National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for monoxide hydrocarbons odors

  1. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  2. ILENR/RE-AQ-ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    #12;ILENR/RE-AQ- Printed: Contract: Project: ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON REMOTE SENSING. Repeat Measurements of the Same Vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 F

  3. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  4. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  5. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  6. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

    1985-11-06

    A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  7. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  9. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and ab Initio Investigation of the Multichannel Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    in conventional carbon based jet fuel systems. The combustion of hydrocarbon based fuels can reach temperatures monoxide (11 BO; X2 + ) radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons are of importance in understanding the formation of small boron-oxygen bearing hydrocarbons in boron combustion processes. Over recent decades

  10. ROOFING PROJECT ODORS How Can EHS Help?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    ROOFING PROJECT ODORS How Can EHS Help? We can work with occupants to act as a liaison with Facili- ties Management and the contractor to identify ways to reduce odors. Contact us at 491­ 6745. Roof work is a necessary part of building preservation. Roofing odors are generated during these projects when hot asphalt

  11. LPG odorization with an audit trail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astala, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    In this article I have tried to cover a very broad subject in a very limited time while only touching on a few of the ways you could odorize LPG and have an audit trail. I would recommend that if you are interested in this type of odorizing for LPG, you contact your odorant manufacturer and two or three odorant equipment manufacturers and talk to them about what you would like and get their recommendations. By talking to more then one manufacturer you may want to incorporate the ideals of two or three manufacturers into your odorant system to have a system that meets all your needs and requirements.

  12. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  13. Odorant Detection by Biological Chemosensor Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuech, Rudi

    2011-01-01

    from cylinders in laminar crossflow at 10(-4)crossflow over a cylinder array with2D cylinders in low-Re crossflow, sampling a single odorant

  14. Hydrocarbon conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koepke, J.W.; Abdo, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a hydrocracking process. It comprises: catalyzing a hydrocracking reaction by contacting a hydrocarbon feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst under hydrocracking conditions to produce a product hydrocarbon having an increased octane number than the hydrocarbon feedstock. The hydrocracking catalyst consists essentially of at least one niobium component, at least one Group VIII metal component and at least one cracking component.

  15. PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES stream after hydrocarbon fuel reforming and water-gas-shift reactions. This process, referred to as CO intermediate, which enhances the catalytic activity at temperatures below 200°C. With the same catalyst system

  16. Envlron. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 1885-1891 On-Road Hydrocarbon Remote Sensing in the Denver Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    of Denver's remote sensor for on-road motor vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC thecarbonmonoxidetocarbon dioxide ratio (CO/COz) and the hydrocarbon to carbon dioxide ratio (HC/C02) in the exhaust of anyEnvlron. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 1885-1891 On-Road Hydrocarbon Remote Sensing in the Denver Area Yi

  17. What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    other material containing carbon such as gasoline, kerosene, oil, propane, coal, or wood. Forges, blast is the internal combustion engine. How does CO harm you? Carbon monoxide is harmful when breathed because

  18. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleus, R.C. [Intertox, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  19. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  20. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  1. Managing Nuisance Odor and Dust from Poultry Growing Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Lacey, Ron; Carey, John B.

    2001-08-08

    in a covered container and transport them to the disposal facility or composting facility immediately. Composting and storing litter Composting litter and dead birds reduces both odor and the volume of waste generated. If you operate your own litter... storage and composting facility, make sure all farm workers who will handle or transport litter are properly trained. While a well-run composting system reduces odor, an improperly run system may actually cause more odor problems. 7-01 Managing Nuisance...

  2. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01

    odor problems in air or water. Water Science & Technologyodor problems in air or water. Water Science & Technologyodor problems in air or water. Water Science & Technology

  3. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    In. - Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. 3A,Monoxide Detection. Industrial Hygiene Journal Match-April,Monoxide." Applied Industrial Hygiene, 4,119-125. Jabara, J.

  4. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  5. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  6. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    LBL-8596 itr-t C,d.. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS jmethods of isolating the hydrocarbon-like material from I.privatelyownedrights. HYDROCARBONS AND ENERGY FROM PLANTS

  7. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  8. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  9. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 106, NO. D22, PAGES28,481-28,495, NOVEMBER 27, 2001 Source analysis of carbon monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Source analysis of carbon monoxide pollution during INDOEX 1999 A.T.J. de Laat, J. Lelieveld, G and higher hydrocarbons, and is directly emitted by combustion processes. Fossil fuel combustion pollution. However, the large number of possible sources in combination with the long photochemical lifetime

  10. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  11. Carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jong, T.; Chu, Shih-I; Dalgarno, A.

    1975-07-01

    Calculations are made for the energy loss rates, brightness temperatures, and line profiles of carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds. The most recent data for the H2-CO collision rates have been used in the calculations; a useful...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    usual, it probably would've put me to sleep and left me there -- it was just too much carbon monoxide coming out in the house," says Mark Pickartz, of Van Buren, Ark. Pickartz's...

  13. Transformation of Acetone and Isopropanol to Hydrocarbons using HZSM-5 Catalyst 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

    2010-07-14

    .2 i-Butane ? ? 0.1 3.9 n-Butane ? ? ? 1.7 i-Butene 19.1 31.3 83.3 3.6 n-Butene ? ? butane, isobutene, butane, isobutylene), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The liquid products are hydrocarbons...

  14. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rolllins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  15. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  16. Proper Lagoon Management to Reduce Odor and Excessive Sludge Accumulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    1999-10-19

    Proper management techniques to reduce odor and excessive sludge accumulation include maintaining pH and salt levels, pumping regularly, maintaining adequate bacteria levels, and designing for efficiency. Definitions of key words are boxed for easy...

  17. Taste and Odor Problems in Clinton Lake Reservoir's Drinking Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo-Osorio, Diana L.

    2012-04-01

    Taste and Odor Problems in Clinton Lake Reservoir's Drinking Water Diana L. Restrepo-Osorio (McNair Scholar) Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, INTRODUCTION Water is a requirement for human health and welfare; however... water are often the first to be blamed. Great efforts are being made, however, to build public awareness that every person plays a major role in reducing pollution that leads to taste and odor problems, and that water treatment facilities alone...

  18. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    #12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer;#12;Vent 1 Vent 2 Product outHydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in light Warning Computer controller Tank

  19. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer operator

  20. In the study of olfactory orientation in insects to general, non-pheromonal odors, temporal and spatial variation in odor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Getz, Wayne M.

    controlled by electromagnetic valves. The responses of sensory neurons were recorded using a tungsten and measuring the concentration of smoke passing through a light beam. Spike frequency varied with odorant

  1. NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    oil and gas (Fischer, 1977).The offshore gaseous seepage is controlled Geology; November 1999; v. 27; no. 11; p. 1047­1050; 4 figures. 1047 Decrease in natural marine hydrocarbon seepage near Coal OilNATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE Hydrocarbon seepage from the world's conti- nental shelves

  2. 2, 16451664, 2005 Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 2, 1645­1664, 2005 Hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal fen S. Haapanala et al. Title Page Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Measurements of hydrocarbon emissions Hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal fen S. Haapanala et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  3. Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon? Biologically interesting entities possibly > 1,000,000 Does cyclobutane have a four- membered ring? Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon? Expressive and decidable formalism needs to be classified under chemical classes: Is dinitrogen inorganic? Is acetylene a hydrocarbon

  4. Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum-Contaminated Harbor Sediments under Sulfate of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in- situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum- contaminated did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe

  5. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  6. Discrimination of MHC-derived odors by untrained mice is consistent with divergence in peptide-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potts, Wayne

    Discrimination of MHC-derived odors by untrained mice is consistent with divergence in peptide their parental B6 haplotype after randomizing genomic background, despite discrimination of pure- bred B6 and bm1 strain odors. These combined results suggest that (i) there may be an MHC odor discrimination threshold

  7. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  8. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  9. Engineering Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical Engineering Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) form a class carriers/supports for NZVI particles to address the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. We

  10. Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30

    into the freezer?s insulation, contact the manufacturer for sug- gestions on solving the problem. However, sometimes nothing can be done to eliminate the odor. This information was excerpted and adapted from Food Safety in Hurricanes and Floods, by P. H. Schmutz...

  11. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  12. A global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and anthropogenic incomplete combustion processes. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (COA global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission compare carbon monoxide (CO) products from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT

  13. Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    moment of the electron with thorium monoxide A C Vutha, W Cmoment of the electron with thorium monoxide A C Vutha 1 , WeEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules.

  14. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Carbon Monoxide."Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Ammonia, CarbonPassive Badges, and Dosimeter Tubes." In: Air Sampling

  15. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  16. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  17. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  18. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  19. HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    molecular weights of various hydrocarbon materials for fuelof oil and alcohol from hydrocarbon-producing plants. Into Die Naturwissenschaften HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: METHODS

  20. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Jimenez, J.L. , 2005. Hydrocarbon- like and oxygenatedoxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of drySummary of aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation experiments

  1. Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

  2. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  3. Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Production Data and Time-Lapse Seismic #12;#12;Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Production Data and Time-Lapse Seismic PROEFSCHRIFT ter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Recovery process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 Field

  4. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  5. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  6. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  7. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1987-05-19

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 6 figs.

  8. Hydrocarbonization research: completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Barker, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  9. The Fluid Mechanics of Arthropod Sniffing in Turbulent Odor Plumes M.A.R. Koehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koehl, Mimi

    The Fluid Mechanics of Arthropod Sniffing in Turbulent Odor Plumes M.A.R. Koehl Department on the speed at which they are moved through the surrounding fluid. Therefore, antennule flicking of a hair-bearing arthropod antennule with the surrounding fluid affects the temporal patterns of odor

  10. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund,Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund,Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund,

  13. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    NV~ August 25-29, 1980 HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-catalyzed reduction of CO to hydrocarbons Tropscb. Among theof CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain

  14. Engineering Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical Engineering Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) form a class carriers/supports for NZVI particles to address the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. We Remediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Dr. Vijay John Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

  15. HYDROCARBON CONSTITUENTS OF ICELAND LEAF FOSSIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01

    L.S. (1962) Isoprenoid hydrocarbons in petroleum. Anal.and EVANS E. D. (1965) Hydrocarbons in non-reservo; r-rockVI. Distribution of wax hydrocarbons in plants at different

  16. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop March 18, 2015 8:00AM EDT to...

  17. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy Biological Conversion of Sugars...

  18. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production More Documents & Publications Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon...

  19. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

  20. MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION PRODUCTS FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudbo, Aa. S.

    2011-01-01

    FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS RECE1VED Aa. S. Sudbo, P. A.FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS LBL-6966 Aa. S. Sudbo, t P. A.

  1. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  2. Evaluation of a Rice/Soy Fermentate on Broiler Performance, Litter Characteristics, and Fecal Odorant Volatilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Mallori

    2012-10-19

    , 2000). As manure decomposes, as many as 80 to 200 odorous compounds can be produced. Some of the principle classes of odorous compounds include amines, sulfides, volatile fatty acids, indoles, skatoles, mercaptans, alcohols, and carbonyls (Choi et...; Vomitus 0.19 ? Isobutyric Acid Rancid; Butter; Cheese 1.5 ? Valeric Acid Foul 0.037 ? Isovaleric Acid Fatty Acid; Sweat; Buttery 0.078 ? Indole Piggy; Mothball; Burnt; Musty 0.3 ? Skatole Outhouse; Fecal 0.0056 ? Dimethyl Sulfide Decayed Cabbage 3 ?...

  3. Emissions of odorous aldehydes from an alkyd paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.C.S.; Guo, Z.

    1998-12-31

    Odorous aldehyde emissions from a commonly used alkyd paint were measured and characterized. Initial formulation analysis indicated no measurable aldehydes in the liquid paint. However, small environmental chamber tests showed that, for each gram of the alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of aldehydes (mainly hexanal) were emitted during the curing (drying) period. The emission profiles of Aldehydes were very different from those of other volatile organic compounds such as alkanes and aromatics. Since no measurable aldehydes were found in the original point, it is suspected that the aldehydes emitted were produced by autoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the alkyd resins. It was found that the hexanal emission rate can be simulated by a mathematical model assuming that the autoxidation process was controlled by a consecutive first-order reaction mechanism. The mathematical model was used to predict the indoor air hexanal concentrations for a typical application of the alkyd paint tested. The result indicated that the aldehyde emissions can result in prolonged (several days) exposure risk to occupants.

