National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for monochromator sgm gratings

  1. Commissioning of a Soft X-ray Beamline PF-BL-16A with a Variable-Included-Angle Varied-Line-Spacing Grating Monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amemiya, Kenta; Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kosuge, Takashi; Nigorikawa, Kazuyuki; Sumii, Ryohei; Ito, Kenji

    2010-06-23

    The design and commissioning of a new soft X-ray beamline, BL-16A, at the Photon Factory is presented. The beamline consists of a pre-focusing mirror, an entrance slit, a variable-included-angle varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, and a post-focusing system as usual, and provides circularly and linearly polarized soft X rays in the energy range 200-1500 eV with an APPLE-II type undulator. The commissioning procedure for the beamline optics is described in detail, especially the check of the focal position for the zero-th order and diffracted X rays.

  2. Mirror monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam energy of 80-120 keV). Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key monochromator components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded into a model describing the key electron-optical parameters of the complete monochromator. The simulations reveal that the mirror monochromator can reduce the energy spread of a Schottky electron source, an established electron emitter used widely in EMs, to 10 meV for practical beam current values and that further reduction of the energy spread down to 3 meV is possible for low current applications with a Cold Field Emitter (an electron source with 10x the brightness of a Schottky source). MirrorChroms can be designed and built to attach to different types of TEMs and SEMs, thus making them suitable for enhancing the study of the structure, composition, and bonding states of new materials at the nanoscale to advance material science research in the field of nanotechnology as well as biomedical research.

  3. Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SSRL's Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library allows users to view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

  4. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, H.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The waves are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  5. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, Jr., Herbert A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The wave are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  6. Asymmetrically cut crystals for synchrotron radiation monochromators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. ); Cerrina, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetrically cut crystals are interesting for use in synchrotron radiation monochromators because of their good energy resolution characteristics and their focusing properties. Ray tracing codes, such as SHADOW, are very efficient in the design and development of new optical devices. In order to determine the convenience of using asymmetrically cut crystals for x-ray monochromators, SHADOW has been extended to include these kinds of crystals. The physical approach to ray tracing asymmetrically cut crystals is based on the coexistence of two periodic structures. One of these is the bulk periodic structure of the Bragg planes. Such a structure determines the existence of a rocking curve near the Bragg condition, and is implemented in SHADOW following the Darwin--Prins formalism of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The second periodic structure is a one-dimensional grating on the crystal surface, formed by the truncation of the lattice planes with the surface. This grating is responsible for the focusing properties of these crystals and plays an essential role in determining the trajectory of the rays. The combination of an asymmetric crystal and a nonplanar surface can be easily achieved by bending (Johann case) to provide improved properties. More complex cases such as the ground-bent crystals (i.e., Johansson geometry) can be considered as a particular case of asymmetrical crystals in which the angle between the Bragg planes and the surface change along the crystal surface. All these cases have been implemented in SHADOW.

  7. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  8. Microprocessor–based monochromator controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalle-Molle, Richard; Defreese, James D.

    1980-04-01

    direction. TTL level pulses from the monochromator’s optical encoder (at 0.01 nm intervals) are counted by the controller, and when the monochromator has moved to within 200 steps of the desired wavelength, the slew motors are disengaged *Address... correspondence to this author and a stepper motor is engaged. Pulses continue to be counted until the desired wavelength is reached. The stepper motor is disengaged, but the controller continues to monitor the optical encoder for extra pulses for a period...

  9. Active diffraction gratings: Development and tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonora, S.; Frassetto, F.; Poletto, L. [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, National Council for Research of Italy, via Trasea, 7, Padova 35131 (Italy); Zanchetta, E.; Della Giustina, G.; Brusatin, G. [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We present the realization and characterization of an active spherical diffraction grating with variable radius of curvature to be used in grazing-incidence monochromators. The device consists of a bimorph deformable mirror on the top of which a diffraction grating with laminar profile is realized by UV lithography. The experimental results show that the active grating can optimize the beam focalization of visible wavelengths through its rotation and focus accommodation.

  10. Temporal characterization of a time-compensated monochromator for high-efficiency selection of extreme-ultraviolet pulses generated by high-order harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poletto, L.; Villoresi, P.; Benedetti, E.; Ferrari, F.; Stagira, S.; Sansone, G.; Nisoli, M.

    2008-07-15

    Ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses are spectrally selected by a time-delay-compensated grating monochromator. The intrinsic very short duration of the pulses is obtained by exploiting the high-order harmonic generation process. The temporal characterization of the harmonic pulses is obtained using a cross-correlation method: pulses as short as 8 fs are measured at the output of the monochromator in the case of the 23rd harmonic. This value is in agreement with the expected duration of such pulses, indicating that the influence of the monochromator is negligible. The photon flux has been measured with a calibrated photodiode, pointing out the good efficiency of the monochromator, derived by the exploitation for the two gratings of the conical diffraction mounting.

  11. Focusing monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suortti, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Bent crystals are introduced as monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation. The reflectivity of the crystal can be calculated reliably from a model where the bent crystal is approximated by a stack of lamellas, which have a gradually changing angle of reflection. The reflectivity curves of a 4 mm thick, asymmetrically cut ({chi}=9.5{degree}) Si(220) crystal are measured using 150 keV radiation and varying the bending radius from 25 to 140 m. The width of the reflectivity curve is up to 50 times the Darwin width of the reflection, and the maximum reflectivity exceeds 80%. The crystal is used as a monochromator in Compton scattering measurements. The source is on the focusing circle, so that the resolution is limited essentially by the detector/analyzer. A wide bandpass, sharply focused beam is attained when the source is outside the focusing circle in the transmission geometry. In a test experiment. 10{sup 12} photons on an area of 2 mm{sup 2} was observed. The energy band was about 4 keV centered at 40 keV. A powder diffraction pattern of a few reflections of interest was recorded by an intrinsic Ge detector, and this demonstrated that a structural transition can be followed at intervals of a few milliseconds.

  12. Multilayer diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1990-04-10

    This invention is for a reflection diffraction grating that functions at X-ray to VUV wavelengths and at normal angles of incidence. The novel grating is comprised of a laminar grating of period D with flat-topped grating bars. A multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures, of period d and comprised of alternating flat layers of two different materials, are disposed on the tops of the grating bars of the laminar grating. In another embodiment of the grating, a second multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures are also disposed on the flat faces, of the base of the grating, between the bars. D is in the approximate range from 3,000 to 50,000 Angstroms, but d is in the approximate range from 10 to 400 Angstroms. The laminar grating and the layered microstructures cooperatively interact to provide many novel and beneficial instrumentational advantages. 2 figs.

  13. Multilayer diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1990-01-01

    This invention is for a reflection diffraction grating that functions at X-ray to VUV wavelengths and at normal angles of incidence. The novel grating is comprised of a laminar grating of period D with flat-topped grating bars. A multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures, of period d and comprised of alternating flat layers of two different materials, are disposed on the tops of the grating bars of the laminar grating. In another embodiment of the grating, a second multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures are also disposed on the flat faces, of the base of the grating, between the bars. D is in the approximate range from 3,000 to 50,000 Angstroms, but d is in the approximate range from 10 to 400 Angstroms. The laminar grating and the layered microstructures cooperatively interact to provide many novel and beneficial instrumentational advantages.

  14. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  15. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Nguyen, H.T.; Boyd, R.; Shore, B.W.

    1999-05-25

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described. 7 figs.

  16. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Senturia, Stephen D. (Brookline, MA)

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  17. Analysis and design of multilayer structures for neutron monochromators and supermirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Masalovich

    2012-11-05

    A relatively simple and accurate analytical model for studying the reflectivity of neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is proposed. Design conditions that must be fulfilled in order to reach the maximum reflectivity are considered. The question of the narrowest bandwidth of a monochromator is discussed and the number of layers required to build such a monochromator is derived. Finally, we propose a new and efficient algorithm for synthesis of a supermirror with specified parameters and discuss some inherent restrictions on an attainable reflectivity.

  18. Characterisation of a Sr-90 based electron monochromator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arfaoui, S; CERN; Casella, C; ETH Zurich

    2015-01-01

    This note describes the characterisation of an energy filtered Sr-90 source to be used in laboratory studies that require Minimum Ionising Particles (MIP) with a kinetic energy of up to approx. 2 MeV. The energy calibration was performed with a LYSO scintillation crystal read out by a digital Silicon Photomultiplier (dSiPM). The LYSO/dSiPM set-up was pre-calibrated using a Na-22 source. After introducing the motivation behind the usage of such a device, this note presents the principle and design of the electron monochromator as well as its energy and momentum characterisation.

  19. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Robert B. (Shoreham, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  20. Bragg grating rogue wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degasperis, Antonio; Aceves, Alejandro B

    2015-01-01

    We derive the rogue wave solution of the classical massive Thirring model, that describes nonlinear optical pulse propagation in Bragg gratings. Combining electromagnetically induced transparency with Bragg scattering four-wave mixing, may lead to extreme waves at extremely low powers.

  1. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  2. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  3. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Diling, E-mail: dlzhu@slac.stanford.edu; Feng, Yiping; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J. M.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Robert, Aymeric [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Terentyev, Sergey A.; Blank, Vladimir D. [Technological Institute of Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, Tsentralnaya str. 7a, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Driel, Tim B. van [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Center for Molecular Movies, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-06-15

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressure High-Temperature grown type-IIa diamond crystal plates with the (111) orientation. The first crystal has a thickness of ?100 ?m to allow high reflectivity within the Bragg bandwidth and good transmission for the other wavelengths for downstream use. The second crystal is about 300 ?m thick and makes the exit beam of the monochromator parallel to the incoming beam with an offset of 600 mm. Here we present details on the monochromator design and its performance.

  4. 2.4 Grating formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-09-14

    2.4. GRATING FORMULA. 27 to x1 for every x2. In fact, if the grating problem attains a unique solution then we want to show that v(x1,x2) = u(x1,x2)e. ?i?x1.

  5. Back-scattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.

    1997-08-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  6. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemore »excitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.« less

  7. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator alongmore »with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.« less

  8. Fiber Grating Environmental Sensing System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Whitten L. (Fairview, OR); Udd, Eric (Fairview, OR)

    2003-07-29

    Fiber grating environmental measurement systems are comprised of sensors that are configured to respond to changes in moisture or chemical content of the surrounding medium through the action of coatings and plates inducing strain that is measured. These sensors can also be used to monitor the interior of bonds for degradation due to aging, cracking, or chemical attack. Means to multiplex these sensors at high speed and with high sensitivity can be accomplished by using spectral filters placed to correspond to each fiber grating environmental sensor. By forming networks of spectral elements and using wavelength division multiplexing arrays of fiber grating sensors may be processed in a single fiber line allowing distributed high sensitivity, high bandwidth fiber optic grating environmental sensor systems to be realized.

  9. Removing Weather Effects from Monochrome Images Srinivasa G. Narasimhan and Shree K. Nayar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Srinivasa G.

    Removing Weather Effects from Monochrome Images Srinivasa G. Narasimhan and Shree K. Nayar}@cs.columbia.edu Abstract Images of outdoor scenes captured in bad weather suffer from poor contrast. Under bad weather space invariant image processing techniques are not sufficient to remove weather effects from images

  10. Near-perfect diffraction grating rhomb

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wantuck, Paul J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A near-perfect grating rhomb enables an output beam to be diffracted to an angle offset from the input beam. The correcting grating is tipped relative to the dispersing grating to provide the offset angle. The correcting grating is further provided with a groove spacing which differs from the dispersing grating groove space by an amount effective to substantially remove angular dispersion in the output beam. A near-perfect grating rhomb has the capability for selective placement in a FEL to suppress sideband instabilities arising from the FEL.

  11. Embedded high-contrast distributed grating structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zubrzycki, Walter J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of fabrication methods for embedded distributed grating structures is claimed, together with optical devices which include such structures. These new methods are the only known approach to making defect-free high-dielectric contrast grating structures, which are smaller and more efficient than are conventional grating structures.

  12. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A finely detailed defraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the defraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating.

  13. Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.

    2014-04-15

    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range.

  14. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-03-26

    A finely detailed diffraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the diffraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating. 7 figures.

  15. A computational inverse diffraction grating problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-02-29

    Mar 2, 2012 ... tromagnetic diffraction through periodic structures, along with some ... problems in diffractive optics, which is to design a grating structure that ...

  16. High resolution monochromator for inelastic scattering studies of high energy phonons using undulator radiation at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Hu, M.

    1997-08-01

    A monochromator for use at 13.84 keV with a calculated bandpass of 5.2 meV was designed built, and tested. Tuning was performed by rotating the inner crystal of a pair of nested silicon channel-cut crystals. The inner crystal employs the (884) reflection, and the outer crystal employs a collimating asymmetric (422) reflection (dynamical asymmetry factor, b, equal to {minus}17.5). Tests were done with a double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator situated upstream of the high resolution monochromator and a Si(777) backscattering crystal situated downstream. For this optical arrangement an ideal value of 6.3 meV as calculated by x-ray dynamical diffraction theory applies for the FWHM of the convolution of the net monochromator reflectivity function with that of the Si(777) reflection. This calculated value is to be compared to the value of 7.1 meV measured by tuning the high resolution monochromator. Measured efficiencies were less than ideal by a factor of 3.2 to 4.9, where the larger flux reduction factors were found with higher positron storage ring currents.

  17. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  18. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  19. Gratings Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County, Georgia:Oregon: Energy ResourcesGratings Inc Jump to:

  20. Near-field imaging of perfectly conducting grating surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-11-06

    method in order to capture fine structures of grating profiles with multiple frequency data ... optics, which are to design grating structures to obtain some specified ...

  1. A dynamic focusing x-ray monochromator for a wiggler beam line at the SRS of the SERC Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Bruijn, D.; Van Zuylen, P. ); Kruizinga, G. , P.O. Box 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag State University of Utrecht, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3508 TB Utrecht )

    1992-01-01

    A Si(220) double-crystal monochromator for the energy range 10--30 keV is presented. It will be used for EXAFS as well as powder diffraction measurements. To determine the requirements for this monochromator we looked, apart from mean considerations, at the requirements dictated by EXAFS in transmission mode. For good data analyses the proper shape, amplitude, and location at the energy axis of each wiggle is required. Moreover it is essential to separate the wiggles from background and noise. For the latter a high flux through the sample is desirable, which can be achieved by horizontal focusing of the beam. For that we have chosen to bend the second crystal sagitally. The sagittal bending radius is adjustable between 50 and 0.8 m, because for different energies different sagittal radii are necessary to focus the beam on the sample. The mean meridional radius of the second crystal is fixed at 130 m, which is an optimization for 20 keV. The meridional radius of the first crystal can be tuned between 100 and 500 m. When this radius is set to 130 m the energy resolution is calculated to be 6, 3, and 35 eV for 10, 20, and 30 keV (for perfectly bent crystals). By changing the meridional radius of the first crystal, future users of this monochromator can make the trade off between resolution and intensity. Movement of the monochromator exit beam, during a scan, will occur due to the monochromator geometry, but is reduced as much as possible by using an asymmetrically cut second crystal, with an asymmetry angle of 2.5{degree}. The average exit beam movement of the monochromator for a 1-keV scan is 20 {mu}m. For 40% of the energy range (10--30 keV) the exit beam position remains within 10 {mu}m. For the second crystal no translation stage is used.

  2. Dynamical theory of diffraction on moving grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Bushuev; A. I. Frank; G. V. Kulin

    2015-02-16

    In the framework of the approximation of slowly varying amplitudes a multiwave dynamical theory of neutron diffraction on a moving phase grating was developed. The influence of the velocity of the grating, its period and height of the slits on the discrete energy spectrum and intensity of various diffraction orders was analyzed.

  3. I. Computer simulation of a trochoidal monochromator, energy dependance spectra of N2 and hot filament negativ ion mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Daniel

    filament ­ negativ ion mass spectra of a series of halogenated compounds II. Excited-state proton transfer monochromator, electron energy loss, low energy collisions, hot filament - negative ion mass spectra, photoacid the contact of halogenated compounds with a hot filament, have been made. Photoacids, molecules showing

  4. Diffraction imaging for in-situ characterization of double-crystal x-ray monochromators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Heald, Steve M; Brewe, Dale; Meron, Mati

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of the Bragg reflected x-ray beam is proposed and validated as an in-situ method for characterization of performance of double-crystal monochromators under the heat load of intense synchrotron radiation. A sequence of images is collected at different angular positions on the reflectivity curve of the second crystal and analyzed. The method provides rapid evaluation of the wavefront of the exit beam, which relates to local misorientation of the crystal planes along the beam footprint on the thermally distorted first crystal. The measured misorientation can be directly compared to results of finite element analysis. The imaging method offers an additional insight on the local intrinsic crystal quality over the footprint of the incident x-ray beam.

  5. Long period fiber gratings induced by mechanical resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahal, Shir; Duadi, Hamootal; Fridman, Moti

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple, and robust method for writing long period fiber gratings with low polarization dependent losses. Our method is based on utilizing mechanical vibrations of the tapered fiber while pooling it. Our method enables real-time tunability of the periodicity, efficiency and length of the grating. We also demonstrate complex grating by writing multiple gratings simultaneously. Finally, we utilized the formation of the gratings in different fiber diameters to investigate the Young's modulus of the fiber.

  6. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  7. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Clayton, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  8. Interrogation of a long-period grating using a mechanically scannable arrayed waveguide grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    ); published July 16, 2008 A novel technique to interrogate a long-period grating (LPG) using a mechanically of the LPG is measured. An interrogation system with a resolution of 10 pm at a speed of 10 Hz-period-grating (LPG) sensors have found exten- sive applications ranging from temperature monitor- ing, mechanical

  9. Grating array systems having a plurality of gratings operative in a coherently additive mode and methods for making such grating array systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessler, Terrance J. (Mendon, NY); Bunkenburg, Joachim (Victor, NY); Huang, Hu (Pittsford, NY)

    2007-02-13

    A plurality of gratings (G1, G2) are arranged together with a wavefront sensor, actuators, and feedback system to align the gratings in such a manner, that they operate like a single, large, monolithic grating. Sub-wavelength-scale movements in the mechanical mounting, due to environmental influences, are monitored by an interferometer (28), and compensated by precision actuators (16, 18, 20) that maintain the coherently additive mode. The actuators define the grating plane, and are positioned in response to the wavefronts from the gratings and a reference flat, thus producing the interferogram that contains the alignment information. Movement of the actuators is also in response to a diffraction-limited spot on the CCD (36) to which light diffracted from the gratings is focused. The actuator geometry is implemented to take advantage of the compensating nature of the degrees of freedom between gratings, reducing the number of necessary control variables.

  10. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  11. Integrated optical filters using Bragg gratings and resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammad Jalal

    2002-01-01

    This thesis provides an in-depth study of optical filters made using integrated Bragg gratings and Bragg resonators. Various topologies for making add/drop filters using integrated gratings are outlined. Each class of ...

  12. Superfluid {sup 4}He Quantum Interference Grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Yuki; Joshi, Aditya; Packard, Richard

    2008-08-22

    We report the first observation of quantum interference from a grating structure consisting of four weak link junctions in superfluid {sup 4}He. We find that an interference grating can be implemented successfully in a superfluid matter wave interferometer to enhance its sensitivity while trading away some of its dynamic range. We also show that this type of device can be used to measure absolute quantum mechanical phase differences. The results demonstrate the robust nature of superfluid phase coherence arising from quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale.

  13. A double crystal monochromator using tangentially bend crystals in combination with toroidal mirror focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jun, Thompson,A.C.; Padmore,H.A.

    2000-02-24

    In collaboration with the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley, the ALS is building a beamline for structural determination in materials chemistry. The system will be used for single crystal x-ray diffraction on crystals that are too small or disordered for examination on laboratory systems, and typically will be used for crystals in the 5 - 20 micron regime. As some of the materials being designed are of the size of small proteins, phasing using direct methods is problematic, and so use of multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion techniques will be employed in many cases. The production of new compounds has been revolutionized in recent years with the development of combinatorial synthesis techniques, and a major b2048 to further advances in this field is access to rapid measurement of structural parameters. The specification of the beamline follows from these points. It must have a small focal spot to match closely the size of the crystals, high resolution for MAD techniques, and a high flux in the small focus. The strategy for satisfying these constraints is to us a system which is compact and which uses the minimum number of components. This is done in this case by using a pseudo channel cut crystal monochromator with tangentially bent crystals, in combination with a 1:1 focusing toroidal mirror. The toroidal mirror at 1:1 magnification has only very small aberrations, and from a 220 (h) by 25 (v) [micro] m FWHM source, an image of 220 by 45 [micro]m FWHM should be produced for a 3 mrad horizontal aperture for a full vertical aperture. This has already been achieved on an existing beamline. The crystal monochromator uses tangentially bent crystals in a concave - convex configuration to achieve matching of Bragg angles to the divergent source, while maintaining zero focusing power. A useful feature of this arrangement is that while there is an optimum crystal curvature for each energy that gives the expected Darwin width limited resolution, fixing the curvature gives approximately ideal resolution over typically 2 keV for the ALS bending magnet source. A further simplification is that the whole optical system will be inside the shield wall, with only a small pipe emerging from the shield wall to feed a standard commercial diffraction system. This means that the mirror will be at only 6.5 m from the source. This means that the toroidal mirror can be as short as 300 mm while collecting most of the vertical radiation fan. In addition, as the required tangential slope error is related to the angular size of the source, putting the mirror close reduces the slope error requirements substantially. These aspects together should result in a simple, low cost and very high performance system for small crystal, small molecule cr2048llography.

