likely 4-methyl-phenol). The compounds with highest. Agricultural pro- cesses, notably animal operations, are no longer exempt from emission controls as a result with a pro

  10. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Volatile Organic Compound Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulations using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, where carbon tetrachloride is present in a low permeability zone about 30 m above the...

  11. Glossary of Volatile Organic Compounds Ethylbenzene Carbon tetrachloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid found in natural products such as coal tar into the environment from burning oil, gas, and coal, and from discharges of ethylbenzene from factories. Ethylbenzene-made activities and natural processes. Benzene is widely used in the United States and ranks in the top 20

  12. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpets. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research, was to measure the emission rates of selected individual VOC, including low molecular-weight aldehydes, released by samples of four new carpets that are typical of the major types of carpets used in residences, schools and offices. The carpet samples were collected directly from the manufacturers` mills and packaged to preserve their chemical integrity. The measurements of the concentrations and emission rates of these compounds were made under simulated indoor conditions in a 20-M{sup 3} environmental chamber designed specifically for investigations of VOC. The measurements were conducted over a period of one week following the installation of the carpet samples in the chamber. Duplicate experiments were conducted for one carpet. In addition, the concentrations and emission rates of VOC resulting from the installation of a new carpet in a residence were measured over a period of seven weeks. The stabilities of the week-long ventilation rates and temperatures were one percent relative standard deviation. The four carpets emitted a variety of VOC, 40 of which were positively identified. Eight of these were considered to be dominant. They were (in order of chromatographic retention time) formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), styrene, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), and 2,6 di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). With the exception of formaldehyde, only limited data are available on the toxicity and irritancy of these compounds at low concentrations. Therefore, it is difficult to determine at this time the potential magnitude of the health and comfort effects that may occur among the population from exposures to emissions from new carpets. The concentrations and emission rates of most compounds decreased rapidly over the first 12 h of the experiments.

  13. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular...

  14. NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was not clear if the referenced document is applicable to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) activities. c) Clarify what is meant by the term "original VOC Monitoring...

  15. Class 2 Permit Modification Request Revise Volatile Organic Compound...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is provided in Figure N-1" Attachment N, Section N-4a(3) Replaced "Treated stainless steel" with "The" Deleted "is" Replaced "from the desired sample point to the sample...

  16. 1. PRECONCENTRATION, THERMAL DESORPTION & ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : peltier, liq. N?.. Heated transfer line 2) Desorption & transfer by fastheatlng Cooled & heated trap jas trap. The trap is then quickly heated, under a low flow of hélium, to desorb and inject thé compounds. This highly concentrated plug of sample is transferred via a heated transfer line, to a capillary

  17. Energy Saving System to Remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210EnergyEnergy SaverSavingP

  18. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 Termoelectrica U.SPRESSHeavy-duty Engine using

  19. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the WhiteNational| DepartmentCommunities

  20. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    -no-threshed (LNT) model widely accepted for radiation protection saying that biological effects caused by ionizingEffects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE

  1. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  2. Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    from forest clearing and biofuels. Thus CO is a global pollutant with a variety of sources. CO has and transport. CO AMS 2000 subject classifications: Carbon monoxide; satellite data; Bayesian hierarchi- cal and the transport of surface emissions but also in determining budgets for other chemical constituents. 1

  3. SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method Toshiaki NISHII1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    plants. Furthermore, carbon dioxide gas is exhausted from most industrial plants as one of Greenhouse. (2) R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, (1988 CVD SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method * Toshiaki

  4. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide in the patient compartment of ambulances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iglewicz, R.; Rosenman, K.D.; Iglewicz, B.; O'Leary, K.; Hockemeier, R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six hundred and ninety New Jersey ambulances were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO); 27 per cent had CO levels of 10 ppm or more greater than ambient air in the breathing zone of the patient. Twenty-nine of these ambulances had levels of at least 35 ppm greater than ambient air. Results indicate that a CO exposure problem exists in ambulances.

  5. Flow of Volatile-Free and Volatile-Rich Basaltic Magmas through Elastic-Walled Dikes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    averaged in "one-dimensional" flow tube. #12;Questions: · Can we obtain a simple 1D symmetric model) · Anisotropy 1 in horizontal and vertical rock stress #12;Elastic flow equations · Continuity equation t(m bFlow of Volatile-Free and Volatile-Rich Basaltic Magmas through Elastic-Walled Dikes O. Bokhove

  6. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  7. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  8. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

  9. Forecasting Volatility in Stock Market Using GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaorong

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forecasting volatility has held the attention of academics and practitioners all over the world. The objective for this master's thesis is to predict the volatility in stock market by using generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity(GARCH...

  10. CEC-500-2010-FS-017 Volatility of Ultrafine Particulate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gas Vehicles TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation Research www. Limited research has been done to characterize compressed natural gas mass emissions and practically-volatile and semi-volatile fractions of ultrafine particulate matter emissions from compressed natural gas vehicles

  11. A Study of Vibrational Relaxation of B-State Carbon Monoxide in the Heme Pocket of Photolyzed Carboxymyoglobin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straub, John E.

    , Massachusetts 02215 ABSTRACT The vibrational energy relaxation of dissociated carbon monoxide in the heme pocket for the two CO substate frequencies, T1(B1) 335 115 ps and T1(B2) 330 145 ps. These simulation results

  12. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  13. X-ray elemental online analyzer measures volatiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, A.; Pilz, K.; Reich, K. [Indutech Instruments GmbH, Simmersfeld (Germany)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an online XRF analyser for determining the volatiles content of coal is outlined. 3 figs.

  14. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

  15. Palladium(II)-acetamide complex as a solid monitoring reagent for carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, J.L.; Liaw, Yun-Long; Paukstelis, J.V. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (USA)); Chiang, Y.C. (Kansas Wesleyan Univ. Salina (USA))

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of solid salts containing cationic complexes of palladium(II) with neutral, weakly complexing ligands resulted in the discovery of the palladium(II)-acetamide-tetrafluoroborate reagent, in which acetamide is present in 20-fold molar excess. It was found that a successful reagent of this type must have a ligand that complexes palladium(II) weakly, but more strongly than does water, with water available for subsequent reaction. Carbon monoxide appears to coordinate with the palladium(II)-acetamide complex, which then reacts with water to form, simultaneously, palladium(O) metal that is black, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ion. The reagent is described as a visual warning device for the present of carbon monoxide. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Proboscis extension reflex platform for volatiles and semi-volatiles detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wingo, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); McCabe, Kirsten J. (Los Alamos, NM); Haarmann, Timothy K. (Jemez Pueblo, NM)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an apparatus for the detection of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals using the olfactory abilities of honey bees that are trained to respond to the presence of a specific chemical in a sample of gas with the proboscis extension reflex (PER). In particular, the geometry and arrangement of the parts of the apparatus are such that the amount of surface area in contact with the sample of gas prior to its introduction to the bees is minimized to improve the detection of particular volatile and semi-volatile that have a tendency to "stick" to contacting surfaces, especially certain chemicals associated with explosives and narcotics. According to another aspect of the present invention, a pre-concentrating means is incorporated with the device to effectively increase the concentration of "sticky" chemicals presented to the insects.

  17. Sample and Implied Volatility in GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokoszka, Piotr

    Sample and Implied Volatility in GARCH Models Lajos Horva´th University of Utah Piotr Kokoszka Utah of various GARCH-type models is a function hðq� of the parameter vector q which is estimated by bq. For most distributions of the differences ^2 � hðq� and ^2 � hðbq� for broad classes of GARCH-type models. Even though

  18. Ammonia volatilization and nitrogen transformations in high pH soils used for beef manure disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Robert Edgar

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The total nitrogen losses in the limed treatments were believed to be caused by the high solubility of organic matter in high pH solutions followed by chemical volatilization of nitrogen as ammonia. Most of this ammonia was believed to have remained... as par t of the soil air and was lost when the soil samples were taken from the columns. Denitrification was believed to be responsible for losses in the unlimed treatments. Comparison of final organic and total inorganic nitrogen concen- trationss...

  19. Mass yields of secondary organic aerosols from the oxidation of alpha-pinene and real plant emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a significant source of global secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, quantifying their aerosol forming potential remains a challenge. This study presents smog chamber ...

  20. Carbon monoxide tolerant electrocatalyst with low platinum loading and a process for its preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Brankovic, Stanko; Wang, Jia

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrocatalyst is provided for use in a fuel cell that has low platinum loading and a high tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning. The fuel cell anode includes an electrocatalyst that has a conductive support material, ruthenium nanoparticles reduced in H.sub.2 and a Group VIII noble metal in an amount of between about 0.1 and 25 wt % of the ruthenium nanoparticles, preferably between about 0.5 and 15 wt %. The preferred Group VIII noble metal is platinum. In one embodiment, the anode can also have a perfluorinated polymer membrane on its surface.

  1. Nonadiabatic calculations of ultraviolet absorption cross section of sulfur monoxide: Isotopic effects on the photodissociation reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielache, Sebastian O.; Tomoya, Suzuki; Nanbu, Shinkoh [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)] [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kondorsky, Alexey [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation) [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutsky per., 9, Dolgoprudny Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Tokue, Ikuo [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted sulfur monoxide (SO) isotopologues were calculated using R-Matrix expansion technique. Energies, transition dipole moments, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were calculated at MRCI/AV6Z level. The calculated absorption cross section of {sup 32}S{sup 16}O was compared with experimental spectrum; the spectral feature and the absolute value of photoabsorption cross sections are in good agreement. Our calculation predicts a long lived photoexcited SO* species which causes large non-mass dependent isotopic effects depending on the excitation energy in the ultraviolet region.

  2. Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather and violent solar storms By John Greenwald December 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook...

  3. Volatiles as a link between planetary interiors and the environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Benjamin A. (Benjamin Alexander)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatiles derived from planetary interiors influence magma evolution and environmental processes. Over appropriate timescales, Earth's mantle, crust, ocean, and atmosphere constitute coupled systems. The apparently synchronous ...

  4. Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Growth History Of Kilauea...

  5. Ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers surface applied on bermudagrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panossian, Jack B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The biological activity was measured by trapping the CO in NaOH (0. 422 N). The NH3 which was volatilized from the urea was trapped in boric acid according to Bremner (1965). Volatilized NH and evolved CO were measured daily by titrating the boric acid and 13... was passed over the soil surface, then bubbled into boric acid to trap volatilized NH (Bremner, 1965). Humidified air was used to prevent rapid soil drying which would retard NH volatilization (Ernst and Massey, 1960). The apparatus is diagrammed in Fig. 1...

  6. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  7. Cosmochemistry Some more about Water and volatiles to the planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    at the surface of the Moon. The gas, composed of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, escaped from the cooling;#12;#12;#12;Water : 2700 (±1300) ppm Carbon : 765 (±300) ppm ~2 % carbonaceous chondrite #12;#12;Ice D/H in Comets, and enstatite, which are further divided into groups, 12 in all. These groups are defined by properties

  8. Inhalation toxicology. 11. The effect of elevated temperature on carbon monoxide toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, D.C.; Endecott, B.R.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory rats were exposed (a) to experimental concentrations of carbon monoxide in air at ambient temperature, (b) to elevated temperature atmospheres from 40 deg C to 60 deg C, and (c) to selected carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at the elevated temperatures in (b). The incapacitating potency of each of the environments was evaluated by measurements of time-to-incapacitation (t sub i) as a function of CO concentration and/or temperature; incapacitation was defined operationally as loss of ability to walk inside a motor-driven, rotating cage enclosed in an exposure chamber. Comparison of data from the combined (CO + elevated temperature) exposures and exposures to CO and elevated temperatures alone indicated than incapacitation occurred earlier when CO inhalation was combined with a whole-body, elevated temperature environment than was observed for the same exposure parameters applied individually. No evidence for a synergistic effect was noted. An empirical equation was derived that allows the calculation of a predicted t sub i for combinations of CO and temperature within the rangers utilized in the experimental exposures.

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of volatile hazardous metal behavior in the Vortec Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowok, J.W.; Hurley, J.P.

    2000-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate that at the temperature of a propane--air flame, some volatilization of uranium, plutonium, technetium, and cesium will occur. The expected concentrations of plutonium, technetium, and cesium in the flame will be very low because of the small maximum concentration of these elements in the projected feed materials for the first 30-day test. The quantities volatilized can generally be decreased by operating the flame in a fuel-rich mode, although this will lead to greater carbon monoxide production, which may be more objectionable. The concentrations of chlorine and fluorine, at least at the maximum levels in the projected Vortec feed, are not projected to greatly influence the vaporization rates. Therefore, blending to reduce the concentrations of those elements would most likely not be effective in reducing metal vaporization. Most of the elements vaporized condense by the time the gas cools to 2000 F. These elements would condense either on surfaces near the front of the heat recuperator or on entrained particulates or homogeneously as relatively pure submicron particles. Cesium would be expected to condense at the lower temperatures near the rear of the recuperator, although the expected maximum concentration in the Vortec feed material is extremely low so it should be greatly diluted by other particulates. The elements that condense on other entrained particles will form enriched surface coatings. Particles larger than 10{micro}m or so will be collected in the scrubber. Smaller particles, especially the submicron particles formed from homogeneous nucleation, should be largely collected in the HEPA filter. Deposits formed in the heat recuperator can normally be handled via sootblowing. To reduce handling problems, we suggest that the recuperator be oriented vertically so that the deposits blown off of the heat exchanger fall directly into the molten glass. The large size of the deposits should help to reduce the rate of revaporization, allowing the volatile elements to be removed with the glass. The volatile elements that do not deposit on system surfaces will be concentrated in the smaller particles. Therefore, the HEPA ash will be greatly enriched in these elements. If the HEPA filter is itself sent to a melter, the elements may revaporize and multiply the problems related to metal vaporization significantly. Therefore, the HEPA filters should be disposed of without high-temperature processing. Also, to reduce the formation of these very small particles, it is helpful to include in the feed larger particles to act as condensation nuclei that can then be collected in the scrubber. This can be accomplished by using feed materials with a fraction consisting of particles small enough that they will not be collected in the cyclone in the melter, but large enough that they will easily be collected by the scrubber. This is one advantage that firing bituminous coal has over gas firing; it provides a source of ash particles of the right size range to serve as nucleation sites, but large enough (depending on the coal) so that they can usually be collected efficiently in the scrubber system.