  4. Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons to hydrogen and high-value carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Naresh; Panjala, Devadas; Huffman, Gerald P.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention provides novel catalysts for accomplishing catalytic decomposition of undiluted light hydrocarbons to a hydrogen product, and methods for preparing such catalysts. In one aspect, a method is provided for preparing a catalyst by admixing an aqueous solution of an iron salt, at least one additional catalyst metal salt, and a suitable oxide substrate support, and precipitating metal oxyhydroxides onto the substrate support. An incipient wetness method, comprising addition of aqueous solutions of metal salts to a dry oxide substrate support, extruding the resulting paste to pellet form, and calcining the pellets in air is also discloses. In yet another aspect, a process is provided for producing hydrogen from an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant, comprising contacting the hydrocarbon reactant with a catalyst as described above in a reactor, and recovering a substantially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen product stream. In still yet another aspect, a process is provided for catalytic decomposition of an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant to obtain hydrogen and a valuable multi-walled carbon nanotube coproduct.

  5. HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200 MILLION YEARS OLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Hoeven, William; Haug, Pat; Burlingame, A.L.; Calvin, Kelvin.

    1966-01-01

    of Moonie Oil "Branched- Cyclic" Hydrocarbon FractionNo. W -7405 -eng -48 HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200and Melvin Calvin July HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200

  6. Parenteral Hydrocarbon Injection and Associated Toxicities: Two Case Reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Michael E.; Nasr, Isam

    2013-01-01

    Products Containing Hydrocarbons. JAMA. 1981;246:840–843.Tissue Injection of Hydrocarbons: A Case Report and Reviewand Nasr Parenteral Hydrocarbon Injection and Associated

  7. WAT ENVIRON RESEARCH (in press, final version may have small changes) ODOR AND VOC TREATMENT BY BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: PILOT SCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Los Angeles to study H2S/odor and VOC removal from the Headworks' waste air. The performance to the efficiency of removal of H2S as the major pollutant. VOCs were present at concentrations up to 150 ppb. Low Biotrickling filter, biological waste air treatment, hydrogen sulfide, odor, VOCs. #12;INTRODUCTION

  8. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  9. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  10. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  11. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  12. Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

    2012-08-19

    The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

  13. Analysis of Ultrasonic Velocities in Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of measurements on ultrasonic velocities of liquid hydrocarbons and mixtures. They found that their dataAnalysis of Ultrasonic Velocities in Hydrocarbon Mixtures James G. Berryman Lawrence Livermore on hydrocarbon mixtures was shown by Wang and Nur [JASA 89, 2725 (1991)] to agree quite well with the predictions

  14. Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic´* National Institute of Chemistry Chemistry 3462 G. Clar 6n Rule versus Hu¨ckel 4n + 2 Rule 3464 H. Hydrocarbons versus Heteroatomic Systems Ordering 3476 VI. On Enumeration of Benzenoid Hydrocarbons 3477 VII. Kekule´ Valence Structures Count 3479

  15. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi Klavzara, , Petra Zigerta , Ivan Gutmanb sextets in any of the Clar formulae) of a catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within the theory that was formulated [1, 2

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A Structure-Based Study K R I S T I N E H . W structure in determining the biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Laboratory. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic pollutants that are commonly found

  17. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Research1 Marion Page2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuticular Hydrocarbon Research1 Marion Page2 We have been studying existing taxonomies of forest in the utility of cuticular (surface) hydrocarbons as taxonomic characters (Haverty and others 1988, 1989, Page to be genetically fixed. Because the insects studied so far synthesize all or most of their hydrocarbon components

  18. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar a,# , Petra Ÿ Zigert a , Ivan hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum number of straight lines required to intersect all hexagons theory; Clar formula; Clar number; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within

  19. An investigation of the use of odorants in liquefied natural gas used as a vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, T.; Williams, T.

    1994-12-31

    Interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an alternative vehicle fuel has increased significantly. Its greater storage density relative to compressed natural gas makes it an attractive option for both volume and weight constrained vehicle applications. The public transportation market, specifically transit bus properties, have been very aggressive in pursuing LNG as an alternative vehicle fuel. Naturally, when dealing with the general public and a new transportation fuel, the issue of safety must be addressed. With this in mind, the Gas Research Institute has initiated a number of safety related studies including an investigation of the use of odorants in LNG. This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation performed by the Institute of Gas Technology to determine both the applicability and effectiveness of odorizing LNG. This includes an overview of the current state-of-the-art in LNG vehicle fueling and safety systems as well as a discussion of an LNG odorization program conducted by San Diego Gas & Electric in the mid 70`s. Finally, the paper discusses the results of the modeling effort to determine whether conventional odorants used in natural gas can be injected and remain soluble in LNG at temperatures and pressures encountered in LNG fueling and on-board storage systems.

  20. Color of Scents: Chromatic Stimuli Modulate Odor Responses in the Human Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miall, Chris

    a profound effect on the perception of odors. For example, strawberry-flavored drinks smell more pleasant. For example, both the perceived intensity and pleasantness of an appropriately colored solution (e.g., red--strawberry) is judged as higher than that of an inappropriately colored (e.g., green-- strawberry) or a colorless

  1. Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western 2001), in combination with an optimal estimation inverse model, to improve emission estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) from Asia. A priori emissions and their errors are from a customized bottom-up Asian emission

  2. Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using use of inverse modeling to better quantify regional surface emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), which to or larger than the combustion source, optimizing the CO from NMVOC emissions on larger spatial scales than

  3. Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Dylan

    Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain- posphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Enhanced CO is observed over the Zagros mountains of Iran), Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting

  4. First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper Eric J. Walter a of carbon monoxide on a monolayer of copper adsorbed on the (1 1 1) face of cubic zirconia. For the bulk, oxidized and reduced (1 1 1) surfaces of cubic zirconia (c-ZrO2). For adsorption of copper

  5. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29

  7. Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

  8. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  9. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  10. Design and Applications of Anti Albumin-Adduct Antibodies to Assess Human Exposure to Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ming Kei

    2013-01-01

    measurement  of  polycyclic  aromatic  hydrocarbon-­?before  measurement  of  hydrocarbon-­?HSA  adducts   with  measurement  of  polycyclic  aromatic  hydrocarbon-­?

  11. The Role of CA1 in the Acquisition of an ObjectTraceOdor Paired Associate Task

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Anthony

    , rats were to dig in the odor cup for a reward. If unpaired, rats were to refrain from digging. Rats as well as controls. These results support the idea that the hippocampus is involved in forming arbitrary

  12. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  13. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  14. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  15. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  16. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  17. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  18. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  19. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste...

  20. Apparatus for the production of heavier hydrocarbons from gaseous light hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agee, K.L.

    1990-11-27

    This patent describes apparatus for producing heavier hydrocarbons from one or more gaseous light hydrocarbons. It comprises a partial oxidation burner means; a synthesis gas generation vessel; a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor; first conduit means; separating means; second conduit means; catalytic combustion means; third conduit means; carbon dioxide separating means; fourth conduit means; and fifth conduit means.

  1. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  2. A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kung, Yan

    Ni–Fe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns ...

  3. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  4. NAST-I remote sensing and carbon monoxide Daniel K. Zhoua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (CH2O), with those of the hydroxyl radical (OH) often show elevated CO and O3, the latter resulting from photochemical production.2 The importance

  5. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Fishes and Shellfishes of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measurements. /n contrast, correlations were often significant between chlorinated hydrocarbons. such as DDEChlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Fishes and Shellfishes of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean Introduction Reports of excessive amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons in fishery products have threatened

  6. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795 nm rubidium laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Sheldon Shao Quan

    2009-01-01

    and R. J. Beach, "Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-a Reliable Diode-Pumped Hydrocarbon-Free 795-nm Rubidiumand R. J. Beach, "Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-

  7. Enhanced metabolism of halogenated hydrocarbons in transgenic plants containing mammalian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    Enhanced metabolism of halogenated hydrocarbons in transgenic plants containing mammalian efficient remediation of many sites contaminated with haloge- nated hydrocarbons. Trichloroethylene (TCE hydrocarbon, ethylene dibromide (EDB; dibromoeth- ane), was used as a soil fumigant to kill nematodes

  8. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  9. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  10. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Presentation from the...

  11. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  12. Effective Viscosity of Confined Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2012-01-24

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity \\mu eff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log(effective viscosity) = C - n log (shear rate), where n varies from 1 (solidlike friction) at very low temperatures to 0 (Newtonian liquid) at very high temperatures, following an inverse sigmoidal curve. Only the shortest chain molecules melt, whereas the longer ones only show a softening in the studied temperature interval 0 < T < 900 K. The results are important for the frictional properties of very thin (nanometer) films and to estimate their thermal durability.

  13. Production of hydrocarbon fractions by hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degnan, T.F.; Kirker, G.W.; Socha, R.F.; Stapleton, M.R.; Johnson, I.D.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a process which comprises hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock having an initial boiling point about 343{degrees} C. in the presence of a catalyst having cracking and hydrogenating activity. It comprises: catalyst comprising a layered silicate containing interspathic polymeric silica, in order to produce a hydrocarbon product having at least 35 percent by weight of hydrocarbons having a boiling point below 343{degrees} c., the catalyst further comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mo, W, Fe, Co, and Ni, wherein the hydrocracking occurs at conversions to product having a boiling point of less than 343{degrees} C. of greater than 70 percent volume of charge.

  14. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  15. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  16. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

  17. Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanga, Shahrukh

    1995-01-01

    that bioavailability of the crude oil to the microorganisms limited the degradation rates (Mills, 1994). Preliminary experiments at our laboratories have also indicated enhanced solubilities of petroleum hydrocarbons due to the effects of biosurfactants (Kanga et al...

  18. Hydrocarbon zeolite catalyst employed in hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, J.W.

    1987-05-12

    A hydrocracking process is described which comprises contacting a hydrocarbon feedstock under hydrocracking conditions with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst comprising at least one hydrogenation component, a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite having catalytic activity for cracking hydrocarbons, and a dispersion of silica-alumina in a matrix consisting essentially of alumina, wherein the catalyst comprises particles in the shape of a three-leaf clover.

  19. Waste control alternatives for chlorinated hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, Terry Allan

    1975-01-01

    WASTE CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by TERRY ALLAN PEARCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975 Major... Subject: Chemical Engineering WASTE CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by TERRY ALLAN PEARCE Approved as to style and content by: , ~ I ' p Chairman of Committee ead of Departmen em er Member May 1975 ABSTRACT Waste...

  20. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  1. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  2. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  3. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  4. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor is emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel and produced photochemically from the oxidation

  5. The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950; implications for the CO budget Supplementary Material2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950 as a supplement to `The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere23 atmospheric carbon monoxide since 1950 combustion, methane oxidation, NMHC oxidation, biofuel burning, biomass burning, direct57 biogenic

  6. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  7. STUDIES OF WALL FLAME QUENCHING AND HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS IN A MODEL SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishikawa, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    1 'Exhaust Hydrocarbon Measurement for Tuneup Diagnosis?"Methane Measurements Hydrocarbon measurements have been madealso induced. The hydrocarbon measurements reveal a general

  8. Measurement of Hydrocarbon Fluxes due to Natural Seepage in the Northern Santa Barbara Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Libe; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    of Energy 001 "MEASUREMENT OF HYDROCARBON FLUXES DUE TOauthors directly. Measurement of Hydrocarbon Fluxes due toflux measurements been obtained in the region of hydrocarbon

  9. On the use of hydrocarbons for the determination of tropospheric OH concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehhalt, D. H; Rohrer, F.; Wahner, A.; Prather, M. J; Blake, D. R

    1998-01-01

    ET AL. : USING HYDROCARBONS chemical and heterogeneous datade- cay of many reactive hydrocarbons in well-defined urbanseasonality of selected hydrocarbons and halocarbons over

  10. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbons using the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    CONDUCTIVITY IMAGING OF HYDROCARBONS USING THE BLUE GENE/Lidentification of hydrocarbon filled layers in deepwater,”Remote sensing of hydrocarbon layers by seabed logging (

  11. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps Jordan F. Clark & Libeenters, and CO 2 and hydrocarbon gases leave the bubbles.Introduction Natural hydrocarbon seeps are important

  12. Isolation, Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry, and Asymmetric Synthesis of Insect Methyl-Branched Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bello, Jan Edgar

    2014-01-01

    d’Ettore, P. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,A.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry, ChemicalMillar, J.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,

  13. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  14. Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses adaptive response induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses; adaptive response; zebrafish embryos Journal of Radiation Research, 2014, 55, i115 Supplement doi: 10 prepared medium with the chemical at different time points after the application of the priming dose. Our

  15. High Performance Silicon Monoxide (SiO) Electrode for Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2015-02-27

    Berkeley Lab’s High Performance Silicon Monoxide Electrode has a capacity retention of more than 90% after ~500 cycles, which translates into a ~20% improvement over the limited energy density of conventional graphite anode-based lithium-ion batteries, enabling next-generation mobile electronics and electric/plug-in vehicles....