  14. Fourth-order coherence-function theory of laser-induced molecular reorientational grating and population grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2089 Fourth-order coherence-function theory of laser-induced molecular reorientational grating mécanisme de formation du réseau de population. Abstract. 2014 We have employed fourth-order coherence proposed to distinguish molecular reorientational grating from thermal grating. We then apply the fourth

  15. COS FUV Grating Holographic Recording Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS FUV Grating Holographic Recording Specification Date: February 3, 2000 Document Number: COS-08, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: R. Cahill 11-17-98 R. Cahill, Optical Designer-12-98 J. Andrews, COS Experiment Manager, CU/CASA Date Approved By: J. Green 11-13-98 J. C. Green, COS

  16. Distributedfeedback pulse generator based on nonlinearfibre grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipe,J. E.

    Distributedfeedback pulse generator based on nonlinearfibre grating B.J. Eggleton, C.M. de Sterke pulse generator or reshaper with applications in all-optical communications. Introduction: Fibre. This could form the basis of a pulse reshaper or pulse generator device with applications in future all

  17. Fiber-bragg grating-loop ringdown method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chuji

    2008-01-29

    A device comprising a fiber grating loop ringdown (FGLRD) system of analysis is disclosed. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) or Long-Period grating (LPG) written in a section of single mode fused silica fiber is incorporated into a fiber loop. By utilizing the wing areas of the gratings' bandwidth as a wavelength dependent attenuator of the light transmission, a fiber grating loop ringdown concept is formed. One aspect of the present invention is temperature sensing, which has been demonstrated using the disclosed device. Temperature measurements in the areas of accuracy, stability, high temperature, and dynamic range are also described.

  18. Tunable dark modes in one-dimensional “diatomic” dielectric gratings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeng, Bo; Majumdar, Arka; Wang, Feng

    2015-05-04

    Recently researchers have demonstrated ultra high quality factor (Q) resonances in one-dimensional (1D) dielectric gratings. Here we theoretically investigate a new class of subwavelength 1D gratings, namely “diatomic” gratings with two nonequivalent subcells in one period, and utilize their intrinsic dark modes to achieve robust ultra high Q resonances. Such “diatomic” gratings provide extra design flexibility, and enable high Q resonators using thinner geometry with smaller filling factors compared to conventional designs like the high contrast gratings (HCGs). More importantly, we show that these high Q resonances can be efficiently tuned in situ, making the design appealing in various applicationsmore »including optical sensing, filtering and displays.« less

  19. Optical Properties of Topological Insulator Bragg Gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crosse, J A

    2015-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix formalism, we study the transmission properties of a Bragg grating constructed from a layered axionic material. Such a material can be realized by a topological insulator subject to a time-symmetry breaking perturbation, such as an external magnetic field or surface magnetic impurities. Whilst the reflective properties of the structure are only negligibly changed by the presence of the axionic material, the grating induces Faraday and Kerr rotations in the transmitted and reflected light, respectively. These rotations are proportional to the number of layers and the strength of the time-symmetry breaking perturbation. In areas of low reflectivity the rotation angle of TE polarization decreases with increasing incidence angle while the TM polarization increases with increasing incidence angle with the converse occurring in areas of high reflectivity. The formalism and results will be useful in the development of optical and photonic devices based on topological insulators, devices whi...

  20. Transmission Grating Measurements of Undulator K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bionta, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to understand the practicalities of determine K differences in the undulator modules by measuring single-shot x-ray spectra of the spontaneous radiation with a transmissive grating spectrometer under development to measure FEL spectra. Since the quality of the FEL is dependent on a uniform K value in all the undulator modules, being able to measure the relative undulator K values is important. Preliminary results were presented in a presentation, 'Use of FEL Off-Axis Zone Plate Spectrometer to Measure Relative K by the Pinhole/Centroid Method', at the 'LCLS Beam-Based Undulator K Measurements Workshop' on November 14, 2005 (UCRL-PRES-217281). This study applies equally well to reflective gratings of the appropriate period and inclinations.

  1. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  2. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  3. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-11

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  4. Numerical solution of an inverse diffraction grating problem from ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-02

    Feb 5, 2013 ... One of its important applications is the design and fabrication of optic elements with periodic structures, often called diffraction gratings.

  5. Fiber optic security seal including plural Bragg gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, P.R.

    1994-09-27

    An optical security system enables the integrity of a container seal to be remotely interrogated. A plurality of Bragg gratings is written holographically into the core of at least one optical fiber placed about the container seal, where each Bragg grating has a predetermined location and a known frequency for reflecting incident light. A time domain reflectometer is provided with a variable frequency light output that corresponds to the reflecting frequencies of the Bragg gratings to output a signal that is functionally related to the location and reflecting frequency of each of the Bragg gratings. 2 figs.

  6. Near-field imaging of perfectly conducting grating surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-08-29

    Aug 29, 2013 ... reflective interfaces, beam splitters, and sensors. De- pending on the ... capture fine structures of grating profiles with multi- ..... grating profile func- tion g only contains a couple of low Fourier modes. ... We considered two exam- ples, one of ... tions should be considered, and will report the results elsewhere.

  7. High-resolution beamline 9.3.2 in the energy range 30{endash}1500 eV at the Advanced Light Source: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, Z.; Huff, W.; Kellar, S.; Moler, E.; Heimann, P.; McKinney, W.; Cummings, C.; Lauritzen, T.; McKean, J.; Palomares, F.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y.; Young, A.; Padmore, H.; Fadley, C.; Shirley, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); [The University of California, Dept. of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); [The University of California, Dept. of Physics, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); [The Pennsylvania State University, Dept. of Chemistry and Physics, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was designed for high resolution spectroscopy with the capability for delivering circularly polarized light in the soft x-ray energy region using three gratings. The monochromator is a fixed included-angle spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and was originally used at SSRL as a prototype for later insertion-device-based monochromators for the ALS. For operation at the ALS, the toroidal pre-mirror used at SSRL was replaced by a horizontally focusing and a vertically focusing mirror in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. Circularly polarized radiation is obtained by inserting a water-cooled movable aperture in front of the vertically focusing mirror to allow selecting the beam either above or below the horizontal plane. To maintain a stable beam intensity through the entrance slit, the photocurrent signals from the upper and lower jaws of the entrance slit are utilized to set a feedback loop with the vertically deflecting mirror piezoelectric drive. The beamline end station has a movable platform that accommodates two experimental chambers enabling the synchrotron radiation to be directed to either one of the two experimental chambers without breaking the vacuum. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. High-resolution beamline 9.3.2 in the energy range 30-1500 eV at the advanced light source: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, Z.; Heimann, P.A.; McKinney, W. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was designed for high resolution spectroscopy with capability for delivering circularly polarized light in the soft X-ray energy region using three gratings. The monochromator is a fixed included angle spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and was originally used at SSRL as a prototype for later insertion device based monochromators for the ALS, For operation at the ALS, the toroidal pre-mirror used at SSRL was replaced by a horizontally focusing and a vertically focusing mirrors in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. Circularly polarized radiation is obtained by inserting a water-cooled movable aperture in front of the vertically focusing mirror to allow selecting the beam either above or below the horizontal plane. To maintain a stable beam intensity through the entrance slit, the photocurrent signals from the upper and lower jaws of the entrance slit are utilized to set a feedback loop with the vertically deflecting mirror piezoelectric drive. The beamline end station has a movable platform that accommodates two experimental chambers enabling the synchrotron radiation to be directed to either one of the two experimental chambers without breaking the vacuum.

  9. Magnetomechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Causado-Buelvas, Jesus D.; Gomez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Torres, Pedro

    2008-04-15

    In this work, we report a simple, flexible method to create long period fiber gratings mechanically by controlling the repulsion/attraction force between two magnets that pressing a plate with a periodic array of small glass cylinders to a short length of optical fiber. Via the photoelastic effect, the pressure points induce the required periodic refractive index modulation to create the LPFG. We found that the induced device exhibits spectral characteristics similar to those of other types of LPFG. As the optical properties of LPFGs are directly related to the nature of the applied perturbations, we show, to our knowledge for the frrst time, how is the evolution of birefringence effects in mechanically induced LPFGs.

  10. Increase of the grating coupler bandwidth with a graphene overlay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhenzhou; Li, Zhen; Xu, Ke; Tsang, Hon Ki, E-mail: hktsang@ee.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-17

    We present theoretical and experimental results that demonstrate an increase in the grating bandwidth by placing a graphene on the chip. A focusing subwavelength grating with coupling efficiency of ?4.3?dB and 1?dB bandwidth of ?60?nm was demonstrated. After a graphene sheet was transferred onto the chip, the maximum 1?dB bandwidth was increased to ?72?nm. Experimental results are consistent with the calculated graphene induced waveguide refractive index and dispersion changes, and the bandwidth improvement may be attributed to the reduction of grating dispersion. This study may be of interest for graphene-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit applications.

  11. Near-field imaging of perfectly conducting grating surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-11-06

    and sensors. Depending on the ... method in order to capture fine structures of grating profiles with multiple ..... For the stability test, some relative random ... g only contains a couple of low Fourier modes. .... will report the results elsewhere.

  12. Zonal wavefront estimation using an array of hexagonal grating patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Biswajit, E-mail: b.pathak@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: b.pathak@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-39, Assam (India)

    2014-10-15

    Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensors depends on the shape and layout of the lenslet array that samples the incoming wavefront. It has been shown that an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens provide a substitution for the lensslet array. Taking advantage of the computer generated holography technique, any arbitrary diffraction grating aperture shape, size or pattern can be designed with little penalty for complexity. In the present work, such a holographic technique is implemented to design regular hexagonal grating array to have zero dead space between grating patterns, eliminating the possibility of leakage of wavefront during the estimation of the wavefront. Tessellation of regular hexagonal shape, unlike other commonly used shapes, also reduces the estimation error by incorporating more number of neighboring slope values at an equal separation.

  13. Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01

    A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

  14. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    use since the early 19th century. Developments in the late 19th century led to the manufacture of gratings by highly precise ruling with a diamond onto a metallic surface. Many...

  15. A 6-beam combiner using superimposed volume index holographic gratings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yum, HoNam

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis, a 6-beam combiner using multiplexed holograms in dye-doped polymer is investigated. It is realized by recording six superimposed holographic gratings, which show uniform diffraction efficiency. The coupled wave theory for N...

  16. High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bunkowski; O. Burmeister; D. Friedrich; K. Danzmann; R. Schnabel

    2006-08-01

    We propose thin single-layer grating waveguide structures to be used as high-reflectivity, but low thermal noise, alternative to conventional coatings for gravitational wave detector test mass mirrors. Grating waveguide (GWG) coatings can show a reflectivity of up to 100% with an overall thickness of less than a wavelength. We theoretically investigate GWG coatings for 1064nm based on tantala (Ta2O5) on a Silica substrate focussing on broad spectral response and low thickness.

  17. Applications of laser-induced gratings to spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohlfing, E.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program has traditionally emphasized two principal areas of research. The first is the spectroscopic characterization of large-amplitude motion on the ground-state potential surface of small, transient molecules. The second is the reactivity of carbonaceous clusters and its relevance to soot and fullerene formation in combustion. Motivated initially by the desire to find improved methods of obtaining stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of transients, most of our recent work has centered on the use of laser-induced gratings or resonant four-wave mixing in free-jet expansions. These techniques show great promise for several chemical applications, including molecular spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics. The author describes recent applications of two-color laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) to obtain background-free SEP spectra of transients and double resonance spectra of nonfluorescing species, and the use of photofragment transient gratings to probe photodissociation dynamics.

  18. High-efficiency 5000 lines/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating for EUV wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitriy

    2010-01-01

    High-efficiency 5000 lines/mm multilayer-coated blazedthat show, for a 5000 l/mm grating diffracting in the 3 rdof 12.5 nm with a 1000 groove/mm grating [7]. A denser 2400

  19. MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATIONS optical fiber Bragg grating (MOFBG) sensors for structural health monitoring applications. We then focus. We subsequently discuss the potential of our MOFBG sensors for structural health monitoring related

  20. Deformable silicone grating fabricated with a photo-imprinted polymer mold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Itsunari, E-mail: yamada.i@e.usp.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)] [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Saito, Mitsunori [Department of Electronics and Informatics, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Informatics, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    A tunable transmission grating was fabricated by molding a silicone elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane). Its optical characteristics were then evaluated during compression. For fabrication, a glass plate with a photoimprinted polymer grating film was used as a mold. Both the grating period and diffraction transmittance of the molded elastomer were functions of the compressive stress. The grating period changed from 3.02 to 2.86 ?m during compressing the elastomer in the direction perpendicular to the grooves.

  1. Subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings and applications in polarizers and waveplates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the transmission of TE the electric field parallel to the grating finger wave is significantly different from that for a normal incident light the transmission for the TE wave the electric field parallel to the grating fingersSubwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings and applications in polarizers and waveplates

  2. Follow-up Report on Possible Contamination of the COS Grating Test Facility from Klinger Stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Follow-up Report on Possible Contamination of the COS Grating Test Facility from Klinger Stages Contamination of the Approved: COS Grating Test Facility from Klinger Stages Size Code Indent No. Document No Astronomy Initial Release Follow-up Report on Possible Contamination of the COS Grating Test Facility from

  3. Integrated narrowband optical filter based on embedded subwavelength resonant grating structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grann, Eric B. (Knoxville, TN); Sitter, Jr., David N. (Tuscon, AZ)

    2000-01-01

    A resonant grating structure in a waveguide and methods of tuning the performance of the grating structure are described. An apparatus includes a waveguide; and a subwavelength resonant grating structure embedded in the waveguide. The systems and methods provide advantages including narrowband filtering capabilities, minimal sideband reflections, spatial control, high packing density, and tunability.

  4. COS G130M FUV Grating Calibration And Qualification Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS G130M FUV Grating Calibration And Qualification Plan Date: October 11, 1999 Document Number: COS-01-0002 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No. AV-02 Prepared By: S. Osterman, COS Optical Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date

  5. COS NUV Grating Specification Date: August 23, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS NUV Grating Specification Date: August 23, 2000 Document Number: COS-08-0005 Revision: Revision B Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No.: N/A Prepared By: E. Wilkinson 8-12-99 E. Wilkinson, COS, Calibration Scientist, BATC Date Approved By: J. Andrews 8-25-99 J. Andrews, COS Experiment Manager, CU

  6. COS G160M FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS G160M FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan Date: January 4, 2001 Document Number: COS-01-0005 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No. Prepared By: S. Osterman, COS Optical Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Approved

  7. COS NUV Grating Substrate Specification Date: August 20, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS NUV Grating Substrate Specification Date: August 20, 2001 Document Number: COS-08-0013 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No.: Prepared By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist, CU, BATC Date Approved By: D. Ebbets, Calibration Scientist, BATC Date Approved By: J. Andrews, COS

  8. COS G140L FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS G140L FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan Date: January 4, 2001 Document Number: COS-01-0004 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No. Prepared By: S. Osterman, COS Optical Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Approved

  9. Inverse diffraction grating of Maxwell's equations in biperiodic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-02-06

    K. Ito and F. Reitich, “A high-order perturbation approach to profile .... as corrective lenses, anti-reflective interfaces, beam splitters, and sensors. .... To reduced the diffraction grating problem from an unbounded domain ?S ...... To test the stability of the method, some relative random noise is added to the ... Table 2 reports.

  10. Dual-Mode Switching of Diffraction Gratings Based on Azobenzene-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    -irradiated area and can be polymerized further on flood irradiation. If the concentration of the azobenzene-polymerDual-Mode Switching of Diffraction Gratings Based on Azobenzene- Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals include polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC),[3,4] cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) with or without

  11. Dynamics of ultrashort pulse propagation through fiber gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipe,J. E.

    , Seldon D. Benjamin, Howard Jung, and Peter W. E. Smith Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto and Photonics Research Ontario 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G4 sensing applications. [1] Typically, fiber gratings are used with incoherent broadband sources or cw

  12. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  13. Highly Unidirectional Uniform Optical Grating Couplers, Fabricated in Standard 45nm SOI-CMOS Foundry Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uroševi?, Stevan Lj

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines new structures of highly unidirectional uniform optical grating couplers which are all within constraints of the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. Analysis in terms of unidirectivity and coupling efficiency is done. Maximum achieved unidirectivity (power radiation in one direction) is 98%. Unidirectional uniform gratings are fabricated in the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. These gratings are measured and compared, using the new method of comparison, with typical bidirectional uniform gratings fabricated in the same process, in terms of coupling efficiency (in this case unidirectivity) with the standard singlemode fiber. For both types of gratings spectrum is given, measured with optical spectrum analyzer.

  14. Investigation on the properties of a laminar grating as a soft x-ray beam splitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Ying; Fuchs, Hans-Joerg; Liu Zhengkun; Chen Huoyao; He Shengnan; Fu Shaojun; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tuennermann, Andreas

    2010-08-10

    Laminar-type gratings as soft x-ray beam splitters for interferometry are presented. Gold-coated grating beam splitters with 1000 lines/mm are designed for grazing incidence operation at 13.9nm. They are routinely fabricated using electron beam lithography and ion etching techniques. The laminar grating is measured to have almost equal absolute efficiencies of about 20% in the zeroth and -1st orders, which enables a fringe visibility up to 0.99 in the interferometer. The discrepancy of the grating profiles between the optimized theoretical and the experimental results is analyzed according to the comparison of the optimized simulation results and the measurement realization of the grating efficiencies. By a precise control of the grating profile, the grating efficiency in the -1st order and the fringe visibility could be improved to 25% and 1, respectively.

  15. Fiber Bragg Gratings Embedded in 3D-Printed Scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liacouras, Peter; Choudhry, Khazar; Strouse, G F; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in utilizing embedded fiber optic based sensors for fabricating smart materials. One of the primary motivations is to provide real-time information on the structural integrity of the material so as to enable proactive actions that prevent catastrophic failure. In this preliminary study we have examined the impact of embedding on the temperature-dependent response of fiber Bragg gratings.

  16. Echelle grating multi-order imaging spectrometer utilizing a catadioptric lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P; Bowers, Joel M

    2014-05-27

    A cryogenically cooled imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrometer housing having a first side and a second side opposite the first side. An entrance slit is on the first side of the spectrometer housing and directs light to a cross-disperser grating. An echelle immersions grating and a catadioptric lens are positioned in the housing to receive the light. A cryogenically cooled detector is located in the housing on the second side of the spectrometer housing. Light from the entrance slit is directed to the cross-disperser grating. The light is directed from the cross-disperser grating to the echelle immersions grating. The light is directed from the echelle immersions grating to the cryogenically cooled detector on the second side of the spectrometer housing.

  17. Circular grating interferometer for mapping transverse coherence area of X-ray beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xianbo, E-mail: xshi@aps.anl.gov; Marathe, Shashidhara; Wojcik, Michael J.; Kujala, Naresh G.; Macrander, Albert T.; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    A circular grating interferometer was used to map the transverse coherence area of an X-ray beam. Due to the radial symmetry of the circular grating, coherence lengths along all transverse directions were obtained simultaneously by measuring the visibility decay of interferograms recorded at different distances behind a single circular ?/2 phase grating. The technique is model-free and provides direct measurement of the complex coherence factor of the beam. The use of a circular grating also enables the unique capability of measuring the source shape profile. Sensitivity of this technique was demonstrated by detecting the small source tilt of a few degrees.

  18. Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Strain, Thermal, and Magnetic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Grating Sensors,” Structural Health Monitoring, vol. 2, no.sensor arrays for structural health monitoring of filamentin the field of structural health monitoring by measuring

  19. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umebidai Kidugawa Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Applied Laser Technology Institute, Tsuruga Head Office, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki Tsuruga Fukui 914-8585 (Japan); Technical Research and Development Institute, Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd., 2-1 Tsukudo, Shinjuku Tokyo 162-8557 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  20. Image-line voltage controlled oscillators and grating antennas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Alexander MacDonald

    1991-01-01

    Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kai Chang A novel active antenna is proposed with an image-line construction. An image-line Gunn diode oscillator utilizing a cap resonator, for frequency stability, is the source module for the antenna. A varactor... is added to the source module for frequency tuning. Combining Gunn diode bias and varactor tuning, 2 percent electronic tuning bandwidth in the X-band has been achieved. The source module is an integral part of an image-line periodic grating antenna...

  1. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA); Komashko, Aleksey M. (San Diego, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  2. Broadband extreme ultraviolet probing of transient gratings in vanadium dioxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sistrunk, Emily; Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Grilj, Jakob; Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahesh G.; Gray, Alexander X.; Temple Univ. Philadelphia, PA; Dürr, Hermann A.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; et al

    2015-02-11

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectral range offers the opportunity for element selective probing of ultrafast dynamics using core-valence transitions (Mukamel et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 553 (2009)). We demonstrate a step on this path showing core-valence sensitivity in transient grating spectroscopy with EUV probing. We study the optically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) of a VO? film with EUV diffraction from the optically excited sample. The VO? exhibits a change in the 3p-3d resonance of V accompanied by an acoustic response. Due to the broadband probing we are able to separate the two features.