  10. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  11. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  12. Numerical Convergence Properties of Option Pricing PDEs with Uncertain Volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    is then simply the cost of this hedge. The principal source of risk is the price of the underlying assetNumerical Convergence Properties of Option Pricing PDEs with Uncertain Volatility D. M. Pooley , P, 2001 Abstract The pricing equations derived from uncertain volatility models in finance are often cast

  13. IMPLICIT SOLUTION OF UNCERTAIN VOLATILITY/TRANSACTION COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    IMPLICIT SOLUTION OF UNCERTAIN VOLATILITY/TRANSACTION COST OPTION PRICING MODELS WITH DISCRETELY OBSERVED BARRIERS P.A. FORSYTH \\Lambda AND K.R. VETZAL y Abstract. Option pricing models with uncertain volatility/transaction costs give rise to a nonlinear PDE. Previous work has focussed on explicit methods

  14. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at MTBE-Contaminated Sites J U A N tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE of MTBE to TBA. Typically overlooked is the role of volatilization in the attenuation of these chemicals

  15. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    that there is a pronounced negative relationship between a country's political openness and the short-run volatility in oil shifts in oil demand or supply affect prices (see, for example, Hamilton (2009a) for a recent assessmentCursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility* Gilbert E. Metcalf Tufts

  16. PSERC 98-22 "Market Power and Price Volatility in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSERC 98-22 "Market Power and Price Volatility in Restructured Markets for Electricity" Tim Mount/IEEE Service Center/445 Hoes Lane/P.O. Box 1331/Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA. Telephone: + Intl. 908-562-3966. #12;MARKET POWER AND PRICE VOLATILITY IN RESTRUCTURED MARKETS FOR ELECTRICITY Tim Mount School

  17. Scaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    markets, we study the return intervals between the daily volatilities of the price changes that are above.federal- reserve.gov releases H10 hist. We choose to study daily data records because there are intraday trendsScaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets Kazuko Yamasaki* , Lev

  18. Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley Dept. of Social and Decision. Citation: Kathleen M. Carley, 2000, "Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments" Ch. 11 in C. L. Hulin & D. R. Ilgen (Eds.) Computational Modeling in Organizational Behavior: The Third Scientific

  19. Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camou, Alejandro

    2014-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    -strengths compared to the overtone bands near 2.3 ?m and 1.55 ?m. The mid-IR sensor was applied to a high-pressure combustor to determine the time-history of carbon monoxide and compare it to other measured combustor parameters to fully characterize the combustor’s...

  20. Influence of Co/Mo Ratio on Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Carbon Monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Influence of Co/Mo Ratio on Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Carbon Monoxide, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 Co and Mo are often used as catalysts for the catalytic chemical vapor in synthesizing random, vertical and parallel aligned SWNTs on Co and Mo dip-coated quartz substrates from carbon

  1. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  2. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and ab Initio Investigation of the Multichannel Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    in conventional carbon based jet fuel systems. The combustion of hydrocarbon based fuels can reach temperatures monoxide (11 BO; X2 + ) radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons are of importance in understanding the formation of small boron-oxygen bearing hydrocarbons in boron combustion processes. Over recent decades

  3. Essays on Resource Allocation and Management, Price Volatility and Applied Nonparametrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigatu, Getchew Sisay

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    85 3.4.4 Comparing GARCH and MRS VolatilityMRS and GARCH Conditional Standard Deviation for (a) CCXF. (2002). Improving GARCH Volatility Forecasts with Regime-

  4. Prediction of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Emissions in Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using Multi-Zone Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Dibble, R

    2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignitions (HCCI) engines show promise as an alternative to Diesel engines, yet research remains: development of practical HCCI engines will be aided greatly by accurate modeling tools. A novel detailed chemical kinetic model that incorporates information from a computational fluid mechanics code has been developed to simulate HCCI combustion. This model very accurately predicts many aspects of the HCCI combustion process. High-resolution computational grids can be used for the fluid mechanics portion of the simulation, but the chemical kinetics portion of the simulation can be reduced to a handful of computational zones (for all previous work 10 zones have been used). While overall this model has demonstrated a very good predictive capability for HCCI combustion, previous simulations using this model have tended to underpredict carbon monoxide emissions by an order of magnitude. A factor in the underprediction of carbon monoxide may be that all previous simulations have been conducted with 10 chemical kinetic zones. The chemistry that results in carbon monoxide emissions is very sensitive to small changes in temperature within the engine. The resolution in temperature is determined directly by the number of zones. This paper investigates how the number of zones (i.e. temperature resolution) affects the model's prediction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in an HCCI engine. Simulations with 10, 20, and 40 chemical kinetic zones have been conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism (859 species, 3606 reactions) to simulate an isooctane fueled HCCI engine. The results show that 10-zones are adequate to resolve the hydrocarbon emissions, but a greater numbers of zones are required to resolve carbon monoxide emissions. Results are also presented that explore spatial sources of the exhaust emissions within the HCCI engine combustion chamber.

  5. Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (13130 W. 66th Pl., Golden, CO 80401)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be as high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

  6. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  7. Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eden, Maya Rachel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, I illustrate that an efficient allocation of liquidity ...

  8. Bootstrap Prediction for Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Esther Ruiz

    Bootstrap Prediction for Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Models Lorenzo Pascuala , Juan Romob of GARCH processes is proposed. Financial market participants have shown an increasing interest Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH) models, originally introduced by Bollerslev (1986), provide

  9. Forecasting Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Processes Using the Bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romo, Juan

    Forecasting Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Processes Using the Bootstrap Lorenzo Pascual, Juan generated by GARCH processes. The main advantage over other bootstrap methods previously proposed for GARCH by having conditional heteroscedasticity. Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH

  10. acidos grasos volatiles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Ntainjua Ndifor, Edwin. 2007-01-01 32 Impact of Multiple Volatilities in Bioenergy Investments CiteSeer Summary: The paper investigates the effect of the output and...

  11. The impact of fuel price volatility on transportation mode choice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Hie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the price of oil has driven large fluctuations in the price of diesel fuel, which is an important cost component in freight logistics. This thesis explores the impact of fuel price volatility on supply ...

  12. Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Temporal...

  13. Using the HP-41CV calculator as a data acquisition system for personal carbon monoxide exposure monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Simons, T.; Sauls, H.B.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of small, personal monitors as instruments for air pollution data acquisition, storage, and retrieval presents a new set of monitoring considerations. Portability, ruggedness, power supplies, and data capture are functions to be addressed in designing personal monitoring systems. The emphasis herein is on the data capture function. This paper describes experiences using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV system as a data management system interfaced with personal carbon monoxide monitors (General Electric Carbon Monoxide Detector, Model 15EC53CO3). In general, the HP-41CV proved to be reliable, adaptable, and easy to use. Problems with the monitor power source (battery failure) were more frequent than with the HP-41CV itself. Using the HP-41CV for the specific data collection requirements of the Washington Microenvironment Study is a focal point of this presentation.

  14. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

    2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

  15. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  16. Estimation of the carbon monoxide emissions due to Sandia National Laboratories commuter and on-base traffic for conformity determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClellan, Y. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Royer, R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the analysis and conclusion of an investigation of the carbon monoxide emissions resulting from Sandia National Laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) commuter and on-base traffic for the Clean Air Act (CAA) Conformity Determination. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County was classified as a nonattainment area by the Environmental Protection Agency. Nonattainment area is an area which is shown by monitored data or which is calculated by air quality modeling to exceed any National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County exceeds the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and ozone. The Conformity Determination was needed to complete the CAA Title V Permitting process for SNL and the DOE. The analysis used the EPA approved MOBILE5a Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions modeling program. This analysis will provide a baseline for mobile sources to allow Sandia to estimate any future activity and how that activity will impact CO emissions. The General Conformity Rule (AQCR 43) requires that operations which will increase CO emissions in nonattaimnent or maintenance areas such as Bernalillo County undergo conformity analyses to determine whether or not they will impact ambient air quality in the area.

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

  18. Spectroscopic detection of Carbon Monoxide in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rho, Jeonghee; Cami, Jan; Reach, William

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO) emission from the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) at wavelengths corresponding to the fundamental vibrational mode at 4.65 micron. We obtained AKARI Infrared Camera spectra towards 4 positions which unambiguously reveal the broad characteristic CO ro-vibrational band profile. The observed positions include unshocked ejecta at the center, indicating that CO molecules form in the ejecta at an early phase. We extracted a dozen spectra across Cas A along the long 1 arcmin slits, and compared these to simple CO emission models in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium to obtain first-order estimates of the excitation temperatures and CO masses involved. Our observations suggest that significant amounts of carbon may have been locked up in CO since the explosion 330 years ago. Surprisingly, CO has not been efficiently destroyed by reactions with ionized He or the energetic electrons created by the decay of the radiative nuclei. Our CO detection thus implies that...

  19. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  20. Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amar C. Vutha; Wesley C. Campbell; Yulia V. Gurevich; Nicholas R. Hutzler; Maxwell Parsons; David Patterson; Elizabeth Petrik; Benjamin Spaun; John M. Doyle; Gerald Gabrielse; David DeMille

    2010-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is a signature of CP-violating physics beyond the Standard Model. We describe an ongoing experiment to measure or set improved limits to the eEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules. The metastable $H {}^3\\Delta_1$ state in ThO has important advantages for such an experiment. We argue that the statistical uncertainty of an eEDM measurement could be improved by as much as 3 orders of magnitude compared to the current experimental limit, in a first-generation apparatus using a cold ThO beam. We describe our measurements of the $H$ state lifetime and the production of ThO molecules in a beam, which provide crucial data for the eEDM sensitivity estimate. ThO also has ideal properties for the rejection of a number of known systematic errors; these properties and their implications are described.

  1. Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas R. Ayres; Claude Plymate; Christoph U. Keller

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.

  2. The role of surface structure in carbon-monoxide hydrogenation on cobalt catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B.G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of surface structure on the CO hydrogenation reaction were investigated by comparing the activity and selectivity of submonolayer cobalt deposited on W(110) and W(100) with that of carbonyl-derived Co/alumina catalysts of varying dispersion. The structure, stability, surface electronic properties, and chemisorptive properties of vapor deposited cobalt overlayers (0-4 ML) on W(110) and W(100) were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy, low electron diffraction, work function changes, and temperature programmed desorption of cobalt, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. The chemisorptive properties of the cobalt overlayers are quite different from those of bulk cobalt surfaces. The Co/W surface have highly strained and different geometries but have similar CO hydrogenation activity. The activity nearly matches that of the highly active, highly reduced Co/alumina catalysts, showing that the activity of cobalt surfaces is independent of surface structure. The specific activity of carbonyl-derived catalysts appears to be more closely related to the extent of reduction and the support dehydroxylation temperatures than to the dispersion. Thus, the chemical nature of the support surface is the controlling factor in determining the specific activity of supported cobalt catalysts. CO hydrogenation on cobalt is neither primary nor secondary structure sensitive.

  3. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  4. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  5. An advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF{sub 6} volatilization and chromatographic separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Yuezhou [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Liu, Ruiqin; Wu, Yan; Zu, Jianhua; Zhao, Long [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Mimura, Hitoshi [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Shi, Weiqun; Chai, Zhifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Jinling; Ding, Youqian [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To recover U, Pu, MA (Np, Am, Cm) and some specific fission products FPs (Cs, Sr, Tc, etc.) from various spent nuclear fuels (LWR/FBR: Oxide, Metal Fuels), we are studying an advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization (Pyro) and chromatographic separation (Aqueous). Spent fuels are de-cladded by means of thermal and mechanical methods and then applied to the fluorination/volatilization process, which selectively recovers the most amount of U. Then, the remained fuel components are converted to oxides and dissolved by HNO{sub 3} solution. Compared to U, since Pu, MA and FPs are significantly less abundant in spent fuels, the scale of the aqueous separation process could become reasonably small and result in less waste. For the chromatographic separation processes, we have prepared different types of porous silica-based organic/inorganic adsorbents with fast diffusion kinetics, improved chemical stability and low pressure drop in a packed column. So they are advantageously applicable to efficient separation of the actinides and FP elements from the fuel dissolved solution. In this work, adsorption and separation behavior of representative actinides and FP elements was studied. Small scale separation tests using simulated and genuine fuel dissolved solutions were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed process. (authors)

  6. Impact of Storage Time on the Needed Capture Efficiency for Volatile Radionuclides - 13369

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R.T.; Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States); Soelberg, N.R. [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel (UNF), volatile radionuclides will be discharged from the facility stack if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I. There are three key regulations that address the release of these radionuclides to the environment- 40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 190, and 10 CFR 20. These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and establish dose limits for the maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the public both in terms of whole body dose and dose to specific organs such as the thyroid. Each radionuclide released to the environment contributes to the total dose to some degree. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the efficiency requirements for the capture processes to limit the doses to the MEI to regulatory levels. Since the total amount of each volatile radionuclide present in the UNF changes with the age of the fuel, the respective capture requirements also change with time. Specifically, we are interested in the impact of the decreasing contribution of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr, which have relatively short half-lives, 12.32 y and 10.76 y, respectively, with the increasing age of the fuel (i.e., time between when the UNF is removed from the reactor and the time it is processed) on the capture requirements. In this paper we examine the capture requirements for these four radionuclides for three fuel types (pressurized water reactor [PWR] with uranium oxide fuel [UOX], PWR with mixed oxide fuel [MOX], and an advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor [AHTGR]), several burnup values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculate doses to the MEI with the EPA code CAP-88 and look at two dose contribution cases. In the first case, we assume that the total allowable dose is attributed to only the four volatile radionuclides. This establishes the lowest capture efficiency value possible. Since this is unrealistic, because it assumes zero dose contribution from all other radionuclides, we also examine a second case, where only 10% of the allowable dose is assigned to the four volatile radionuclides. We calculate the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases for the three fuel types, multiple fuel burnups, and fuel ages and determine whether or not the dose to the whole body or to the thyroid that drives the capture requirements would require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. This analysis indicates that the principal isotopes of concern are generally {sup 3}H and {sup 129}I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for {sup 129}I is 8000 for the evaluated cases and assumptions used. ?60 for fresh fuels. The DF for {sup 14}C could be as high as 30 for certain fuels. These values are based on just meeting the regulatory limits, and additional engineering margins (perhaps 3x to 10x or higher) should be applied to provide a safety factor for compliance. However, by assuming less conservative dose allocations, taller stacks, different radionuclide speciation, fuel aging, and other reprocessing facility design and location parameters, the DF requirements could be significantly reduced. (authors)

  7. Freeway Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting by Considering Traffic Volatility Dynamics and Missing Data Situations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanru

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , assuming constant variance when perform forecasting. This method does not consider the volatility nature of traffic flow data. This paper demonstrated that the variance part of traffic flow data is not constant, and dependency exists. A volatility model...