  16. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

  17. Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    monoxide can lead to poisoning of platinum electrocatalysts used in the fuel cells [1,2]. The reforming are converted to hydrogen and carbon mon- oxide by reactions with air (partial oxidation), with water (steam. In the third step, the gas mixture is reacted with air over a preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst, so

  18. Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Jin

    2004-09-30

    Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH), also known as Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), is one of seven known Ni containing enzymes. CODH/ACS is a bifunctional enzyme which oxidizes CO to CO2 reversibly and synthesizes acetyl-CoA. Recently, X-ray crystal...

  19. Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jian

    2005-08-29

    The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

  20. Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou, and Houwen Xina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou: catalytic oxidation on a single sur- face, by analysis of the behavior of a set of ordinary differ- ential help researchers to find SR in this system experimentally. II. REACTION MODEL The catalytic oxidation

  1. Dissociation and excitation coefficients of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen monoxide generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Na, Young H.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The excitation coefficient ?{sub N2} is calculated for the excited metastable level of N{sub 2}(A{sub 3}?{sub u}{sup +}) in nitrogen molecules. In addition, the dissociation coefficient of nitrogen molecules is investigated by making use of the Boltzmann distribution of the electrons in atmospheric plasmas. The excitation and electron-impact dissociation coefficients of nitrogen molecules are analytically expressed in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} for evaluations of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in atmospheric plasmas. As an application example of these coefficients, the nitrogen monoxide generation through a microwave torch is carried out for a development of medical tool. The nitrogen monoxide concentration from a microwave plasma-torch can be easily controlled by the nitrogen flow rate, mole fraction of the oxygen gas, and the microwave power. A simple analytic expression of the nitrogen monoxide concentration is obtained in terms of the oxygen molecular density and gas flow rate. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results from the analytical expression. A microwave nitrogen-torch can easily provide an appropriate nitrogen monoxide concentration for the wound healings.

  2. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  3. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide in the patient compartment of ambulances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iglewicz, R.; Rosenman, K.D.; Iglewicz, B.; O'Leary, K.; Hockemeier, R.

    1984-05-01

    Six hundred and ninety New Jersey ambulances were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO); 27 per cent had CO levels of 10 ppm or more greater than ambient air in the breathing zone of the patient. Twenty-nine of these ambulances had levels of at least 35 ppm greater than ambient air. Results indicate that a CO exposure problem exists in ambulances.

  4. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product J. I of surface temperature and oxygen coverage. Both the velocity and angular distributions are bimodal without first accommodating on the surface, the velocity, angular, and internal state distributions may

  5. Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications-grown and the O2-annealed TNT array electrodes. The improved biosensor properties of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were, particularly TiO2 nanotubes (TNT), which possess large surface areas, have been widely used as chemical sensors

  6. Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    . Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an impor- tant trace gas in the atmosphere. It is produced by both natural emissions and human activities and is formed primarily through natural atmospheric oxidation processes fields of CO on short time scales. An observing framework for atmospheric composition that is analogous

  7. SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method Toshiaki NISHII1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    plants. Furthermore, carbon dioxide gas is exhausted from most industrial plants as one of Greenhouse. (2) R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, (1988 CVD SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method * Toshiaki

  8. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  9. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom.

  10. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  11. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  12. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  13. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two;2 Abstract The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives of compounds. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated

  14. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-06-25

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. ...

  15. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01

    Conversion of methane and acetylene to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5) was studied The reaction between methane and acetylene successfully produced high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzene...

  16. A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the...

  17. Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    values for these thermochemical properties and for the enthalpies of formation in the gas state at T=298Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons María Victoria Experimental thermochemical properties of benzene, toluene, and 63 polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons

  18. Seismic Analysis Using Wavelet Transform for Hydrocarbon Detection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Rui

    2012-02-14

    result in successful hydrocarbon finds because abnormal seismic amplitude variations can sometimes be caused by other factors, such as alternative lithology and residual hydrocarbons in certain depositional environments. Furthermore, not all gas fields...

  19. Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Ÿ Zigert 1 , Sandi KlavŸ zar 1. (1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons

  20. Calculating the hyperWiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Calculating the hyper­Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Zigert1 , Sandi Klavzar1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons. Some time

  1. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAE; ALGAL BIOMASS; HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy BIOMASS...

  2. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William Kevin (Stillwater, MN); Janikowski, Stuart Kevin (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  3. RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART I: ALLENE developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways2007 #12;3 INTRODUCTION Soots and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are present in the exhaust gas

  4. The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton Stephanie Lyn Shaw Center for Global://web.mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie Lyn Shaw Submitted to the Department of Earth

  5. 2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon Emissions and Flavor in Onion P. W. Paré, R of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and sulfur derivatives. Odd-chain ketones are emitted from onion-through chambers, volatile hydrocarbons from undamaged plants can be collected under different environmental

  6. Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-09-08

    An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

  7. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  8. Binary coding of Kekule structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Binary coding of Kekulâ??e structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar, aâ??e structures of benzenoids Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance graph, Kekul easily be recovered from its binary code. Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance

  9. Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G , , § T I M O T H Y J . C-labeled hydrocarbons are produced. In the absence of chlorinated ethenes, however, lower con- centrations of many of the same hydrocarbons (methane and C2-C6 alkanes and alkenes) are also produced. Hardy and Gillham (1996

  10. Binary coding of Kekule structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Binary coding of Kekul´e structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi Klavzar of benzenoids Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance graph, Kekul´e structure, algorithm easily be recovered from its binary code. Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance

  11. Wiener Numbers of Pericondensed Benzenoid Hydrocarbons Sandi Klav zar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Wiener Numbers of Pericondensed Benzenoid Hydrocarbons Sandi Klav#20;zar Department of Mathematics expressions for W for several homologous series of pericondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons. An elementary proof polycyclic systems studied were catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons. 11{14 Few years ago the situation

  12. Atomic displacements due to spinspin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benzi, Michele

    Atomic displacements due to spin­spin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons Ernesto-induced atomic displacements in conjugated alt- ernant hydrocarbons. It appears to be responsible alternant hydrocarbons (CAHs) have played a fun- damental role in the development of theoretical chemistry

  13. UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices: Production of Alcohols, Quinones. Clemett,3 Richard N. Zare3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultra, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account

  14. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  15. Mass Transfer of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    ). Many PAHs are only sparingly soluble, and large volumes of water can therefore be contaminated by smallMass Transfer of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Complex DNAPL Mixtures S U P A R N A M U K . * , Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University

  16. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  17. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  18. Reduction of Hydrocarbon Losses to Flare Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, J.

    1979-01-01

    action to minimize hydrocarbon releases, 2) install flare gas recovery systems, and 3) recover or reduce process streams which have to be continuous1y vented to the flare system. This report discusses alternate designs for flare gas monitoring and flare...

  19. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic

  20. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  1. THE ROLE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION. I. PROBING SMALL MOLECULAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE ROLE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION. I. PROBING SMALL MOLECULAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS1 Geoffrey C. Clayton,2 Karl D. Gordon,3 F. Salama,4 L. J. Allamandola,4, with particular emphasis on a search for absorp- tion features produced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  2. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  3. Impact of Emissions, Chemistry, and Climate on Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide: 100-year Predictions from a Global Chemistry-Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of methane and the production of CO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosols and thus affects climate, while, producing formaldehyde (CH2O) and then carbon monoxide. This methane reaction, in combination with R1

  4. A Crossed Molecular Beam and Ab-Initio Investigation of the Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    considerably more energy than conventional hydrocarbons such as JP-8 jet fuel, that is, 837 kJ mol-1 versus 230 than conventional hydrocarbon based jet propellants;3 therefore, boron is considered to be a potential

  5. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

    1996-01-01

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  6. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  7. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  8. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice O and 13 C18 O), carbon dioxide (12 C16 O2, 12 C18 O16 O, 12 C18 O2, 13 C16 O2, 13 C18 O16 O, and 13 and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition

  9. Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    diameter of 30 nm and 20 layers. Nickel was observed in the tips of the nanotubes and played a crucial roleCarbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system

  10. A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVivo, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based control system utilizing a distributed intelligence architecture has been developed to control combustion in hydrocarbon fuel-fired boilers and heaters to significantly reduce fuel usage. The system incorporates a unique flue...

  11. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  12. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  13. Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard G. (Norman, OK); Lobban, Lance (Norman, OK); Liu, Chang-jun (Tianjin, CN)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

  14. Process for mild hydrocracking of hydrocarbon feeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nevitt, T.D.; Hopkins, P.D.; Tait, A.M.

    1984-02-14

    A process for mild hydrocracking of hydrocarbon feeds comprising contacting the feed with hydrogen under mild hydrocracking conditions in the presence of a catalytic composition comprising an active metallic component comprising at least one metal having hydrogenation activity and at least one oxygenated phosphorus component, and a support component comprising at least one non-zeolitic, porous refractory inorganic oxide matrix component and at least one shape selective crystalline molecular sieve zeolite component.

  15. Characterization and quantitative analyses of polychlorinated hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Robert Leary

    1974-01-01

    and quantitativ' analyses of certain poly- chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCB, !iDT and its metabolites in marine biota) were investigated. The occurence ot these compounds were expected at such low concentrations the use of the elec, tron capt gas... of contamination improved the sensitivity of detection of these chlorinated hydro- carbons to the parts per bi'!lion range. A variety of samples from the Gulf of Nexi co and Northern Caribbean were analyzed. The analytical procedure consisted of macerating...

  16. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  17. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen Ling

    1987-10-14

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

  18. Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR during PCCI combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which las smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOX conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (<250 C), after the catalyst was exposed to the raw engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite showed better tolerance to HC fouling at low temperatures compared to the Fe-zeolite but PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOX conversion efficiency. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the hydrocarbons trapped on the SCR cores was conducted to better determine chemistry specific effects.

  19. ZIRCONIA-BASED MIXED POTENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE/HYDROCARBON SENSORS WITH LANTHANUM MAGNESIUM OXIDE, AND TERBIUM-DOPED YTTRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIA ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. L. BROSHA; R. MUKUNDAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    We have investigated the performance of dual metal oxide electrode mixed potential sensors in an engine-out, dynamometer environment. Sensors were fabricated by sputtering thin films of LaMnO{sub 3} and Tb-doped YSZ onto YSZ electrolyte. Au gauze held onto the metal oxide thin films with Au ink was used for current collection. The exhaust gas from a 4.8L, V8 engine operated in open loop, steady-state mode around stoichiometry at 1500 RPM and 50 Nm. The sensor showed a stable EMF response (with no hysteresis) to varying concentrations of total exhaust gas HC content. The sensor response was measured at 620 and 670 C and shows temperature behavior characteristic of mixed potential-type sensors. The results of these engine-dynamometer tests are encouraging; however, the limitations associated with Au current collection present the biggest impediment to automotive use.

  20. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  1. An investigation of the thermal degradation mechanisms of a waste tire through chemical analysis including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature-to-Energy, Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Hetero-N containing PAH

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indoor Air and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Measured with a New Integrated Organic Vapor-Particle Sampler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, L.A.; Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Lee, C.C.; Stevens, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental tobaccoof polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indoor Air 1991;1:497-NK. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives

  3. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-01-01

    A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew MacLeod 1 ,since the component hydrocarbons comprising this complexthat the component hydrocarbons comprising this complex

  4. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coupled out- door/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in combustionbound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons K. A. , Morris, J. ,

  5. Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri So Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons a b s t r a c t Effects of individual petroleum hydrocarbons hydrocarbons, including benzene and its derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were chosen

  6. Process for removing carbonyl-sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for removing carbonyl sulfide from a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: (a) passing the hydrocarbon feedstock over an absorbent material comprising zinc oxide and a promoter selected from the group consisting of alumina, silico-aluminas and any combination thereof wherein the promoter is present in amounts from about 3 to about 15 percent by weight of the absorbent material; and (b) recovering a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon stream having a substantially reduced carbonyl sulfide content.

  7. Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWitt, Bernard John

    1982-01-01

    but ubiquitous compounds in the marine environment (Clark and Finley, 1973). They occur in marine organisms, in sediments and in seawater according to Clark and Blumer (1967). To determine oil pollution, a means of differentiating petroleum hydrocarbons from... in the marine environment for long periods. They enter the environment from fossil fuels and decaying marine organisms (Clark and Blumer, 1967). Therefore pollution and biogenic hydrocarbons contain the same hydrocarbons, although from different sources...

  8. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  9. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and enable production of drop-in hydrocarbon fuels more quickly, in addition to expanding production of jet fuel, diesel, and renewable commodity chemicals. In addition, Oak...

  10. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Ken Rapp, Liyu Li, Jonathan Male, Dave King Pacific Northwest National...

  11. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  12. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  13. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of...