  3. COS/HST FUV Grating Shipping Container Handling Procedure Date: November 30, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS/HST FUV Grating Shipping Container Handling Procedure Date: November 30, 1999 Document Number: COS-05-0002 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No.: N/A Prepared By: Erik. Wilkinson 11-30-99 The Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Reviewed: COS/HST FUV Grating Shipping

  4. Fabrication and properties of visible-light subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -incidence light the transmission for the TE wave the electric vector parallel to the grating fingers should be alFabrication and properties of visible-light subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings* Wenyong Deng and Stephen Y. Chou Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota

  5. Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system by #12;ii Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system, and to a large extent influences the combustion process. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is not a uniform fuel

  6. A Bragg grating on LiNbO? waveguide for velocity-matching of electrooptic modulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ruiyu

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study of the fabrication of a surface grating in a TiO? film on a LiNbO? substrate is described. Such a grating can be used to achieve velocity-matching between an optical wave and a RF signal in a slow-wave modulator structure. A 1...

  7. Application of Volume diffraction grating for TeraHertz lasing in Volume FEL (VFEL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Baryshevsky; K. G. Batrakov; V. I. Stolyarsky

    2002-09-06

    The generation of induced radiation in volume resonator formed by metal threads is considered. It is shown that using of such volume diffraction grating allows increasing of lasing efficiency in terahertz range. The requirements on beam and grating parameters are obtained.

  8. Slow light with flat or offset band edges in few-mode fiber with two gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , C. J. Handmer2, C. Martijn de Sterke2 and M. J. Steel3 1 ARC Center of Excellence for Ultrahigh waveguides with dual Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 38, 1049­1051 (2002). 10. T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Tilted fiber phase gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 296­313 (1996). 11. S. K. Case, "Coupled-wave theory

  9. A simple scanning spectrometer based on a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghisleri, C.; Milani, P., E-mail: paolo.milani@mi.infn.it [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy); Potenza, M. A. C.; Bellacicca, A. [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ravagnan, L. [WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    We report a scanning optical spectrometer based on the use of a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating. The grating is obtained by supersonic cluster beam implantation of silver nanoparticles on polydimethylsiloxane previously grooved by molding to create a replica of a commercial digital versatile disk grating. The use of a stretchable grating allows the spectrometer spanning the whole optical wavelength range by solely extending the diffraction element by more than 100% of its original dimensions. The stretchable reflective optical grating shows excellent performances and stability upon thousands of stretching cycles. The use of this elastomeric element makes the optical layout and the mechanics of the spectrometer extremely simple and advantageous for those applications where spectral resolution is not a major requirement. As a proof of principle, we present the absorption spectrum of Rhodamine B in solution obtained by our spectrometer and compared to commercial instruments.

  10. Electron diffraction from free-standing, metal-coated transmission gratings Glen Gronniger, Brett Barwick, and Herman Batelaana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    Electron diffraction from free-standing, metal-coated transmission gratings Glen Gronniger, Brett; published online 14 September 2005 Electron diffraction from a free-standing nanofabricated transmission to the development of 100-nm period silicon nitride transmission gratings with free-standing bars.2 Such gratings

  11. Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

  12. Nanomechanical near-field grating apparatus and acceleration sensor formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin Wade (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory Robert (Corrales, NM); Keeler, Bianca E. N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-03-04

    A nanomechanical near-field grating device is disclosed which includes two sub-gratings vertically spaced by a distance less than or equal to an operating wavelength. Each sub-grating includes a plurality of line-elements spaced apart by a distance less than or equal to the operating wavelength. A light source (e.g., a VCSEL or LED) can provide light at the operating wavelength for operation of the device. The device can operate as an active grating, with the intensity of a reflected or transmitted portion of the light varying as the relative positions of the sub-gratings are controlled by an actuator. The device can also operate as a passive grating, with the relative positions of the sub-gratings changing in response to an environmentally-induced force due to acceleration, impact, shock, vibration, gravity, etc. Since the device can be adapted to sense an acceleration that is directed laterally or vertically, a plurality of devices can be located on a common substrate to form a multi-axis acceleration sensor.

  13. Broadband extreme ultraviolet probing of transient gratings in vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sistrunk, Emily [SLAC National Acceleraor Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grilj, Jakob [SLAC National Acceleraor Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (Switzerland); Jeong, Jaewoo [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States); Samant, Mahesh G. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States); Gray, Alexander X. [SLAC National Acceleraor Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Temple Univ. Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dürr, Hermann A. [SLAC National Acceleraor Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Parkin, Stuart S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States); Max Planck Inst. of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Germany); Gühr, Markus [SLAC National Acceleraor Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectral range offers the opportunity for element selective probing of ultrafast dynamics using core-valence transitions (Mukamel et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 553 (2009)). We demonstrate a step on this path showing core-valence sensitivity in transient grating spectroscopy with EUV probing. We study the optically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) of a VO? film with EUV diffraction from the optically excited sample. The VO? exhibits a change in the 3p-3d resonance of V accompanied by an acoustic response. Due to the broadband probing we are able to separate the two features.

  14. 1790 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 20, NO. 21, NOVEMBER 1, 2008 Interrogation of a Long-Period Grating Sensor by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    , and Jianping Yao, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--An interrogation technique for a long-period grating (LPG grating (AWG), the center wavelength of the LPG sensor is successfully measured using the linear--Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), long-period grating (LPG), sensor interrogation. I. INTRODUCTION LONG

  15. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

    2008-07-08

    A system for determining property of multiphase fluids based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum exhibits peaks whose relative size depends on the properties of the various phases of the multiphase fluid. For example, for particles in a liquid, the peaks exhibit dependence on the particle size and the particle volume fraction. Where the exact relationship is know know a priori, data from different peaks of the same reflection spectrum or data from the peaks of different spectra obtained from different diffraction gratings can be used to resolve the size and volume fraction.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste as an Energy Source by Roller-Grate Incineration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karnoski, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    . Since 1965, water wall boilers equipped with roller-grates have been transforming a variety of municipal wastes into energy in Europe and Japan. The system and its capabilities are explained. Application of this technology to a United States site...

  17. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration and Five Years in Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canizares, Claude R.

    Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X?Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the ...

  18. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Gintautas, Vadas; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  19. Optical transient grating measurements of micro/nanoscale thermal transport and mechanical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eliason, Jeffrey Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The laser-based transient grating technique was used to study phonon mediated thermal transport in bulk and nanostructured semiconductors and surface wave propagation in a monolayer of micron sized spheres. In the transient ...

  20. Defocus Grating Systems for Optical Alignment Mark Chang, Dilsom Sanchez, David Montes and Zugel Vidarte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Mark J. L.

    misalignment error. It is preferable to employ a compact, passive system for the detector's optics commercial holographic film. 2. DEFOCUS PHASE GRATINGS A series of DPGs were fabricated in­house through

  1. Effect of grating period on the excitation of multiple surface-plasmon-polariton waves guided by the interface of a metal grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    photovoltaics,4-7 photo- electrochemical cells,8 solar fuel production,9 and solar thermal photovoltaics.10 Both plasmon-polariton wave, photonic crystal, grating-coupled configuration, photovoltaics 1. INTRODUCTION being a viable choice for enhancement of light harvesting in solar cells, because incident s

  2. Simple formula for the interspaces of periodic grating structures self-organized on metal surfaces by femtosecond laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashida, Masaki; Ikuta, Yoshinobu; Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji [ARCBS, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [ARCBS, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-29

    Self-organized grating structures formed on Mo and Ti metal surfaces irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at wavelengths of 800 and 400 nm are investigated by electron microscopy. We observe the formation of the self-organized grating structures on the metals irradiated with 400-nm laser pulses at low laser fluence in narrow fluence ranges. The interspaces of the grating structure depend on the wavelength and fluence of the laser. We find that the dependence of the grating interspaces on laser fluence can be explained by a simple formula for induction of a surface-plasma wave through the parametric decay of laser light.

  3. SGM Special Moving folded proteins across the bacterial cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Tracy

    -containing proteins are essential for most types of bacterial respiratory and photo- synthetic energy metabolism by the transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. The TatA protein probably forms the transport channel while metabolism in most environments depends upon the bacterium being able to produce cofactor-containing pro

  4. Design of metallic nanoparticles gratings for filtering properties in the visible spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brûlé, Y; Fehrembach, A -L; Gralak, B; Popov, E; Tayeb, G; Grangier, M; Barat, D; Bertin, H; Gogol, P; Dagens, B

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles are exploited to create efficient optical filtering functions. A Finite Element Method is used to model metallic nanoparticles gratings. The accuracy of this method is shown by comparing numerical results with measurements on a two-dimensional grating of gold nanocylinders with elliptic cross section. Then a parametric analysis is performed in order to design efficient filters with polarization dependent properties together with high transparency over the visible range. The behavior of nanoparticle gratings is also modelled using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory and analyzed by comparison with the diffraction by a single nanoparticle. The proposed structures are intended to be included in optical systems which could find innovative applications.

  5. Effective Absorption Enhancement in Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Employing Trapezoid Gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun-Ping, Xiang; Yu, Jin; Bin-Zong, Xu; Wei-Min, Wang; Xin, Wei; Guo-Feng, Song; Yun, Xu

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical absorption has been enhanced in the small molecule organic solar cells by employing trapezoid grating structure. The enhanced absorption is mainly attributed to both waveguide modes and surface plasmon modes, which has been simulated by using finite-difference time-domain method. The simulated results show that the surface plasmon along the semitransparent metallic Ag anode is excited by introducing the periodical trapezoid gratings, which induce high intensity field increment in the donor layer. Meanwhile, the waveguide modes result a high intensity field in acceptor layer. The increment of field improves the absorption of organic solar cells, significantly, which has been demonstrated by simulating the electrical properties. The simulated results exhibiting 31 % increment of the short-circuit current has been achieved in the optimized device, which is supported by the experimental measurement. The power conversion efficiency of the grating sample obtained in experiment exhibits an...

  6. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33%groove density 2400 grooves/mm optimized for diffraction inorder. 6 A denser 3000 grooves/mm grating has demonstrated

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of On-Chip Integrated Silicon Photonic Bragg Grating and Photonic Crystal Cavity Thermometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klimov, Nikolai N; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of photonic-based nanothermometers, a silicon photonic Bragg grating and photonic crystal cavity. When cladded with silicon dioxide layer the sensors have at least eight times better sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional fiber Bragg grating sensors. We demonstrate that these photonic thermometers are a viable temperature sensing solution.

  8. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 8, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 1771 Interrogation of a Long Period Grating Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    period grating (LPG) fiber sensor with an arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG)-based demul- tiplexer through of the LPG sensor through curve fitting in the form of a linear combination of Gaussian functions. By monitoring the changes of the reconstructed LPG spectrum, including the center wavelength shift

  9. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study of Biomass Combustion in a Thermal 108 MW Grate-Fired Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    -Fired Boiler Chungen Yin,*, Lasse Rosendahl, Søren K. Kær, Sønnik Clausen, Søren L. Hvid,§ and Torben Hille, Denmark ReceiVed NoVember 16, 2007. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed January 4, 2008 Grate boilers are widely) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization

  10. Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Salahuddin Ahmed

    2006-06-01

    The particle size of a slurry and the viscosity of a liquid or slurry are both difficult to measure on-line and in real time. The objectives of this research are to develop the following methods for such measurements: (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) to measure the particle size and concentration of a slurry, (2) develop theoretical models and computer codes to describe the passage of ultrasound through a grating surface in order to increase the sensitivity of the particle size measurement.

  11. Fiber optic temperature sensor using a grating on an angled fiber tip 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadarajan, Harini

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor intended to sense temperatures up to 1400°C was investigated experimentally. A key element of the sensor is a grating on the 45°-angled tip of a single mode fiber. When light propagating in the fiber reaches the tip...

  12. Fingertip Force Control with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Yong-Lae Park1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong-Lae

    Fingertip Force Control with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Yong-Lae Park1 , Seok Chang Ryu1 University Stanford, CA 94305-2232, USA {ylpark, scryu, cutkosky}@stanford.edu 2 Intelligent Fiber Optic with embedded fiber optical sensors. The finger is inspired by the designs of arthropod limbs, with integral

  13. Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by use of a single-fiber Bragg grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    are the approaches for which hybrid FBG long-period grating5 LPG and a single LPG are used.6 The hybrid FBG LPG sensor consists of two FBG's and an LPG in which the mode-coupling wavelength of the LPG lies between responses of the FBG and the LPG to the two parameters. However, in this sensor scheme the temperature

  14. Plasmonic backcontact grating for P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells enabling strong optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, UNAM - National Institute of Materials Science; (050.2770) Gratings; (040.5350) Photovoltaic; (350.6050) Solar energy. References and links 1. P. A tandem solar cells: A review," Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347­363 (2009). 3. D. Duche, E. Drouard, J

  15. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Paul, S; Ince-Cushmann, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2007-11-07

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  16. Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells by a layer-transfer technique, Ireland * christian.schuster@york.ac.uk Abstract: Thin film solar cells benefit significantly from, "Progress and outlook for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65

  17. Fiber Bragg gratings for microwave photonics Chao Wang and Jianping Yao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    Fiber Bragg gratings for microwave photonics subsystems Chao Wang and Jianping Yao* Microwave, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada *jpyao@eecs.uottawa.ca Abstract: Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging filed in which photonic technologies are employed to enable and enhance functionalities in microwave systems

  18. Tunable optical fiber devices based on broadband long-period gratings and pumped microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Tunable optical fiber devices based on broadband long-period gratings and pumped microfluidics; accepted 8 October 2003 This letter describes classes of tunable microfluidic fiber FF devices that use spectral range. Dynamic tuning is achieved by electrowetting-based pumping of microfluidic plugs back

  19. In V1 duplex cells, the form of responses to gratings depends on temporal frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Igor

    a sig- nificant fundamental (F1) harmonic in the responses to drifting sinusoidal luminance gratings performing a fixation task. We found that many cells responded with a significant linear (F1) modulation.Gur1,2 , and D.M.Snodderly2,3 1 Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Technion, Haifa, Israel; 2 Schepens

  20. Optical response of grating-coupler-induced intersubband resonances: The role of Wood's anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Optical response of grating-coupler-induced intersubband resonances: The role of Wood's anomalies L of Wood's anomalies. S0163-1829 97 05403-9 I. INTRODUCTION The optical and electronic properties at, e.g., a modulation- doped semiconductor heterojunction have been widely stud- ied in the recent

  1. Obstacle Avoidance Behavior of Autonomous Mobile Robot using Fiber Grating Vision Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohya, Akihisa

    spherical wave interfere one another and tetragonal array of spot light is generated ahead of the FG, 305-8573, Japan fyukio, ohya, yutag@roboken.esys.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract In this paper, we mention 3D shape of objects. Fiber Grating Laser Laser Spot Figure 3: 2-dimensional spot array generated

  2. Incorporation of nanovoids into metallic gratings for broadband plasmonic organic solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    Incorporation of nanovoids into metallic gratings for broadband plasmonic organic solar cells investigation and optimization of a newly proposed plasmonic organic solar cell geometry based. Kietzke, "Recent advances in organic solar cells," Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 40285 (2007). 2. P. E. Shaw, A

  3. Investigation of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikogosyan, David N.

    efficiency with that for other existing meth- ods of recording. We studied the temperature sensing properties changes in the fiber core induced by thermal heating, were developed. They include the use of a CO2 laserInvestigation of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser pulses

  4. High-power laser beam control by PTR Bragg gratings Igor Ciapurin(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    High-power laser beam control by PTR Bragg gratings Igor Ciapurin(1) , Vadim Smirnov(1,2) , George is a photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass, and used for high-power laser beam control. Exceptionally narrow combining (SBC) is considered as a promising way for high power laser systems design in numerous

  5. Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Uriel

    Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure Ronen, "Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric in thin film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011). 10. H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall

  6. my life. I'm grateful to the GAL-CIT community who made me

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    40 41 my life. I'm grateful to the GAL- CIT community who made me feel like a family member. I hope company, Learning Tree International, and about his current projects. What emerged is a picture of someone who has successfully applied a rigorous, analytical approach to problem solving, whether

  7. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark

    2009-07-07

    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  8. Formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal composites by a surface-controlled anisotropic phase separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Khoo, Iam Choon; Yu, Chang-Jae; Jung, Min-Sik; Lee, Sin-Doo [216 Electrical Engineering East, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); School of Electrical Engineering no. 32, Seoul National University, Kwanak P.O. Box 34, Seoul 151-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-01-10

    We report on formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal (PLC) composites using a surface-controlled phase separation method. The binary nature of the PLC phase gratings is produced by employing a single step photo-ablation through an amplitude photomask which precisely controls the interfacial interactions between the LC and the photopolymer on the alignment layer. A subsequent illumination of the ultraviolet light onto the whole PLC promotes an anisotropic phase separation resulting in the formation of distinct binary patterns for the PLC structure. The electrically tunable diffraction properties of the binary phase gratings are presented.

  9. Fabrication of high-throughput critical-angle X-ray transmission gratings for wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert

    2013-01-01

    The development of the critical-angle transmission (CAT) grating seeks both an order of magnitude improvement in the effective area, and a factor of three increase in the resolving power of future space-based, soft x-ray ...

  10. Design and analysis of a scanning beam interference lithography system for patterning gratings with nanometer-level distortions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konkola, Paul Thomas, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and analysis of a system for patterning large-area gratings with nanometer level phase distortions. The novel patterning method, termed scanning beam interference lithography (SBIL), uses ...

  11. Study on differences between high contrast grating reflectors for TM and TE polarizations and their impact on VCSEL designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical study of differences in broadband high-index-contrast grating (HCG) reflectors for TM and TE polarizations is presented, covering various grating parameters and properties of HCGs. It is shown that the HCG reflectors for TM polarization (TM HCG reflectors) have much thicker grating thicknesses and smaller grating periods than the TE HCG reflectors. This difference is found to originate from the different boundary conditions met for the electric field of each polarization. Due to this difference, the TM HCG reflectors have much shorter evanescent extension of HCG modes into low-refractive-index media surrounding the HCG. This enables to achieve a very short effective cavity length for VCSELs, which is essential for ultrahigh speed VCSELs and MEMS-tunable VCSELs. The obtained understandings on polarization dependences will be able to serve as important design guidelines for various HCG-based devices.

  12. Three-dimensional theory of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with dielectric loaded grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Electronic Science and Technology, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-14

    A dielectric loaded rectangular grating for Smith-Purcell devices is proposed in this paper. Regarding the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, a three dimensional (3D) linear theory of beam-wave interaction is developed. The first and second order growth rates are calculated, which are obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at synchronous point. The results show that the cutoff frequency is affected by grating width. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency by loading dielectric in grooves. The simulation results, which are obtained by a 3D particle-in-cell code, are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Compared the first and second order growth rate, it shows that the discrepancy is large when beam parameters are selected with high values. In this case, it is necessary to apply the second order growth rate, which can accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction.

  13. Energy exchange between electromagnetic waves on the director diffraction grating in planar waveguide with nematic layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledney, M. F. Tarnavskyy, A. S.

    2013-09-15

    The energy exchange between two coupled TE modes on the diffraction grating of the director in a planar waveguide containing a nematic liquid crystal layer is calculated. The diffraction grating is induced by an external electric field in the nematic layer with periodic anchoring energy at the waveguide surface. The intensity of the signal mode at the output of the nematic layer is calculated as a function of the amplitude and period of the anchoring-energy modulation, the nematic layer sizes, and the electric-field strength. The cases of modes with the same and opposite directions are considered. Analytical expressions for the maximum intensities of the signal mode are derived. In both cases the maximum intensity of the signal mode increases with an increase in the electric-field strength.

  14. Numerically optimized structures for dielectric asymmetric dual-grating laser accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimidula, A. [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bake, M. A.; Wan, F.; Xie, B. S., E-mail: bsxie@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Welsch, C. P. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom) [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Xia, G.; Mete, O. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom) [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Uesaka, M.; Matsumura, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan); Yoshida, M.; Koyama, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)] [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Optical scale dielectric structures are promising candidates to realize future compact, low cost particle accelerators, since they can sustain high acceleration gradients in the range of GeV/m. Here, we present numerical simulation results for a dielectric asymmetric dual-grating accelerator. It was found that the asymmetric dual-grating structures can efficiently modify the laser field to synchronize it with relativistic electrons, therefore increasing the average acceleration gradient by ?10% in comparison to symmetric structures. The optimum pillar height which was determined by simulation agrees well with that estimated analytically. The effect of the initial kinetic energy of injected electrons on the acceleration gradient is also discussed. Finally, the required laser parameters were calculated analytically and a suitable laser is proposed as energy source.