  8. Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,

  9. Kinetics of the Reduction of Wüstite by Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide for the Chemical Looping Production of Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen; Lim, Jin Yang; Saucedo, Marco A.; Hayhurst, Allan N.; Scott, Stuart A.; Dennis, J. S.

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    produced could be stored, e.g. by geological sequestration, making the overall process “carbon-neutral”, or “carbon-negative” when biomass is used as fuel. In addition, the hydrogen produced during the oxidation of FexO and metallic Fe in steam can be kept... Kinetics of the reduction of wüstite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide for the chemical looping production of hydrogen Wen Liu a,n, Jin Yang Lim b, Marco A. Saucedo a, Allan N. Hayhurst b, Stuart A. Scott a, J.S. Dennis b a Department of Engineering...

  10. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  11. Adsorption -capacity data for 283 organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption on activated carbon is a widely used method for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gases and other exhaust streams. This article presents a compilation of adsorption-capacity data as a function of the VOC concentration in the gas. The results are useful in engineering and environmental studies, and in the design of carbon-based adsorption systems to remove unwanted organic pollutants from gases. For vapor control, carbon-based systems typically combine a carbon-adsorption unit with a secondary control method to reclaim or destroy the vapors desorbed during carbon-bed regeneration. To remove organics dissolved in wastewater, air stripping is typically used to transfer the organics to a vapor stream. Carbon adsorption is then used to separate the organics from the stripper exhaust. Collected vapors can be recovered for reuse or destroyed, depending on their value.

  12. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.a Hedge Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger,wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during

  13. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of ammonium sulfate to carbonate systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feagley, Sam Edward

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from surface application of' ammonium fertilizers to calcareous soils 7 Ammonia Volatilization from Limed, Acid Soil Comparison of ammonia vole, tilization from different ammonium fertilizers Other factors affecting ammonia volatilization 10...-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization from a limed, acid soil supporting Coastal bermudagrass as affected by calcium carbonate . 58 Student-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization i'rom a limed. , acid soil supporting...

  14. Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia Laetitia perception and brain cognitive state. Prolonged general anesthesia has an impact on many of these processes anesthesia administered accompanying a neurosurgical procedure. Using a predicted-peptide database and hybrid

  15. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of plants for the treatment of environmental pollutants (1, 2). Plants act as solar-powered pumpEnhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees Sharon L. Doty 98195-2100; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

  16. Predicting Market-Volatility from Federal Reserve Board Meeting Minutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    been applied to predict intra-day stock market returns, e.g. by (Pui Cheong Fung et al., 2003Predicting Market-Volatility from Federal Reserve Board Meeting Minutes NLP for Finance Reza Bosagh Zadeh, Andreas Zollmann 1 Introduction Predicting markets has always had a certain appeal to researchers

  17. Modeling Energy Market Volatility Using REMI October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    ;Disclaimer #12;Some Background on Energy Market Volatility (EMV) · EMV is defined here to include price techniques #12;Some Specifics · Energy Prices in real (and nominal) terms are highly variable ­ Including oil Sources: WTI prices from EIA, Short Term Energy Outlook, Table 2 and GDP deflator from Bureau of Economic

  18. Ammonia volatilization from soils with surface rice straw residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barghassa, Peyam

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rice residue and related factors on NH3 volatilization from an acid Beaumont clay (pH 5.4) and an alkaline Lake Charles clay (pH 7.4). The treatments in the greenhouse and lab consisted of all possible combinations of the following variables: surface...

  19. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Nathaniel B.

    organic matter is further hydrolyzed and fermented to LMW-DOC, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (2 (9­12). The organic carbon consumed by sulfate- reducing bacteria is often VFAs, such as acetic acid is recycled or buried. A diverse consor- tium of microorganisms that hydrolyze, ferment, and terminally

  20. Thin-Film Solid-Phase Extraction To Measure Fugacities of Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobas, Frank

    Thin-Film Solid-Phase Extraction To Measure Fugacities of Organic Chemicals with Low Volatility organic chemicals ranging in octanol-air partition coefficients from 105.6 to 109.2. Thin films feasibility, equilibration times, reproducibility, and property characteristics of the thin films

  1. Final Report for Organic Partitioning Resulting from Operation of an INTEC Double-needle Sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael B. Heiser

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The double needle sampler testing is a continuation of previous test series that investigated the fate of organic species in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) system at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This test series was designed to investigate the effects of operation of the double needle sampling systems on volatile organic constituents in an acidic feed matrix.

  2. ELSEVIER Physica A 245 (1997) 441445 Volatility distribution in the S&P500 stock index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cizeau a, Yanhui Liu a, Martin Meyer a, C.-K. Peng b,a, H. Eugene Stanley a,. aCenter Jbr Polymer Studies Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA Received 15 August 1997 Abstract We study the volatility; Volatility; S&P500; Multiplicative processes The volatility is a measure of the mean fluctuation of a market

  3. The tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 genes contribute to the formation of the flavor volatiles b-ionone,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klee, Harry J.

    volatiles b-ionone, pseudoionone, and geranylacetone Andrew J. Simkin1 , Steven H. Schwartz2 , Michele

  4. Method for refreshing a non-volatile memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riekels, James E. (New Hope, MN); Schlesinger, Samuel (Aventura, FL)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-volatile memory and a method of refreshing a memory are described. The method includes allowing an external system to control refreshing operations within the memory. The memory may generate a refresh request signal and transmit the refresh request signal to the external system. When the external system finds an available time to process the refresh request, the external system acknowledges the refresh request and transmits a refresh acknowledge signal to the memory. The memory may also comprise a page register for reading and rewriting a data state back to the memory. The page register may comprise latches in lieu of supplemental non-volatile storage elements, thereby conserving real estate within the memory.

  5. Potentiometric CO titrations of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and CO-inhibition of the NI-removing reaction with 1,10--phenanthroline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, William Kent

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzes two reactions involving redox chemistry (the reversible oxidation Of CO to C02, and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA) using three types of Ni and Fe-S structures called the A-, B...

  6. New, improved equation solves for volatile oil, condensate reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, M.P. (Petroleum Recovery Research Inst., Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generalized material-balance equation (GMBE) can be applied to the full range of reservoir fluids, including volatile oil and gas condensate. The GMBE replaces the nearly 60-year-old conventional material-balance equation (CMBE). Material balance methods are routinely used by petroleum engineers to estimate reserves. The so-called straight-line methods are the most common. Two of the most popular are: P/z-plot for estimating gas reserves in a dry-gas reservoir; and Havlena and Odeh method for estimating original oil-in-place (N) and original gas-in-place (G) in a black-oil reservoir. A major shortcoming of these and other straight-line methods is that none apply to the full range of reservoir fluids and very few, if any, deal satisfactorily with volatile oil and rich gas condensate. Also, the limits of the methods are not well defined. As drilling goes deeper and more volatile oil and gas-condensate reservoirs are discovered, there is a growing need for a general straight-line method to estimate N and G. For the GMBE, no restrictions are placed on the initial fluid compositions.

  7. 6, 1152111559, 2006 Including the plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and carbon dioxide, and is a major source of other compounds such as carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic25 compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO+NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and organic halo- 11522 #12;ACPD 6, 11521 recognize which columns have fires. Using a land use dataset appropriate fire properties are selected

  8. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  9. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary-butyl- ether (MTBE) and the biomass burningfrom all source categories. MTBE is a gasoline additive andwith the fuel tracer MTBE (e.g. 0.82 for MTBE/benzene).

  10. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  11. Sampling Throughout The Hydrologic Cycle To Characterize Sources Of Volatile Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    ether (MTBE) are sufficiently high to cause detection in ground water, whereas atmospheric that point sources of MTBE, such as spills or infiltration of urban runoff, are also prevalent are widespread. MTBE is detected less frequently in observation wells that tap 10- to 15-year-old ground water

  12. QUANTIFYING NON-POINT SOURCES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STORMWATER FROM A PARKING LOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -butyl ether (MTBE) on urban particles indicates a site- specific interaction between MTBE and a particulate is a possible source only for the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Lopes and Bender (1998

  13. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, AbraOF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, Abrareporting indoor air contamination (6,7). Estimation of

  14. Methyl halide and biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes from perennial bioenergy crops and annual arable crops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Eilidh Christina

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The depletion of fossil fuel resources, pollution concerns and the challenge of energy security are driving the search for renewable energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an energy source is increasing ...

  15. Hybrid membranes and their use in volatile organic compound/air separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krohn, John Eric

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of membrane. This housing is equipped with a gasket seal between the high and low pressure sides ol tbe membrane. While the feed/retentate side of the membrane is held at 20-30 in HtO above atmospheric pressure, the permeate side is held at approximately...

  16. Measurements and receptor modeling of volatile organic compounds in Southeastern Mexico City, 2000 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    to account for non-vehicular emissions entering the tunnel from outside. The time for each sample was 2 hours Traffic count Total: 673 vehicles per hour Gasoline vehicle (car, pickup): 91% Diesel vehicle (truck / bus (truck / bus): 11% motor bike: 3% Figure 2. Fotos from inside the Subterránea (left and middle panel

  17. Photochemical aging of volatile organic compounds in the Los Angeles basin: Weekday-weekend effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    in ozone, caused by lower NOx emissions due to reduced diesel truck traffic in the weekends, has been previously observed in Los Angeles and other cities. Measurements in the Caldecott tunnel show that emission nonattainment area. [3] In the LA basin the main emission sources for the ozone precursors VOCs and NOx (NO + NO

  18. A study of the tropospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broekhuizen, Keith Edward, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms and kinetics of reactions important to the troposphere have been investigated using a high pressure, turbulent, discharge-flow technique coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The ability to ...

  19. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Wang, T.; Chameides, W. L; Cardelino, C.; Blake, D. R; Streets, D. G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    related to industrial/petrochemical activities. This in turnrelated to industrial/petrochemical activities. However,were likely related to petrochemical/industrial, waterfront,

  20. Effect of moisture on air stripping of non volatile organic contaminants from soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Roberto

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Institute of Technology Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Aydin Akgerman More than 40% of the United States population relies on ground water for drinking, and approximately 25% of fresh water for all purposes is obtained from the ground. Contamination... is usually a more economical alternative of soil treatment than excavation and off site disposal or incineration. The removed contaminants are usually tdath~a?ah *ith lig, ' tal * . H* activated carbon-adsorption. system. may&e installeddf the...

  1. Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

    emission sources, SCE has identified and evaluated a number of alternative solutions and is currently implementing four demonstrations for promising technologies. The SCE program focuses on three major strategies: (1) reformulation, (2) application... is primarily a three-pronged approach, consisting of problem identification, alternatives evaluation, and technology demonstrations. For problem identification, the main thrust was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the California state and the South...

  2. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and dispersion of a Mexico City pollution out- flow eventon air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area,pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico

  3. Removal of hydrophobic Volatile Organic Compounds1 in an integrated process coupling Absorption and2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is an interesting method, owing to the low pressure drop generated and68 the low maintenance needed, contrarily to membrane processes that require high working pressures to69 treat low gas flow rates (Fig. 1). An emerging of the process, hydrophobic VOC27 absorption in a gas-liquid contactor, and biodegradation in the TPPB. VOC

  4. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acrylate Ethy lbenzene 3-Methyl- 1-butanol Pyridine Pyrroleethyl acrylate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, N-nitrosodiethylamineEthylbenzene Formaldehyde 3-Methyl-1-butanol Phenol Styrene

  5. Adsorption and desorption of binary mixtures of volatile organic contaminants on soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yang

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the potential theory and the ideal adsorbed solution theory for mixture adsorption were also evaluated for prediction of the experimental results for binary adsorption. All models failed for prediction of the BET type III isotherms when methanol was present...

  6. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

  7. In-situ remediation system for volatile organic compounds with deep recharge mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jr., Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (Augusta, SC); Phifer, Mark A. (Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the treatment and remediation of a contaminated aquifer in the presence of an uncontaminated aquifer at a different hydraulic potential. The apparatus consists of a wellbore inserted through a first aquifer and into a second aquifer, an inner cylinder within the wellbore is supported and sealed to the wellbore to prevent communication between the two aquifers. Air injection is used to sparge the liquid having the higher static water level and, to airlift it to a height whereby it spills into the inner cylinder. The second treatment area provides treatment in the form of aeration or treatment with a material. Vapor stripped in sparging is vented to the atmosphere. Treated water is returned to the aquifer having the lower hydraulic potential.

  8. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS – FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddalena, Randy L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 No. 11/12, pp. 420-429. Battelle. 1996. Determination ofFactors from CARB’s Battelle (1996) study 1 41California, conducted by Battelle Labs during 1995 (Battelle

  9. Removal of volatile organic compounds from polluted air in a reverse flow reactor: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beld, B. van de; Borman, R.A.; Derkx, O.R.; Woezik, B.A.A. van; Westerterp, K.R. (Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of the reverse flow reactor for the purification of contaminated air has been carried out. An experimental reactor with an inner diameter of 0.145 m has been constructed. It almost completely reached the goal of an adiabatically operating system. The influence of several operating parameters such as gas velocity, cycle period, chemical character, and concentration of the pollutants and reactor pressure are discussed. The reactor could be operated autothermally provided that the inlet concentrations were sufficiently high. If a mixture of contaminants is fed to the reactor, it might be necessary to increase the total hydrocarbon concentration to assure an autothermal process. Increasing the reactor pressure will hardly change the axial temperature profiles, if the mass flux is kept constant. Increasing the mass flow rate will lead to a higher plateau temperature. Not only the reactor behavior at fixed operating conditions, but also the response of the reactor toward variations in inlet conditions is reported.