  14. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Understanding what reactions and which catalytic functions are affected by hydrocarbons can lead to improved tolerances for selective catalytic reduction performance

  15. Continuous removal of polynuclear aromatics from hydrocarbon recycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosserman, P.J.; Taniguchi, V.T.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes an oil refining process. It comprises forming a liquid capable of solubilizing aromatic compounds having at least about 5 fused aromatic rings; and catalytically hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock by: contacting the feedstock in a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a hydrocracking catalyst at a temperature and pressure sufficient to give a substantial conversion to lower boiling products; and condensing a hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone and separating the condensed effluent into (AA) a low boiling hydrocarbon product and (BB) an unconverted hydrocarbon oil containing one or more fused polynuclear aromatic compounds.

  16. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  17. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development...

  18. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksEnhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage...

  19. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance of a Thermally...

  20. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Middleton, P. , and Wang, T. : Ozone precursor relationshipsJ. Zhang et al. : Ozone production and hydrocarbonKiang, C. S. : Ground- level ozone pollution in Hong Kong,

  1. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Introductory presentation by Sunita Satyapal, U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Director, at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from...

  2. Sandia Energy - ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Partnership Energy Efficiency...

  3. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Lewis Center, OH); LaPlante, Timothy J. (Columbus, OH); Rankin, Scott (Columbus, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick (Columbus, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Mazanec, Terry (Solon, OH) Daymo, Eric (Dublin, OH)

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  4. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM. Ex: HC poisoninginhibition on zeolites1, catalyst aging, etc. deer09devarakonda.pdf More Documents & Publications The Effects of Hydrocarbons...

  5. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion...

  6. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Algal Lipid Extraction and...

  7. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified....

  8. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and...

  9. Fundamental measure theory of hydrated hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor F. Sokolov; Gennady N. Chuev

    2006-04-13

    To calculate the solvation of hydrophobic solutes we have developed the method based on the fundamental measure treatment of the density functional theory. This method allows us to carry out calculations of density profiles and the solvation energy for various hydrophobic molecules with a high accuracy. We have applied the method to the hydration of various hydrocarbons (linear, branched and cyclic). The calculations of the entropic and the enthalpic parts are also carried out. We have examined a question about temperature dependence of the entropy convergence. Finally, we have calculated the mean force potential between two large hydrophobic nanoparticles immersed in water.

  10. Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmallHydrocarbon conversion Idaho

  11. Gulf Hydrocarbon Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,LowGuinea:Hydrocarbon

  12. Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructures of cubic titanium monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, A. I.

    2013-08-15

    A cubic model is proposed for the Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (Ti{sub 5} Black-Small-Square O{sub 5}{open_square} {identical_to} Ti{sub 90} Black-Small-Square {sub 18}O{sub 90}{open_square}{sub 18}) superstructure of nonstoichiometric titanium monoxide Ti{sub x}O{sub z} with double imperfection. The unit cell of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure has the threefold lattice parameter of the unit cell of the basis disordered B1 structure of Ti{sub x}O{sub z} monoxide and belongs to space group Pm 3-bar m . The channel of the disorder-order transition, i.e., Ti{sub x}O{sub z} (space group Fm 3-bar m)-Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (space group Pm 3-bar m), includes 75 superstructure vectors of seven stars (k{sub 10}), (k{sub 7}), (k{sub 6(1)}), (k{sub 6(2)}), (k{sub 4(1)}), (k{sub 4(2)}), and (k{sub 1}). The distribution functions of Ti and O atoms over the sites of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure are calculated. A comparison of the X-ray and electron diffraction data obtained for ordered TiO{sub 1.087} monoxide with the theoretical simulation results supports the existence of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure. The cubic (space group Pm 3-bar m) Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure is shown to be a high-temperature structure relative to the well-known monoclinic (space group C2/m) superstructure of the same type.

  13. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  14. Effects of chemical additives on hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation in freshwater marsh microcosms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyman, John

    determined the concentration of four total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measures and 43 target hydro- carbonsEffects of chemical additives on hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation in freshwater marsh 2006 Hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation were insensitive to common commercial additives

  15. Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments by providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments to simulate the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic contaminated sediments was investigated as the sole electron acceptor. Providing graphite electrodes as an electron acceptor in hydrocarbon

  16. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underly- ing a former refinery. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization

  17. Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1 chemical communication cuticular hydrocarbon interspecific communication Lasius niger mutualism species covered with aphid cuticular hydrocarbons. Neutral control objects were antennated, but the ants quickly

  18. HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE NIST Special Publication 250-1039

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE NIST Special Publication 250-1039 T. T. Yeh, Jesús and Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899 #12;Hydrocarbon......................................... 3 4.0 Description of the Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Standard

  19. HYDROCARBONS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN FROM A ONE-BILLION YEAR OLD SEDIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eglinton, Geoffrey.; Scott, P.M.; Belsky, Ted.; Burlingame, A.L.; Calvin, Melvin.; Cloud Jr., Preston E.

    1964-01-01

    Contract No. W-7405-eng-48 HYDROCARBONS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGINAbstract The isoprenoid hydrocarbons, phytane (C 20H4Z) andThe identification of these hydrocarbons augurs well for the

  20. Heterogeneous OH Oxidation of Motor Oil Particles Causes Selective Depletion of Branched and Less Cyclic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Cyclic Hydrocarbons Gabriel Isaacman,, * Arthur W. H. Chan, Theodora Nah, David R. Worton,,§ Chris R of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often reaction rates of observed hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, tricycloalkanes

  1. The Hydrophobic Effect Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-Ligand Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biros, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-including saturated hydrocarbons, 11,12 in aqueous solution,

  2. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulay, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Fabien Goulay, 1, †,‡react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow.Small cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons such as c-C 3 H, c-C 3

  3. Isomeric differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using silver nitrate reactive desorption electrospray ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Isomeric differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using silver nitrate reactive hydrocarbons (PAHs) are nonpolar and difficult to detect by desorption electrospray ionization. We present. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most prevalent forms of aquatic environmental

  4. Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework on adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework industrially important reactions, namely the polymerization and hydrocarbon cracking processes [9 as a starting point for a more comprehensive study on hydrocarbon cracking and ethylene epoxidation reactions

  5. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  6. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  7. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  8. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  9. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

  10. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    1999-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  11. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  12. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  13. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  14. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  15. On the photoelectron velocity-map imaging of lutetium monoxide anion LuO{sup ?}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Hua; Qin, Zhengbo; Cong, Ran; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao, E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn; Fan, Hongjun, E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Quanjiang [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-01-21

    We report a combined photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation on lutetium monoxide anion. Transition between the X {sup 1}?{sup +} anion electronic ground state and the neutral X {sup 2}?{sup +} electronic ground state is observed. Vibrationally resolved spectra were obtained at four different photon energies, providing a wealth of spectroscopic information for the electronic ground states of the anionic lutetium monoxide and corresponding neutral species. Franck-Condon simulations of the ground-state transition are performed to assign vibrational structure in the spectra and to assist in identifying the observed spectral bands. The electronic ground state of LuO{sup ?} is found to have a vibrational frequency of 743 ± 10 cm{sup ?1} and an equilibrium bond length of 1.841 Å. The electron affinity of LuO is measured to be 1.624 ± 0.002 eV. The fundamental frequency of ground-state LuO is estimated to be 839 ± 10 cm{sup ?1}.

  16. Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: Theof petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The

  17. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  18. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  19. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  20. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  1. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  2. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  3. Revised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2O..., Thiazyl ,,NS...,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    in the 4th edition of the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables. Updated enthalpies of formation were includedRevised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2 to compute the thermochemical tables for four ideal gases: mercapto HS , disulfur monox- ide (S2O), thiazyl

  4. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  5. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  6. Non-Sticking of Helium Buffer Gas to Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, James F E

    2014-01-01

    Lifetimes of complexes formed during helium-hydrocarbon collisions at low temperature are estimated for symmetric top hydrocarbons. The lifetimes are obtained using a density-of-states approach. In general the lifetimes are less than 10-100 ns, and are found to decrease with increasing hydrocarbon size. This suggests that clustering will not limit precision spectroscopy in helium buffer gas experiments. Lifetimes are computed for noble-gas benzene collisions and are found to be in reasonable agreement with lifetimes obtained from classical trajectories as reported by Cui {\\it et al}.

  7. Iraq`s significant hydrocarbon potential remains relatively undeveloped

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Gailani, M. [GeoDesign Ltd., Kingston-upon-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-29

    Iraq is probably one of the least explored countries in the Middle East, despite the fact that it possesses one of the richest hydrocarbon basins in the world almost on a par to Saudi Arabia`s potential, if not more. The aim of this article is to state the facts about Iraq and focus on the huge but untapped and undeveloped hydrocarbon resources to the international oil community. Perhaps it is best to start by describing briefly the sedimentary and tectonic elements responsible for accumulating such large hydrocarbon resources. The paper describes the basin, tectonic elements, structural anomalies, deep drilling, source rocks, reservoir rocks, characteristics, and new reserves.

  8. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  9. Hydrocarbons on Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) Middens Guide Foragers to the Nest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Deborah

    Hydrocarbons on Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) Middens Guide Foragers to the Nest Shelby J hydrocarbons are used by social insects in nestmate recognition. Here, we showed that hydrocarbons found-specific hydrocarbons, which ants use to distinguish nestmates from non-nestmates, are found on the midden pebbles

  10. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  11. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  12. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  13. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. acep03rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation...

  14. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop was held March 18–19, 2015, hosted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices.

  15. Subcontinuum mass transport of condensed hydrocarbons in nanoporous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falk, Kerstin

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs, the so-called shale gas, has exploded recently, reliable predictions of resource availability and extraction are missing because conventional tools fail to ...

  16. Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    McCorkle Communications and Media Relations 865.574.7308 Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology Vertimass LLC, a California-based start-up...

  17. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  18. Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

  19. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  20. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Galveston Bay system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schropp, Steven James

    1979-01-01

    activities and shipping may all release petroleum hydrocarbons into the marine environment (83), which are potentially detrimental to the estuarine system. Estuaries have been found to be one of the most active types of water in terms of microbial... bacteria to oil inpiit might be used as an indicator or petroleuin pollution (6, 43, 44). To evaluate the effects of ) vllutant hydrocarbons ozi the bacterial populations of estuarine systems, information on the distribution and abundance...

  2. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  3. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-02-01

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Is the situation and immediate threat to life and health? Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor? Possible Fire / Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? Possible Fire / Natural Gas (including chemicals and bio agents") (not including chemicals or bio agents Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor

  5. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development John P. Incardona , Tiffany L. Linbo, Nathaniel L aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as com- plex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using

  6. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12C8H18 Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12­C8H18 Hydrocarbons with Water Volume Editors David G. Shawa... University of Alaska on the evaluation of the all experimental data for a given homologous series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons

  7. ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

    2008-01-01

    significantly to the hydrocarbons of higher molecular weightDISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA,T E DISTRIBUTION O ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS H F A PRELIMINARY

  8. Hydrocarbon Seeps of the Mesozoic Great Valley Group Forearc Strata and Franciscan Complex, Northern and Central California, U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keenan, Kristin Euphrat

    2010-01-01

    and Cretaceous Gastropods from Hydrocarbon Seeps in ForearcPeregrinella-Dominated Hydrocarbon-Seep Deposit on the1999. Signatures of Hydrocarbon Venting in a Middle Devonian

  9. Long-range transport of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at Cape Hedo remote island site in the East China Sea between 2005 and 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004. Atmos.of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air throughpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Hong Kong.

  10. Molecular and isotopic partitioning of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons during migration and gas hydrate precipitation in deposits of a high-flux seepage site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Bohrmann, G. , 2007. In situ hydrocarbon concentrations fromM. , Bohrmann, G. , 2003. Hydrocarbon gases in deposits fromMethane and other hydrocarbon gases in marine sediment.

  11. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  12. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and Ab Initio Investigation of the Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    ; X2 + ) with 1,3-Butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2; X1 Ag) and Its Deuterated Counterparts Surajit Maity, Beni B Information ABSTRACT: The reactions of the boron monoxide (11 BO; X2 + ) radical with 1,3- butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2; X1 Ag) and its partially deuterated counterparts, 1,3- butadiene-d2 (CH2CDCDCH2; X1 Ag) and 1

  13. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  14. Thermal hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils with heavy oil recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis, J.D.; Khulbe, C.P.; Pruden, B.B.

    1981-02-24

    An improved process is described for the hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils, such as oils extracted from tar sands. The heavy hydrocarbon oil feedstock in the presence of an excess of hydrogen is passed through a confined hydrocracking zone under upflow liquid conditions, and the effluent emerging from the top of the hydrocracking zone is passed into a hot separator where it is separated into a gaseous stream containing hydrogen and vaporous hydrocarbons and a liquid stream containing heavy hydrocarbons. The hot separator is maintained near the temperature of the hydrocracking zone and the effluent from the hydrocracking zone enters the separator in a lower region below the liquid level in the separator. The gaseous stream containing hydrogen and vaporous hydrocarbons is withdrawn from the top of the separator while a portion of the liquid phase in the separator is recycled to the hydrocracking zone without further treatment and in quantities sufficient to increase the superficial liquid flow velocity in the hydrocracking zone such that deposition of coke in the hydrocracking zone is substantially eliminated.