  15. Master dye laser oscillator including a specific grating assembly for use therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davin, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    A dye laser oscillator for producing a tuned dye beam is disclosed herein and includes, among other components, a beam output coupling assembly, a dye cell assembly, a beam expander assembly, an etalon assembly, and a grating assembly. Each of three assemblies is vertically supported from a horizontal base so as to be readily removable from the base without interference from or interfering with the other assemblies. The particular grating assembly disclosed is specifically designed for proper optical alignment with the intended path of the dye beam to be produced and for accurate pivotal movement relative to the beam path in order to function as a coarse tuning mechanism in the production of the ultimately tuned beam. 5 figs.

  16. Narrow band wavelength selective filter using grating assisted single ring resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhathan, P. Murukeshan, V. M.

    2014-09-15

    This paper illustrates a filter configuration which uses a single ring resonator of larger radius connected to a grating resonator at its drop port to achieve single wavelength selectivity and switching property with spectral features suitable for on-chip wavelength selection applications. The proposed configuration is expected to find applications in silicon photonics devices such as, on-chip external cavity lasers and multi analytic label-free biosensors. The grating resonator has been designed for a high Q-factor, high transmittivity, and minimum loss so that the wavelength selectivity of the device is improved. The proof-of-concept device has been demonstrated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform through electron beam lithography and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) process. The transmission spectrum shows narrow band single wavelength selection and switching property with a high Free Spectral Range (FSR) ?60 nm and side band rejection ratio >15 dB.

  17. An experimental study of low-frequency amplitude noise in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zholnerov, V S; Ivanov, A V; Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V; Romantsevich, V I; Chernov, R V

    2013-09-30

    We have studied the amplitude noise in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode. It has been shown that discontinuities in noise characteristics correlate with those in the power – current and spectral characteristics of the laser diode, whereas the noise characteristics of the pump source have no such discontinuities. The highest noise level has been observed at pump currents corresponding to concurrent generation of two longitudinal modes. (lasers)

  18. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2005-04-12

    A system for determining a property of a fluid based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum including a diffraction order equal to zero exhibits a peak whose location is used to determine speed of sound in the fluid. A separate measurement of the acoustic impedance is combined with the determined speed of sound to yield a measure of fluid density. A system for determining acoustic impedance includes an ultrasonic transducer on a first surface of a solid member, and an opposed second surface of the member is in contact with a fluid to be monitored. A longitudinal ultrasonic pulse is delivered through the solid member, and a multiplicity of pulse echoes caused by reflections of the ultrasonic pulse between the solid-fluid interface and the transducer-solid interface are detected. The decay rate of the detected echo amplitude as a function of echo number is used to determine acoustic impedance.

  19. Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector induced by two surface dielectric gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yongyou

    2015-01-01

    With transfer matrix theory, we study the transmission of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) with two dielectric gratings on top and on the bottom. Owing to the diffraction of the two gratings, the transmission shows a comb-like spectrum which red shifts with increasing the grating period during the forbidden band of the DBR. The number density of the comb peaks increases with increasing the number of the DBR cells, while the ratio of the average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transmission peaks in the transmission comb to the corresponding average free spectral range, being about 0.04 and 0.02 for the TE and TM incident waves, is almost invariant. The average FWHM of the TM waves is about half of the TE waves, and both they could be narrower than 0.1 nm. In addition, the transmission comb peaks of the TE and TM waves can be fully separated during certain waveband. We further prove that the transmission comb is robust against the randomness of the heights of the DBR layers, even when a 15\\% randomn...

  20. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-{lambda}) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization ({approx}20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. {approx}30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160x120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  1. Magneto-exciton-polariton condensation in a sub-wavelength high contrast grating based vertical microcavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Worschech, L.; Kamp, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Z.; Deng, H.

    2014-03-03

    We comparably investigate the diamagnetic shift of an uncoupled quantum well exciton with a microcavity exciton-polariton condensate on the same device. The sample is composed of multiple GaAs quantum wells in an AlAs microcavity, surrounded by a Bragg reflector and a sub-wavelength high contrast grating reflector. Our study introduces an independent and easily applicable technique, namely, the measurement of the condensate diamagnetic shift, which directly probes matter contributions in polariton condensates and hence discriminates it from a conventional photon laser.

  2. Microelectromechanical mirrors and electrically-programmable diffraction gratings based on two-stage actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, James J.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2005-11-22

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device for redirecting incident light is disclosed. The MEM device utilizes a pair of electrostatic actuators formed one above the other from different stacked and interconnected layers of polysilicon to move or tilt an overlying light-reflective plate (i.e. a mirror) to provide a reflected component of the incident light which can be shifted in phase or propagation angle. The MEM device, which utilizes leveraged bending to provide a relatively-large vertical displacement up to several microns for the light-reflective plate, has applications for forming an electrically-programmable diffraction grating (i.e. a polychromator) or a micromirror array.

  3. Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, B.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Zhao, J. M. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2014-07-21

    Graphene has been demonstrated as a good candidate for ultrafast optoelectronic devices. However, graphene is essentially transparent in the visible and near infrared with an absorptivity of 2.3%, which has largely limited its application in photon detection. This Letter demonstrates that the absorptance in a monatomic graphene layer can be greatly enhanced to nearly 70%, thanks to the localized strong electric field resulting from magnetic resonances in deep metal gratings. Furthermore, the resonance frequency is essentially not affected by the additional graphene layer. The method presented here may benefit the design of next-generation graphene-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor as Valuable Technological Platform for New Generation of Superconducting Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiuchiolo, A; Cusano, A; Bajko, M; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Viret, P; Giordano, M; Breglio, G

    2014-01-01

    New generation of superconducting magnets for high energy applications designed, manufactured and tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) require the implementation of reliable sensors able to monitor the mechanical stresses affecting the winding from fabrication to operation in magnetic field of 13 T. This work deals with the embedding of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors in a short model Nb3Sn dipole magnet in order to monitor the strain developed in the coil during the cool down to 1.9 K, the powering up to 15.8 kA and the warm up, offering perspectives for the replacement of standard strain gauges.

  5. Long period grating refractive-index sensor: optimal design for single wavelength interrogation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, Amita; Sharma, Enakshi K.

    2009-11-01

    We report the design criteria for the use of long period gratings (LPGs) as refractive-index sensors with output power at a single interrogating wavelength as the measurement parameter. The design gives maximum sensitivity in a given refractive-index range when the interrogating wavelength is fixed. Use of the design criteria is illustrated by the design of refractive-index sensors for specific application to refractive-index variation of a sugar solution with a concentration and detection of mole fraction of xylene in heptane (paraffin).

  6. MRI-compatible Haptics: Feasibility of using optical fiber Bragg grating strain-sensors to detect deflection of needles in an MRI environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong-Lae

    MRI-compatible Haptics: Feasibility of using optical fiber Bragg grating strain-sensors to detect, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 4 Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation, Santa fiber-optic-based force and deflection sensors based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology have been

  7. Optical micrograph of a Bragg grating photodeposited in the cladding of a 180 m diameter optical fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    fiber Grating: 5-6 µm lines, 8 µm spaces Inserts and removes light from fiber core d variable porosity and truck trailers or retrofitted into existing units, these sensors offer rapid, noninvasive analytical on the subject of optical biopsy. Optical biopsy involves the use of light and photonic technology to diagnose

  8. Detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by biosensor assay consisting of nanoscale films on optical fiber long-period gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    -period grating (LPG) optical fiber by immersion alternately in poly-allylamine hydrochloride and in poly-1-[p-(3 groups on the LPG-ISAM. The terminal carboxyl groups were covalently conjugated to monoclonal antibodies exposure of the LPG-ISAM to 102 colony forming units (CFU)/ml of MR S. aureus (MRSA) for 50 min., light

  9. Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    and experimentally demonstrated that the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings (LPG) can be shifted of the film and/or the variation of its refractive index. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of LPG devices and high-performance index/thickness-sensing LPG-based fiber sensors for detecting optical

  10. Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

  11. Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baba, Toshihiko

    Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic 21 November 2003 We demonstrate a light-emitting diode exhibiting 1.7­2.7-fold enhancement in light light emitting diode LED , the ef- ficiency is limited to several percents by a low light extrac- tion

  12. Multichannel interferometry using high-order rotating diffraction gratings John Howard, George B. Warr, and Peter Dodds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    . Warr, and Peter Dodds Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering National University (ANU), two new types of multichannel density interferometer basedon scanning and multibeam rotating diffraction gratings have beenrecently proposed.3-5 The first type of interferometer

  13. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 15, NO. 8, AUGUST 1997 1503 Ultrashort Pulse Reflection from Fiber Gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipe,J. E.

    are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto and Ontario Laser and Lightwave are used with narrow-band sources or with pulses whose spectral bandwidth is narrower than the grating, and the Ontario Laser and Lightwave Research Center. L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith

  14. December 1, 2000 / Vol. 25, No. 23 / OPTICS LETTERS 1693 High-frequency Bragg gratings in a photothermorefractive glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    .g., in data storage systems5,6 or solar astronomy, in the short-wavelength spectral region.7 One of the media, and near-IR spectral regions, and its induced refractive-index change reaches 1023 . UV radiation of a He in the visible spectral region, because the phase gratings are erased with exposure to optical radiation below

  15. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  16. High resolution transmission grating spectrometer for edge toroidal rotation measurements of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, A.; May, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E.; Lawrence, M.; Rice, J. [University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2004-10-01

    We present a high throughput (f/3) visible (3500-7000 A) Doppler spectrometer for toroidal rotation velocity measurements of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasma. The spectrometer has a temporal response of 1 ms and a rotation velocity sensitivity of {approx}10{sup 5} cm/s. This diagnostic will have a tangential view and map out the plasma rotation at several locations along the outer half of the minor radius (r/a>0.5). The plasma rotation will be determined from the Doppler shifted wavelengths of D{sub {alpha}} and magnetic and electric dipole transitions of highly ionized impurities in the plasma. The fast time resolution and high spectral resolving power are possible due to a 6 in. diam circular transmission grating that is capable of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx}15 500 at 5769 A in conjunction with a 50 {mu}m slit.

  17. High Resolution Transmission Grating Spectrometer for Edge Toroidal Rotation Measurements of Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, A; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Magee, E; Lawrence, M; Terry, J; Rice, J

    2004-04-29

    We present a high throughput (f/3) visible (3500 - 7000 Angstrom) Doppler spectrometer for toroidal rotation velocity measurements of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasma. The spectrometer has a temporal response of 1 ms and a rotation velocity sensitivity of {approx}10{sup 5} cm/s. This diagnostic will have a tangential view and map out the plasma rotation at several locations along the outer half of the minor radius (r/a > 0.5). The plasma rotation will be determined from the Doppler shifted wavelengths of D{sub alpha} and magnetic and electric dipole transitions of highly ionized impurities in the plasma. The fast time resolution and high spectral resolving power are possible due to a 6' diameter circular transmission grating that is capable of {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15500 at 5769 Angstrom in conjunction with a 50 {micro}m slit.

  18. Structural Health Monitoring of Superconducting Magnets at CERN Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiuchiolo, A; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Guinchard, M; Giordano, M; Breglio, G; Consales, M; Cusano, A

    2014-01-01

    The use of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors is becoming particularly challenging for monitoring different parameters in extreme operative conditions such as ultra-low temperatures, high electromagnetic fields and strong mechanical stresses. This work reports the use of the FBG for a new generation of accelerator magnets with the goal to develop an adequate sensing technology able to provide complementary or alternative information to the conventional strain gauges through the whole service life of the magnet. The study is focused on the mechanical performances of the magnet structure, which has to preserve the sensitive coils from any damage during the entire magnet fabrication process preventing even microscopic movements of the winding that can eventually initiate a transition from superconducting to normal conducting state of the material used (called in the specific literature as “quench”). The FBGs have been glued on the aluminium structure of two magnets prototypes by using an adhesive suitable for cryog...

  19. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  20. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A. (Arvada, CO)

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  1. Manufacturers and Part Numbers MonoChromator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Gladbeck Way, Windmill Hill Enfield, Middlesex EN2 7JA (44) 181-367-3560 CPU: Ampro : CM4DXi 133 Mhz 990

  2. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.

  3. 5000 Groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33% efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schattenburg, Mark Lee

    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 10[superscript 5]-10[superscript 6] in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such ...

  4. Spectrally enhancing near-field radiative heat transfer by exciting magnetic polariton in SiC gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate, for the first time, that near field radiative transport between 1D periodic grating microstructures separated by subwavelength vacuum gaps can be significantly enhanced by exciting magnetic resonance or polariton. Fluctuational electrodynamics that incorporates scattering matrix theory with rigorous coupled wave analysis is employed to exactly calculate the near field radiative heat flux between two SiC gratings. Besides the well known coupled surface phonon polaritons (SPhP), an additional spectral radiative heat flux peak, which is due to magnetic polariton, is found within the phonon absorption band of SiC. The mechanisms, behaviors and interplays between magnetic polariton, coupled SPhP, single interface SPhP, and Wood's anomaly in the near field radiative transport are elucidated in detail. The findings will open up a new way to control near field radiative heat transfer by magnetic resonance with micro or nanostructured metamaterials.

  5. SGM : News : Previous News Stories http://www.sgm.ac.uk/news/newsmonths/september04.cfm 1 of 6 8/9/06 10:56 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    cause infertility. This means that teenage girls are 43% more likely to be infected than those aged 20 preventative treatment. People who believe they or their pets may have had contact with the animal should get

  6. Fabrication of high aspect grating using bonded substrate for X-ray refraction imaging by Talbot-Lau interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tada, Takuji; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Ito, Wataru; Agano, Toshitaka [Medical Systems Research and Development Center, R and D Management Headquarters, FUJIFILM Corp., 798, Miyanodai, Kaisei-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 258-8538 (Japan); Imaging Technology Center, R and D Management Headquarters, FUJIFILM Corp., 798, Miyanodai, Kaisei-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 258-8538 (Japan)

    2012-07-31

    In order to improve the image quality of X-ray refraction images using a Talbot-Lau interferometer, we have been attempting to fabricate gratings with high aspect ratio. In our attempt, deep grooves of grating structure were channeled on a Si substrate bonded by Au diffusion bonding method, and the grooves were filled with Au where the Au layer used for the bonding Si substrate was acting as a seed layer of Au electroplating. From the results of a visibility measurement and a cross sectional SEM image, it was confirmed that the grooves with a pitch of 5.8 {mu}m and a depth of 100 {mu}m could be successfully filled with Au over a large area of 72 Multiplication-Sign 80 mm{sup 2}. Using this grating, the X-ray refraction images for the cartilage of a knee joint of a livestock pig could be obtained where SPS method was employed for the single-shot image acquisition.

  7. Replication of a Holographic Ion-etched Spherical Blazed Grating for use at Extreme-Ultraviolet Wavelengths: Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski,M.; Barbee, T.; Hunter, W.

    2006-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation, we have measured the efficiency at an angle of incidence of 10 deg of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating and three of its fourth-generation replicas. The measured efficiency profile of replicas 1 and 3 prior to multilayer coating oscillated from thin-film interference produced by the replicas' Al/Al2O3?/SiO2 structure. A Mo2C/Si multilayer coating was applied to the master grating and replicas 1 and 2. After coating, the maximum grating efficiency occurred in the -2nd order and the maximum values were 12.4% at 143.8 Angstroms for the master and 11.6% at 145.2 Angstroms for replicas 1 and 2. On the basis of measurements obtained after coating, the derived groove efficiency was 22.2% for the master, 19.4% for replica 1, and 19.3% for replica 2. The groove efficiency of the uncoated replica 3 was 24.3% at 142.5 Angstroms. We find that the replicas are reasonably faithful copies of the ion-etched master, and models based on measured atomic force microscope groove profiles are in general agreement with measured results. However, subtle issues remain regarding the widths of the peak order profile and the location of its maximum wavelength.

  8. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Based Monitoring System for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiuchiolo, A; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Consales, M; Giordano, M; Breglio, G; Cusano, A

    2014-01-01

    New generation of accelerator magnets for high energy applications currently designed, manufactured and tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) require the implementation of precise cryogenic sensors with long-term robustness and reliability able to withstand cryogenic temperature and to monitor the mechanical stresses affecting the winding during all the stages of his service life, assembly, cool down and powering. Monitoring the mechanical behavior of the magnet from assembly to operation is a critical task which aims to assure the integrity of the magnet and to safely handle the coils made of new brittle material. This contribution deals with the first successful embedding of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors in a subscale Nb3Sn dipole magnet in order to monitor the strain developed in the coil during the cool down to 1.9 K, the powering up to 15.8 kA and the warm up, offering new perspectives for the development of a complementary sensing technology based on fiber optic sensors.

  9. Calibration of the AXAFHRC UV/Ion shields at Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G.S. Vaiana: II Xray transmission measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the monochromator enormously improves the measurement accuracy. UV measurements conducted by us on the same shield­ray transmission grating monochromator. Small portions of the UV/Ion shield (15 \\Theta 1:3mm 2 ) have been measured was measured with this new set up. Horizontal and vertical scans of the UV/Ion shield were conducted to locate

  10. In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of microtaper and long-period grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhifang; Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo; Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry

    2012-10-01

    We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.

  11. Investigation of the signature of lung tissue in X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Thomas; Haas, Wilhelm; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Wucherer, Lukas; Braun, Jan Matthias; Durst, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a promising modality increasing the soft tissue contrast in medical imaging. In this work, the signature of lung tissue in X-ray grating-based physe-contrast imaging is investigated. Methods: We used a Talbot-Lau interferometer for our investigations of two C57BL/6 mice. Both underwent projection imaging and computed tomography. Results: The results show that the three images obtained by X-ray phase-contrast imaging show complementary anatomical structures. Especially the dark field image allows a more-exact determination of the position of the lung in the chest cavity. Conclusion: Due to its sensitivity to granular structures, the dark field image may be used for the diagnosis of lung diseases in earlier stages or without a CT scan. Furthermore, X-ray phase-contrast imaging may also have great potential in the application of animal laboratory sciences to reduce the number of required animals used in long-term translational, toxicity, and regenerative med...

  12. April 1, 2002 / Vol. 27, No. 7 / OPTICS LETTERS 485 Light trapping in a fiber grating defect by four-wave mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipe,J. E.

    the structures have a slow frequency response. Our approach is somewhat reminiscent of that of Winful and Perlin9 light in a defect state in a nonuniform fiber grating. The amount of energy deposited is estimated and the optical push broom.5 Here we propose another such demonstra- tion, namely, the storage of light

  13. October 1, 2003 / Vol. 28, No. 19 / OPTICS LETTERS 1823 Tuning of laser pulse shapes in grating-based compressors for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    October 1, 2003 / Vol. 28, No. 19 / OPTICS LETTERS 1823 Tuning of laser pulse shapes in grating, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans Lasers Optics and Accelerator Systems Integrated to optimize a laser-plasma electron accelerator. © 2003 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 320.5520, 320

  14. Proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) employs a 2D grating to create a 3D optical interferogram within an underlying photore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) employs a 2D grating to create a 3D optical interferogram by images of 3D polymeric, semiconducting and ceramic structures fabricated by PnP. Paul Braun and co and three dimen- sions provides opportunities for far more exotic optical properties including 3D photonic

  15. Polarimetry of thin metal transmission gratings in the resonance region and its impact on the response of metal-semiconductor-metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polarimetry of thin metal transmission gratings in the resonance region and its impact on the response of metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors Erli Chena) and Stephen Y. Chou Department Received 17 December 1996; accepted for publication 4 March 1997 The resonance behavior of metal

  16. 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1wileyonlinelibrary.com with microsized grating disk-structure and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    was built for the rotary freestanding TENG with a grating struc- ture. The fundamental physics of RF- TENG parameters and rotation rate on the output power and optimum resistance. 2. Conductor-to-Dielectric Rotary Freestanding TENG A rotary freestanding TENG consisting of a stator and a rotator can have many types due

  17. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Suhyun, E-mail: u98kim@surface.phys.titech.ac.jp; Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum [Memory Analysis Science and Engineering Group, Samsung Electronics, San #16 Hwasung-city, Gyeonggi-Do 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kondo, Yukihito [EM Business Unit, JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi{sub 2} source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of d{sub s} at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing d{sub l} (d{sub s} ? nd{sub l}, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  18. Translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask grating mark used in a linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu Zicheng; Wang Xiangzhao; Bi Qunyu; Yuan Qiongyan; Peng Bo; Duan Lifeng

    2009-07-01

    A linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations is studied numerically based on the Hopkins theory of partially-coherent imaging and positive resist optical lithography (PROLITH) simulation. In this linearity model, the correlation between the mark's structure and its sensitivities to aberrations is analyzed. A method to design a mark with high sensitivity is proved and declared. By use of this method, a translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask (Alt-PSM) grating mark is redesigned with all of the even orders, {+-}3rd and {+-}5th order diffraction light missing. In the evaluation simulation, the measurement accuracies of aberrations prove to be enhanced apparently by use of the redesigned mark instead of the old ones.