  10. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diurnal, hot-soak, and running loss emissions lie somewherea contribution from running loss evaporative emissions. Asof diurnal, hot-soak, and running loss evaporative emissions

  11. Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    emissions associated with venting of fuel tank vapors as temperature increases during the day, running loss

  12. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. Haszpra, L. and Szilagyi, I. : Non-methane hydrocarbonet al. , 1990; Haszpra and Szilagyi, 1994; Gertler et al. ,

  13. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chang Hyoun

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    11. INTRODUCTION Air quality studies overwhelmingly focus on the concentration of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria air pollutants using monitoring and numerical modeling. While the latter uses surface fluxes from emission... chemistry and public health. Urban air pollution sources are related to a multitude of land-uses and human-made structures, which, together with natural and introduced vegetation, make up the urban fabric. To measure pollutant flux over urban terrain, a...

  14. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. R. , and Hao, W. M. : Emissions from forest fires nearM. O. and Merlet, P. : Emission of trace gases and aerosolsW. : Automo- bile Emissions of Acetonitrile: Assessment of

  15. COMPOSITING WATER SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Thomas J. Lopes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile, 1998). However, automatic VOC samplers are expensive, sometimes have uncertain reliability, and may

  16. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Routh, J.; Grossman, E. L.; Ulrich, G. A.; Suflita, J. M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reducing bacteria (SRB) in sands. Notably, SRB activity is mostly confined to aquifer sands. Vertical diffusion and advection were modeled to estimate acetic acid transport from aquitard to aquifer. Assuming that SRB completely respire the acetic acid...

  17. Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit J. J. Harrison & P. F. Bernath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ethane retrievals are currently being optimised by updating and improving the microwindow set. Propane cross sections have also been determined from spectra recorded at the MSF. Propane 215 K Propane Q

  18. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propeneethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane. These fiveVOCs emitted. The high propane and n-butane emissions were

  19. Class 2 Permit Modification Request Revise Volatile Organic Compound Monitoring Procedures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2 Permit Modification Request Revise

  20. NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate1, Issue 23 NETL NEVIS- NIF|7, 2015 NMED3 NMED

  1. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the LostDepartment ofParticulate andExhaust

  2. Leadership, Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    Leadership, Policy & Organizations #12;2 At Peabody students have the opportunity to develop new College, in the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations (LPO). The faculty believes Patricia and Rodes Hart Chair, and Professor of Education Policy and Leadership, Ellen Goldring also serves

  3. Improvement of SOFC Electrodes through Catalyst Infiltration & Control of Cr Volatilization from FeCr Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, S.J.; Jacobson, C.; Kurokawa, H.; Sholklapper, T.; Lu, C.; De Jonghe, L.

    2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the improvement of SOFC electrodes through catalyst infiltration and control of Cr volatilization from FeCr components.

  4. Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hargrove, W. L

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to measure volatilized NH3 in the labora- tory. A) Vacuum pump, B) Boric acid trap to collect volatilized NH ~ C) NH3 volatilization chamber, D) Trkp to re- move NH3 from incoming air . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A schematic of the apparatus used to make... direct measurements of NH losses in the field. A) Vacuum pum), B) Boric acid trap, C) NH volatilization chamber, consisting of metal cylinder and plexi- glass top The cumulative NH losses over time for four rates of' a)plication of urea...

  5. Commodity Price Volatility and the Sources of Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    -2000, show that higher levels of exchange rate volatility can stunt growth, especially in countries with thin capital markets. Bleaney and Greenaway (2001) estimate a panel data model for a sample of 14 sub-Saharan African countries over 1980-1995 and show... countries, we set t0 to this year.5 Furthermore, we assume a depreciation rate, #14;, of six percent and compute the subsequent values of the capital stock as: Kit = (1#0; #14;)Kit#0;1 + Iit: (6) 3.3 Human Capital Stock To calculate the level of human...

  6. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 µm spectral region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity ...

  7. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  8. Volatile Loss and Classification of Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, R E; Young, L A; Volkov, A N; Schmidt, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations indicate that some of the largest Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have retained volatiles in the gas phase, which implies the presence of an atmosphere that can affect their reflectance spectra and thermal balance. Volatile escape rates driven by solar heating of the surface were estimated by Schaller and Brown (2007) (SB) and Levi and Podolak (2009)(LP) using Jeans escape from the surface and a hydrodynamic model respectively. Based on recent molecular kinetic simulations these rates can be hugely in error (e.g., a factor of $\\sim 10^{16}$ for the SB estimate for Pluto). In this paper we estimate the loss of primordial N$_2$ for several large KBOs guided by recent molecular kinetic simulations of escape due to solar heating of the surface and due to UV/EUV heating of the upper atmosphere. For the latter we extrapolate simulations of escape from Pluto (Erwin et al. 2013) using the energy limited escape model recently validated for the KBOs of interest by molecular kinetic simulations (Johnson et al. 2...

  9. Volatility-- a statistical comparison between the secondary and primary home markets : the lower Cape's volatility and average return compared to three Boston area primary markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Craig, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis attempts to analyze the long-standing perception that the secondary home market, homes built in and around vacation areas, is more volatile than the primary home market. For the first time, this study measures ...

  10. Environmental factors affecting the permitting of a gas turbine cogeneration system located in an area designated non-attainment for ozone and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Memarzadeh, F. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Office of Research

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will describe air permitting regulations that apply to a new cogeneration facility or the modification of any existing facility. The permitting depends on several factors including the attainment status of the emitted criteria pollutants within the project area, with the facility classified as either a ``major new source`` or a ``major modification``. Depending on the attainment status of a given pollutant, either the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) or the Non-attainment area (NAA) regulations (Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990) will apply for that pollutant. Since the greatest percentage of emissions generated by a gas turbine are nitrogen oxides (ozone precursors) and carbon monoxide this paper presents an overview of clean air regulations pertinent to those areas of the country that are designated as attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and lead (Pb), and as areas of nonattainment for ozone (O{sub 3}) and carbon monoxide (CO). A hypothetical case is presented and all the environmental issues such as applicability of PSD and NAA regulations, available pollution offsets, and air quality compliance requirements for a modification to an existing facility located in a serious ozone and moderate carbon monoxide non-attainment area will be illustrated.

  11. Cross-Section of Option Returns and Volatility Goizueta Business School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compute the stock's IV by taking the average of the ATM call and put implied-volatilities. This also-section of stock option returns by constructing decile portfolios of straddles and delta-hedged calls and puts based on sorting stocks on the differ- ence between historical realized volatility and at

  12. A comparison of option prices under different pricing measures in a stochastic volatility model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    A comparison of option prices under different pricing measures in a stochastic volatility model with correlation Vicky Henderson Princeton University David Hobson § University of Bath Sam Howison ¶ University option prices in an incomplete stochastic volatility model with correlation. In a general setting, we

  13. Buying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Professor of Purchasing Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    , in markets like money, stock or oil markets; sometimes they are rather lengthy, in markets like the steelBuying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Jan Telgen Professor of Purchasing Management Many commodities are bought in a volatile market, where the purchasing price changes constantly

  14. Volatility Forecasts in Financial Time Series with HMM-GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Volatility Forecasts in Financial Time Series with HMM-GARCH Models Xiong-Fei Zhuang and Lai {xfzhuang,lwchan}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract. Nowadays many researchers use GARCH models to generate of the two parameters G1 and A1[1], in GARCH models is usually too high. Since volatility forecasts in GARCH

  15. Output Growth and Its Volatility: The Gold Standard through the Great Moderation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    of real GDP growth and some form of a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH GARCH or exponential GARCH (EGARCH) process, capturing the movement in volatility. The neglect persistence in the conditional volatility or integrated GARCH (IGARCH). That is, typically all persistence

  16. Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1 Kazuko interval between price volatilities that are above a certain threshold q for 31 intraday data sets Yamasaki,1,2 Shlomo Havlin,1,3 and H. Eugene Stanley1 1 Center for Polymer Studies and Department

  17. Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity Philip A and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. Although volatile depletion was the most fundamental chemical process affecting the inner solar nebula

  18. Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation Kaushalya COCs) Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) Volatility Fate and transport Hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity a b s t r a c t In this study, we examined the feasibility of membrane distillation (MD) for removing

  19. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

  20. Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

  1. Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

  2. Prediction of risk-based screening levels for infiltration of volatile subsurface contaminants into buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hers, I.; Zapf-Gilje, R.; Petrovic, S. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Macfarlane, M.; McLenehan, R. [British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) approach is increasingly being used for the management of contaminated sites. Fundamental to this approach is the prediction of risk-based screening levels (RBSL) for operable exposure pathways. Screening level models currently used indicate that RBSLs for the indoor inhalation pathway can be significantly lower than other pathways typically considered. This paper presents the results of a screening level spreadsheet model used to predict human health risks resulting from infiltration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings. The model was developed to derive RBSLs for soil and groundwater for possible future incorporation into the regulation of contaminated sites in British Columbia. Key features of the semi-analytical VOC infiltration model are steady-state diffusive mass transfer through soil coupled with advective and diffusive mass transfer through a cracked building floor slab or wall, source mass depletion of soil contaminants present using a mass balance approach, and the capability to incorporate multi-component chemical partitioning for soils containing non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). The critical factors affecting VOC infiltration and resulting health risks are presented.

  3. Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herce, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

  4. System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT)

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

  5. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  6. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Havlin, Shlomo; Kaizoji, Taisei; Moon, Hie-Tae; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold $q$ for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval $\\tau$ and its mean $$. We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  7. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  8. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  9. Bayesian analysis of GARCH and stochastic volatility: modeling leverage, jumps and heavy-tails for financial time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolpert, Robert L

    Bayesian analysis of GARCH and stochastic volatility: modeling leverage, jumps and heavy for two broad major classes of varying volatility model, GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV) models-t errors yields the best performance among the competing models on the return data. Key words: GARCH, Heavy

  10. Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price a call op-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Privault, Nicolas

    is the price of light sweet crude oil futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), basedChapter 7 Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price the historical, implied, and local volatility models, and refer to [26] for stochastic volatility models. 7

  11. A Big Data Approach to Analyzing Market Volatility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Gu, Ming; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the microstructure of the financial market requires the processing of a vast amount of data related to individual trades, and sometimes even multiple levels of quotes. Analyzing such a large volume of data requires tremendous computing power that is not easily available to financial academics and regulators. Fortunately, public funded High Performance Computing (HPC) power is widely available at the National Laboratories in the US. In this paper we demonstrate that the HPC resource and the techniques for data-intensive sciences can be used to greatly accelerate the computation of an early warning indicator called Volume-synchronized Probability of Informed trading (VPIN). The test data used in this study contains five and a half year?s worth of trading data for about 100 most liquid futures contracts, includes about 3 billion trades, and takes 140GB as text files. By using (1) a more efficient file format for storing the trading records, (2) more effective data structures and algorithms, and (3) parallelizing the computations, we are able to explore 16,000 different ways of computing VPIN in less than 20 hours on a 32-core IBM DataPlex machine. Our test demonstrates that a modest computer is sufficient to monitor a vast number of trading activities in real-time ? an ability that could be valuable to regulators. Our test results also confirm that VPIN is a strong predictor of liquidity-induced volatility. With appropriate parameter choices, the false positive rates are about 7percent averaged over all the futures contracts in the test data set. More specifically, when VPIN values rise above a threshold (CDF > 0.99), the volatility in the subsequent time windows is higher than the average in 93percent of the cases.

  12. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

  13. 7, 85718595, 2007 sensitivity to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and carbon dioxide, and is a major source of other compounds such as carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic of the emitted tracer is calculated based on field observations of fire properties related to the type- ing, when available, or from statistical properties of the burn scars. The sources are then spatially

  14. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Xing, Mingyou [Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Liu, Liegang [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yao, Ping, E-mail: yaoping@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 ?mol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  15. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  17. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  18. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marathe, Achla

    permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US Lester Hadsell; Achla

  19. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon AboutOrganizing Committee

  20. Volatility of hotel market fundamentals and the determinants of variations between markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cason, Brian (Brian Paul)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How can volatility as well as other dynamics and characteristics in hotel market fundamentals affecting risk be better understood? This paper explores that fundamental question along with other more specific questions that ...

  1. HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CLOUDY MINI-NEPTUNES AND WATER/VOLATILE-DOMINATED SUPER-EARTHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benneke, Björn

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H2-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated ...

  2. The Effect of Growth Volatility on Income Inequality Ho-Chuan (River) Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    positively affects growth. Barro (2000) uncovers a nonlinear inequality-growth nexus, with inequality growth in low-income ones. Rather than examining the volatility-growth or the inequality-growth linkages

  3. A statistical analysis of the natural gas futures market : the interplay of sentiment, volatility and prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fazzio, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attempts to understand the price dynamics of the North American natural gas market through a statistical survey that includes an analysis of the variables influencing the price and volatility of this energy ...

  4. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  5. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  6. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  7. Identification and evaluation of volatile compounds associated with vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged fresh red meats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Timothy Court

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH VACUUM AND MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED FRESH RED MEATS A Thesis by TIMOTHY COURT JACKSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH VACUUM AND MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED FRESH RED MEATS A...

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is often noted that energy prices are quite volatile, reflecting market participants' adjustments to new information from physical energy markets and/or markets in energy-related financial derivatives. Price volatility is an indication of the level of uncertainty, or risk, in the market. This paper describes how markets price risk and how the marketclearing process for risk transfer can be used to generate "price bands" around observed futures prices for crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities.