  15. The Fourth Positive System of Carbon Monoxide in the Hubble Space Telescope Spectra of Comets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roxana E. Lupu; Paul D. Feldman; Harold A. Weaver; Gian-Paolo Tozzi

    2007-08-22

    The rich structure of the Fourth Positive System (A-X) of carbon monoxide accounts for many of the spectral features seen in long slit HST-STIS observations of comets 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), as well as in the HST-GHRS spectrum of comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. A detailed CO fluorescence model is developed to derive the CO abundances in these comets by simultaneously fitting all of the observed A-X bands. The model includes the latest values for the oscillator strengths and state parameters, and accounts for optical depth effects due to line overlap and self-absorption. The model fits yield radial profiles of CO column density that are consistent with a predominantly native source for all the comets observed by STIS. The derived CO abundances relative to water in these comets span a wide range, from 0.44% for C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), 7.2% for 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, 8.8% for C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to 20.9% for C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The subtraction of the CO spectral features using this model leads to the first identification of a molecular hydrogen line pumped by solar HI Lyman-beta longward of 1200A in the spectrum of comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. (Abridged)

  16. Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amar C. Vutha; Wesley C. Campbell; Yulia V. Gurevich; Nicholas R. Hutzler; Maxwell Parsons; David Patterson; Elizabeth Petrik; Benjamin Spaun; John M. Doyle; Gerald Gabrielse; David DeMille

    2010-11-06

    The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is a signature of CP-violating physics beyond the Standard Model. We describe an ongoing experiment to measure or set improved limits to the eEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules. The metastable $H {}^3\\Delta_1$ state in ThO has important advantages for such an experiment. We argue that the statistical uncertainty of an eEDM measurement could be improved by as much as 3 orders of magnitude compared to the current experimental limit, in a first-generation apparatus using a cold ThO beam. We describe our measurements of the $H$ state lifetime and the production of ThO molecules in a beam, which provide crucial data for the eEDM sensitivity estimate. ThO also has ideal properties for the rejection of a number of known systematic errors; these properties and their implications are described.

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

  18. Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas R. Ayres; Claude Plymate; Christoph U. Keller

    2006-06-07

    A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.

  19. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  20. THE UNUSUAL HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM THE EARLY CARBON STAR HD 100764: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AROMATICS AND ALIPHATICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Gregory C.

    THE UNUSUAL HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM THE EARLY CARBON STAR HD 100764: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose

  1. Quantitative Changes in Hydrocarbons over Time in Fecal Pellets of Incisitermes minor May Predict Whether Colonies Are Alive or Dead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Vernard R.; Nelson, Lori J.; Haverty, Michael I.; Baldwin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    termite species by the hydrocarbons in their feces. J. Chem.effects on the cuticular hydrocarbons of the host-specificG. J. 1990. Cuticular hydrocarbons of eight species of North

  2. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

  3. Nutrient-stimulated biodegradation of aged refinery hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, E.N.; Stokley, K.E.; Calcavecchio, P.; Bare, R.E.; Rothenburger, S.J.; Prince, R.C. [Exxon Research and Engineering, Annandale, NJ (United States); Douglas, G.S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aged hydrocarbon-contaminated refinery soil was amended with water and nutrients and tilled weekly for 1 year to stimulate biodegradation. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and triterpane biomarkers, and Freon IR analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), were used to determine the extent of biodegradation. There was significant degradation of extractable hydrocarbon (up to 60%), but neither hopane, oleanane, nor the amount of polars decreased during this period of bioremediation, allowing them to be used as conserved internal markers for estimating biodegradation. Significant degradation of the more alkylated two- and three-ring compounds, and of the four-ring species pyrene and chrysene and their alkylated congeners, was seen. Substantial degradation (> 40%) of benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene also was seen. The results show that bioremediation can be a useful treatment in the cleanup of contaminated refinery sites.

  4. Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates.

  5. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  6. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  7. Hydrocarbon anions in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Millar; C. Walsh; M. A. Cordiner; R. Ní Chuimín; Eric Herbst

    2007-05-07

    The recent detection of the hydrocarbon anion C6H- in the interstellar medium has led us to investigate the synthesis of hydrocarbon anions in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. We find that the anion/neutral abundance ratio can be quite large, on the order of at least a few percent, once the neutral has more than five carbon atoms. Detailed modeling shows that the column densities of C6H- observed in IRC+10216 and TMC-1 can be reproduced. Our calculations also predict that other hydrocarbon anions, such as C4H- and C8H-, are viable candidates for detection in IRC+10216, TMC-1 and photon-dominated regions such as the Horsehead Nebula.

  8. Crystal and solution structures of an odorant-binding protein from the southern house mosquito complexed with an oviposition pheromone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Yang; Xu, Xianzhong; Xu, Wei; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S.; Ames, James B.; Clardy, Jon

    2010-11-15

    Culex mosquitoes introduce the pathogens responsible for filariasis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, and other diseases into humans. Currently, traps baited with oviposition semiochemicals play an important role in detection efforts and could provide an environmentally friendly approach to controlling their populations. The odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in the female's antenna play a crucial, if yet imperfectly understood, role in sensing oviposition cues. Here, we report the X-ray crystallography and NMR 3D structures of OBP1 for Culex quinquefasciatus (CquiOBP1) bound to an oviposition pheromone (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MOP). In both studies, CquiOBP1 had the same overall six-helix structure seen in other insect OBPs, but a detailed analysis revealed an important previously undescribed feature. There are two models for OBP-mediated signal transduction: (i) direct release of the pheromone from an internal binding pocket in a pH-dependent fashion and (ii) detection of a pheromone-induced conformational change in the OBP {center_dot} pheromone complex. Although CquiOBP1 binds MOP in a pH-dependent fashion, it lacks the C terminus required for the pH-dependent release model. This study shows that CquiOBP binds MOP in an unprecedented fashion using both a small central cavity for the lactone head group and a long hydrophobic channel for its tail.

  9. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1995-01-01

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  10. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  11. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  12. Manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal hydrogenation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Maloletnev; M.A. Gyul'malieva [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    The manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal distillates was experimentally studied. A flow chart for the production of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes was designed, which comprised the hydrogen treatment of the total wide-cut (or preliminarily dephenolized) fraction with FBP 425{sup o}C; fractional distillation of the hydrotreated products into IBP-60, 60-180, 180-300, and 300-425{sup o}C fractions; the hydro-cracking of middle fractions for increasing the yield of gasoline fractions whenever necessary; the catalytic reform of the fractions with bp up to 180{sup o}C; and the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons.

  13. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  14. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  15. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  16. Phase equilibria of polydisperse hydrocarbons: moment free energy method analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Speranza; Francesca Di Patti; Alessandro Terenzi

    2010-12-14

    We analyze the phase equilibria of systems of polydisperse hydrocarbons by means of the recently introduced moment method. Hydrocarbons are modelled with the Soave-Redlick-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations of states. Numerical results show no particular qualitative difference between the two equations of states. Furthermore, in general the moment method proves to be an excellent method for solving phase equilibria of polydisperse systems, showing excellent agreement with previous results and allowing a great improvement in generality of the numerical scheme and speed of computation.

  17. A study of the solubility of mercury in liquid hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarlane, David Larimer

    1991-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE SOLUBILITY OF MERCURY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by DAVID LARIhKR MCFARLANE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering A STUDY OF THE SOLUBILITY OF MERCURY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by DAVID LARI1VKR MCFARLANE Approved as to style and content by: W. H. Marlow (Chair of Committee) . W. Bevan (Member) . A...

  18. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbons using the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    areas of exploration geophysics including seismic imaging,seismic and electromagnetic modeling and inversion applied to hydrocarbon exploration.Seismic methods have a long and established history in hydrocarbon, i.e. oil and gas, exploration,

  19. Experimental and artificial neural network modeling study on soot formation in premixed hydrocarbon flamesq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Experimental and artificial neural network modeling study on soot formation in premixed hydrocarbon classical light scattering measurement techniques. The experimental data revealed that the soot properties rights reserved. Keywords: Soot; Hydrocarbon flames; Artificial neural networks 1. Introduction

  20. Compositional differences in biomarker constituents of the hydrocarbon, resin, asphaltene and kerogen fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Allen P.

    Compositional differences in biomarker constituents of the hydrocarbon, resin, asphaltene fraction, so biomarker parameters measured for different fractions are not directly comparable. The samples- tion are of equal magnitude to the quantities that are present in the extractable aliphatic hydrocarbon

  1. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs using PAHs as tracers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    amounts of hydrocarbon compounds though combustion (liquid fuels, coal and wood), discharge of petroleum hydrocarbon sources from human activities including oil and refined oil products, burning of coal, liquid

  2. Light hydrocarbon geochemistry of brines and sediments of the red sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Roger Allen

    1979-01-01

    -induced hydzccarbon po!. lution in the oceans [Bi"oaks and Sockett, 1973]; "sniffing" of light hydrocarbons to evaluate the oil producing potential of an area !Sackett, 1977]; and determination of light hydrocarbons in anoxic. waters [Bunt, 1974; Vtesenbpnp, 1975...

  3. An investigation of the thermal degradation mechanisms of a waste tire through chemical analysis including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature a GC/MS. Significant Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs) including benzene derivatives, PAHs, and Hetero

  4. Recovery of co-adsorbed hydrocarbons from molecular sieve adsorption units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, K.R.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes a process for removing carbonyl sulfide from a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: providing a feedstock of hydrocarbons; passing the feedstock in the liquid phase; terminating the passage; draining the bed; concurrently to the direction of flow into the bed; recovering the hydrocarbon; and regenerating the adsorption bed.

  5. UV absorption of CO2 for temperature diagnostics of hydrocarbon combustion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    CO2 LIF [8], which for hydrocarbon combustion effluent can interfere with NO-LIF measurements [9UV absorption of CO2 for temperature diagnostics of hydrocarbon combustion applications J and 320 nm. Because CO2 is a major product of hydrocarbon combustion and because both the magnitude

  6. First detection of an ultraviolet transition in an ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; accepted 3 May 1999 We report the first measurement of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cation electronicFirst detection of an ultraviolet transition in an ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Xavier D of Physics. S0021-9606 99 02226-6 I. INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAH ions are prom- ising

  7. A hydrocarbon ruler measures palmitate in the enzymatic acylation of endotoxin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Russell

    A hydrocarbon ruler measures palmitate in the enzymatic acylation of endotoxin Victoria E Ahn1 involve molecular measuring devices termed hydrocarbon rulers, but the molecular basis for acyl the hydrocarbon ruler mechanism for palmitate recognition. A striking structural similarity between Pag

  8. Chemical and isotopic analysis of hydrocarbon gas at trace levels Methodology and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    -C-IRMS) permits measurement of relative proportions of gaseous hydrocarbon (CH4 to C4H10) and CO2 of hydrocarbons (from 1 ppm to 1000 ppm), accurate measurement of isotope ratios is often impossible dueChemical and isotopic analysis of hydrocarbon gas at trace levels Methodology and results Yvon

  9. Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Vries, Mattanjah S.

    Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant between isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite. We measured the 2C-R2PI: Resonant ionization; Jet cooling; Mass spectrometry; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Murchison meteorite

  10. Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoskins, Brian

    Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe R. M. Purvis,1 A. C of 21 C2­C7 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) has been determined in planetary boundary layer (PBL between the PBL and FT was observed for all short and medium lifetime hydrocarbons (e.g., average iso

  11. Hydrocarbon Signatures of Egg Maternity, Caste Membership and Reproductive Status in the Common Wasp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenseleers, Tom

    Hydrocarbon Signatures of Egg Maternity, Caste Membership and Reproductive Status in the Common-laid and worker-laid eggs has never been investigated. Our aim, therefore, was to investigate if hydrocarbons on the surface of newly-laid eggs, and that there are pronounced quantitative differences in the hydrocarbon

  12. Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing experienced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing of the hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing bees are investigated in this study. First, we test the hypothesis itself. waggle dance / cuticular hydrocarbon / nectar foraging / semiochemical / pheromone 1

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air + particle phases) of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated when (before or during the sampling) the OPAHs are formed. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  14. Author's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Author's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater hydrocarbons Bohai Bay Temporal and spatial trends Seawater a b s t r a c t The temporal and spatial distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the seawater of Tianjin Bohai Bay during 1996

  15. Research article The role of cuticular hydrocarbons as chemical cues for nestmate recognition in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsutsui, Neil Durie

    Research article The role of cuticular hydrocarbons as chemical cues for nestmate recognition of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in nestmate recognition of this highly damaging invasive ant using three super of hydrocarbons trans- ferred to individual ants and performed gas chromatogra- phy-mass spectrometry (GC

  16. Hydrocarbon Characteristics in Fusion Edge Plasmas from Electron-Molecule and Ion-Surface Collision Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 EX/P4-1 Hydrocarbon Characteristics in Fusion Edge Plasmas from Electron- Molecule and Ion proceeding in the volume before and at the wall. Surface processes involving hydrocarbons and their ions, which are probable vacuum contaminants in plasma devices, and the role of hydrocarbon chemistry

  17. Influence of Hydrocarbons Exposure on Survival, Growth and Condition of Juvenile Flatfish: A Mesocosm Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of Hydrocarbons Exposure on Survival, Growth and Condition of Juvenile Flatfish experiments were conducted to determine whether short (24 h) but high exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons (1 to petroleum hydro- carbons and in particular Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are regarded

  18. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Port Phillip Bay of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and fluorescence emission analysis, shows and the Yarra River estuary. Introduction Pollution of the marine environment by petroleum hydrocarbons

  19. Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties of BIMEVOX (Me = Ta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties for syngas or H2 production from light hydrocarbons. #12;2 Keywords: Dense membrane reactor, BIMEVOX, BITAVOX to decouple the two steps of the redox mechanism that prevails in selective oxidation of hydrocarbons [1

  20. Quantitative traits loci (QTL) involved in body colour, wing morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantitative traits loci (QTL) involved in body colour, wing morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbons for wing morphometry, 12 for cuticular hydrocarbons and five for venom components. We detected 50 QTL / cuticular hydrocarbons / venom 1. INTRODUCTION The first genetic map built from RAPD markers (Hunt and Page

  1. EIGENVALUES OF SATURATED HYDROCARBONS D. J. KLEIN AND C. E. LARSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Craig E.

    EIGENVALUES OF SATURATED HYDROCARBONS D. J. KLEIN AND C. E. LARSON Abstract. A simplified H¨uckel-type molecular-orbital (MO) model for the valence electrons of saturated hydrocarbons is proposed and half negative. Keywords: saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes, stellation, para-line graph. 1. Saturated

  2. Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model of solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. For this purpose, we first validate our methodology for fluid phase equilibria predictions of aromatic hydrocarbons and gas (CO2, C2H6) mixtures. Finally, we

  3. Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the lowtemperature oxidation of hydrocarbons by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the lowtemperature oxidation of hydrocarbons of hydrocarbons and biofuels is of critical importance to allow the development of new combustion) but has never been applied to real hydrocarbons and lowtemperature oxidation. H atoms (10

  4. UPTAKE AND LOSS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY THE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UPTAKE AND LOSS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY THE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ROBERT C. CLARK, JR., AND JOHN S. FINLEY' ABSTRACT Petroleum paraffin hydrocarbons (n-CI4H30 to n-C37H76 system that simulated tides. The mussels were exposed to levels of petroleum hydrocarbons from a surface

  5. Author's personal copy The sedimentary fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    Author's personal copy The sedimentary fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Yangtze aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two 210 Pb dated sediment cores from the coastal East China Sea, strongly flux; Source; Yangtze River Estuary coastal sea 1. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  6. Identification and Characterization of Cuticular Hydrocarbons from a Rapid Species Radiation of Hawaiian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Sean P.

    Identification and Characterization of Cuticular Hydrocarbons from a Rapid Species Radiation Island taxa represents the loss of ancestral hydrocarbons found on Maui. To test this hypothesis, we characterized and identified the structures of cuticular hydrocarbons for seven species of Hawaiian Laupala, two

  7. Cuticular hydrocarbons mediate discrimination of reproductives and nonreproductives in the ant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danchin, Etienne

    Cuticular hydrocarbons mediate discrimination of reproductives and nonreproductives in the ant Contributed by Bert Ho¨ lldobler, July 9, 2003 In many species of social insects, the cuticular hydrocarbons of long-chained hydrocarbons present both on the cuticle and in the postpharyngeal gland. The purified

  8. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor sans Xenobiotics: Endogenous Function in Genetic Model Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradfield, Christopher A.

    MINIREVIEW The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor sans Xenobiotics: Endogenous Function in Genetic Model, 2007 ABSTRACT For more than 30 years, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor [Ah receptor (AHR)] has been. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor [Ah receptor (AHR)] is a founding member of the basic-helix-loop-helix (b

  9. Computational Physics (Computational) : Oral Atomistic Simulation of Di#usion of Hydrocarbons in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    Computational Physics (Computational) : Oral Atomistic Simulation of Di#usion of Hydrocarbons, due to their unique structure and stability. This project deals with the transport of hydrocarbons to animate di#usion of hydrocarbons inside the carbon nanotube, in order to observe typical features

  10. Received 21 Dec 2013 | Accepted 3 Apr 2014 | Published 8 May 2014 Subfemtosecond steering of hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kling, Matthias

    of hydrocarbon deprotonation through superposition of vibrational modes A.S. Alnaser1,2,3, M. Ku¨bel4, R pathways for the laser-driven synthesis of chemical products. The break-up of the C-H bond in hydrocarbons is an ubiquitous process during laser-induced dissociation. While the yield of the deprotonation of hydrocarbons

  11. DEUTERATED INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS1 E. Peeters,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEUTERATED INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS1 E. Peeters,2,3 L. J. Allamandola,3 C. W aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two bands are detected in the infrared emission from the ionization bar fluorescence from UV-pumped, large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs; Allamandola, Tielens

  12. Comparison of bond character in hydrocarbons and fullerenes D. W. Snoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoke, David

    Comparison of bond character in hydrocarbons and fullerenes D. W. Snoke Department of Physics a comparison of the bond polarizabilities for carbon-carbon bonds in hydrocarbons and fullerenes, using two and ethylene. We find that the polarizabilities for single bonds in fullerenes and hydrocarbons compare well

  13. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 5, May 2002 (C 2002) EVALUATION OF SYNTHETIC HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 5, May 2002 (C 2002) EVALUATION OF SYNTHETIC HYDROCARBONS of five straight-chain hydrocarbons (C24, C25, C26, C28, C30) to detached elytra of the red milkweed, and placed them in an exposed location outdoors. The amount of hydrocarbons on the elytra did not change over

  14. Cuticular Hydrocarbons: Species and Population-Level Discrimination in Termites1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuticular Hydrocarbons: Species and Population-Level Discrimination in Termites1 Michael I. Haverty Marion Page Barbara L. Thorne Pierre Escoubas2 Abstract: Hydrocarbons in the cuticle of insects and the apparent species-specificity of cuticular hydrocarbon mixtures make them excellent taxo nomic characters

  15. Interfacial effects in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a hydrophobic Mycobacterium Carolan T. MacLeod, Andrew J. Daugulis* Department 18 June 2004 Abstract The growth of Mycobacterium PYR-1 on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs Bioreactor; Hydrophobicity 1. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which possess

  16. A second-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential energy expression for hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    for hydrocarbons This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential energy expression for hydrocarbons Donald W Brenner1 , Olga, lengths, and force constants for hydrocarbon molecules, as well as elastic properties, interstitial defect

  17. FT-ICR reaction study of bimetallic clusters with alcohol and hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    FT-ICR reaction study of bimetallic clusters with alcohol and hydrocarbon Satoshi Yoshinaga beam source [1]. In order to investigate the initial reaction of alcohol or hydrocarbon with a metal reaction of catalysts with carbon containing molecules, such as alcohol and hydrocarbon. Fig. 1 shows mass

  18. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  20. Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sattler, Klaus

    applications including heating systems and gas turbines for electric power generation.62­64 The combustion of natural gas methane is a clean and efficient process. While gas turbines operating with methane pollution than other hydrocarbon fuels. Therefore, gas turbines pow- ered by methane are promising

  1. Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes from Brazil Giuseppina Negri* Maria; accepted 20 April 1998) Abstract - Waxes of 23 samples of propolis of Apis mellifera mostly from Brazil of propolis wax is similar to that of comb wax, which suggests that propolis waxes are probably secreted

  2. Whole Ecosystem Measurements of Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Whole Ecosystem Measurements of Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Final Report ARB Award No. 98 the automated in-situ gas chromatograph system for measuring volatile organic compound mixing ratios. Other and Outlook at the Beginning of This Study............... 4 2.0 Field Measurement Site........................................................

  3. Modeling the biodegradability and physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros

    2006-10-30

    .67c a From Howard and Meylan (1997). b From SRC (2005). c From Mackay et al. (1992). logK = aRI + b (2.1) where K is a... Bill Batchelor Kirby C. Donnelly Thomas J. McDonald David V. Rosowsky August 2005 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Modeling the Biodegradability and Physicochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons...

  4. Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

  5. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moos, Daniel (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  6. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent liver development and hepatotoxicity are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradfield, Christopher A.

    ,3,7,8-tetrachlorod- ibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), and vascular remodeling of the develop- ing embryo. To test of the liver in response to dioxin exposure. Taken together, these data illustrate the importance of cell recombinase ductus venosus endothelial cell hepatocyte dioxin The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic

  8. The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merkl, Marvin Eugene

    1953-01-01

    THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO COTTON PESTS A Dissertation 5y MARVIN EUGENE MERKL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of CouBlttee Head of Departnent May 19*3 THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED... .....................................................78 CONCLUSIONS............................................... ..81 BIBLIOGRAPHI .............................................. ..82 Pag? FIGURES 1* Dosage-?ortality curve for the toxicity of endrin to aphids...

  9. Biodegradation of Bicyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    Biodegradation of Bicyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Anaerobic Enrichments K A R L J contaminated sediments are anaerobic. With recent results demonstrating that some bicyclics and PAHs can for aerobic cultures. These results show that bicyclics and PAHs can be biodegraded under nitrate- and sulfate

  10. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  11. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the combustion products will produce carbon monoxide. Othercombustion is to stoichiometric conditions. This is limited by imperfect mixing, which then produces hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide.

  12. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    cylinder mode Carbon Monoxide (ppm) Combustion Timing,combustion timing, higher emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxideand carbon monoxide emissions increase with delays in combustion

  13. Evaluation of Electrostatic Particle Ionization and BioCurtain Technologies to Reduce Dust, Odor and other Pollutants from Broiler Houses Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerez, S.; Muhktar, S.; Faulkner, W.; Casey, K.; Borhan, S.; Hoff, A.; VanDelist, B.

    2011-01-01

    geotextile fabric stretched over a quadrant-shaped, metal frame skeleton, and placed over the exhaust fans of the poultry houses. Air moving out of the house flows down along the top of the quadrant and particulate matter settles out on the ground. The air...-limited to no more than 2 mA to ensure worker and animal safety. The BioCurtain? technology for reducing dust and odor consists of a metal frame structure covered with a woven geotextile fabric and functions by settling airborne dust particles on the ground after...

  14. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  15. Microbial community response to a release of neat ethanol onto residual hydrocarbons in a pilot-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Microbial community response to a release of neat ethanol onto residual hydrocarbons in a pilot ethanol release (E100, 76 l) onto residual hydrocarbons in sandy soil was evaluated in a continuous-flow 8 hydrocarbons mobilized by ethanol. Growth of hydrocarbon degrad- ers was corroborated by denaturing gradient

  16. QSAR model of the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro, Marcia Miguel Castro Ferreira*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    QSAR model of the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro of 67 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed and a prediction rule for the phototoxicity be produced from saturated hydrocarbons under oxygen-deficient conditions. Hydrocarbons with very low

  17. Hydrocarbon reaction with HF-cleaned Si(lOQ) and effects on metal-oxide-semiconductor device quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Hydrocarbon reaction with HF-cleaned Si(lOQ) and effects on metal-oxide-semiconductor device-cleaned Si( 100) towards hydrocarbon adsorption is examined by surface analysis; most hydrocarbons adsorb oxidation after HF treatment.4'5 In this letter, passivation against hydrocarbon contamination is studied

  18. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  19. Line Broadening and Temperature Dependence in the 0 --> 3 Overtone Band of Carbon Monoxide Cyril Hnatovsky , Adriana Predoi-Cross , Kimberly Strong , James R. Drummond , and D. Chris Benner1 1 1 1 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Kimberly

    Line Broadening and Temperature Dependence in the 0 --> 3 Overtone Band of Carbon Monoxide Cyril. Introduction Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace constituent present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is produced, and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. The lifetime of an atmospheric CO molecule is relatively

  20. One-dimensional turbulence model simulations of autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide fuel mixtures in a turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Kamlesh G.; Echekki, Tarek [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide in a turbulent jet with preheated co-flow air is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. The simulations are performed at atmospheric pressure based on varying the jet Reynolds number and the oxidizer preheat temperature for two compositions corresponding to varying the ratios of H{sub 2} and CO in the fuel stream. Moreover, simulations for homogeneous autoignition are implemented for similar mixture conditions for comparison with the turbulent jet results. The results identify the key effects of differential diffusion and turbulence on the onset and eventual progress of autoignition in the turbulent jets. The differential diffusion of hydrogen fuels results in a reduction of the ignition delay relative to similar conditions of homogeneous autoignition. Turbulence may play an important role in delaying ignition at high-turbulence conditions, a process countered by the differential diffusion of hydrogen relative to carbon monoxide; however, when ignition is established, turbulence enhances the overall rates of combustion of the non-premixed flame downstream of the ignition point. (author)

  1. Adsorption and Co-adsorption of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide on Silica-Supported Monodisperse Pt Nanoparticles: Volumetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    on the poisoning of the heterogeneously catalyzed conversion of hydrocarbons. 1. Introduction Lateral interactions conventional theory, such as Langmuir-Hinshelwood hetero- geneous kinetics.1,2 Interactions between adsorbates roughness (nano- particle size) on adsorbate-adsorbate interactions is important. Conventional theories

  2. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  3. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  4. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  5. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  6. Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01

    Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

  7. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  8. Simultaneous demetalization and hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belinko, K.; Packwood, R.H.; Patmore, D.J.; Ranganathan, R.