  19. Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2002-01-01

    A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

  20. Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2003-01-01

    A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

  1. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near infrared and visible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N

    2008-06-22

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < {lambda}/20 at 633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  2. Coherent pulse interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensing of strain and pressure in dynamic extremes of materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor; Mielke, Chuck H.; Azad, Abul; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2015-05-21

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain and pressure sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber is used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor are detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersivemore »line. Signals are recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 50 G Samples per second, 25 GHz bandwidth, digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing in magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts are used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO?. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ?L/L« less

  3. Grating spectrometer system for beam emission spectroscopy diagnostics using high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam injection on LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kado, S. [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oishi, T. [Graduate School/School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshinuma, M.; Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system was developed for density gradient and fluctuation diagnostics in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to cover the large Doppler shift of the H{alpha} beam emission because of the high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam atom (acceleration voltage V{sub acc}=90-170 kV) and the large motional Stark splitting due to the large vxB field (magnetic field B=3.0 T), a grating spectrometer was used instead of a conventional interference filter system. The reciprocal linear dispersion is about 2 nm/mm, which is sufficient to cover the motional Stark effect spectra using an optical fiber with a diameter of 1 mm.

  4. INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT GOVINDJEE, EUGENE RABINOWITCH. INTRODUCTION It was shown in preceding papers (9, 10) that when the unicellular red alga Por- phyridium), these algae, when exposed to monochromatic light (bands isolated by a grating monochromator, band half

  5. MAGNETOOSCILLATIONS OF THE EHD LUMINESCENCE IN As-DOPED Ge A.L. KARUZSKII, K. BETZLERX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osnabrück, Universität

    -concentration of about 7.10 cm J. The samples were immersed in liquid helium which was punlped to about 1.5 K of a superconducting coil (H detection system consisted of an MDR-2 grating monochromator used here between excitation and signal detection. a) NP line (736 meV) b) LA-phonon assisted line POS.5 me

  6. Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flechsig, U.; Nolting, F.; Fraile Rodriguez, A.; Krempasky, J.; Quitmann, C.; Schmidt, T.; Spielmann, S.; Zimoch, D.

    2010-06-23

    The Surface/Interface: Microscopy beamline of the Swiss Light Source started operation in 2001. In 2007 the beamline has been significantly upgraded with a second refocusing section and a blazed grating optimized for high photon flux. Two Apple II type undulators with a plane grating monochromator using the collimated light scheme deliver photons with an energy from 90eV to about 2keV with variable polarization for the photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) as the primary user station. We measured a focus of (45x60) {mu}m({nu}xh) and a photon flux > 10{sup 12} photon/s for all gratings. Polarization switching within a few seconds is realized with the small bandpass of the monochromator and a slight detuning of the undulator.

  7. Experimental Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Self-seeded Free-electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ratner, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Abela, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Amann, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Behrens, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bohler, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bouchard, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bostedt, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Boyes, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chow, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cocco, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Decker, F. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ding, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Eckman, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Emma, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fairley, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Feng, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Field, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flechsig, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gassner, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Heimann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kelez, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krzywinski, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lutman, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marinelli, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marcus, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Moeller, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Morton, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nuhn, H. D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rodes, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlotter, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Serkez, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stevens, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Walz, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Welch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  8. Proceedings of Institute of Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine 2004, Vol. 50, Part 2, 586592 On Linearization of Superon-Graviton Model (SGM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovych, Roman

    2 abab , Lea µ(x) = a beb µ + 4 4 abcd ¯5d(µ bc). (6) The local Lorentz transformation forms a closed algebra, for example, on ea µ(x) [L1 , L2 ]ea µ = a beb µ + 4 4 abcd ¯5d(µbc), (7) where ab = -ba

  9. Time and spectrum-resolving multiphoton correlator for 300–900 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, Kelsey D.; Thibault, Marilyne; Jennewein, Thomas; Kolenderski, Piotr; Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto

    2014-10-14

    We demonstrate a single-photon sensitive spectrometer in the visible range, which allows us to perform time-resolved and multi-photon spectral correlation measurements at room temperature. It is based on a monochromator composed of two gratings, collimation optics, and an array of single photon avalanche diodes. The time resolution can reach 110 ps and the spectral resolution is 2 nm/pixel, limited by the design of the monochromator. This technique can easily be combined with commercial monochromators and can be useful for joint spectrum measurements of two photons emitted in the process of parametric down conversion, as well as time-resolved spectrum measurements in optical coherence tomography or medical physics applications.

  10. Aberration Corrected Monochromated Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Progress, Prospects and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    with CS set to below 5 !m. The numbers refer to particles that undergo different sintering mechanims. See

  11. Towards Quantitative Aberration-Corrected Monochromated Environmental High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Dynamic Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    sintering mechanims. FIG. 1. Schematic diagram of a differentially pumped TEM column. FEG: field emission

  12. Periodic magnetic fieldas a polarized and focusing thermal neutron spectrometer and monochromator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Carlile, Experimental Neutron Scattering ?Oxford Universitysmall angle neutron scattering, and neutron absorptionbirefringent to neutrons, and uses scattering length b F in

  13. COLOR AND CONTRAST PERCEPTION IN MONOCHROME MEDICAL IMAGING FLAT-PANEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanicki, Jerzy

    and Jerzy Kanicki Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. ABSTRACT The interpretation of diagnostic grayscale images by human beings relies on luminance surpass the visual system capabilities, offering all the information recorded in the image raw data

  14. Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies: I. A global view and frequency of occurrence of warm absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laha, Sibasish; Dewangan, Gulab C; Chakravorty, Susmita; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broadband 0.3-10 keV CCD resolution as well as of soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. Our goal is to characterise the warm absorber (WA) properties along the line-of-sight to the active nucleus. We significantly detect WAs in $65\\%$ of the sample sources. Our results are consistent with WAs being present in at least half of the Seyfert galaxies in the nearby Universe, in agreement with previous estimates . We find a gap in the distribution of the ionisation parameter in the range $0.5warm absorber flow is probably constituted by a clumpy distribution of discrete clouds rather than a continuous medium. The distribution of the WA column densities for the sources with broad Fe K$\\alpha$ lines are similar to those sources which do not have broadened emission l...

  15. Multiorder rotating grating interferometer John Howard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    in proportion to the integral of the electron density nealong the laser-beam line of sight.4 Interferometric the diffracted beams are Doppler shifted in proportion to their order number so that the spatial information the continuous time resolution whilestill allowingsimultaneous multichannel phase- shift information

  16. Acknowledgments: we are grateful to Dr Descazeaud,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    de Pédiatrie, Hôpital André Mignot, Le Chesnay; 5 Service de Pédiatrie, Centre Hospitalier is a cornerstone of the management of sickle cell disease but carries a high risk of hemolytic transfusion reaction of this syndrome, to discuss its pathophysiology, and to propose a management strategy. Design and Methods We

  17. Fiber Grating Moisture And Chemical Sensing System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schipani, Claudia (Turin, IT); Spano, Ennio (Turin, IT); Dalle Crode, Domenico (Turin, IT)

    2004-01-27

    A vane for a stator of a variable-geometry turbine, in particular for aeronautical engines, has an airfoil profile and a pair of hinge portions, which are carried by the airfoil profile and enable the airfoil profile to be coupled to a support structure of the stator so as to be rotatable about an axis of adjustment; the vane also has internal channels that allow a flow of air to pass through in order to cool the hinge portions.

  18. Material identification employing a grating spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gornushkin, Ignor B.; Winefordner, James D.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    2007-01-09

    Multi-ordered spectral data is obtained from various known substances and is stored in a spectral library. The identification of an unknown material is accomplished by correlating the sample's multi-ordered spectrum against all or a portion of the spectrum in the library, and finding the closest match.

  19. The Nanoscience Beamline at Diamond, Optical Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reininger, Ruben; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    The main requirement of the Nanoscience Beamline at Diamond is to deliver the highest possible flux at the sample position of a PEEM with a resolving power of about 5000 in the energy range 80-2000 eV. The source of the beamline is a couple of APPLE II helical undulators in tandem that can also be used separately to allow for faster switching of the circular polarization. Based on its versatility, a collimated plane grating monochromator using sagittally focusing elements was chosen to cover the required energy range with three gratings. The operation of this monochromator requires a collimated beam incident on the grating along the dispersion direction. This can be achieved either with a toroid, focusing with its major radius along the non-dispersive direction at the exit slit, or with a sagittal cylinder. The former option uses a sagittal cylinder after the grating to focus the collimated beam at the exit slit. In the latter case, a toroid after the grating is used to focus in both directions at the exit slit. The advantage of the toroid downstream the grating is the higher horizontal demagnification. This configuration fulfills the Nanoscience Beamline's required resolving power but cannot be used to achieve very high resolution due to the astigmatic coma aberration of the toroidal mirror. The focusing at the sample position is performed with a KB pair of plane elliptical mirrors. Assuming achievable values for the errors on all the optical surfaces, the expected spots FWHW in the horizontal and vertical directions are 10 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m, respectively. The calculated photon flux at this spot at 5000 resolving power is >1012 photons/sec between 80 and 1600 eV for linearly polarized light and between 106 and 1200 eV for circularly polarized light. The beamline is expected to be operational in January 2007.

  20. VerDate 112000 14:19 Jun 12, 2001 Jkt 194001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717 Sfmt 4717 E:\\FR\\FM\\13JNR2.SGM pfrm07 PsN: 13JNR2 June 13, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Part 197 Public Health and Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, NV; Final Health and Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, NV AGENCY: Environmental repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Section 801 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EnPA, Pub. L. 102

  1. Name /bam_arbib_104740/Arbib_A153/Arbib_A153.sgm 08/26/2002 01:31PM Plate # 0 # 1 Motor Control, Biological and Theoretical3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miall, Chris

    are in engineering and cybernetics. The field of cybernetics has 20 developed from Norbert Wiener's initial ideas

  2. VerDate 112000 15:58 May 15, 2001 Jkt 194001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717 Sfmt 4717 E:\\FR\\FM\\16MYR2.SGM pfrm10 PsN: 16MYR2 May 16, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement State license. Today's rule also exempts LLMW regulatory docket at no charge. Additional copies cost $0.15/page. The index and some supporting materials

  3. VerDate jul2003 16:57 Aug 19, 2005 Jkt 205001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717 Sfmt 4717 E:\\FR\\FM\\22AUP2.SGM 22AUP2 August 22, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PA requires the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to modify its technical requirements for licensing of time for which compliance must be demonstrated. The Court ruled that the time frame for regulatory EPA's Yucca Mountain standards into its licensing regulations and the regulatory time frame provision

  4. High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue Chaofan; Wang Yong; Guo Zhi; Wu Yanqing; Zhen Xiangjun; Chen Min; Chen Jiahua; Xue Song; Tai Renzhong; Peng Zhongqi; Lu Qipeng

    2010-10-15

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is the first third-generation synchrotron facility in China and operated at an electron energy of 3.5 GeV. One of the seven beamlines in the first construction phase is devoted to soft x-ray spectromicroscopy and is equipped with an elliptically polarized undulator light source, a plane grating monochromator, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope end station. Initial results reveal the high performance of this beamline, with an energy resolving power estimated to be over 10 000 at the argon L-edge and a spatial resolution better than 30 nm.

  5. Performance of the BL4 Beamline for Surface and Interface Research at the Siam Photon Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Hideki; Buddhakala, Moragote; Chumpolkulwong, Somchai; Supruangnet, Ratchadapora; Kakizaki, Akito; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon

    2007-01-19

    The evaluations of the monochromator of the BL4 beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory were carried out by gas-phase photoionization measurements. The beamline employs a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, which delivers photons with energies between 20-240 eV. The resolving power of the monochromator depends strongly with the alignment of the exit slit. The designed resolving power of 5000 has been achieved. The experimental station of the beamline has been upgraded for surface and interface research. The new experimental station removes the disadvantage and expands the capabilities of the old one in such a way that photoemission experiments using synchrotron light can be performed in parallel with other in situ surface analysis techniques, as well as with preparation of other samples. The new system includes the old photoemission system and a multi-UHV-chamber system. The standard surface-sensitive techniques available in addition to photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron light are UPS, XPS, AES and LEED. The new experimental station also includes a metal MBE system for preparing samples for the studies of ultra-thin magnetic films and metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  6. SAMRAI: A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the VUV region at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro; Sakai, Masahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Kondo, Naonori; Horigome, Toshio; Hayashi, Kenji; Goto, Tomohiro; Ejima, Takeo; Soda, Kazuo

    2010-05-15

    A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been installed at the UVSOR-II 750 MeV synchrotron light source. The beamline is equipped with a 3 m long APPLE-II type undulator with horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a 10 m Wadsworth type monochromator covering a photon energy range of 6-43 eV, and a 200 mm radius hemispherical photoelectron analyzer with an electron lens of a {+-}18 deg. acceptance angle. Due to the low emittance of the UVSOR-II storage ring, the light source is regarded as an entrance slit, and the undulator light is directly led to a grating by two plane mirrors in the monochromator while maintaining a balance between high-energy resolution and high photon flux. The energy resolving power (h{nu}/{Delta}h{nu}) and photon flux of the monochromator are typically 1x10{sup 4} and 10{sup 12} photons/s, respectively, with a 100 {mu}m exit slit. The beamline is used for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with an energy resolution of a few meV covering the UV-to-VUV energy range.

  7. Integrating Green Manufacturing in Sustainable Life Cycle Design: A Case Study on PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chien, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    127 5 PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing 5.1Fuel cell stack component options andAssembly . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Fuel Cell SGM Modeling

  8. Reduced Perceptual Exclusivity during Object and Grating Rivalry in Autism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freyberg, J.; Robertson, C. E.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2015-08-20

    Background: The dynamics of binocular rivalry may be a behavioural footprint of excitatory and inhibitory neural transmission in visual cortex. Given the presence of atypical visual features in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), and evidence...

  9. Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings for spectralspatial imaging filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Jennifer K.

    filters, since the material can be formed with mini- mal shrinkage and refractive index change after pro selectivity. The mixture is poured into a mold similar to that shown in Fig. 1, consisting of two glass plates

  10. Design, Fabrication and Measurement of Integrated Bragg Grating Optical Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Thomas E.

    by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Deparment Committee on Graduate Students #12;#12;Design, Fabrication. The goal of a Ph.D. program is not only to accomplish spe- cific research goals but also to train one professors, the role of academic adviser unfortunately entails little more than signing forms and reminding

  11. Fundamental limits to slow-light arrayed-waveguide-grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    7793 #12;15. S. A. Schulz, L. O'Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, and T. F. Krauss'Faolain, S. A. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, M. Spasenovi´c, L. Kuipers, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, S

  12. Fabrications of PVDF gratings :final report for LDRD project 79884.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J. A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign); Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory R.

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to do some preliminary studies and process development on electroactive polymers to be used for tunable optical elements and MEMS actuators. Working in collaboration between Sandia National Labs and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, we have successfully developed a process for applying thin films of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) onto glass substrates and patterning these using a novel stamping technique. We observed actuation in these structures in static and dynamic measurements. Further work is needed to characterize the impact that this approach could have on the field of tunable optical devices for sensing and communication.

  13. Town Known for First Thanksgiving Grateful for Energy Savings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the upgrades, which so far have saved nearly 1,200 per month. The South Street Public Library also had work done. The town energy audit determined the library used...

  14. A theoretical study of grating structured triboelectric nanogenerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    nanogenerator (TENG) technology is an emerging new mechanical energy harvesting technology with numerous) are devices that can effectively convert ambient mechanical energy into electricity. The basic working, but is typically neglected and wasted. Traditional mechanical energy harvesting technology has harnessed

  15. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01)19^ U N I TALSALSSpectroscopy ALS

  16. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAskedAIKENALSDoctoralALSALS

  17. Patent: Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall Reactor for DeepK.alpha.stirling

  18. Performances and first experimental results of BACH, the beamline for dichroism and scattering experiments at ELETTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zangrando, M.; Zacchigna, M.; Bondino, F.; Finazzi, M.; Pardini, T.; Plate, M.; Rochow, R.; Cocco, D.; Parmigiani, F.

    2004-05-12

    BACH, the new soft x-ray beamline for polarization dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, has been commissioned, characterized and opened to external users. Based on two APPLE II undulators, it covers an energy range between 35 eV and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator works either in high resolution or high flux mode. Resolving powers of 16000 at 50 eV, 12000 at 90 eV, more than 12000 at 400 eV, 15000 at 534 eV and 6600 at 867 eV have been achieved with the three high resolution gratings. The resolving powers of the high flux grating, which covers the 290 - 1600 eV range, have been measured reaching 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV. The fluxes, in the high resolution mode, range between 4{center_dot}1011 photons/s at 125 eV and 2{center_dot}1010 photons/s at about 1100 eV. Using the high flux grating with the best resolution achievable 1.7{center_dot}1011 photons/s impinge on the sample at 900 eV. Two branches are installed after the monochromator allowing the set-up of two different experimental stations. One of them, besides several facilities for surface preparation and analysis, hosts a compact inelastic soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) dedicated to x-ray emission experiments exploiting the small spot (10 {mu}m in the vertical direction) on the sample. The other branch hosts a liquid helium cryostat equipped with a superconducting coil to perform absorption and transmission experiments with temperatures down to 2 K and magnetic field up to {+-}7 T.

  19. ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    's Second Generation Model (SGM) is a global general-equilibrium model that projects energy consumption, agriculture, energy, energy-intense industries, household consumption, and government expenditure. SGM offers­choices by communities that respond to the inevitable results of climate change. Informed choices about energy technology

  20. Imaging Electrons in Ultra-thin Nanowires A thesis presented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the quantum dot in an ultra-thin InAs/InP heterostructure nanowire (diameter = 30 nm) using a SGM. A weakly perturbing SGM tip slightly dents the electron wavefunction inside the quantum dot, and we propose measuring that the charged SPM tip's position or voltage can be used to control the number of electrons on the quantum dots

  1. New SRC APPLE ll Variable Polarization Beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Severson; M Bissen; M Fisher; G Rogers; R Reininger; M Green; D Eisert; B Tredinnick

    2011-12-31

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 {mu}m exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10{sup 12} (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 {mu}m horizontal by 30 {mu}m vertical.

  2. New Soft X-ray Beamline (BL10) at the SAGA Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, D.; Setoyama, H.; Okajima, T.

    2010-06-23

    A new soft X-ray beamline (BL10) at the SAGA Light Source (SAGA-LS) was constructed at the end of 2008. Commissioning of this new beamline started at the beginning of 2009. Synchrotron radiation from a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-II) can be used in this beamline. The obtained light is monochromatized by a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator with the variable included angle mechanism. Its designed resolving power and photon flux are 3,000-10,000 and 10{sup 12}-10{sup 9} photons/s at 300 mA, respectively. The performance test results were generally satisfactory. An overview of the optical design of the beamline and the current status of commissioning are reported.

  3. Analysis of soft x-ray/VUV transmission characteristics of Si and Al filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Aby; Modi, Mohammed H.; Singh, Amol; Gupta, R. K.; Lodha, G. S.

    2013-02-05

    Ultrathin filters of Al (1500A) and Si (1200A) should exhibit more than 65% transmission above their Labsorption edges in the soft x-ray/vacuum ultra violet region(Si L-edge: 124 A and Al L-edge: 170 A). However, the measured transmission characteristics of these filters showed {approx}40% transmission. The transmission measurements of these filters were carried at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source out over a large wavelength range of 120-360A. In order to understand the measured transmission performance a detailed model fitting is performed using the Paratt formalism. It is found that the oxidation of the surface region of the filters is responsible for the reduced transmission performance. Effects of higher harmonics of the toroidal grating monochromator are also considered in the data analysis.

  4. VerDate Mar2010 19:12 Mar 07, 2011 Jkt 223001 PO 00000 Frm 00022 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\\FR\\FM\\08MRN1.SGM 08MRN1 srobinsononDSKHWCL6B1PRODwithNOTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the Smart Grid Web site at http://www.nist.gov/ smartgrid. DATES: The SGAC will hold a meeting on Thursday information on the Committee is available at http:// www.nist.gov/smartgrid/committee.cfm. Pursuant will be posted on the Smart Grid Web site at http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid. Individuals and representatives

  5. 1 Apr 2004 20:30 AR AR220-BE06-10.tex AR220-BE06-10.sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: IKH AR REVIEWS IN ADVANCE10.1146/annurev.bioeng.6.040803.140143

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Tassos

    and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston Massachusetts 02115; email: mavro@coe.neu.edu 2 08854; email: ireis@sbi.org Key Words molecular motors, nanomachines, nanodevices, nanomotors, bionanotechnology I Abstract Molecular machines are tiny energy conversion devices on the mole- cular-size scale

  6. TEMPO: a New Insertion Device Beamline at SOLEIL for Time Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy Experiments on Solids and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polack, F.; Silly, M.; Chauvet, C.; Lagarde, B.; Bergeard, N.; Izquierdo, M.; Chubar, O.; Krizmancic, D.; Ribbens, M.; Duval, J.-P.; Basset, C.; Kubsky, S.; Sirotti, F.

    2010-06-23

    A new insertion device beamline is now operational on straight section 8 at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source in France. The beamline and the experimental station were developed to optimize the study of the dynamics of electronic and magnetic properties of materials. Here we present the main technical characteristics of the installation and the general principles behind them. The source is composed of two APPLE II type insertion devices. The monochromator with plane gratings and spherical mirrors is working in the energy range 40-1500 eV. It is equipped with VLS, VGD gratings to allow the user optimization of flux or higher harmonics rejection. The observed resonance structures measured in gas phase enable us to determine the available energy resolution: a resolving power higher than 10000 is obtained at the Ar 2p, N 1s and Ne K-edges when using all the optical elements at full aperture. The total flux as a function of the measured photon energy and the characterization of the focal spot size complete the beamline characterization.