  9. From association to organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandler, George

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S.M. (1978). Organization theory and memory for prose: Aand summarize organization theory and relevant empiricalexplained in terms of organization theory. The hierarchical

  10. Organization Chart - Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  11. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hoffman, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (US); Gorelick, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  12. Erace--an integrated system for treating organic-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caley, S.M.; Heath, W.O.; Bergsman, T.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pillay, C.; Moss, R.W.; Shah, R.R.; Goheen, S.C.; Camiaoni, D.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a suite of electrical technologies for treating sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. These include: (1) Six-Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from soils; (2) In Situ Corona (ISC) to decompose nonvolatile and bound organic contaminants in soils; (3) High-Energy Corona (HEC) to treat contaminated off-gases; and (4) Liquid Corona (LC) to treat contaminated liquids. These four technologies comprise ERACE (Electrical Remediation at Contaminated Environments), an integrated system for accomplishing site remediation with little or no secondary wastes produced that would require off-site treatment or disposal. Each ERACE technology can be employed individually as a stand-alone treatment process, or combined as a system for total site remediation. For example, an ERACE system for treating sites contaminated with volatile organics would integrate SPSH to remove the contaminants from the soil, LC to continuously treat an aqueous stream condensed out of the soil off-gas, and HEC to treat non-condensibles remaining in the off-gas, before atmospheric release.

  13. LONG-TERM STABILITY TESTING RESULTS USING SURROGATES AND SORBENTS FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ORGANIC AND AQUEOUS WASTESTREAMS - 10016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  14. A study of the volatile matter of coal as a function of the heating rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanes, E.; Wilhite, D.; Riley, J.M. Jr. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the volatile matter yields as a function of the heating rate was conducted. A suite of 21 coal and coke samples varying in rank from anthracitic to lignitic and heating rates from 10{degrees}C/min to about 450{degrees}C/min were used in the study. Heating rates up to 60{degrees}C per minute, which are typically used in ASTM Test Method 5142 (instrumental Proximate Analysis), were achieved in a macro thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Heating rates of 50-200{degrees}C/min were obtained in a micro TGA system. All measurements were made in a nitrogen atmosphere. The results of the study illustrate the dependence of the volatile matter yield on the heating rate. For most coals and cokes the optimum heating rate for determining volatile matter values that agree with those obtained by ASTM Method D 3175 appears to be in the 100-150{degrees}C range.

  15. Determination of Henry's law constants of organics in dilute aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, K.C.; Zhou, Zhou; Yaws, C.L.; Aminabhavi, T.M. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate knowledge of Henry's law constants, H, or air/water partitioning coefficients are required to predict the behavior of organic compounds in the environment. In particular, when the compounds are relatively volatile and exhibit low solubility in water, air stripping may be a viable method for above-ground treatment. Henry's law constants of 15 volatile organic compounds in dilute aqueous solutions were measured by the procedure of equilibrium partitioning in a closed system. The method is based upon the measurement of the headspace concentration by gas chromatography. The compounds investigated included six halogenated hydrocarbons, four aromatic hydrocarbons, and five alkanes. The measurements were made at three temperatures between 25 and 45 C. The measured Henry's law constants compared well with the literature data of some liquids. The temperature dependence of Henry's law constant was also studied from the van't Hoff relation.

  16. Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: ? Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. ? Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions. ? Collect and analyze discharged glass to determine sulfur retention in the glass. ? Prepare and characterize feeds and glasses with the additives to confirm that the feeds and the glass melts are suitable for processing in the DM100 melter. ? Prepare and characterize glasses with the additives to confirm that the glasses meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements.

  17. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  18. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Waterford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  19. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  20. Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Schenectady, NY)

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  1. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  2. Gas-chromatographic identification of volatile products from thermal processing of Bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenkevich, I.G.; Ventura, K. [Advanced Chemical Engineering Institute, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The variety of bitumen industrial brands is evident in the significant variation of composition and ratio of volatile thermal processing products, which makes their detailed characterization difficult. For that reason, in the authors` opinion a simple and easily reproducible method for gas chromatographic analysis and identification of these substances should be of greater interest than gathering more such results. In this report the authors discuss the selection of an optimal combination of group and individual gas chromatographic methods for identification of volatile thermal processing products in the presence of air, using the example of AP bitumen, the main brand used in Czechoslavakia for production of asphalt. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  3. An unexpected journey: experimental insights into magma and volatile transport beneath Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iacovino, Kayla

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    fugacity of the volatile component and the concentration of that volatile dissolved in the melt. Because of the poor fit of our CO2 data to a power law regression, the pure-CO2 experiments of Lesne et al. (2011b) were used to create these isobars... /mantle boundary. Seismic and gravitational investigations on and around Ross Island suggest that this boundary is ?20 km deep (Cooper et al., 1994; Finotello et al., 2011; Newhall & Dzurisin, 1989). The evolution of the Erebus cone itself is inferred to have taken...

  4. Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    America and Europe, butwitha lower BC/CO slope. Ambient concentrations indicate high BC emission from South Asia: 2 Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996; National Research Council (NRC), 1996; Jacobson, 2001], but little; published 4 September 2002. [1] Air from South Asia carries heavy loadings of organic and light

  5. Reply to: "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--Evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra, and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from (2005) 559­572.]. We present here reasons why the alternative view of Mohapatra and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from nitrogen and noble

  6. NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN MLANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN MÉLANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE RUMEN DU problèmes techniques : infusion permanente et prolongée, dans le rumen, de quantités d'acides gras volatils début de l'infusion, les veaux étaient âgés d'environ 4 mois et pesaient respectivement 95 et 80 kg

  7. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  8. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

  9. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

  10. Low-Temperature, Vacuum-Aided Thermal Desorption Studies on a Simulated Organic Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. K. Farnsworth; D. R. Peterman; Gary L. Anderson; T. G. Garn

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an initial set of small scale lab tests conducted on surrogate waste materials to investigate mass release behavior of volatile organics (VOC’s) from a solidified liquid organic sludge matrix under vacuumaided, low-temperature thermal desorption conditions. Low temperature thermal desorption is being considered as a potential processing technology alternative to incineration, to remove gas generation limitations affecting the transportation of transuranic (TRU) contaminated organic sludge wastes to a designated off-site repository (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The lab-scale tests provide initial exploratory level information on temperature profiles and rates of volatile organic desorption for a range of initial VOC/oil liquid mixture concentrations in a calcium silicate matrix, under low temperature heating and vacuum boundary conditions that are representative of potentially desirable “in-drum desorption” conditions. The results of these tests indicate that reduced operating pressures have a potential for significantly enhancing the rate of thermal desorption experienced from a liquid organic/oil solidified “sludge” waste. Furthermore, the results indicate that in-drum thermal desorption can be performed on organic sludge wastes, at reduced pressures, while maintaining an operating temperature sufficiently low to prevent destruction of the waste drum packaging materials (confinement) surrounding the waste. The results also indicate that VOC release behavior/rates in the vacuum thermal desorption process cannot be represented by a simple liquid-liquid mass-diffusion model, since overall mass release rates observed are generally two orders of magnitude greater than predicted by simple liquid-liquid mass diffusion. This is partially attributed to the effects of the transient temperature profiles within the sludge during heat up; however, the primary cause is thought to be micro boiling of the volatile organics within the simulated sludge. Micro boiling of VOC’s would be expected to occur in localized volumes within the organic sludge where temperatures exceed the volatile organic saturation temperature sufficiently to form vapor bubbles. Further model based evaluations reflecting the transient temperatures, local boiling, and subsequent vapor in liquid/sludge transport conditions are needed, with supporting controlled testing of the vacuum-aided thermal desorption process at small and full-scale conditions in order to fully develop this process.

  11. French permanent survey on indoor air quality--microenvironmental concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 90 French dwellings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    conducted in France on indoor pollution. The survey's design (sampling, analytical methods, questionnaire, temperature, humidity) and questionnaires on building characteristics, occupants' description and time (30 compounds including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, BTEX) were measured by passive samplers, during 7

  12. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a low cost, reliable system that would lead to early detection of lung cancer. Tests involved the quantitation of gaseous metabolic emissions from immortalized lung ...

  13. Model Estimates of the Contributions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke to Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl ketone 2,3-Butadione Acrolein Limonene 1,3-Butadieneconcentrations for for acrolein, acetaldehyde and 1,3-

  14. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform in Houston, Texas: Trends and Tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Martin C

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , and xylenes (BTEX) from winter 2009 compared to spring 2013. Median concentrations over the four-year period fell between 20 to 34 percent, comparable to long-term VOC reduction trends observed in other major metropolitan areas. Emissions of these species fell...

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer characterization samples: 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Keenan, M.A.; Van Pelt, R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Rossabi, J.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples were collected during the A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer Characterization (Phase I) Program. The samples were analyzed for chlorinated VOCs by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and MicroSeeps Ltd. All samples were sealed in the field immediately upon retrieval of the core and subsampling. A total of 113 samples locations were selected for analysis. The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of SRTC analyzed all locations in duplicate (226 samples). MicroSeeps Ltd was selected as the quality assurance (QA) check laboratory. MicroSeeps Ltd analyzed 40 locations with 4 duplicates (44 samples). The samples were collected from seven boreholes in A/M Area in the interval from 200 feet deep to the total depth of the boring (360 feet deep nominal); samples were collected every 10 feet within this interval. The sampling zone corresponds approximately to the Crouch Branch Aquifer in A/M Area. The overall A/M Area Crouch Branch Aquifer characterization objectives, a brief description of A/M Area geology and hydrology, and the sample locations, field notes, driller lithologic logs, and required procedural documentation are presented in WSRC (1993).

  16. Comparisons of diffusive and advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    ) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions Kehua You a , Hongbin Zhan a,b, a Department of Geology

  17. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  18. Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets (LMPs) in an ISO-managed restructured wholesale power market operating over an AC transmission grid-determining) generation companies induce correlations among neighboring LMPs. Index Terms--Restructured wholesale power

  19. Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{ Huijiang the use of a filler liquid (e.g., oil). These properties pose challenges for delivering controlled volumes are introduced to the chip, independent of time delays between dispensing operations. On-demand dispensing

  20. Experimental evidence for interaction of water vapor and platinum crucibles at high temperatures : Implications for volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    The extraction of water from igneous rocks and minerals is classically achieved by induction heating or foils, to extract water from rocks or minerals should be avoided. The interaction high- lighted : Implications for volatiles from igneous rocks and minerals Matthieu Clog , Pierre Cartigny, Cyril Aubaud

  1. An empirical behavioral model of liquidity and volatility Szabolcs Mike and J. Doyne Farmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    develop a behavioral model for liquidity and volatility based on empirical reg- ularities in trading order interesting regularities in the way trading orders are placed and cancelled. The resulting simple model of absolute returns |r| are well described by a power law of the form P(|r| > R) R-r , with a value of r

  2. Investor-Voters and Electoral Volatility in Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asingo, Patrick Odhiambo

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    is harmful if it permanently blocks some groups in the society from accessing power (Giliomee and Simkins, 1999). One can also argue that in the new and emerging democracies, low volatility can raise doubt about the quality of the elections. Understanding...

  3. Experimental studies of actinide volatilities with application to mixed waste oxidation processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Condit, R.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The transpiration technique is used to measure volatilities of U from U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), Pu from PuO{sub 2}(s) and Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}/2%AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1300{degree}C.

  4. Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate isoenergetic infusions of either a low (17 mol/day of 64% acetic, 21% propionic and 15% butyric acids) or high that with infusions, energy and nitrogen needs were met and consisted of 60% maize silage, 10% hay, 21.5% energy

  5. Options introduction and volatility in the EU ETS1 Julien Chevallier 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of derivatives instruments on the underlying crude oil market and derived products. Thus, detecting whether identify a potential destabilizing effect of the introduction of options on the underlying market (EU ETS either decrease (due to more market depth) or increase (due to more speculation) volatility

  6. Volatile impurities in the ceramic form for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal for the impurity tests performed at SRS was to determine the maximum level of volatile impurities that can be accommodated into the ceramic form without significantly affecting product properties. The properties investigated in this study are the apparent porosity and the phase assemblage.

  7. Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 429..447

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 global heterogeneity in climate-induced agricultural variability,Tanzania has the potential to substan could thus export grain to countries as climate change increases the likelihood of severe precipitation

  8. Effets d'infusions d'un mlange complet d'acides gras volatils en cours de repas sur la prise alimentaire de vaches taries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets d'infusions d'un mélange complet d'acides gras volatils en cours de repas sur la prise-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Summary ― Infusions of 3 or 6 mol of a volatile fatty acid mixture dépressifs des infusions d'acides gras volatils (AGV) dans le rumen sur l'ingestion d'aliments ont été

  9. Organic Photovoltaics Philip Schulz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Field Effect Transistors Organic Light Emitting Diodes Organic Solar Cells .OFET, OTFT .RF-ID tag 1977 ­ Conductivity in polymers 1986 ­ First heterojunction OPV 1987 ­ First organic light emitting diode (OLED) 1993 ­ First OPV from solution processing 2001 ­ First certified organic solar cell with 2

  10. Departmental Organization and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective immediately, the Departmental organization structure reflected in the chart at Attachment 1 has been approved.

  11. Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Seinfeld

    2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

  12. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  13. Selective transformation of carbonyl ligands to organic molecules. Progress report, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, A.R.

    1985-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress report for this reporting period covers: (1) carbon monoxide fixation and synthesis reactions which includes C/sub 2/-C/sub 3/ oxygenated ligands and carbohydrate chemistry; (2) eta/sup 5//eta/sup 3/-indenyl tautomerization in promoting coordinated ligand reactions; (3) bimetallic activation of coordinated ligands which covers bimetallic eta (eta/sup 1/-C,O) acetyl complexes and bimetallic ..mu..-(eta/sup 2/-C,O) acetyl complexes. Some of the accomplishments include the following: incorporation of two carbonyls into the C/sub 2/-carbalkoxymethyl Fe complexes; conversion of the carbomethoxymethyl ligand on FpCH/sub 2/CO/sub 2/Me into the C/sub 3/ organic dimethyl malonate; investigation of synthesis reactions on transition organometallic complexes that incorporate CO ligands into a growing alkoxymethylene chain; and synthesis of Fe-Zr and Fe-W bimetallic u-(eta/sup 1/-C,O) acetyl complexes.