    1983-03-15

    A process is described for the simultaneous demetalization and hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon oils. The process permits the recovery of metals such as vanadium and nickel in an economic manner by passing a slurry of a heavy hydrocarbon oil and carbonaceous additive particles, such as coal, in the presence of hydrogen through a confined vertical hydrocracking zone at high temperatures and pressures. A mixed effluent containing a gaseous phase and a liquid phase is removed from the top of a hydrocracking zone, while there is removed from the bottom of the hydrocracking zone a portion of the hydrocracking zone contents containing carbonaceous remains of the additive particles to which is adsorbed the metal residues from the feedstock. The effluent removed from the top of the hydrocracking zone can be subsequently fed directly to a catalytic hydrocracking unit.

  9. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  10. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  11. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  12. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-01-22

    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  13. Hydrocarbon Processing`s Advanced control and information systems `95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This special report presents control strategies and information systems for most hydrocarbon processes and plants. Each summary (76 in all) contains information on application, control strategy, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. The processes include NGL recovery, alkylation, blending, catalytic reforming, caustic treating, cryogenic separation, delayed coking, fractionation, hydrocracking, hydrogen production, isomerization, lube oil extraction, oil transport and storage, pipeline management, information management, sulfur recovery, waste water treatments, and others.

  14. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David Scott; Uwechue, Uzo Philip

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  15. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  16. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  18. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1994-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  19. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in Mississippi Fan sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, William Allan

    1986-01-01

    on fractionation of carbon in phytoplankton; 3) the alteration of organic matter's isotopic composition during degradation and diagenesis; 4) upward and/or lateral migration of petrogenic hydrocarbons into shallower sediments; 5) anomalous isotopic compositions... ? acenaphthene fluorene phenanthrene/anthracene Gr-3 rings fluoranthene, pyr'ene benz(a)anthracene, chrysene benzopyrenes, perylene ?drz-perylene dibenzanthracenes (*internal standards) Gas GhromatograIrhv Injector: 300 C, splitless mode Total Run...

  1. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  2. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; O. Djordjevic

    2003-03-20

    The ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342) began September 1, 2002. During this second quarter: A Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator (DHI) symposium was held at UH; Current DHI methods were presented and forecasts made on future techniques; Dr. Han moved his laboratory from HARC to the University of Houston; Subcontracts were re-initiated with UH and TAMU; Theoretical and numerical modeling work began at TAMU; Geophysical Development Corp. agreed to provide petrophysical data; Negotiations were begun with Veritas GDC to obtain limited seismic data; Software licensing and training schedules were arranged with Paradigm; and Data selection and acquisition continues. The broad industry symposium on Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators was held at the University of Houston as part of this project. This meeting was well attended and well received. A large amount of information was presented, not only on application of the current state of the art, but also on expected future trends. Although acquisition of appropriate seismic data was expected to be a significant problem, progress has been made. A 3-D seismic data set from the shelf has been installed at Texas A&M University and analysis begun. Veritas GDC has expressed a willingness to provide data in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Data may also be available from TGS.

  3. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  4. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  5. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Gas saturated reservoirs change reflection amplitudes significantly. The goal for the final project period was to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration and transfer this knowledge as clearly and effectively as possible.

  6. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

    1984-05-08

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

  7. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    - house gas, but also the hydroperoxide radical (HO2). HO2 converts nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxideContribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide. Chen, K. Carmody, S. Vutukuru, and D. Dabdub (2007), Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile

  8. Potentiometric CO titrations of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and CO-inhibition of the NI-removing reaction with 1,10--phenanthroline 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, William Kent

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzes two reactions involving redox chemistry (the reversible oxidation Of CO to C02, and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA) using three types of Ni and Fe-S structures called the A-, B...

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  10. Thermochemistry for Hydrocarbon Intermediates Chemisorbed on Metal Surfaces: CHn-m(CH3)m with n ) 1, 2, 3 and m e n on Pt, Ir,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Thermochemistry for Hydrocarbon Intermediates Chemisorbed on Metal Surfaces: CHn-m(CH3)m with n ) 1 hydrocarbon rearrangements on transition metal surfaces, we report systematic studies of hydrocarbon radicals for hydrocarbons on metal surfaces similar to the Benson scheme so useful for gas-phase hydrocarbons. This is used

  11. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  12. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach.

  13. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions.

  14. Nonthermal plasma systems and methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2005-05-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  15. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    and the fallout plume of heavy oil from strong petroleumCH 4 ) and other heavy hydrocarbons including oil, to the

  16. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons in east-central Texas groundwaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman, Bryan Keith

    1988-01-01

    in flow direction due to pumping at the Bryan well fields (after Follett, 1974). 13 6 Structure map on the top of the Queen City Formation and approximate thickness of sand containing fresh to slightly saline water in Brazos and Burleson Counties... The approximate ' C/ C ratios produced from or associated with different sources (1-4) and sinks (5) of COs . 41 5 Well owners, location of sample outlet, head gas abundance and casing material for wells sampled in this study. 53 6 Hydrocarbon concentration...

  17. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL):

  18. HCCI engine control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Killingsworth, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    combustion and increasing emissions of carbon monoxide (CO)the combustion chamber. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide areand carbon monoxide. The tradeo?s in heat transfer, pressure rise rate, and combustion

  19. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  20. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-08-12

    We are now entering the final stages of our ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342). We have now developed several techniques to help distinguish economic hydrocarbon deposits from false ''Fizz'' gas signatures. These methods include using the proper in situ rock and fluid properties, evaluating interference effects on data, and doing better constrained inversions for saturations. We are testing these techniques now on seismic data from several locations in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we are examining the use of seismic attenuation as indicated by frequency shifts below potential reservoirs. During this quarter we have: Began our evaluation of our latest data set over the Neptune Field; Developed software for computing composite reflection coefficients; Designed and implemented stochastic turbidite reservoir models; Produced software & work flow to improve frequency-dependent AVO analysis; Developed improved AVO analysis for data with low signal-to-noise ratio; and Examined feasibility of detecting fizz gas using frequency attenuation. Our focus on technology transfer continues, both by generating numerous presentations for the upcoming SEG annual meeting, and by beginning our planning for our next DHI minisymposium next spring.

  1. Reaction of Si(111) Surface with Saturated Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suryana, Risa; Nakahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Yahachi; Ichimiya, Ayahiko

    2011-12-10

    Reaction of Si(111) surface with saturated hydrocarbon such as methane (CH{sub 4}) and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) was carried out in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). After carbonization, structures formed on the surface were observed by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Structures transition formed on the surface were 7x7, {delta}-7x7, 1x1, and SiC structures. In the case of CH{sub 4}, the Si surfaces were carbonized at 800 deg. C for 120 min (7.2x10{sup 4} L) with a W-filament of 2800 deg. C, and SiC layers were obtained. In the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, the mixture of 7x7 and SiC structure was observed. Decomposition of hydrocarbon was characterized in quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) measurements. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the mixture of 7x7 and SiC shows a wandering shape. Whereas, the SiC layer shows a regular step. This result seems to be related to the different in the amount of CH{sub 3} molecules on the surface.

  2. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  3. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  4. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  5. aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover a highly hydrocarbons in the cuticular waxes of bees are widely assumed to func- tion as recognition cues (for nestmate discriminate cuticular waxes based on esters and polar components Birgit FRÖHLICHa, Markus RIEDERERa, Jürgen

  6. Modeling and History Matching Hydrocarbon Production from Marcellus Shale using Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 161184 Modeling and History Matching Hydrocarbon Production from Marcellus Shale using Data. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract The Marcellus Shale play has a novel approach to modeling, history matching of hydrocarbon production from a Marcellus shale asset

  7. The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Libe

    The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil pollution sources. A field of strong hydrocarbon seepage offshore of Coal Oil Point near Santa Barbara in the Coal Oil Point field to measure directly the atmospheric gas flux from three seeps of varying size

  8. Hydrocarbon contamination in waters and sediments of the Pertusillo freshwater reservoir, Val d'Agri,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Orsogna, Maria Rita

    Hydrocarbon contamination in waters and sediments of the Pertusillo freshwater reservoir, Val d contamination of drinking water in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata and to identify its source, we to determine temporal variability of water quality. In the present study, metals and hydrocarbons were

  9. Author's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    (Zhou et al., 2004). Petroleum hydrocarbons as priority organic contaminants are extremely complexAuthor's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191, China c Soil and Water Science Department

  10. 2007-01-0472 Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2007-01-0472 Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data

  11. Characterization of hydrocarbon and mixed layers in TEXTOR by laser induced ablation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giesen, Thomas

    Characterization of hydrocarbon and mixed layers in TEXTOR by laser induced ablation spectroscopy) 014026 (4pp) doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2011/T145/014026 Characterization of hydrocarbon and mixed layers systematic laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) measurements carried out on various surface layers

  12. SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale Andrew C typing method for application in hydrocarbon-bearing shale (specifically source rock) reservoirs using-hoc correlations where the interpretation becomes a core matching exercise. Scale effects on measurements

  13. Z .Marine Chemistry 64 1999 8597 Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    Z .Marine Chemistry 64 1999 85­97 Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon of 1969­1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's

  14. Optical reflectivity of solid and liquid methane: Application to spectroscopy of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    's hydrocarbon lakes Kimberly A. Adams,1 Steven D. Jacobsen,1 Zhenxian Liu,2 Sylvia-Monique Thomas,1,3 Maddury revealed dark patches in the surface reflectance at 2 and 5 mm, interpreted as hydrocarbon lakes forming) on dynamic planetary surfaces requires laboratory reflectance ratio measurements at relevant temperatures

  15. Value of information in parameter identification and optimization of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Value of information in parameter identification and optimization of hydrocarbon reservoirs E-based optimization and model-parameter identification applied to large-scale models of subsurface hydrocarbon with water injection. The results are compared with previous work on other measures of information valuation

  16. Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Steve

    Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe R. M. Purvis,1 A. C of a cold front, a rapid uplift of reactive carbon from the boundary layer to the mid free troposphere, convection Citation: Purvis, R. M., et al., Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over

  17. Experimental Studies of Hydroxyl Radical Initiated Tropospheric Oxidation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Buddhadeb

    2011-10-21

    -1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF HYDROXYL RADICAL INITIATED TROPOSPHERIC OXIDATION OF UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS A Dissertation by BUDDHADEB GHOSH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2010 Major Subject: Chemistry EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF HYDROXYL RADICAL INITIATED TROPOSPHERIC OXIDATION OF UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS A Dissertation...