  7. Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Strain, Thermal, and Magnetic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Michael

    2012-01-01

    domain data of magnetic fields oscillating with fourseconds of the magnetic field oscillating at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0,domain data of magnetic fields oscillating with four

  8. Gap solitons in rocking optical lattices and waveguides with undulating gratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A.

    2009-07-15

    We report results of a systematic analysis of the stability of one-dimensional solitons in a model including the self-repulsive or attractive cubic nonlinearity and a linear potential represented by a periodically shaking lattice, which was recently implemented in experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates. In optics, the same model applies to undulated waveguiding arrays, which are also available to the experiment. In the case of the repulsive nonlinearity, stability regions are presented, in relevant parameter planes, for fundamental gap solitons and their two-peak and three-peak bound complexes, in the first and second finite band gaps. In the model with the attractive nonlinearity, stability regions are produced for fundamental solitons and their bound states populating the semi-infinite gap. In the first finite and semi-infinite gaps, unstable solitons gradually decay into radiation, while, in the second finite band gap, they are transformed into more complex states, which may represent new species of solitons. For a large amplitude of the rocking-lattice drive, the model is tantamount to that with a 'flashing' lattice potential, which is controlled by periodic sequences of instantaneous kicks. Using this correspondence, we explain generic features of the stability diagrams for the solitons. We also derive a limit case of the latter system, in the form of coupled-mode equations with a 'flashing' linear coupling.

  9. Strain-tuning of periodic optical devices : tunable gratings and photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Chee Wei, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    The advancement of micro- and nano-scale optical devices has heralded micromirrors, semiconductor micro- and nano-lasers, and photonic crystals, among many. Broadly defined with the field of microphotonics and microelect ...

  10. Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Strain, Thermal, and Magnetic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Michael

    2012-01-01

    for Actuators and Sensors,” Journal of Intelligent MaterialOptical Fiber Sensors,” Journal of Intelligent Materialcoatings for intelligent structure fiber optic sensors,” San

  11. Cascaded holographic polymer reflection grating filters for optical-code-division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    to make thick samples that can be molded into different forms, and it has a reasonably high efficiency at telecommunication wavelengths. PQ-doped PMMA can be formulated for minimal shrinkage and refractive index change

  12. Reconstruction of long-period fiber gratings from their core-to-core transmission function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Moshe

    pattern.18 Moreover, such a method cannot be implemented for interrogating LPG-based sensors. To the best of our knowledge, the structure of a LPG has not been measured yet. A recon- struction technique

  13. Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine 2 Laboratoire des Colloi, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pr. Nauki 46, Kyiv 03039, Ukraine. Tel.: þ(38044)5250779; Fax

  14. *Support from EPRI, NSF and ORNL for this work is gratefully acknowledged.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Smart Selfhealing Electric Power Grid #12;Utility construction expendituresUtility construction difficult in the future due to environmental, political, and cost issues. Increasing Outage Events

  15. Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication and Application to EUV Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-01-01

    Application to Diffractive Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol.of advanced diffracitve optics,”J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. B,diffusers. ” Applied Optics, 43, 28, 1 (2004). Patrick P.

  16. Self-seeding of a pulsed double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    21120710 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Applied Optics; Journal Volume: 47; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: DOI: 10.1364AO.47.001517;...

  17. A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmytro

    2011-01-01

    a groove density of 5000 lines/mm using a process based ongroove density of 10,000 lines/mm, and coated it with an Al/groove density of 10,000 lines/mm (a); 3D AFM images of the

  18. Picosecond polarization-selective transient grating experiments in sodium-seeded flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    femtosecondlaser pulses,thus providing a usefulmethod for studying ultrafast combustion dynamics over small(FWM). As usefulasthesetechniquesare,how- ever,noneof them measuresfast dynamic combustion pro- cessesdirectly and unambiguously

  19. Solitons in Bragg Gratings with Saturable Nonlinearity Ilya M. Merhasin,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Abstract: Coupled-mode a subject of intensive theoretical and experimental research due to their numerous applications to optical manifestation of the nonlinearity is the formation of BG solitons (alias gap solitons, if they are spectrally

  20. Liquid Crystalline Ionomers Containing Azobenzene Mesogens: Phase Stability, Photoinduced Birefringence, and Holographic Grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    Liquid Crystalline Ionomers Containing Azobenzene Mesogens: Phase Stability, Photoinduced December 20, 2004; Revised Manuscript Received February 14, 2005 ABSTRACT: Liquid crystalline (LC) ionomers the properties of azobenzene polymers. Introduction Liquid crystalline (LC) ionomers are of interest because

  1. Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    absorption in the slit by converting incident electromagnetic EM waves into surface plasmons on the metal that enable the excitation of surface plasmons that carry electromagnetic energy towards the slit. Using, usually these detection systems have to be cooled,1­3 which greatly increases the cost and limits

  2. Design and Fabrication of Integrated Optical Waveguides and Sidewall Bragg Gratings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xin

    2014-11-20

    excellent birefringence, electro-optical and acousto-optical effects that enable its high efficiency in nonlinear parametric frequency conversions and flexible tuning capabilities. Secondly, high-quality, low-loss channel waveguide can be made by thin...

  3. Single-mode Er-doped fiber random laser with distributed Bragg grating feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lizarraga, N.; Puente, N. P; Chaikina, E. I; Leskova, T. A; Mendez, E. R

    2009-01-01

    detector UV laser spectrum analyzer pumping laser 980 nmmeasurements we used a spectrum analyzer with a resolution

  4. High Contrast Grating VCSELs: Properties and Implementation on InP-based VCSELs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chase, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    by the optical spectrum analyzer. a) Example spectrum at 20broaden in an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) as the laserby the optical spectrum analyzer. a) Example spectrum at 20

  5. Design and fabrication of highly efficient electrooptic modulators using bragg grating reflectors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ryoung-Han

    2006-04-12

    crystal if the light is incident along the optic z-axis. D. Electrooptic Effect The propagation of an electro-magnetic wave inside a medium is determined by the refractive index of the medium. The electrooptic effect is the change of refractive...

  6. Force Sensing Robot Fingers using Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors and Shape Deposition Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong-Lae

    Manufacturing Yong-Lae Park1 , Kelvin Chau2 , Richard J. Black2 and Mark R. Cutkosky1 1 Center for Design deposition manufacturing (SDM) process was explored. The sensorized SDM-fabricated finger mechanoreceptors on its legs [2], in addition to hair sensors, chemical sensors, etc. [1], [26]. Mechanoreceptors

  7. Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Strain, Thermal, and Magnetic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Y. Kurosawa et al. , “Polyimide-coated small-diameterwavelength shift in a polyimide coated FBG and the NiTiwavelength shift in a polyimide coated FBG and the NiTi

  8. Polarization of holographic grating diffraction. II. Tsu-Wei Nee and Soe-Mie F. Nee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    optical prop- erties of the quinine-doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrate are reported in Section

  9. Azobenzene Elastomers for Mechanically Tunable Diffraction Gratings Shuying Bai and Yue Zhao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    -chain liquid crystalline polymers (SCLCPs) were grafted onto a styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock preparation method,11 an azobenzene SCLCP was grafted onto a styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock

  10. anagin Forests because Carbon Matters: In grating Energy, Products, and Land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    storage and releases, water fluxes from the soil and into the atmosphere, and solar energy copture with traditional forest products, but it may also produce benefits through competition and market efficiency. Short to heart the finding of the Intergovernmental Panel on Oimote OlOnge in its Fourth Assessment Report when

  11. Sunlight and the use of holographic diffraction grating : an environmental perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Sally Nicholson

    1983-01-01

    The movement of sunlight within a building establishes a temporal relation to the spatial structure. Early civilizations aligned buildings with the sun to designate specific calendar days. Gothic and Renaissance cathedrals ...

  12. Synthesis, design and characterization of a distributed feedback grating based non-linear optical chemosensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wun, Aetna W. (Aetna Wai-Yue)

    2005-01-01

    Current optical chemosensors that operate by a 3R sensing approach - recognize, relay and report -- generate a measurable luminescent signal in the presence of targeted analyte. However, the advancement of chemical sensing ...

  13. Superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction as a function of surface grating parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, H; Park, H; Sun, G; Sun, G; Kim, CJ

    2014-01-01

    increasing width of the water-air interface. Since the lossno air loss and flat air-water interface, numerical effortsKim 2009), was a stable air-water interface guaranteed and a

  14. Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Strain, Thermal, and Magnetic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Michael

    2012-01-01

    the hyperelastic thin film nitinol,” Journal of Intelligentand analysis of thin film Nitinol/Terfenol-D multilaminateNiTi), also known as Nitinol, is a ferroelastic material

  15. Devotion to Jesus and Historical Investigation. A Grateful, Clarifying and Critical Response to Professor Casey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurtado, Larry W

    2004-01-01

    It is obviously very gratifying to have my recent book (Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, hereafter referred to as LJC) given the attention represented in Professor Casey’s commissioned review ...

  16. Band gap gratings using quantum well intermixing for quasi-phase-matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,b D. C. Hutchings,b J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marshc Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada, correlated photon pair sources, and cascaded Kerr-like nonlinearities, only to name a few. Particularly

  17. Near-normal-incidence extreme-ultraviolet efficiency of a flat crystalline anisotropically etched blazed grating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    designs for high- resolution EUV spectroscopy in astrophysics where high efficiency in high orders produce more scattered light. Second, deviations in the groove profile from an ideal shape cause power.kowalski@nrl.navy.mil) is with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7655.3, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20375. R. K

  18. Modeling CHANDRA Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer Observations of Classical Novae with PHOENIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Petz; Peter H. Hauschildt; Jan-Uwe Ness; Sumner Starrfield

    2005-01-05

    We use the PHOENIX code package to model the X-ray spectrum of Nova V4743 Sagittarii observed with the LETGS onboard the Chandra satellite on 19 March 2003. To analyze nova atmospheres and related systems with an underlying nuclear burning envelope at X-ray wavelengths, it was necessary to update the code with new microphysics. We demonstrate that the X-ray emission is dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung and that the hard X-rays are dominated by Fe and N absorption. Preliminary models are calculated assuming solar abundances. It is shown that the models can be used to determine element abundances in the nova ejecta by increasing the absorption in the shell.

  19. Self-seeding of a pulsed double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:SpeedingPennsylvaniaSwitch toSwitchSwitch toSwitchSwitch(Journal Article) |

  20. The Nanoscience Beamline (I06) at Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhesi, S. S.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Mott, R. A.; Steadman, P.; Peach, A.; Shepherd, E. L.; Ren, X.; Wagner, U. H.; Reininger, R.

    2010-06-23

    The Nanoscience beamline (I06) is one of seven Diamond Phase-I beamlines which has been operational since January 2007 delivering polarised soft x-rays, for a PhotoEmission Electron Microscope (PEEM) and branchline, in the energy range 80-2100 eV. The beamline is based on a collimated plane grating monochromator with sagittal focusing elements, utilising two APPLE II helical undulator sources, and has been designed for high flux density at the PEEM sample position. A {approx}5 {mu}m ({sigma}) diameter beam is focussed onto the sample in the PEEM allowing a range of experiments using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) as contrast mechanisms. The beamline is also equipped with a branchline housing a 6T superconducting magnet for XMCD and XMLD experiments. The magnet is designed to move on and off the branchline which allows a diverse range of experiments.

  1. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions, III. Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Pilling; R. Neves; A. C. F. Santos; H. M. Boechat-Roberty

    2006-12-15

    The presence of methyl alcohol or methanol (CH$_3$OH) in several astrophysical environments has been characterized by its high abundance that depends on both the production rate and the destruction rate. In the present work, the photoionization and photodissociation processes of methanol have been experimentally studied, employing soft X-ray photons (100-310 eV) from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, about 11-16% of CH$_3$OH survive the soft X-rays photons. This behavior, together with an efficient formation pathways, may be associated with the high column density observed in star-forming regions. The three main photodissociation pathways are represented by COH$^+$ (or HCO$^+$) ion release (with ejection of H$_2$ + H), the dissociation via C-O bond rupture (with strong charge retention preferentially on the methyl fragment) and the ejection of a single energetic (2-4 eV) proton. Since methanol is very abundant in star forming regions, the produced protons could be an alternative route to molecular hydrogenation or a trigger for secondary dissociation processes or even to promote extra heating of the environment.

  2. An ALS (Advanced Light Source) handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The specifications and operating parameters of the ALS injection system and storage ring are of only peripheral interest. To this end, Sections 3 and 5 and most of Section 4 are devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, time structure, etc.--assuming a representative set of four undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of five beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 provides a compendious introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 4 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction grating and crystal monochromators. 15 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. An ALS handbook: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The few specifications and operating parameters of the ALS storage ring that are of interest are those that directly determine the radiation characteristics. Sections 4 through 5 are primarily devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, etc.--assuming a representative set of three undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of four beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 discusses the properties of the stored electron beam that affect the radiation. Section 3 then provides an introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 5 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction-grating and crystal monochromators. As compared with previous editions of this booklet, the performance plots and tabular compilations of the ALS radiation characteristics are now based on conservative engineering designs rather than preliminary physics designs.

  4. Einfuhrung 15.07.2005. DFB Lasers optical field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wünsche, Hans-Jürgen "Ede"

    entsprechen den Polen von r. Die sind in den weissen Flecken: index grating wavelength gain complex grating

  5. COLLABORATION This publication was funded by generous gifts from our alumni and friends. We are deeply grateful for your

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Rehabilitation With Augmented Reality...14 Technology used in some smart phone games can be used to help people Using soundwaves to harvest algae for biofuels is a possibility for a future energy source. Brotherly me a more motivated, successful, and passionate student. The engineering programs at Colorado State

  6. Influence of transient absorber gratings on the pulse parameters of passively mode-locked cw dye ring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuehlke, D.; Rudolph, W.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1983-02-15

    A theoretical explanation of the experimental results obtained by the method of colliding pulse mode locking (CPM) is given. It is shown that, compared to other passive methods, the coherent interaction of the counter-running pulses in the thin absorber yields considerably shorter pulses with a more favorable stability region. Deviations from an amplifier position being symmetric with respect to the amplification of the counter-running pulses lead to different energies of the pulses and to a strong decrease of the stability range of the CPM.

  7. November 1, 1994 / Vol. 19, No. 21 / OPTICS LETTERS 1681 Laser-induced thermal grating effects in flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in flames Skip Williams,* Larry A. Rahn, Phillip H. Paul, and Jon W. Forsmant Combustion Research Facility and E2 are supplied from a cw ring-dye laser that was pulse amplified by a single-mode Nd:YAG- pumped having pulse widths of -20 ns and bandwidths of -0.001 cm-1. The scattering field, E3, was derived from

  8. 314 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 5, MARCH 1, 2011 Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating for Chirped Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    for Chirped Microwave Waveform Generation Ming Li, Member, IEEE, Li-Yang Shao, Jacques Albert, Member, IEEE shaper to generate a chirped microwave waveform in a spectral-shaping and wavelength-to-time (SS a TFBG into an SS-WTT system, a chirped microwave waveform is generated with the chirp rate determined

  9. Modeling CHANDRA Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer Observations of Classical Novae with PHOENIX. I. V4743 Sagittarii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Petz; Peter H. Hauschildt; Jan-Uwe Ness; Sumner Starrfield

    2004-10-15

    We use the PHOENIX code package to model the X-ray spectrum of Nova V4743 Sagittarii observed with the LETGS onboard the Chandra satellite on March 2003. Our atmosphere models are 1D spherical, expanding, line blanketed, and in full NLTE. To analyze nova atmospheres and related systems with an underlying nuclear burning envelope at X-ray wavelengths, it was necessary to update the code with new microphysics, as discussed in this paper. We demonstrate that the X-ray emission is dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung and that the hard X-rays are dominated by Fe and N absorption. The best fit to the observation is provided at a temperature of T_eff = 5.8 x 10^5 K, with L_bol = 50 000 L_sun. The models are calculated for solar abundances. It is shown that the models can be used to determine abundances in the nova ejecta.

  10. Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation.1063/1.3377791 Thin-film organic solar cells OSCs are a promising candidate for low-cost energy conversion.1­6 However 2010 We theoretically investigate the enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar

  11. Estimation of the optical constants and the thickness of thin lms using unconstrained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martínez, José Mario

    Estimation of the optical constants and the thickness of thin #12;lms using unconstrained, spectral gradient method, optical constants, thin #12;lms. 1 #12; Proposed running head: Estimation of optical constants of thin #12;lms using SGM Corresponding author: Jos#19;e Mario Mart#19;#16;nez

  12. Number: Revision: B LS-OPS-0059

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    . 4. Make sure that cooling water is flowing in the MS monochromator and beam splitter/filter unit (DOWNSTREAM OF XENON FILTER CHAMBER) and BE WINDOW #6 (FRONT of X17B1 Hutch) A. Bleed-Up 1. Notify that gravity water is flowing in the MS monochromator. Water pump should be ON and water should be seen

  13. Number: Revision: B LS-OPS-0063

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    . 4. Make sure that cooling water is flowing in the MS monochromator and beam splitter/filter unit FILTER CHAMBER) and BE WINDOW #6 (FRONT of X17B1 Hutch) A. Bleed-Up 1. Notify the Coordinator (Beeper that gravity water is flowing in the MS monochromator. Water pump should be ON and water should be seen

  14. X24A SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    by checking the document effective date on the NSLS QA website. 1. Bremsstrahlung shield (BS #1) between GV1 tank is covered by lead glass. 4. Exclusion Zone # 2 (EZ#2) between monochromator and GV4, defined by polystyrene is identified and secured. 5. Bremsstrahlung shield (BS # 2) between the monochromator and GV4

  15. X14A SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    of mirror tank) as per photo. 6. Lead shielding on Mirror tank in place as per photo 7. Lead shielding of the monochromator tank). 15. Bremsstrahlung shield #3 (mounted on the stand downstream of the monochromator see open 2. Bremsstrahlung shield (BS #1) imbedded in the concrete shield wall 3. Exclusion zone # 1

  16. X22A SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    #1. 5. Lead shield on mask tank. 6. Lead shield on bellows between Mask Tank and Mirror Tank. 7. Lead shield on mirror tank. 8. Exclusion Zone (EZ #2) upstream of Bremsstrahlung shield (BS #2). Lead upstream of monochromator tank. 14. Lead shield skirt and leaded glass on Viewport on monochromator tank

  17. Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Galen H.

    1 Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Components · Passive · Active Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 2 Components · Couplers · Isolators and Circulators · Multiplexers and Filters ­ Gratings ­ Bragg Gratings ­ Fiber Gratings ­ Fabry Perot Filters Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 3 Outline · Couplers

  18. The effect of footwear and surface conditions on spinal contour and flexibility with constrained standing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephenson, Donya Ann

    1995-01-01

    different foot conditions for periods of four hours on four consecutive days. The floor surfaces used included two types of anti-fatigue mats (Hygenic 1, Ergomat), three types of industrial grating (Metal Grating, Clean Room Grating, Standard Clean Room...

  19. Free Relative Clauses in Two Mixtec Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caponigro, Ivano; Torrence, Harold; Cisneros, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    in (3)–(8) show different kinds of sentence-initial constituents in brackets: the subject in (3), (4), (7), and (8), the object in (5), and the locative in (6). (3) [?ktávíó] ni-kuva?a=ra ndy?yi N Octavio cmp-make=3sg.m 4 mole ‘Octavio made the mole...-make Julieta mole ‘Julieta made mole behind the house’. (7) [ti ñu?ñu] tùvi=ri yù?u MO cl.anm bee sting.cmp=anm prn.1sg ‘The bee stung me’. (8) [(ta) oktavio] ke?e=ra mole MO cl.3.m Octavio make.cmp=3sg.m mole ‘Octavio made mole’. The examples in (3)–(8) also...

  20. Near-field imaging with far-field data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-08-13

    Aug 13, 2015 ... imaging of periodic structures known as diffraction gratings. The grating surface ... our effort to design more practical models and efficient meth-.

  1. Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton as Affected by Varietal Characteristics and Other Factors. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1939-01-01

    good middlini (SGM). 3. Good middling (GM). 4. Strict middling (SM). 5. Middling (M). 6. Strict low m~ddling (SLM). 7. Low m~ddling (.LM). 8. Strict good ordlnary (SGO). 9. Good ordinary (GO). tSP.-Spotted condlt~on of the lint. Variety Ducona... As Affected By Varietal Characteristics And Other Factors - AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] The influence of cotton's varietal characteristics on the efficiency of mechanical...