  14. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Batavia IL (USA) Prof. Dr. F. Krausz BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. B. Naroska Universität Hamburg Prof. Dr. F. Pauss European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Dr. N. Roe Lawrence Berkeley Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Dr. A. Wrulich Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (CH) 14 #12

  15. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg Prof. Dr. E. Jaeschke BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. W. Jentschke Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg (Ehrenmitglied) Dr. K.-H. Kissler European Organization for Particle Physics Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Prof. Dr. W. Sandner Max-Born-Institut, Berlin Dr. M

  16. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassel Prof. Dr. S. Großmann Fachbereich Physik, Universität Marburg Prof. Dr. E. Jaeschke BESSY Gmb Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Genf (CH) Prof. Dr. V. Metag Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung GSI, Darmstadt Dr. D. Möhl European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Genf (CH) Prof. Dr. J. Stachel

  17. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. W. Jentschke II. Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg (Ehrenmitglied) Dr. K.-H. Kissler European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Prof. Dr. K. Königsmann Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Dr. J. May European Organization for Particle Physics CERN

  18. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  19. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  20. Declining Volatility, a General Property of Disparate Systems: From Fossils, to Stocks, to the Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Bruce S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There may be structural principles pertaining to the general behavior of systems that lead to similarities in a variety of different contexts. Classic examples include the descriptive power of fractals, the importance of surface area to volume constraints, the universality of entropy in systems, and mathematical rules of growth and form. Documenting such overarching principles may represent a rejoinder to the Neodarwinian synthesis that emphasizes adaptation and competition. Instead, these principles could indicate the importance of constraint and structure on form and evolution. Here we document a potential example of a phenomenon suggesting congruent behavior of very different systems. We focus on the notion that universally there has been a tendency for more volatile entities to disappear from systems such that the net volatility in these systems tends to decline. We specifically focus on origination and extinction rates in the marine animal fossil record, the performance of stocks in the stock market, and...

  1. Volatile Profile Differences and the Associated Sirex noctilio Activity in Two Host Tree Species in the Northeastern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    induced higher volatile emission rates in the Scots pine chemotypes than in white pine, although. Truck Rd., Buzzards Bay, MA 02542, USA Present Address: K. Böröczky Department of Entomology, North

  2. Evaluation of the colossal electroresistance (CER) effect and its application in the non-volatile Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicaksono, Aulia Tegar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flash memory, the current leading technology for non-volatile memory (NVM), is projected by many to run obsolete in the face of future miniaturization trend in the semiconductor devices due to some of its technical ...

  3. The Impact of Tax Shocks and Oil Price Volatility on Risk - A Study of North Sea Oilfield Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kretzschmar, Gavin Lee; Moles, Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the impact of market volatility and increased fiscal take on risk in strategic natural resource projects. An increase in 2006 UK oilfield taxation is used as a natural experiment for assessing the impact of a ...

  4. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  5. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  6. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  7. The origin of complex organic molecules in prestellar cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vastel, Charlotte; Lefloch, Bertrand; Bachiller, Raphael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been detected in a variety of environments, including cold prestellar cores. Given the low temperature of these objects, these last detections challenge existing models. We report here new observations towards the prestellar core L1544. They are based on an unbiased spectral survey of the 3mm band at the IRAM-30m telescope, as part of the Large Program ASAI. The observations allow us to provide the full census of the oxygen bearing COMs in this source. We detected tricarbon monoxide, methanol, acetaldehyde, formic acid, ketene, and propyne with abundances varying from 5e-11 to 6e-9. The non-LTE analysis of the methanol lines shows that they are likely emitted at the border of the core, at a radius of ~8000 AU where T~10 K and nH2~2e4 cm-3. Previous works have shown that water vapour is enhanced in the same region because of the photodesorption of water ices. We propose that a non-thermal desorption mechanism is also responsible for the observed emission of methanol and CO...

  8. A new volatility term in the theory of options with transaction costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Morozovsky

    2000-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of transaction costs into the theory of option pricing could lead not only to the change of return for options, but also to the change of the volatility. On the base of assumption of the portfolio analysis, a new equation for option pricing with transaction costs is derived. A new solution for the option price is obtained for the time close to expiration date.

  9. The role of microorganisms in the production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in cheddar cheese slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce-Trevino, Raul

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of lac- tic cultures on the production of volatile sulfhydryl com- pounds in the slurries. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide were found in the headspace of slurries prepared from curd manufactured... by the culture procedure. Addition of an antibiotic mixture to slurries prepared from curd manufactured by the culture me- thod inhibited bacteria growth and the production of hydro- gen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. A mixture of antibiotics was added...

  10. The role of non-volatile memory from an application perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettering, Brett M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Current, emerging, and future NVM (non-volatile memory) technologies give us hope that we will be able to architect HPC (high performance computing) systems that initially use them in a memory and storage hierarchy, and eventually use them as the memory and storage for the system, complete with ownership and protections as a HDD-based (hard-disk-drive-based) file system provides today.

  11. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  12. Organics in soils and groundwater at non-arid sites (A-1) integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, J.L.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most common environmental problems in the United States is soils and groundwater contaminated with volatile chemical solvents classified as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which were used as degreasers and cleaning agents. Leakage of solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) from an underground process sewer line has contaminated soils and underlying groundwaters at SRS. This site was chosen for DOE-OTD`s integrated demonstration program to demonstrate innovative technologies for cleanup of soils and groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The Savannah River Site was especially well suited as the test bed for this integrated demonstration project due to the presence of a pre-existing line source of soil and groundwater-based contamination, on-going environmental remediation efforts at the site, and full cooperation from the concerned environmental regulatory agencies. The Integrated Demonstration (ID) at the Savannah River Site has demonstrated systems of technologies and evaluated them with respect to performance, safety and cost effectiveness.

  13. Organizing and Personalizing Intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Ah-Hwee

    Vista). More sophis- ticated ones, such as Northern Light, BullsEye and Copernic go a step further organize

  14. A study of volatile compounds in the breath of children with type 1 diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, S; Wei, C; Greenwood, R; Hamilton-Shield, J; Costello, B de Lacy; Ratcliffe, N; Probert, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot study of exhaled volatile compounds and their correlation with blood glucose levels in eight children with type 1 diabetes is reported. Five paired blood and breath samples were obtained from each child over a 6 hour period. The blood glucose concentration ranged from 41.4 to 435.6 mg/dL. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and immediately evacuated through thermal desorption tubes packed with Carbopack B and C. The VOCs were later recovered by thermal desorption and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study identified 74 volatile compounds present in at least 10% of the patient samples. Of these 74 volatiles 36 were found in all patient samples tested. Further analysis of the 36 compounds found that none showed significant overall correlation with blood glucose levels. Isoprene showed a weak negative correlation with blood glucose levels. Acetone was found to have no correlation with blood glucose levels for the patients studied. Some patients showed significant individu...

  15. Volatilization and mixing in glasses of some Apollo 14 regolith breccias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.H.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three unique samples can be distinguished by analysis of all glass types, including devitrified glasses, in a suite of 26 Apollo 14 regolith breccias. These unique samples include the well-studied sample 14315, which has an abundance of anorthositic gabbro glasses and devitrified glasses; 14004,77, which has no glasses other than those that match the local soil; and 14076,5, which contains no glasses similar to the local soil or to LKFM. Sample 14076,5 is clearly exotic, for it contains devitrified glasses of anorthositic composition and of a silica-volatilized (HASP) trend that stems from anorthosite; these silica-volatilized glasses contain the new mineral yoshiokite. HASP glasses in this exotic sample and HASP glass spheres that stem from the Apollo 14 soil composition differ greatly from the HASP glasses at Apollo 16. The various HASP glasses can be just as useful as non-volatilized glasses in searching or major crustal or regolith lithologies. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  17. CCPPolicyBriefing Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    . METHODOLOGY · The author incorporates the economic theory of organizations into the framework of public law to establish the theory of cartel organization, and calls for further studies to disclose the sophisticatedCCPPolicyBriefing September 2008 Cartel Organization and Antitrust Enforcement W: www

  18. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  19. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  20. From Population to Organization Thinking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, David; Maxfield, Robert; Read, Dwight W; van der Leeuw, Sander E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herbert Simon developed a theory of organization for complexin need of a theory of organization. As we have alreadya deeper theory of organization: complex networks,

  1. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongsuk Kang; Young-Gui Yoon; D. Thirumalai; Changbong Hyeon

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yeast ($N\\approx 1.2\\times 10^7$, $\\phi<\\phi_c^{\\infty}$) are equilibrated with no clear signature of such organization.

  2. Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Sociology: Computational Organization Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Kathleen; organization theory; organizational learning; social networks; expert systems Citation: Kathleen Carley, 1994, "Sociology: Computational Organization Theory." Social Science Computer Review, 12(4): 611-624. #12;Sociology

  3. Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors Nicholas J. Harmon semiconductors, disordered semiconductors, organic magnetoresistance, percolation theory, spin transport organic semiconductors. The theory proposed here maps the complex phenomena of spin-dependent hopping onto

  4. Feasibility of Organizations -A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Thomas

    Feasibility of Organizations - A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory with Application to P a theorem providing a criteria for an unfeasible organization. This is a refinement of organization theory organization. Key words: reaction networks, constructive dynamical systems, chem- ical organization theory

  5. Food Exemption Request Organization Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Food Exemption Request Organization Information Organization Received ______ Organizations are permitted one food exemption per semester. Requests must be submitted): ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Only homemade food may be provided by your organization. Initial ______ No prepared food may

  6. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  7. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  8. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Hongsuk; Thirumalai, D; Hyeon, Changbong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yea...

  9. Sorption and permeation of low molecular weight volatile compounds in polypropylene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidal, Antonio Ramiro Santiago

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the vapor permeation through the wall of the polypropylene containers. Sorption was calculated by subtracting the estimated permeation from the total loss. The effect of type of volatile compound, composition of polymer, and thickness of the container... LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Treatment setup 12 2 Effect of wall thickness on total loss to the container 33 3 Effect of composition of polymer on total loss to the container 36 4 Effect of type of resin on total loss to the container 38 5...

  10. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

  11. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, T.V.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

  12. Field-usable portable analyzer for chlorinated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttner, W.J.; Penrose, W.R.; Stetter, J.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1992, a chemical sensor was developed which showed almost perfect selectivity to vapors of chlorinated solvents. When interfaced to an instrument, a chemical analyzer will be produced that has near- absolute selectivity to vapors of volatile chlorinated organic compounds. TRI has just completed the second of a 2-phase program to develop this new instrument system, which is called the RCL MONITOR. In Phase II, this instrument was deployed in 5 EM40 operations. Phase II applications covered clean-up process monitoring, environmental modeling, routine monitoring, health and safety, and technology validation. Vapor levels between 0 and 100 ppM can be determined in 90 s with a lower detection limit of 0.5 ppM using the hand-portable instrument. Based on the favorable performance of the RCL MONITOR, the commercial instrument was released for commercial sales on Sept. 20, 1996.

  13. Effective Presentations Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, David H.

    1 Pericles Effective Presentations · Content · Organization · Delivery · Visual aids and graphics Be brave Graphics · KISS · Powerpoint: ­ Font · Bigger than you'd expect · San serif ­ Lines · Thicker than · Organization · Energy · Clarity · Poise Key: Practice Web Resources · http

  14. Stable isotopic investigations of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'The author has made significant progress in developing innovative methods for investigating the mechanism and extent of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. These methods use precise isotopic ratio measurements of chlorine and carbon in reactant and product species in laboratory experiments and in materials from field demonstration sites. Specific tasks completed during FY 1997 include: (1) refinement and publication of a new analytical method for precise determination of chlorine and carbon isotope ratios in chlorinated volatile organic compounds; (2) laboratory experiments involving biological degradation of chlorinated solvents in liquid cultures and soil columns; and (3) use of chlorine and carbon isotope ratios to investigate natural attenuation of trichloroethene at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This work can have immediate impact because it will provide the fundamental basis for a new and cost-effective means of evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation schemes for chlorinated organic solvents in soils, vadose horizons, and groundwater plumes.'

  15. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200°C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

  16. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

  17. Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F; Stanley, H E; Yamasaki, K; Havlin, Shlomo; Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the return interval $\\tau$ between price volatilities that are above a certain threshold $q$ for 31 intraday datasets, including the Standard & Poor's 500 index and the 30 stocks that form the Dow Jones Industrial index. For different threshold $q$, the probability density function $P_q(\\tau)$ scales with the mean interval $\\bar{\\tau}$ as $P_q(\\tau)={\\bar{\\tau}}^{-1}f(\\tau/\\bar{\\tau})$, similar to that found in daily volatilities. Since the intraday records have significantly more data points compared to the daily records, we could probe for much higher thresholds $q$ and still obtain good statistics. We find that the scaling function $f(x)$ is consistent for all 31 intraday datasets in various time resolutions, and the function is well approximated by the stretched exponential, $f(x)\\sim e^{-a x^\\gamma}$, with $\\gamma=0.38\\pm 0.05$ and $a=3.9\\pm 0.5$, which indicates the existence of correlations. We analyze the conditional probability distribution $P_q(\\tau|\\tau_0)$ for $\\tau$ following a certa...

  18. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  19. Departmental Organization Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Public Law 95-91, 42 United States Code 7101, Department of Energy Organization Act, Section 642 gives to the Secretary of the Department of Energy the responsibility to approve organization changes affecting the number, designation, or mission of Departmental Elements and to approve the addition, deletion, or transfer of missions and/or functions of or between Departmental Elements. In order to streamline the organizational change process, the Secretary has delegate to the Heads of Departmental Headquarters and Field Elements the authority to approve organization changes. No cancellations.