  18. Structures and Topological Transitions of Hydrocarbon Films on Quasicrystalline Surfaces Wahyu Setyawan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    Setyawan,1 Renee D. Diehl,2 and Stefano Curtarolo1,* 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials adsorbed hydrocarbons on a quasicrystalline surface: methane, propane, and benzene on decagonal Al by evaluating the nature of hydrocarbon adsorption (methane, propane, and benzene) on a quasicrystalline

  19. Tenax as sorption sink for in vitro bioaccessibility measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    hydrocarbons in soils Chao Li a , XinÀYi Cui a, * , YingÀYing Fan a , Ying Teng b , ZhongÀRen Nan c , Lena Q and maintain the desorption gradient between soil and GI solution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were

  20. Quantifying Desorption of Saturated Hydrocarbons from Silicon with Quantum Calculations and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seideman, Tamar

    Quantifying Desorption of Saturated Hydrocarbons from Silicon with Quantum Calculations hydrocarbon on silicon, desorption is observed at bias magnitudes as low as 2.5 V, albeit the desorption with conventional silicon microelectronic tech- nology [17­22]. A detailed understanding of both the electronic

  1. Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of their oxidation products, such as nitrated and oxygenated PAHs samplers (cascade impactor and conventional high volume sampler) installed in parallel during several field

  2. Solid hydrocarbon: a migration-of-fines problem in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomando, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    The most familiar example of a migration-of-fines problem is authigenic kaolinite, which can detach, migrate through a pore system, and bridge pore throats, thus reducing permeability. under certain conditions, a similar problem is caused by solid hydrocarbon, independent of a mode of origin, which has precipitated in carbonate pore systems. Cores from several reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous of east Texas were used as the data base in this study. Three morphotypes of solid hydrocarbon have been identified from thin-section and scanning electron microscope observations: droplets, peanut brittle, and carpets. Droplets are small, individual, rounded particles scattered on pore walls. Peanut brittle ranges from a continuous to discontinuous thin coating with random rounded lumps that probably have droplet precursors. Carpets are thick, continuous coatings and, at the extreme, can effectively occlude whole pores. Initially, solid hydrocarbon reduces permeability without necessarily decreasing porosity significantly. Likewise, solid hydrocarbon cannot be detected directly from wireline logs. Acidizing to enhance communication to the well bore is a common completion procedure in limestone and calcareous sandstone reservoirs. In reservoirs containing solid hydrocarbon, acid etches the substrate and releases solid hydrocarbon, which migrates in the pore system and bridges pore throats. Differential well-bore pressure also may cause solid hydrocarbon to migrate. Therefore, wettability, which controls hydrocarbon adhesion to the pore walls, and the dominant morphotype are important factors in the extent of reservoir damage.

  3. Induced Microearthquake Patterns in Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Reservoirs: W. Scott Phillips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Induced Microearthquake Patterns in Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Reservoirs: A Review W. Scott or production of fluids can induce microseismic events in hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. By deploying Patterns in Reservoirs Key Words: induced microseismicity, geothermal, oil and gas, fluid flow, location

  4. Induced Microearthquake Patterns in Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Reservoirs W. Scott Phillips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Induced Microearthquake Patterns in Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Reservoirs W. Scott Phillips James T microseismic events in hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. By deploying sensors downhole, data sets have Key Words: induced microseismicity, geothermal, oil and gas, fluid flow, location #12;2 Introduction

  5. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  6. Effects of the furnace temperature on the CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from the combustion of pulverized bituminous coal, tire-derived fuel and, for a limited number of runs, waste plastics-derived fuel. The particle size cuts of pulverized coal, tire and plastics were 63--75 {micro}m and 180--300 {micro}m, respectively. Combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale drop-tube furnace at gas temperatures, in the range of 1,300--1,600 K, and several fuel mass loadings in the furnace, expressed in terms of global equivalence ratios in the range of 0.4--2.4. The CO, CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions were monitored continuously with infrared absorption and chemiluminescent instruments. Up to sixty 2-7 ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected by capillary gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Results showed that the PAH emission yields (mg/g fuel introduced) increased drastically with increasing bulk equivalence ratio (in the aforementioned range), at fixed furnace temperatures. This was also true for the CO yields, while the CO{sub 2} yields increased with increasing {o}, reached a maximum around stoichiometry and then decreased mildly. NO{sub x} yields decreased precipitously with increasing equivalence ratio. The CO and, especially, the PAH yields from tire-derived and plastics-derived fuels were much higher than those from coal, but the relative amounts of individual PAH components were remarkably similar in the combustion effluent of all fuels. The CO{sub 2} emissions and, especially, the NO{sub x} emissions from tire crumb were lower than those from coal. The CO{sub 2} emissions from plastics were comparable to those from coal, but their NO {sub x} emissions were much lower than those from tire. At fixed bulk equivalence ratios, however, as the furnace gas temperature increased the PAH yields from coal, tire crumb, and plastics decreased drastically, while the CO emission yields increased. At the highest temperature tested herein, 1,600 K ({approx}1,300 C), the effluent of the combustion of the fuels appeared to be devoid of PAHs. No{sub x} yields increased mildly with temperature. The influence of temperature, in this range, on the CO{sub 2} emissions was not significant. 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Measurement of organophosphate pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household dust from two rural villages in Nepal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cizmas, Leslie; Ackerman, Lani; Donnelly, Danielle A.; Donnelly, Kirby C.; McDonald, Thomas J.

    2015-01-16

    to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood smoke. This study measured the levels of four organophosphate pesticides, 22 organochlorine pesticides, and over thirty polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust from two rural Nepali villages. Floor dust...

  8. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  9. Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water:Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water:dioxide and water (Heitzer and Sayler, 1993). Bioremediation

  10. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 µm spectral region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

    2005-02-17

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity ...

  11. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  12. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  13. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.

    1997-05-06

    A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

  14. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

  15. Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.

  16. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bernard (Houston, TX); Hale, Arthur Herman (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-12-22

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  17. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  18. Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyman, John

    Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid the extent to which various common hydrocarbon measures can be used to predict toxicity to fresh- water measures used were TPHg, TPHFID, TPHMS, TTAH (sum of 41 target aromatic hydrocarbons), principal components

  19. BOND LENGTH IN BENZENOID HYDROCARBONS Mrcia M. C. Fereira and Rudolf Kiralj, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, 13084-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    1 BOND LENGTH IN BENZENOID HYDROCARBONS Márcia M. C. Fereira and Rudolf Kiralj, Universidade-carbon bond length in organic compounds, especially in aromatic hydrocarbons, is a tradicional subject calculation in planar benzenoid hydrocarbons, we must first to explain concepts like benzenoid system, data

  20. THE IN VITRO INFLUENCE OF THE BURROWING POLYCHAETE NEREIS DIVERSICOLOR ON THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HYDROCARBONS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS. F. GILBERT a, L. RIVET b and J-C. BERTRAND a a Centre d'Océanologie de, Boite 312, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 Abstract : The in vitro fate of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction to stimulate both downard and outward transfers of hydrocarbons from sediment reservoirs. In non

  1. Supplementary Material A comparison of atomic-level and coarse-grained models for liquid hydrocarbons from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    hydrocarbons from molecular dynamics configurational entropy estimates Riccardo Baron, Alex H. de Vries hydrocarbons. Entropies are calculated using 800 configurations collected over simulation periods of different contribution ( )r chs ch (Eq. (3)) of rotational entropy to the total entropy for hydrocarbon chains

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in sediments of the Upper Scheldt River Basin: contamination levels and source apportionment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in sediments of the Upper Scheldt River Basin hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total n-alkane and PAH concentrations in all the sampled cores ranged from 2.8 to 29 mg kg European Research Program for trace metals in river sediments 6,7 , but data on hydrocarbon contamination

  3. Energetics of C-H Bond Activation of Fluorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using a [TpRh(CNneopentyl)] Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Energetics of C-H Bond Activation of Fluorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using a [Tp activation of fluorinated aromatic hydrocarbons by [TpRh(CNneopentyl)] resulted in the formation of products of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts to activate and functionalize C-H bonds of hydrocarbons for industrial

  4. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.09.009 Alkylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous chondrites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.09.009 Alkylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the free organic material of 20 carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorites represent, is in a solvent-extractable form containing aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, amino acids, and other compounds

  5. Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended aliphatic ligandsw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended as an Advance Article on the web 15th October 2008 DOI: 10.1039/b814498b High and unique gas and hydrocarbon the corresponding carboxylates). Due to the aliphatic nature of these ligands, the gas and hydrocarbon adsorption

  6. Gas-phase study of the reactivity of optical coating materials with hydrocarbons by use of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Gas-phase study of the reactivity of optical coating materials with hydrocarbons by use with hydrocarbons is studied in the gas phase by use of mass spectroscopy of metal-oxide clusters. We report-layer materials with hydrocarbons. An increased understanding of these reactions could lead to the development

  7. THE MID-INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONDITIONS RELEVANT TO DENSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE MID-INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONDITIONS; accepted 2005 June 17 ABSTRACT Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe. INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related aro- matic materials are thought to be present

  8. Origin and significance of aromatic hydrocarbons in giant iron ore deposits of the late Archean Hamersley Basin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    Origin and significance of aromatic hydrocarbons in giant iron ore deposits of the late Archean extractable saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The host rocks belong to the $2.5 billion years (Ga) old Mt and Newman (Mt Whaleback). The saturated hydrocarbons in the rock extracts have the composition of highly

  9. Chemisorption of (CHx and C2Hy) Hydrocarbons on Pt(111) Clusters and Surfaces from DFT Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Chemisorption of (CHx and C2Hy) Hydrocarbons on Pt(111) Clusters and Surfaces from DFT Studies Timo that these hydrocarbons all bind covalently (-bonds) to the surface, in agreement with the studies by Kua and Goddard on small Pt clusters. In nearly every case the structure of the adsorbed hydrocarbon achieves a saturated

  10. Ultrafast UV Pump/IR Probe Studies of C-H Activation in Linear, Cyclic, and Aryl Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Charles B.

    Ultrafast UV Pump/IR Probe Studies of C-H Activation in Linear, Cyclic, and Aryl Hydrocarbons, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents on a femtosecond to microsecond time scale. These results have revealed that the structure of the hydrocarbon substrate affects the final C-H bond activation step, which

  11. Effect of Hydrocarbon Parts of the Polar Headgroup on Surfactant Aggregates in Gemini and Bola Surfactant Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Effect of Hydrocarbon Parts of the Polar Headgroup on Surfactant Aggregates in Gemini and Bola of these gemini and bola surfactants, which can be attributed to the increase of the hydrocarbon parts of the hydrocarbon part of the headgroup is still rare. As to the conventional single-chain cationic quaternary

  12. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre (Rijswijk, NL); Schoeling, Lanny Gene (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  13. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S Q; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-01-09

    An optical resonance transition rubidium laser (5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} 5{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) is demonstrated with a hydrocarbon-free buffer gas. Prior demonstrations of alkali resonance transition lasers have used ethane as either the buffer gas or a buffer gas component to promote rapid fine-structure mixing. However, our experience suggests that the alkali vapor reacts with the ethane producing carbon as one of the reaction products. This degrades long term laser reliability. Our recent experimental results with a 'clean' helium-only buffer gas system pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser demonstrate all the advantages of the original alkali laser system, but without the reliability issues associated with the use of ethane.

  14. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-12-15

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  15. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  16. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of historical data and projections for supply, demand, and prices of these liquids, co-products, and competing products. To reduce confusion in terminology and improve its presentation of data, EIA has worked with industry and federal and state governments to clarify gas liquid terminology and has developed the term Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids, or HGL.

  18. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in marsh sediments, Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Saad, H.T.; Al-Timari, A.A. (Univ. of Basrah (Iraq))

    1989-12-01

    Recently there has been a growing concern in the release of harmful organics into the environment. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are a class of compounds of interset due to their possible harmful effects to man as well as organisms. Anthropogenic PAH's may reach aquatic environment as a result of both industrial and domestic effluents, deposition of airborne particles, surface runoff and oil spillage. Having a relatively low water solubility and high affinity to sorb to the suspended particulate matter, most of the PAH's introduced to the aquatic environment tend to accumulate in bottom sediments. Sedimentary PAH's may thus provide a record of the input and history of these pollutants. Consequently, the distribution of PAH's in aquatic sediments have received considerable attention. The purpose of the present work was to establish the distribution of PAH's in the sediments of the marsh region located in southern Iraq.

  19. An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langhoff, John Allan

    1984-01-01

    I LIJ D D CO D CIC D P1a L), OOLQLI [ [ LQS LQ WP8Q$ ?7) I/I I?I hl m ~ III O I?I I/I O & P) ?I- 0 O nj (Z) 4J Q O E III ID Cl ?I ?I Q ?/ ??: PJ Cl C C I?l ICl E ?J ??I I III 0 az I? I W K Q3 Ctl IQ C) PV... decreases near the end of the run. Th1s occurs when the volume of hydrocarbon 1n the 11quid phase of the distillation cell becomes small and cannot support 1ts vapor pressure. 07 C5 0 III QI 5- I/I QI 5- 0- 5- 0 CL IQ ) 0 CQ Ol O 0 4J Itl...

  20. Coarse-grained interaction potentials for polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Anatole von Lilienfeld; Denis Andrienko

    2005-12-09

    Using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT), we have studied the interaction between various polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules. The systems range from mono-cyclic benzene up to hexabenzocoronene (hbc). For several conventional exchange-correlation functionals potential energy curves of interaction of the $\\pi$-$\\pi$ stacking hbc dimer are reported. It is found that all pure local density or generalized gradient approximated functionals yield qualitatively incorrect predictions regarding structure and interaction. Inclusion of a non-local, atom-centered correction to the KS-Hamiltonian enables quantitative predictions. The computed potential energy surfaces of interaction yield parameters for a coarse-grained potential, which can be employed to study discotic liquid-crystalline mesophases of derived polyaromatic macromolecules.