  2. Broadband second-harmonic generation in Sr,Ba, J+lb2Q6 by spread spectrum phase matching with controllable domain gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Baruch

    to the relatively small birefiingence of the crystal (An ~0.012 for x=0.75 and Anz0.029 for x=0.61 at wave- lengths

  3. Message from Sophie Prize Winner I am grateful to Jostein Gaarder and the Sophie Foundation for the opportunity to discuss the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    . Stabilizing climate requires restoring our planet's energy balance. The physics is straightforward. The effect the last drops of oil. Actions needed so that the world can move on to the clean energies of the future of increasing carbon dioxide on Earth's energy imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of ocean heat gain

  4. GRATEFUL APPRECIATION TO PARTNERS The U.S. Department of Energy would like to acknowledge the in-depth analysis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    the in-depth analysis and extensive research conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry organizations that contributed to the production of this report. The costs curves for energy and Renewable Energy Consulting Services, Inc. of Palo Alto, CA. All authors and reviewers who contributed

  5. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Å spectral band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  6. Numerical Irreducible Decomposition using PHCpack #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommese, Andrew J.

    in several variables. # The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of this work by Volkswagen­ Stiftung

  7. Femtochemistry at gas/solid interfaces A thesis presented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazur, Eric

    am also deeply grateful to other faculty members at Harvard. Professor Cynthia Friend taught me much

  8. California department of education HQ block 225: California's valedictorian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Dickerhoff, Darryl J; Fentress, Curtis; Popowski, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Commissioning SMWM A photovoltaic system is integrated intointe- grated photovoltaic system. The 310 photovoltaic

  9. Subsidizing Solar: The Case for an Environmental Goods and Services Carve-out from the Global Subsidies Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Zachary Scott

    2014-01-01

    solar collectors and system controllers, wind- turbine parts and components, stoves, grates and cookers,

  10. A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerling, John

    2012-01-01

    monochromator [6]. The high power LED source with peakof the sample emission and LED power product is not known,MvpLED SL-V-B40AK High Power Blue LED ," Product Datasheet [

  11. The SLS optics beamline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    The SLS Optics Beamline U. Flechsig ? , R. Abela ? , R.in the ?eld of x-ray optics and synchrotron radiation in-radiation, beamline optics, channel cut monochromator,

  12. Macroscopic energy transport in ZnO monitored by spatiotemporally resolved luminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priller, Manuel Decker, Robert Hauschild, Heinz Kalt, and Claus Klingshirn Institut für Angewandte Physik- resolved measurements, a 0.275 m double monochromator and a photomultiplier are used. The amplified time

  13. Universite libre de Bruxelles Ecole polytechnique de Bruxelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerf, Nicolas

    of mine and introduced me to the martial art Taekwondo. I am also grateful to Arno Rauschenbeutel for sup

  14. April 29, 2002 12:27 Proceedings of DETC'02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verschelde, Jan

    gratefully acknowledge the support of this work by Volkswagen­Stiftung (RiP­program at Oberwol­ fach

  15. How to Mentor Students: A Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilbury, Dawn

    of Elaine Dowell and Ellen Meader. I am grateful, too, for the edits suggested by another of the Graduate

  16. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS Managing the Resources of Forest Landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Unit provided space and facilities to carry out the work. We are grateful to Dr. Richard Paisley

  17. Lesson Summary In this lesson, students will build an open spectrograph to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    ") rectangular of 5mm (3/16") thick foam core board · 2-Styrofoam cups · Holographic diffraction grating (1000

  18. Intercity Rail Ridership Forecasting and the Implementation of High-Speed Rail in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaca, Erin

    1993-01-01

    California Transportation Center is gratefully iv aclmowledged. (CALTRANS) and INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROE~D transit systems, power plants,

  19. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P. J. (Hayward, CA)

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  20. YOUR INBOX IS FULL OF AWESOMENESS Welcome new Friday Bit subscribers! Thank you for self-identifying and requesting to join the Friday Bit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will be recognized with our grateful thanks and a named plaque. #12;WILDLINGS Pop Art - you love it, right? T

  1. The authors are grateful for sustained and generous financial support by the Rio Grande Basin Initiative Program, the U.S. Geological Survey, and by the Agricultural Experiment Stations and Water Resources Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resources Research Institutes of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. Economic Impact of Alternative Policy of Economics and Environmental Studies Program Director Department of Economics Siena College Loudonville, NY. Ward Professor Department of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Business New Mexico State

  2. 2100 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27, NO. 12, JUNE 15, 2009 Simultaneous Interrogation of a Hybrid FBG/LPG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    of a Hybrid FBG/LPG Sensor Pair Using a Monolithically Integrated Echelle Diffractive Grating Honglei Guo--A simultaneous interrogation technique of a hybrid fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and long-period grating (LPG) sensor to interrogate hybrid FBG/LPG-based sensor pairs for the discrimination of refractive index (RI)/tem- perature

  3. Igor Kagan1, Moshe Gur1,2, D. Max Snodderly2,3 1 Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Technion, Haifa, Israel;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Igor

    a significant quasi-linear (fundamental, F1) harmonic in the responses to drifting sinusoidal luminance gratings: harmonic content spikes/sec F0 F1 F2 Grating temporal cycle (TF 5Hz) Spikes Horizontal Vertical #12;Results Some cells that responded with F1 modulation to high temporal frequency gratings gave frequency doubled

  4. Quantum efficiency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum Efficiency Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantum efficiency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum Efficiency Machine Donald E into characterization at LBNL. The quantum-efficiency (QE) workbench (The Quantum Efficiency Machine) described here Machine during measurements, making use of light from the axial port of the monochromator via an optical

  5. Quantum e#ciency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum E#ciency Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantum e#ciency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum E#ciency Machine Donald E into characterization at LBNL. The quantum­e#ciency (QE) workbench (The Quantum E#ciency Machine) described here is part Machine during measurements, making use of light from the axial port of the monochromator via an optical

  6. The Development of the GCPCC Protein Crystallography Beamline at CAMD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, George N. Jr.

    ) monochromator and a focusing toroidal mirror. Built off of the CAMD 7 T superconducting, energy-shifting wiggler. The radiation source for this beamline is a 7 T superconducting, energy-shifting wiggler at the Center of the flux produced by the superconducting side poles relative to the central pole is 16% at 7 keV, 3 % at 12

  7. Auger resonance study for the C1s 2pi* excitation of CO 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botting, Shaleen Kaye

    1997-01-01

    monochromator resolution it is now possible to study the Auger spectra of diatomic molecules such as carbon monoxide (CO) in great detail. Our current study of CO, focuses on the computation of photoionization cross sections for the auger decay of CO after...

  8. X-Ray Diamond Anvil Cell Facility at NSLS: 2010 Progress Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    -Heating (upto ~900K) Protected by H2(4%)/Ar Monochromator Sagittally bent Si Laue crystals Beam energy tunable Sagittally bent Si Laue crystals PDF Scattering ADXD Setup of Mar345 Image Plate Whit b E 20 k V t 100 k V

  9. CU-LASP Test Facilities ! and Instrument Calibration Capabilities"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    ­ Computer-controlled monochromator for wavelength selection ­ Deuterium lamp is primary light source ­ 2°C #12;Calibration and Test Equipment 3 (CTE 3) · Characterization of detectors and detector modules;Total Solar Irradiance Radiometer Facility (TRF) · Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) instrument calibrations

  10. U15A SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    from the TGM monochromator tank to Bremsstrahlung shielding #2; in place, secure, and photographed shielding and exclusion zones are in place and secured. Refer to U15A Beamline Diagram. Note: Bremsstrahlung Shielding #1 is not part of the Safety checklist and can only be viewed from the VUV mezzanine staircase

  11. X21A3 SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    2. Exclusion Zone (EZ # 1) between the front end and the graphite tank in place and secure. 3. Lead wrapped around graphite filter tank as per photo, and view port covered with leaded glass. 4. Water and secure 6. Lead shielding covering burst disk. 7. Lead shielding on Monochromator #1 including leaded

  12. X21A1 SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    2. Exclusion Zone (EZ # 1) between the front end and the graphite tank in place and secure. 3. Lead wrapped around graphite filter tank as per photo, and view port covered with leaded glass. 4. Water and secure 6. Lead shielding covering burst disk. 7. Lead shielding on Monochromator #1 including leaded

  13. X11A SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    shields BS # 2 and BS #3 under lead, not visible), 7. Lead shielding above the monochromator tank covered with lead sheet. 3. Bremsstrahlung shield (BS #1) in place and banded as per photo 4. Lead scatter shielding as per photo 5. Exclusion Zones (EZ #3) and (EZ #4) in place and secured. 6. Viewport

  14. X13A/B SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    and secure, as per photo. 3. Mirror Tank shielded and (3) view ports secured with screwed lead covers as per. Bremsstrahlung shield (BS #3) in place and banded as per photo. 9. Leaded glass on X13B monochromator tank view hutch) On X12 side of beamline: 2. Exclusion Zone #1 (EZ1) and Bremsstrahlung shield (BS #1) in place

  15. X29A SAFETY CHECKLIST BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    around bellows downstream of mirror tank. 7. Bremsstrahlung shields (BS #1) and lead bricks around white. 2. Exclusion Zone (EZ #1) metal encasement in place and locked. See photo 1 3. Scatter Shield covering Exclusion Zone (EZ #2) lead shield in place and banded around bellows upstream of monochromator

  16. Video Article Monitoring Protein Adsorption with Solid-state Nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Liviu

    . In the resistive-pulse technique, an ionic salt solution is introduced on both sides of the nanopore. Therefore drilling, or to functionalized nitride surfaces. A variety of proteins may be explored under a wide range current of electrons available for drilling. If the S/TEM does not have a Monochromator, ignore this step

  17. Ris-M-2720 The Multi-Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -detector powder neutron diffracto- meter installed at the DR3 reactor at Risø. The report gives details. Introduction 5 1.1. Principles ofPowder Diffraction 5 1.2. Design Criteria 7 2. Monochromator 9 2.1. Lattice-Up Sequence 31 Risø-M-2720 3 #12;#12;1. Introduction 1.1. Principles of Powder Diffraction The principles

  18. Teaching Three-Dimensional Computer Modeling: Past History and Future Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - D product databases in a concurrent design and manufacturing environment, NC State has responded and manufacturing, Also discussed is how the instructional approach to 3-D CAD differs from either drafting or 2-D disks and monochrome monitors. In 1984 this was augmented by the additional purchase of three more

  19. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    contamination : , (coating, adhesion, painting, corrosion, wear) , : , Ag 3d5 Al 2p Ar 2p3 As 3d5 Au 4f - Ultimate vacuum : 5 x 10-10 mbar or better (Ti-sub. pump) Monochromator X-ray source - Type : Microfocused

  20. ANL/APS/TB-19 A Finite Element Analysis of Room Temperature Silicon Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    ANL/APS/TB-19 A Finite Element Analysis of Room Temperature Silicon Crystals for the Advanced #12;ANL/APS/TB-19 1 A Finite Element Analysis of Room Temperature Silicon Crystals for the Advanced if the monochromator is not properly designed (or cooled). This document describes a series of finite element analyses

  1. In-situ Observation of Raman Scattering of SWNTs during ACCVD Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Murakami, Yuhei Miyauchi and Shigeo Maruyama Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo) (c) (b) (a) Fig. 2 Raman scattering by SWNTs during ACCVD process. rotary pump & turbo monochromator quartz window detector laser (633 nm)filter rotary pump & turbo-molecular pump excitation laser

  2. Phase plate technology for laser marking of magnetic discs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuman, B.; Honig, J.; Hackel, L.; Dane, C.B.; Dixit, S.

    1998-10-27

    An advanced design for a phase plate enables the distribution of spots in arbitrarily shaped patterns with very high uniformity and with a continuously or near-continuously varying phase pattern. A continuous phase pattern eliminates large phase jumps typically expected in a grating that provides arbitrary shapes. Large phase jumps increase scattered light outside of the desired pattern, reduce efficiency and can make the grating difficult to manufacture. When manufacturing capabilities preclude producing a fully continuous grating, the present design can be easily adapted to minimize manufacturing errors and maintain high efficiencies. This continuous grating is significantly more efficient than previously described Dammann gratings, offers much more flexibility in generating spot patterns and is easier to manufacture and replicate than a multi-level phase grating. 3 figs.

  3. Use of Dynamical Undulator Mechanism to Produce Short Wavelength Radiation in Volume FEL (VFEL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Baryshevsky; K. G. Batrakov

    2002-09-06

    VFEL lasing in system with dynamical undulator is described. In this system radiation of long wavelength creates the undulator for lasing on shorter wavelength. Two diffraction gratings with different spatial periods form VFEL resonator. The grating with longer period pumps the resonator with long wavelength radiation to provide necessary amplitude of undulator field. The grating with shorter period makes mode selection for short wavelength radiation. Lasing of such a system in terahertz frequency range is discussed.

  4. Al+LiF Coated Focal Plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al+LiF Coated Mirror #2 Focal Plane Assemblies (4) Detectors (2) Al+LiF Coated Mirror #1 SiC Coated Mirror #2 SiC Coated Mirror #1 Rowland Circles Al+LiF Coated Grating #2 Al+LiF Coated Grating #1 SiC Coated Grating #2 z y x Figure 1 A schematic view of the FUSE optical system. 1. INTRODUCTION The Far

  5. Correlation between the extraordinary Hall constant and electrical resistivity minima in Co-rich metallic glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumdar, AK; Khatua, PK; Rathnayaka, KDD; Naugle, Donald G.

    2004-01-01

    . INTRODUCTION The Hall resistivity srHd in a crystalline ferromagnet is, for T!Tc, given by1 rH = R0B + m0RsMs, s1d where B is the magnetic induction and m0 is the permeability of free space. The Lorentz force acting on the charge carriers is responsible...- pendicular to the sample plane and so the demagnetization factor N.1. Thus BW =m0fHW applied+ s1?NdMW sg.m0HW applied. rH shows the typical behavior of a ferromagnet for T!Tc =368 K where rH almost saturates beyond a certain B (here 1 T) and varies...

  6. Fast methods for inverse wave scattering problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jung Hoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Inverse wave scattering problems arise in many applications including computerized/diffraction tomography, seismology, diffraction/holographic grating design, object identification from radar singals, and semiconductor ...

  7. 3245.ps.gz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-18

    The author thanks Humboldt Fundation for the financial assistance during this visit, and he is much more than grateful to Professor Schittkowski for his warm ...

  8. Sobolev seminorm of quadratic functions with applications to ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-15

    The author thanks Humboldt Fundation for the financial assistance during this visit, and he is much more than grateful to Professor Schittkowski for his warm ...

  9. Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pile, DFP; Gramotnev, Dmitri K; Haraguchi, M; Okamoto, T; Fukui, M

    2006-01-01

    optical waveguides, interconnectors, and devices. For ex-waveguides and interconnectors are also discussed. II.waveguides and interconnectors for inte- grated optics. For

  10. Working Toward Social Change: Youth Researchers Using Discourse to Challenge Systemic Racism in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertrand, Melanie A.

    2012-01-01

    in access to educational resources. These disparities arein my discussions of educational resources. I am grateful todirects poor-quality educational resources to Black and

  11. High channel density wavelength division multiplexer with defined diffracting means positioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, Tomasz P. (Redondo Beach, CA); Jannson, Joanna L. (Redondo Beach, CA); Yeung, Peter C. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer having optical path lengths between a fiber array and a Fourier transform lens, and between a dispersion grating and the lens equal to the focal length of the lens. The optical path lengths reduce losses due to angular acceptance mismatch in the multiplexer. Close orientation of the fiber array about the optical axis and the use of a holographic dispersion grating reduces other losses in the system. Multi-exposure holographic dispersion gratings enable the multiplexer/demultiplexer for extremely broad-band simultaneous transmission and reflection operation. Individual Bragg plane sets recorded in the grating are dedicated to and operate efficiently on discrete wavelength ranges.

  12. A Better Way to Probe Biological Polymorphs | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composite Battery Boost Water-Like Properties of Soft Nanoparticle Suspensions Real-Time Capture of Intermediates in Enzymatic Reactions A New Multilayer-Based Grating for Hard...

  13. Safe end treatments for roadside drainage culverts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Benito

    1980-01-01

    Setup . 16 Wheel Hub and Car Displacement vs. Time for Clear Plate Opening Run, Test 1, 25 mph, 1974 Honda Civic 21 23 24 X1 LIST OF FIGURES (cont. ) Ficiure 17 Concrete Drainage Culvert with Safety Grate 18 Test Pit Setup for Simulation... several questions concerning cross-drainage culverts and the use of safety grates. For example: How big in d1ameter does a culvert have to be before a safety grate 1s required? What is the max1mum spacing of bars in a grate such that a passenger car...

  14. Viseoolastio effective rheologies for modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This work was supported in part by Norsl: Hydro Hergcn. Discussions with Horis. Gurevich are gratefully acknowledged. 3'3 l'tl'tli? European Association of ...

  15. NIF & PS People - 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marilyn Schneider, Raymond Smith, Jue Wang, Morris Wang, Klaus Widmann and Christoph Wild. Award-Winning EXUDE Team Improvements in grating performance and implementation in a...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The maximum counting rate achieves more than 2 x 106 X-raysspixel. January 2007 Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers Bitter, M....

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Doppler widths and shifts. The data analysis techniqu Full Text Available March 2009 Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers Bitter, M ;...

  18. Experimental comparison of navigation in a Galois lattice with conventional information retrieval methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godin, Robert

    -L032) and DARPA-ISO via Rome Labs (contract number F30602-98-2-0137), which is gratefully acknowledged

  19. Mathematical Models for Multi Container Loading Problems 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-12

    Valdes gratefully acknowledge partial financial support by the Spanish Ministry of Science and. Technology, DPI2011-24977, by Project PPII-2014-011-A, ...

  20. MODELING PACKAGED HEAT PUMPS IN A QUASI-STEADY STATE ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy and advice from the EnergyPlus development team are gratefully acknowledged. #12;iv TABLE ........................................................... 6 2.1.1 EnergyPlus Model

  1. BPA Administrator Steve Wright announces January 2013 retirement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy," said Deputy Secretary Poneman. "I am grateful for his strategic vision, creative problem solving, professionalism and dedication. Wright retains my full confidence and...

  2. Sren Asmussen Applied Probability and Queues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asmussen, Søren

    in case, the list is available at http://home.imf.au.dk/asmus/books/apqped.ps and I am of course grate

  3. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    for thermal comfort and energy savings. Master of Scienceprevent good building energy Performance – Inte- gratedACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Arens,

  4. President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Panel President Obama said, "These men and women have demonstrated knowledge and dedication throughout their careers. I am grateful they have chosen to take on these important...

  5. Not. Astron. doi:10.1111/j.13652966.2005.09664.x An Xray emissionline spectrum of Nova V382 Velorum 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ness, Jan-Uwe

    X­ray grating spectrum Classical Nova V382 (1999), obtained with Low Energy Transmission Grating), of cataclysmic variables (CVs), thought to be thermonuclear explosions induced on surface of white dwarfs of hydrogen­rich fuel causes thermonuclear runaway (TNR). tensive modelling of been carried past Starrfield

  6. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  7. Q-switching an all-fiber laser using acousto-optic null coupler Yuval Berg Sharone Goldring Shaul Pearl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arie, Ady

    coupler with acoustically induced long period grating (LPG) for frequency shifting, spectral filtering an all-fiber optical switch based on acoustically induced long period grating (LPG) on the so called, if an LPG is induced in the interaction zone, light can be coupled from the original fiber mode to the mode

  8. Pedestal free pulse compression in nonuniform fiber Bragg K. Senthilnathan and P. K. A. Wai,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Pedestal free pulse compression in nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings K. Senthilnathan and P. K. A solitary pulses near photonic band gap of nonlinear fiber Bragg gratings with exponentially decreasing codes: (060.4370) Nonlinear optics, fibers, (140.3520) Pulse propagation and soliton, (320.5520) Pulse

  9. Fast amplitude and delay measurement for characterization of optical devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael Thomas

    2006-10-30

    of the measured magnitude response of an Acetylene gas cell and comparing it to the integral of the measured group delay. The average deviation between the two methods is 0.1 radians. An Acetylene gas cell, fiber Bragg grating, and chirped Bragg grating are tested...

  10. TheChandraViewofRadiativeandKineticEnergyDissipationin Beyond Unification:An X-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Dan

    the way in, so a disk is formed · Frictional forces internal to the disc heat it up, causing it to radiate angular resolution (Transmission Gratings Spectrometers (HETG and LETG) XMM-Newton: Moderate Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer well suited · Narrow core always attributed

  11. Evolution and Hydrodynamics of the Very-Broad X-ray Line Emission in SN1987A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dewey, Dan

    Observations of SN 1987A by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) in 1999 and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in 2003 show very broad (v-b) lines with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ...

  12. THE RCWA METHOD -A CASE STUDY WITH OPEN QUESTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES OF ALGEBRAIC COMPUTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strakos, Zdenek

    of fundamentals of the differential theory of gratings and several generalizations that can be applied to solving of successful generalization of the method to practical problems. Key words. Diffraction of electromagnetic of electromagnetic waves on periodic gratings. Among those, a specific role is played by the so called Rigorous

  13. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  14. Microfluidic design DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600211

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Microfluidic design DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600211 Flowing Lattices of Bubbles as Tunable, Self demonstrate tunable, fluidic, two-dimensional diffraction gratings based on a microfluidic platform comprising with a wavelength of 632 nm. Keywords: · bubbles · diffraction gratings · flow focusing · microfluidics · self

  15. High-efficiency spectral purity filter for EUV lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-05-23

    An asymmetric-cut multilayer diffracts EUV light. A multilayer cut at an angle has the same properties as a blazed grating, and has been demonstrated to have near-perfect performance. Instead of having to nano-fabricate a grating structure with imperfections no greater than several tens of nanometers, a thick multilayer is grown on a substrate and then cut at an inclined angle using coarse and inexpensive methods. Effective grating periods can be produced this way that are 10 to 100 times smaller than those produced today, and the diffraction efficiency of these asymmetric multilayers is higher than conventional gratings. Besides their ease of manufacture, the use of an asymmetric multilayer as a spectral purity filter does not require that the design of an EUV optical system be modified in any way, unlike the proposed use of blazed gratings for such systems.