  20. Effets sur la digestion et le mtabolisme des vaches laitires d'infusions d'acides gras volatils dans le rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets sur la digestion et le métabolisme des vaches laitières d'infusions d'acides gras volatils.N.R.A., Saint-Gilles, 35590, L'Hermitage, France. Summary. Effects of !uminal infusion of volatile fatty acids and duodenal infusion of caseinate on digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow. II. - General and mammary

  1. Effets sur la digestion et le mtabolisme des vaches laitires d'infusions d'acides gras volatils dans le rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets sur la digestion et le métabolisme des vaches laitières d'infusions d'acides gras volatils.N.R.A. Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Summary. Effects of ruminal infusion of volatile fatty acids and duodenal infusion of casei- nate on digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow. l. - Production

  2. Organic contaminant separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: carbon monoxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paper Presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division (ICED) Conference On August 28, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  4. Clathration of Volatiles in the Solar Nebula and Implications for the Origin of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Mousis; Jonathan I. Lunine; Caroline Thomas; Matthew Pasek; Ulysse Marboeuf; Yann Alibert; Vincent Ballenegger; Daniel Cordier; Yves Ellinger; Francoise Pauzat; Sylvain Picaud

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a scenario of Titan's formation matching the constraints imposed by its current atmospheric composition. Assuming that the abundances of all elements, including oxygen, are solar in the outer nebula, we show that the icy planetesimals were agglomerated in the feeding zone of Saturn from a mixture of clathrates with multiple guest species, so-called stochiometric hydrates such as ammonia hydrate, and pure condensates. We also use a statistical thermodynamic approach to constrain the composition of multiple guest clathrates formed in the solar nebula. We then infer that krypton and xenon, that are expected to condense in the 20-30 K temperature range in the solar nebula, are trapped in clathrates at higher temperatures than 50 K. Once formed, these ices either were accreted by Saturn or remained embedded in its surrounding subnebula until they found their way into the regular satellites growing around Saturn. In order to explain the carbon monoxide and primordial argon deficiencies of Titan's atmosphere, we suggest that the satellite was formed from icy planetesimals initially produced in the solar nebula and that were partially devolatilized at a temperature not exceeding 50 K during their migration within Saturn's subnebula. The observed deficiencies of Titan's atmosphere in krypton and xenon could result from other processes that may have occurred both prior or after the completion of Titan. Thus, krypton and xenon may have been sequestrated in the form of XH3+ complexes in the solar nebula gas phase, causing the formation of noble gas-poor planetesimals ultimately accreted by Titan. Alternatively, krypton and xenon may have also been trapped efficiently in clathrates located on the satellite's surface or in its atmospheric haze.

  5. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  6. Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks and long memory models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks of oil spot and futures prices using three GARCH-type models, i.e., linear GARCH, GARCH with structural that oil price fluctuations influence economic activity and financial sector (e.g., Jones and Kaul, 1996

  7. An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A. by Tim for electricity in the USA vary in fundamental ways. In particular, markets in the East, such as New England, New in the new auction markets for electricity can be described by a stochastic regime-switching model

  8. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 48, N. 4/5, August/October 2005 Key words diffusion silicate melts volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    ­ volatiles ­ water ­ carbon dioxide ­ sulfur ­ fluorine ­ chlorine ­ melt inclusion ­ igneous processes 1 in silicate magmas provides the frame- work necessary for the understanding of process- es such as bubble equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, flu- orine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar

  9. A non-volatile-memory device on the basis of engineered anisotropies in (Ga,Mn)As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES A non-volatile-memory device on the basis of engineered anisotropies in (Ga,Mn)As KATRIN by Moore's law, the semiconductor industry will need to develop novel device concepts that go beyond simple Hall effect6 , tunnelling AMR (TAMR)7­9 and Coulomb blockade AMR10 . These previous demonstrations have

  10. UniFI: Leveraging Non-Volatile Memories for a Unified Fault Tolerance and Idle Power Management Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David A.

    dissipation but also to make power - proportional to performance by managing idle power. The twin challenges noise margins and thermal cycling [42]. Technology scaling and power management both impact systemUniFI: Leveraging Non-Volatile Memories for a Unified Fault Tolerance and Idle Power Management

  11. Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating or dry cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating lactating (30 kg of milk/d) and 3 non pregnant dry dairy cows. The effect of each energetic infusion) control solutions of VFA and glucose treatments were infused at the same vol, pH and osmolarity

  12. Phytologia (Oct. 1, 2014) 96(4)252 Comparison of volatile leaf terpenoids from Lippia dulcis (Verbenaceae) obtained by steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robert P.

    (Verbenaceae) obtained by steam distillation and pentane liquid extraction Robert P. Adams Biology Department, Prairie View, TX 77446 ABSTRACT Comparison of pentane extraction and steam distillation of intact leaves to be due to the different effects of pentane solvent on intact leaves (vs. steam volatilization

  13. Volatile Delivery to Planets from Water-rich Planetesimals around Low Mass Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesla, Fred J; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our Solar System. Here we suggest that the water content of primitive bodies in many planetary systems may actually be much higher, as carbonaceous chondrites have lost some of their original water due to heating from short-lived radioisotopes that drove parent body alteration. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of Habitable Zone planets and planetary system architecture which could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model predicted tren...

  14. Abundance ratios of volatile vs. refractory elements in planet-harbouring stars: hints of pollution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ecuvillon; G. Israelian; N. C. Santos; M. Mayor; G. Gilli

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the [X/H] trends as function of the elemental condensation temperature Tc in 88 planet host stars and in a volume-limited comparison sample of 33 dwarfs without detected planetary companions. We gathered homogeneous abundance results for many volatile and refractory elements spanning a wide range of Tc, from a few dozens to several hundreds kelvin. We investigate possible anomalous trends of planet hosts with respect to comparison sample stars in order to detect evidence of possible pollution events. No significant differences are found in the behaviour of stars with and without planets. This result is in agreement with a ``primordial'' origin of the metal excess in planet host stars. However, a subgroup of 5 planet host and 1 comparison sample stars stands out for having particularly high [X/H] vs. Tc slopes.

  15. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  16. Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

  17. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  18. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C. J.; Cannella, W. J.; Bruno, T. J.; Bunting, B.; Dettman, H. D.; Franz, J. A.; Huber, M. L.; Natarajan, M.; Pitz, W. J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Wright, K.

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the state-of-the-art techniques of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two well-characterized, ultra-low-sulfur No.2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found.

  19. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  20. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  1. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  2. Graphic values for some organic constituents of beneficiated coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective of this one-year project is to obtain analytical data on a series of fractions of coal sample IBC-101 of widely varying ash content obtained via a froth flotation physical coal cleaning process. Froth flotation is the fractionation technique to be used rather than float/sink testing as in the Stansfield-Sutherland method because (1) most of the data in our files which were used in the development of these techniques were froth flotation tests and (2) as a way of showing that the fractionating is as effective by one technique as the other, so long as no chemical changes are effected. Analytical values will be obtained in the Coal Analysis Laboratory for moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, total sulfur, sulfate sulfur, organic sulfur, and calorific value. The next objective will be to plot the various values of each of the analyzed species versus its corresponding ash values to obtain x/y plots for each as a function of ash. From the resulting curves, it should be possible to calculate for coal sample IBC-101 a precise measure of its mineral matter content, its dry or moist ,mineral-matter-free calorific value as used in determining the rank of the coal sample, calculate organic sulfur values corresponding to each ash value in cases where the relationship is linear, and possibly find other analyzed values which have a direct correlation with the mineral matter content of the coal.

  3. Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective separation of small hydrocarbon molecules (C1 – C4) is an important process for petroleum industry, determining the end price of many essential commodities in our daily lives. Current technologies for separation of these molecules rely on energy intensive fractional distillation processes at cryogenic temperature, which is particularly difficult because of their similar volatility. In retrospect, adsorptive separation using solid state adsorbents might be a cost effective alternative. Several types of solid state adsorbents (e.g. zeolite molecular sieves) were tested for separation of small hydrocarbon molecules as a function of pressure, temperature or vacuum. Among different types of plausible adsorbents, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous, crystalline, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, is particularly promising. In this brief comment article, we discuss the separation properties of different types of solid state adsorbents, with a particular emphasis on MOF based adsorbents for separation of C2 hydrocarbon molecules.

  4. Air quality model evaluation data for organics. 1. Bulk chemical composition and gas/particle distribution factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Grosjean, D.; Grosjean, E. [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)] [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)] [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of September 8-9, 1993, the South Coast Air Basin that surrounds Los Angeles experienced the worst photochemical smog episode in recent years; ozone concentrations exceeded 0.29 ppm 1-h average, and NO{sub 2} concentrations peaked at 0.21 ppm 1-h average. Field measurements were conducted at a five-station air monitoring network to obtain comprehensive data on the identity and concentration of the individual organic compounds present in both the gas and particle phases during that episode. The data will also serve to support future tests of air quality models designed to study organic air pollutant transport and reaction. Air samples taken in stainless steel canisters were analyzed for 141 volatile organic compounds by GC/ECD, GC/FID, and GC/MS; PAN and PPN were measured by GC/ECD; particulate organics collected by filtration were analyzed for total organics and elemental carbon by thermal evolution and combustion and for individual organic compounds by GC/ MS; semivolatile organics were analyzed by GC/MS after collection on polyurethane foam cartridges. The present paper describes this experiment and present the concentrations of major organic compound classes and their relationship to the inorganic pollutants present. 104 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Bunting, Bruce G.; Dettman, Heather; Franz, James A.; Huber, Marcia L.; Natarajan, Mani; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Wright, Ken

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the stateof- the-art techniques of 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two wellcharacterized, ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Jim Franz. Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Vehicle Technologies, and by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the companies that employ the CRC members. The study was conducted under the auspices of CRC. The authors thank U.S. DOE program manager Kevin Stork for supporting the participation of the U.S. national laboratories in this study.

  6. Allies in Sport Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, Elizabeth

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOSPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, George B. Cunningham Committee Members, Kathi Miner Gregg... Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. George B. Cunningham Employee support is a key factor in creating more welcoming and accepting work environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in sport. As such, organizations need...

  7. Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

    2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

  8. The influence of Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. on production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in Cheddar cheese slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dagerath, Michael Lynn

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resulted from the failure of the direct acidified cheese to reach and maintain the low oxidation- reduction potential needed for volatile compound existence (21, 22). With the exception of hydrogen sulfide (51, 24), it does not appear that lactobacilli... 19 dimethyl sulfide (Aldrich Chemicals, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) into a plastic pouch with 500 ml of previously added nitrogen. The pouch was incubated at 30 ~C. One ml of the gas mixture was removed and injected into a second pouch which contained...

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J [Pasco, WA; Cantrell, Kirk J [West Richland, WA

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improvement to the method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution. The apparatus is a chamber with sides and two ends, where the first end is closed. The chamber contains a solution volume of the aqueous solution and a gas that is trapped within the first end of the chamber above the solution volume. The gas defines a head space within the chamber above the solution volume. The chamber may also be a cup with the second end. open and facing down and submerged in the aqueous solution so that the gas defines the head space within the cup above the solution volume. The cup can also be entirely submerged in the aqueous solution. The second end of the. chamber may be closed such that the chamber can be used while resting on a flat surface such as a bench. The improvement is a sparger for mixing the gas with the solution volume. The sparger can be a rotating element such as a propeller on a shaft or a cavitating impeller. The sparger can also be a pump and nozzle where the pump is a liquid pump and the nozzle is a liquid spray nozzle open, to the head space for spraying the solution volume into the head space of gas. The pump could also be a gas pump and the nozzle a gas nozzle submerged in the solution volume for spraying the head space gas into the solution volume.

  10. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory...

  11. The sublethal effects of the non volatile water soluble fraction of Southern Louisiana crude oil on the growth of Skeletonema costatum (Greve.) Cleve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF THE NON VOLATILE WATER SOLUBLE FRACTION OF SOUTHERN LOUISIANA CRUDE OIL ON THE GROWTH OF Skeletonema costatum (GREVE. ) CLEVE A Thesis by SUE MYHRE SCHAUFFLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ~I University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Oceanography THE SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF THE NON VOLATILE WATER SOLUBLE FRACTION OF SOUTHERN LOUISIANA CRUDE OIL ON THE GROWTH OF Skeletonema...

  12. Neighborhood Progress Through Organized Action.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eula; Cox, Bonnie; Martin, E. C.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] ~ei~ h borhood Progress Through Organized Action E. C. MARTIN, Administrative Assistant BONNIE COX, Organization Specialist MRS. EULA NEWMAN, Specialist in Home Management TEXAS A. & M. COLLEGE SYSTEM "The... coord: lent r peo plt 1. mmunity organization is successful when all families erested groups participate. Such an organization may inate interest in the community and provide an excel- neans for channeling most programs. The interest...

  13. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  14. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  15. Organization | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for #SpaceWeekOMB Policies2.0 OpenOrganization

  16. All Lab Organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologies | Blandine JeromeOrganizations All

  17. Nuclear Organization and Genome Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corces, Victor G.

    Nuclear Organization and Genome Function Kevin Van Bortle and Victor G. Corces Department-range interactions and have proposed roles in nuclear organization. In this review, we explore recent findings for the roles of insulators in nuclear organization. 163 Annu.Rev.CellDev.Biol.2012.28:163-187.Downloadedfromwww

  18. Persistent Organic By Steven Jackson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Persistent Organic Pollutants By Steven Jackson #12;What are POP's? · POP's are organic compounds, rivers and surface ocean water. · Bio accumulation- POPs work their way through the food chain by accumulating in the body fat of living organisms and becoming more concentrated as they move from one creature

  19. Waste minimization pretreatment via pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, U.K.; Choi, K.; Yang, K.H.; Park, J.K.; Song, M.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Power Generation Lab.] [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Power Generation Lab.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis and/or oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins and other combustible waste may be effective pretreatment processes before vitrification. Three different methods were examined with the TGA to pretreat the resins: pyrolysis; oxidative pyrolysis; and oxidative pyrolyses of ash remaining after the pyrolysis of resin. The latter two methods were found to provide better volume reduction than the pyrolysis-only process. Between the two types of resins, cationic and anionic, the cationic exchange resin was less volatile. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of mixed resin (50% cation and 50% anion by wt.) showed volatilization at the temperatures where volatilization was observed for each of the separate resins. Because of certain limitations of the commercial TGA, tube furnace experiments were performed, generally, to examine the pyrolysis of larger quantities of cationic, anionic, and mixed resin, and to examine off-gas characteristics. The cationic resin-only and anionic resin-only gravimetric results showed good agreement with the smaller-scale TGA results. SEM pictures of the different variants of the resin (cationic, anionic, and mixed) show a different morphology for each. Off-gas data showed the presence of H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, CO, and NO during the pyrolysis of cationic resin. CO was observed during the pyrolysis of anionic resin. The mixed resin trials showed the presence of the gases approximately at the temperatures where the gases would evolve if the results of the two different resins (cationic and anionic) were superimposed. However, the amount of hydrogen sulfide relative to the sulfur dioxide was found to increase significantly compared to the results of the cationic resin-only trials.

  20. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  1. Gas phase photocatalytic degradation on TiO{sub 2} pellets of volatile chlorinated organic compounds from a soil vapor extraction well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamazaki-Nishida, S.; Read, H.W.; Nagano, J.K.; Anderson, M.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Water Chemistry Program; Cervera-March, S. [Barcelona Univ., (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering; Jarosch, T.R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The mineralization of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in gas stream from a soil vapor extraction (SVE) well was demonstrated with an annular photocatalytic reactor packed with porous TiO{sub 2} pellets in field trials at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. The TiO{sub 2} pellets were prepared using a sol-gel method. The experiments were performed at 55 to 60{degree}C using space times of 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 10} g s/mol for TCE and PCE. Chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) were detected as minor products from side reactions. On a molar basis, CCl{sub 4} and CHCl{sub 3} produced were about 2% and 0.2 % of the reactants.

  2. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at 57 amu has been previouslyby a fragment of MTBE (62%) with minor contributions fromFortner and Knighton, 2008). MTBE also in- terfered (16%)

  3. Real refractive indices and volatility of secondary organic aerosol generated from photooxidation and ozonolysis of limonene, -pinene and toluene upon heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    C to approximately 20% at 95 ºC due to additional thermophoretic forces [Burtscher et al., 2001]. Above 50 nm

  4. Chemical and Nutritional Ecology of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as Related to Volatile Organic Compounds and Associated Essential Amino Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wenqi

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    acid MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus GLC Head-space gas-liquid chromatography DEET N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide DNase Deoxyribonuclease AG Age group NG... proteinase along with haemostasis, thrombosis, inflammatory cell activation [39, 41, 42]. L. sericata ES are known to have antibacterial activity against methicillin- resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as high as 86% [43], glycopeptides intermediate S. aureus...

  5. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    versus CO for OVOCs and acetonitrile calculated by linearThis analy- OVOCs and acetonitrile. Because OVOCs have knownwas used to measure acetonitrile, aromatics and oxy- genated

  6. Determinants of exposure to volatile organic compounds in four Oklahoma MARGARET L. PHILLIPS, NURTAN A. ESMEN, THOMAS A. HALL AND ROBERT LYNCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    of air toxics. Using a multicity, multi- season, two-level factorial design, we proposed to study and behavioral factors that are not so readily incorporated in study designs. Methods Factorial Design Fractional factorial designs are a highly efficient and systematic means of screening for the influence of potential

  7. Organization Chart and Contacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    About the Fuel Cell Technologies Office Organization Chart and Contacts Organization Chart and Contacts Organization Chart and Contacts Contact Information U.S. Department of...

  8. Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483-Fall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    Chemistry of Organic Electronic Materials 6483- Fall Tuesdays organic materials. The discussion will include aspects of synthesis General introduction to the electronic structure of organic materials with connection

  9. The Agenda Setting Powers of Party Organizations /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Andrew Scott

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory of Parties and Party Organizations . . . . . . . . . .1984. “On the Theory of Party Organization. ” The Journal ofand I offer a new theory of party organizations that more

  10. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  11. Primary lead smelter, Doe Run, Herculaneum, Missouri: Volume 3 -- Appendix B.2 through Appendix F. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating the primary lead smelting source category to identify and quantify organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from blast furnaces. The primary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic HAPs, aldehydes, and ketones from primary lead smelter blast furnaces. A secondary objective was to obtain data on the emission of carbon monoxide. The data will be used by ESD to determine whether organic HAPs are emitted at levels that would justify regulation under the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) program. The Doe Run Company, which operates a primary lead smelter in Herculaneum, Missouri was selected by the ESD as the host facility for this project. This volume consists of Appendices B.2 through F.

  12. Primary lead smelter, Doe Run, Herculaneum, Missouri: Volume 2 -- Appendix B.1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phoenix, F.J.

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating the primary lead smelting source category to identify and quantify organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from blast furnaces. The primary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic HAPs, aldehydes, and ketones from primary lead smelter blast furnaces. A secondary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of carbon monoxide. The data will be used by ESD to determine whether organic HAPs are emitted at levels that would justify regulation under the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) program. The Doe Run Company, which operates a primary lead smelter in Herculaneum, Missouri was selected by the ESD as the host facility for this project. This volume consists of Appendix B.1.

  13. Primary lead smelter, Doe Run, Herculaneum, Missouri: Volume 1 -- Text and Appendix A. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phoenix, F.J.

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating the primary lead smelting source category to identify and quantify organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from blast furnaces. The primary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic HAPs, aldehydes, and ketones from primary lead smelter blast furnaces. A secondary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of carbon monoxide. The data will be used by ESD to determine whether organic HAPs are emitted at levels that would justify regulation under the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) program. The Doe Run Company, which operates a primary lead smelter in Herculaneum, Missouri was selected by the ESD as the host facility for this project. This volume consists of the report text and Appendix A.

  14. Primary lead smelter, Doe Run, Herculaneum, Missouri (kit)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating the primary lead smelting source category to identify and quantify organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from blast furnaces. The primary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic HAPs, aldehydes, and ketones from primary lead smelter blast furnaces. A secondary objective was to obtain data on the emissions of carbon monoxide. The data will be used by ESD to determine whether organic HAPs are emitted at levels that would justify regulation under the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) program. The Doe Run Company, which operates a primary lead smelter in Herculaneum, Missouri was selected by the ESD as the host facility for this project.

  15. Method of doping organic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kloc,; Christian Leo (Constance, DE); Ramirez; Arthur Penn (Summit, NJ); So, Woo-Young (New Providence, NJ)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus has a crystalline organic semiconducting region that includes polyaromatic molecules. A source electrode and a drain electrode of a field-effect transistor are both in contact with the crystalline organic semiconducting region. A gate electrode of the field-effect transistor is located to affect the conductivity of the crystalline organic semiconducting region between the source and drain electrodes. A dielectric layer of a first dielectric that is substantially impermeable to oxygen is in contact with the crystalline organic semiconducting region. The crystalline organic semiconducting region is located between the dielectric layer and a substrate. The gate electrode is located on the dielectric layer. A portion of the crystalline organic semiconducting region is in contact with a second dielectric via an opening in the dielectric layer. A physical interface is located between the second dielectric and the first dielectric.

  16. 4, 227265, 2004 Effect of organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Laboratory for Internal Combustion Engines and Furnaces, CH-8600 D¨ubendorf, Switzerland 2 ETH H air. Particles from internal combustion engines can be divided into solid and volatile particles. Introduction Exhaust from diesel engines represents an important anthropogenic source of particles in ambient

  17. Embedding Sustainability into Manufacturing Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tutterow, V.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Sustainability Ratings GISR standard (13) (under development) Accrediting other sustainability ratings, rankings, and indices International Organization for Standardization ISO 14001:2004 – Environmental Management Systems – Requirements with Guidance for Use (22...) Environmental management system criteria International Organization for Standardization ISO 14064:2006 – (parts 1,2,3) (23) Principles and requirements on GHG quantification, reporting, and verification International Organization for Standardization ISO 50001...

  18. Digestive System general organization throughout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houde, Peter

    Digestive System general organization throughout: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa digestive glands salivary pancreas liver (lobes: right, left, caudate, quadrate, diaphragmatic surface, bare

  19. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  20. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

  1. Modeling morphology evolution during solvent-based fabrication of organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wodo, Olga

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent-based techniques usually involve preparing dilute blends of electron-donor and electron-acceptor materials dissolved in a volatile solvent. After some form of coating onto a substrate, the solvent evaporates. An initially homogeneous mixture separates into electron-acceptor rich and electron-donor rich regions as the solvent evaporates. Depending on the specifics of the blend and processing conditions different morphologies are typically formed. Experimental evidence consistently confirms that the morphology critically affects device performance. A computational framework that can predict morphology evolution can significantly augment experimental analysis. Such a framework will also allow high throughput analysis of the large phase space of processing parameters, thus yielding insight into the process-structure-property relationships. In this paper, we formulate a computational framework to predict evolution of morphology during solvent-based fabrication of organic thin films. This is accomplished by...

  2. The Cosmic Organism Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding-Yu Chung; Volodymyr Krasnoholovets

    2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the cosmic organism theory in which all visible and invisible matter has different cosmic genetic expressions. The cosmic gene includes codes for the object structure and the space structure. The cosmic digital code for the object structure consists of full object (1, 2, and 3 for particle, string, and membrane, respectively) and empty object (0) as anti de Sitter space (AdS). The tessellation lattice of empty objects is tessellattice. The decomposition of a full object in tessellattice results in the AdS/CFT (conformal field theory) duality. The digital code for the object structure accounts for the AdS/CFT duality, the dS/bulk duality, and gravity. The digital code for the space structure consists of 1 and 0 for attachment space and detachment space, respectively. Attachment space attaches to object permanently at zero speed or reversibly at the speed of light. Detachment space detaches from the object irreversibly at the speed of light. The combination of attachment space and detachment space results in miscible space, binary lattice space or binary partition space. Miscible space represents special relativity. Binary lattice space consists of multiple quantized units of attachment space separated from one another by detachment space. Binary lattice space corresponds to the nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) by Diaz and Rowlands. The gauge force fields and wavefunction are in binary lattice space. With tessellattice and binary lattice space, 11D brane is reducing to 4D particle surrounded by gravity and the gauge force fields. The cosmic dimension varies due to different speeds of light in different dimensional space-times and the increase of mass.

  3. Spring 2014 Organization Development & Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Spring 2014 Organization Development & Training Catalog University of Central Florida Office of Organization Development & Training 3280 Progress Drive Orlando, FL 32826-2912 (407) 823-0440 February 7, 2014 Volume 2, Number 3 The current Catalog is published at http://www.hr.ucf.edu/web/training

  4. 4, 719745, 2007 Fluvial organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    changes and targets for carbon sequestration set by the Kyoto Protocol. In the UK the largest componentHESSD 4, 719­745, 2007 Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland R. R. Pawson et al System Sciences Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland catchment, southern Pennines, UK R

  5. Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this PhD thesis lie in building cost-effective and environmentally friendly waste-heat to useful energy converters based on organic polymers. The efficiency of heat to energy conversion by organic polymers tends to be higher than that for conventional...

  6. Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. James D. Batteas Organic molecules such as porphyrins and alkanethiols are currently being investigated for applications such as sensors, light-emitting diodes and single electron transistors. Porphyrins are stable, highly..., molecules have shown their potential for applications such as information storage, charge separation, single electron transistors, current routers and gates and continue to be designed for use in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors...

  7. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  8. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in Western Japan: An Observed Limitation of the f44 Oxidation Indicator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irei, Satoshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Tekemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol mass spectra (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of low volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for d13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the photochemical age estimated by the NOx to NOy ratio revealed that the f44 values distri...

  9. Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Demonstrates...

  10. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margorie Stockton

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2001, the Technical Area 3 steam plant was the primary source of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while research and development activities were the primary source of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from chemical use for research and development activities were also reported.

  11. Emissions Inventory Report Summary Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Air Quality Group, ESH-17

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds. For 1998, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72 Construction Permits.

  12. EPOK Centre for Organic Food and Farming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPOK ­ Centre for Organic Food and Farming Research on Organic Animal Husbandry in Sweden on organic production is coordinated by EPOK (Centre for Organic Food and Farming) at the Swedish University that have the potential to mitigate environmental effects. Publisher: EPOK ­ Centre for organic food

  13. Reducing recombination in organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Jason M. (Jason Michael)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I consider two methods to improve organic photovoltaic efficiency: energy level cascades and promotion of triplet state excitons. The former relies on a thin layer of material placed between the active ...

  14. DOE Organization Chart- February 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Organization Chart is a diagram of the U.S. Department of Energy’s structure along with the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs.

  15. Engineering Organization Chart Assistant Dean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Engineering Organization Chart Fall `12 Assistant Dean Outreach & Recruiting Matthew Cavalli and Geological Engineering Joseph Hartman Chair, Petroleum Engineering Steve Benson Chair, Electrical Engineering Forrest Ames (interim) Chair, Mechanical Engineering Matthew Cavalli Chair, Chemical Engineering Mike Mann

  16. Emergent Leadership Structures in Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slaughter, Andrew

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A social network approach was used to investigate the structural features of various emergent leadership systems in a large financial organization (n = 137), including transactional and transformational-style leadership relations. Results indicate...

  17. Three Essays on Industrial Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yang Seung

    2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissertation discusses issues in the field of industrial organization. When the government provides better infrastructure to competing firms for innovation, private firms' R&D expenditures are affected. When the ...

  18. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited. They are expected to anticipate and react quickly to prevent a potential threat while staying accountable to their public stakeholders, many of whom remain unaware of the very threats the organization is trying to address. When budgets are flush, it is easy to believe that money will solve all problems; but during times of economic hardship, managers must rely on creative and cost-effective management approaches to implement their missions. Fortunately, managers of nonproliferation organizations can draw on a wealth of research on organizational design and culture to help them identify the management strategies most appropriate for them. Such research can help nonproliferation managers think about their own organizational structures and cultures and adapt accepted management principles to their unique organizational mission. This analytical process is not straight forward, as some managers may find themselves taking risks that others might not take, such as making ostensibly risky investments for the common good, or supporting creative thinking to help mission accomplishment. Some management principles that are relatively straightforward for other organizations may be difficult to envision and implement in a nonproliferation organization. Therefore, the goal of this study is to help nonproliferation managers identify management principles that can be implemented in a nonproliferation organization and, in the process, help maximize the value of the organization's products and effectiveness of its mission.

  19. DOE Organization Chart- May 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Organization Chart is a diagram of the U.S. Department of Energy’s structure along with the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs.

  20. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and functionalized conducting polymer thin films) together with strategies for large-scale assembly are discussed