  16. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp; Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  17. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  18. Self-seeded operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL in the long-bunch mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    Self-seeding options for the LCLS baseline were recently investigated using a scheme which relies on a single-crystal monochromator in Bragg-transmission geometry. The LCLS low-charge (0.02 nC) mode of operation was considered in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme. The wakefield effects from the linac and from the undulator vacuum chamber are much reduced at such low charge, and can be ignored. In this paper we extend our previous investigations to the case of the LCLS mode of operation with nominal charge. Based on the LCLS start-to-end simulation for an electron beam charge of 0.25 nC, and accounting for the wakefields from the undulator vacuum chamber we demonstrate that the same simplest self-seeding system (two undulators with a single-crystal monochromator in between) is appropriate not only for short (few femtosecond) bunches, but for longer bunches too.

  19. On the possibility of placing a universal neutron diffractometer in an inclined channel of the PIK reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elyutin, N. O.; Lvov, D. V.; Tyulyusov, A. N., E-mail: tyulyusov@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The possibility of placing a universal neutron diffractometer, which is designed for working with perfect crystals, in one of the inclined channels of the PIK reactor is discussed. It is proposed to use a double monochromator block (DMB) in the vertical plane and mounting crystals in the antiparallel position with reflection at a Bragg angle of 15 Degree-Sign . In this configuration, a set of well-known monochromator crystals (pyrolytic graphite, SiO{sub 2}, Si, Ge, Cu, and Pb) provides transmission bands of quasi-monochromatic neutrons in the range of 1-1.8 Angstrom-Sign . The angular and energy distributions of neutrons transmitted through the DMB are calculated. A scheme of the block for filtering radiations is proposed, and its parameters are calculated. The principles of instrument operation in a physical room (beyond the DMB) are determined.

  20. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  1. A small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment using very cold neutrons (VCN).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleuel, M.; Carpenter, J. M.; Micklich, B. J.; Geltenbort, P.; Mishima, K.; Shimizu, H. M.; Iwashita, Y.; Hirota, K.; Hino, M.; Kennedy, S. J.; Lal, J.; Inst. Laue Langevin; Neutron Science Lab.; Kyoto Univ.; Riken; Bragg Inst.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of SANS measurements of small samples using the very cold neutron (VCN) beam of the PF2 instrument at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), France. In addition to a classical SANS pinhole collimation, the experiment used a polarizing supermirror as a monochromator and a magnetic sextupole lens to focus the neutron beam in order to gain intensity and avoid any material in the neutron beam besides the sample.

  2. A possibility for using an APPLE undulator to generate a photon beam with transverse optical modes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, S.; McNulty, I.; Shimada, T.; JAEA

    2008-01-01

    We investigate use of an APPLE-type undulator for generating Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) and Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode beams. We find that the second harmonic radiation in the circular mode corresponds to an LG beam with l=1, and the second harmonic in the linear mode corresponds to an HG beam with l=1. The combination of an APPLE undulator and conventional monochromator optics may provide an opportunity for a new type of experimental research in the synchrotron radiation community.

  3. Scientific Upgrades at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, Douglas L [ORNL; Jones, Amy [ORNL; Crow, Lowell [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring a number of projects that will provide scientific upgrades to the neutron science facilities associated with the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Funding for the first upgrade project was initiated in 1996 and all presently identified upgrade projects are expected to be completed by the end of 2003. The upgrade projects include: (1) larger beam tubes, (2) a new monochromator drum for the HB-1 beam line, (3) a new HB-2 beam line system that includes one thermal guide and a new monochromator drum, (4) new instruments for the HB-2 beamline, (5) a new monochromator drum for the HB-3 beam line, (6) a supercritical hydrogen cold source system to be retrofitted into the HB-4 beam tube, (7) a 3.5 kW refrigeration system at 20 K to support the cold source and a new building to house it, (8) a new HB-4 beam line system composed of four cold neutron guides with various mirror coatings and associated shielding, (9) a number of new instruments for the cold beams including two new SANS instruments, and (10) construction of support buildings. This paper provides a short summary of these projects including their present status and schedule.

  4. A high resolution and large solid angle x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Mori, R. Alonso; Bergmann, U.; Qian, Q.

    2012-04-15

    We present a new x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The end-station is located at wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two monochromators-Si(111) and Si(311) as well as collimating and focusing optics. It consists of two multi-crystal Johann type spectrometers arranged on intersecting Rowland circles of 1 m diameter. The first one, positioned at the forward scattering angles (low-q), consists of 40 spherically bent and diced Si(110) crystals with 100 mm diameters providing about 1.9% of 4{pi} sr solid angle of detection. When operated in the (440) order in combination with the Si (311) monochromator, an overall energy resolution of 270 meV is obtained at 6462.20 eV. The second spectrometer, consisting of 14 spherically bent Si(110) crystal analyzers (not diced), is positioned at the backward scattering angles (high-q) enabling the study of non-dipole transitions. The solid angle of this spectrometer is about 0.9% of 4{pi} sr, with a combined energy resolution of 600 meV using the Si (311) monochromator. These features exceed the specifications of currently existing relevant instrumentation, opening new opportunities for the routine application of this photon-in/photon-out hard x-ray technique to emerging research in multidisciplinary scientific fields, such as energy-related sciences, material sciences, physical chemistry, etc.

  5. Instrument and method for focusing x rays, gamma rays, and neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1982-03-25

    A crystal-diffraction instrument or diffraction-grating instrument is described with an improved crystalline structure or grating spacing structure having a face for receiving a beam of photons or neutrons and diffraction planar spacing or grating spacing along that face with the spacing increasing progressively along the face to provide a decreasing Bragg diffraction angle for a monochromatic radiation and thereby increasing the usable area and acceptance angle. The increased planar spacing for the diffraction crystal is provided by the use of a temperature differential across the line structures with different compositions, by an individual crystalline structure with a varying composition and thereby a changing planar spacing along its face, and by combinations of these techniques. The increased diffraction grating element spacing is generated during the fabrication of the diffraction grating by controlling the cutting tool that is cutting the grooves or controlling the laser beam, electron beam, or ion beam that is exposing the resist layer, etc. It is also possible to vary this variation in grating spacing by applying a thermal gradient to the diffraction grating in much the same manner as is done in the crystal-diffraction case.

  6. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

    2008-09-02

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  7. Non-plugging pressure tap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, Joseph P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A pressure tap having utility in an environment of a solid-gas phase process flow includes a tubular coupling part having attached over a passage therethrough at an end opening thereof exposed to the flow a grating of spaced bars, and affixed internally across a passage therethrough so as to cover over an opening therein a screen which maintains contained within the passage between it and the grating a matrix of smooth spheres. The grating bars are so oriented by the disposition of the aforesaid end opening with respect to the flow such that accumulations of solids therebetween tending to bridge the opening are removed therefrom by the flow.

  8. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  9. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  10. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C. (1215 Brewster Dr., El Cerrito, CA 94530)

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  11. Radiative heat transfer between two dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Lussange; R. Guérout; F. S. S. Rosa; J. -J. Greffet; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

    2012-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transfer between dielectric nanogratings in the scattering approach. As a comparision with these exact results, we also evaluate the domain of validity of Derjaguin's Proximity Approximation (PA). We consider a system of two corrugated silica plates with various grating geometries, separation distances, and lateral displacement of the plates with respect to one another. Numerical computations show that while the PA is a good approximation for aligned gratings, it cannot be used when the gratings are laterally displaced. We illustrate this by a thermal modulator device for nanosystems based on such a displacement.

  12. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  13. Contrast enhancement behavior of hydrogen silsesquioxane in a salty developer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Sung-Wook

    The authors investigated a contrast enhancement behavior of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) in a salty development system (NaOH/NaCl). Time-resolved analysis of contrast curves and line-grating patterns were carried out to ...

  14. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 20, NO. 23, DECEMBER 1, 2008 1905 A Magnetically Actuated Resonant Mass Sensor With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alaca, B. Erdem

    of the resonating structure and the diffraction grating by electroplating of Ni, which also brings about motion. The typical surface roughness associated with the electroplating of Ni as the moving reflector

  15. PREDICTIVE YASIR: HIGH SECURITY WITH LOWER LATENCY IN LEGACY SCADA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by Rouslan V. Solomakhin DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire June 2010 Dartmouth Computer Science and by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-OE0000097. I am grateful to Paul Myrda of Electric Power Research

  16. Passive intrinsic-linewidth narrowing of ultraviolet extended-cavity diode laser by weak optical feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samutpraphoot, Polnop

    We present a simple method for narrowing the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth of a commercial ultraviolet grating extended-cavity diode laser (TOPTICA DL Pro) using weak optical feedback from a long external cavity. We achieve ...

  17. MOLECULAR MODELING STUDY OF SULFATE AND PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION AT THE MINERAL-WATER INTERFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    at the risk of not knowing whether we'd be successful. Furthermore, Donald Sparks continually trusted in me dedicated advisor, a better work environment, or a mentor than Donald Sparks. I am forever grateful. I would

  18. Allocating Transmission to Mitigate Market Power in Electricity Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Newbery, David; Gilbert, Richard

    2004-06-16

    42200034307) is gratefully acknowledged. Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge CB3 9DE, England Phone 44 1223 335200, Fax 44 1223 335299 1 interconnector capacity has an additional advantage as it reduces local market power (Joskow and Schmalensee, 1983). In many...

  19. High channel density wavelength division multiplexer with defined diffracting means positioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, T.P.; Jannson, J.L.; Yeung, P.C.

    1990-05-15

    A wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer is disclosed having optical path lengths between a fiber array and a Fourier transform lens, and between a dispersion grating and the lens equal to the focal length of the lens. The optical path lengths reduce losses due to angular acceptance mismatch in the multiplexer. Close orientation of the fiber array about the optical axis and the use of a holographic dispersion grating reduces other losses in the system. Multi-exposure holographic dispersion gratings enable the multiplexer/demultiplexer for extremely broad-band simultaneous transmission and reflection operation. Individual Bragg plane sets recorded in the grating are dedicated to and operate efficiently on discrete wavelength ranges. 11 figs.

  20. Draft Closure Plan

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the metal grates, which prevent contact with liquids that may have accumulated in the sumps. The interior of each shed and sump is coated with chemically-resistant epoxy paint....

  1. Ted Belytschko 1943 -2014 It is with deep regret and sorrow that we hear the sad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottino, Julio M.

    of computational mechanics, a gentleman and scholar. He was a Giant in Mechanics and an ingenious engineer, and his dedication to education. I am deeply grateful for his guidance over the years and miss his

  2. Reduced SNP Panels for Genetic Identification and Introgression Analysis in the Dark Honey Bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñ oz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Johnston, J. Spencer; Chá vez-Galarza, Julio; Kryger, Per; Pinto, M. Alice

    2015-04-13

    %). (DOCX) Acknowledgments We are deeply grateful to Andrew Abrahams, Bjørn Dahle, Gabriele Soland-Reckeweg, Gilles Fert, Lionel Garnery, Norman Carreck, Pilar de la Rúa, Raffaele Dall'Olio, and Romee Van der Zee for providing honey bee samples. DNA...

  3. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DIVIDE AND CONQUER ALGORITHMS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramaswamy, Venkatakrishnan

    thankful to Ravi Gummadi 2 ; ISAT, our Satis#12;ability Solver, that is partic- ipating in the SAT for preserving our freedom. I am grateful to Ramesh Ananthakrishnan, Perl hacker, GNU/Linux ad- vocate, and good

  4. Nanogratings containing sub-10-nm wide trenches by dimension reduction from sloped polymer profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wenchuang "Walter"

    to produce nanostructures over large areas.8 How- ever, fabrication of imprint molds, particularly for ultra to reduce grating dimension is SAFIER, a temperature dependent as high as 160 °C shrinking process in which

  5. Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Multiplexers and Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Galen H.

    1 Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Components · Multiplexers and Filters ­ Multilayer Dielectric Filter · Optical Amplifiers ­ EDFAs Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 2 Outline · Multiplexers Grating ­ Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter · Optical Amplifiers ­ EDFAs Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 3

  6. Distribution of Residence Times of Grains in Sandpile Models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai For the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics by Punyabrata Research Mumbai July, 2006 #12;Acknowledgments I am highly grateful to my supervisor, Professor Deepak Dhar

  7. Global optimization in reduced space Achim Wechsung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties. Thesis Supervisor: Paul I. Barton Title: Lammot du Pont Professor of Chemical Engineering #12 of coal that is made good under pressure. (Henry A. Kissinger) I am grateful for and appreciative

  8. Dynamic Measurements on a Star Tracker Prototype of AMS Using Fiber Optic Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    ABSTRACT An aluminum prototype of the Amica Star Tracker Support (ASTS) of the AMS_02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment has been instrumented with two Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs). AMS_02 is a 7 tons

  9. UPPER HYBP.ID RESONANCE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING FROM A PLASMA COLUMN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    throughout the course of this research. The many interesting discussions with members of the Plasma Laboratory research group were most helpful. The author is especially grateful to Dr. Reiner Stenzel, without

  10. A Review of "The Society of Princes: The Lorraine-Guise and the Conservation of Power and Wealth in Seventeenth-Century France" by Jonathan Spangler 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the development of a Raman spectroscopy system for measuring aerothermochemistry in high-speed jets and flames. A transmissive grating spectrometer was newly developed for capturing pure rotational Raman ...

  11. Motivation Literature Trans. Networks and Emissions Assessment Indices Link Importance Numerical Examples Summary a Environmental Impact Assessment of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Examples Summary a Environmental Impact Assessment of Transportation Networks with Degradable Links Environmental Impact Assessment Indices #12;Motivation Literature Trans. Networks and Emissions Assessment is gratefully acknowledged. Anna Nagurney, Qiang Qiang,, Ladimer S. Nagurney Environmental Impact Assessment

  12. Semi-supervised Learning via Generalized Maximum Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohri, Mehryar

    University. I am very grateful to my advisor Prof. Yann LeCun, for all the inspiration he radiates as feedback on my research. I would also iv #12;like to thank Prof. Dr. Bernhard Sch¨olkopf, the director

  13. First Lasing of Volume FEL (VFEL) at Wavelength Range $?\\sim $ 4-6 mm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Baryshevsky; K. Batrakov; A. Gurinovich; I. Ilienko; A. Lobko; V. Moroz; P. Sofronov; V. Stolyarsky

    2001-07-18

    First lasing of volume free electron laser (VFEL) is described. The generating system consists of two metal diffraction grating with different spatial periods. The first grating creates the conditions for Smith Purcell emission mechanism. The second grating provides the distributed feedback for emitted wave. The length of diffraction grating is 10 cm. Electron beam pulse with a time duration $\\tau \\sim$ 10 ms has a sinusoidal form with the amplitude varied from 1 to ~10 kV. The measured microwave power reached the value of about 3-4 W in mm wavelength range. The generation stops at threshold current value. When the current tends to the threshold value, the region of generation tends to a narrow band near to 5 kV. At higher current values the radiation appears in electron energy range 5 - 7.5 KeV.

  14. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM GRAVITY Class. Quantum Grav. 19 (2002) 15851589 PII: S0264-9381(02)30157-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    in the UK 1585 #12;1586 P T Beyersdorf et al LASER Periscope to rotate polarization Reflection grating mirrors and through the periscope which rotates the polarization by 90. The beams are re

  15. Air transportation in the 1980's, and the role of IATA : address :

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammarskjl?d, Knut

    1980-01-01

    "(Ladies &) Gentlemen, I am grateful for this opportunity to talk to you about the developing scene in the civil air transport industry. And to take a look at the evolving role of IATA - the International Air Transport ...

  16. A Semantic Framework for Reconfiguration of Instrumented Cyber Physical Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    , Zigbee, WiMAX, MANETS, mesh networks and power-line networks. The ability to inte- grate sensing in different roles execute on varying end- user devices (e.g., desktops, PDAs, cellphones, large scale display

  17. Mask Edge Effects in Optical Lithography and Chip Level Modeling Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Marshal

    2010-01-01

    Transmission for Chromeless PSM . Grating Based Experimentalvs. Duty Cycle for MoSi Att-PSM MoSi 0 th Order Transmissionfor MoSi Att-PSM . . . . . . . . . MoSi Compared to Ultra

  18. Photopatterned polyacrylamide gels enable efficient microfluidic assays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Chenlu

    2011-01-01

    no prior experience in microfluidics or bioMEMS; in fact, Iwhich was and still is microfluidics. I am forever grateful8 or paper 9 . Digital microfluidics utilize surface tension

  19. Single particle characterization, source apportionment, and aging effects of ambient aerosols in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Laura Grace

    2008-01-01

    for the use of the ethane data. We also are grateful to Dr.site, and, therefore, ethane was chosen as the trace gas10x10 Hourly Rel. Amount Ethane Conc. (ppb) Ethane Conc. (

  20. Dispersion compensation in chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A.

    2014-07-15

    A chirped pulse amplification system includes a laser source providing an input laser pulse along an optical path. The input laser pulse is characterized by a first temporal duration. The system also includes a multi-pass pulse stretcher disposed along the optical path. The multi-pass pulse stretcher includes a first set of mirrors operable to receive input light in a first plane and output light in a second plane parallel to the first plane and a first diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher also includes a second set of mirrors operable to receive light diffracted from the first diffraction grating and a second diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher further includes a reflective element operable to reflect light diffracted from the second diffraction grating. The system further includes an amplifier, a pulse compressor, and a passive dispersion compensator disposed along the optical path.

  1. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  2. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy 0.075 arc sec. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer...

  3. Integration of a Resonant Tunnelling Diode and an Optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to John Davies, Catrina Bryce, Marc Sorel, Corrie Farmer, and my collegues Grant Erwin and Iain Eddie for many helpful discussions. I am also grateful to Linda Pol- lock, Eve Aitkenhead, Mark Dragsness, Bill

  4. EEG correlate of summed similarity during a working memory Marieke K. van Vugt 1, Robert S. Sekuler2, Hugh R. Wilson3, Michael J.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vugt, Marieke

    dataset RMSD w1 w2 w3 w4 1 2 3 4 gratings 0.0578 0.0729 0.1291 1 0.8515 0.7306 0.7446 faces 0.0555 0

  5. Woei-Kae Chen Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallmann, Matt

    -88-K-0555,which is gratefully acknowledged #12;HYPERCUBE EMBEDDING HEURISTICS: AN EVALUATION WOEI with a definition of a hypercube. A k-cube is an undirected graph H = (VIA, Eh) consisting of n = 2*vertices labeled

  6. Turtle: A Constraint Imperative Programming Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofstedt, Petra

    Turtle: A Constraint Imperative Programming Language Martin Grabm¨uller and Petra Hofstedt of the programming language Turtle, which inte- grates declarative constraints and imperative language elements Introduction Programming languages can be divided into two main categories: imperative and declarative

  7. NEWBORN'S BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION: CAN IT BE DONE? Daniel Weingaertner, Olga Regina Pereira Bellon and Luciano Silva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,olga,luciano}@inf.ufpr.br M^onica Nunes Lima Cat Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal do Paran´a, Curitiba, Brasil doc- tors, nurses and police officers. We are also grateful for the parents that gave their consent

  8. Propulsion System Characterization for the SPHERES Formation Flight and Docking Testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    evaluating control algorithms. Performance variations resulting from manufacturing, system set- tings. This thesis leans heavily on work started by Simon Nolet. I am grateful for his guidance and in his debt

  9. Design, analysis and simulation study of a Scalable all-Optical Interconnection Network (SCOPIN) for multiprocessing systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okorafor, Ekpe Apia

    2002-01-01

    . Aspects like the use of totally free space optics, fiber optics, electro-optics, light splitting and grating, etc. are all under research. Optical systems offer the strengths of both temporal and spatial bandwidth to be exploited in the construction...

  10. Imaging X-ray spectroscopy with micro-X and Chandra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutherford, John (John Morton)

    2013-01-01

    High spectral resolution observations of X-ray phenomena have the potential to uncover new physics. Currently, only point sources can be probed with high resolution spectra, using gratings. Extended objects like supernova ...

  11. A computational study of the quantum transport properties of a Cu–CNT composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghorbani-Asl, Mahdi; Bristowe, Paul D.; Koziol, Krzysztof

    2015-06-23

    for this work under the Seventh Framework Program FP7/2007-2013 (ERC grant agreement no. 259061). Computational support from the Cambridge High Performance Computing Cluster is gratefully acknowledged. Notes and references a Department of Materials Science...

  12. Measure functional differential equations and impulsive functional dynamic equations on time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejcí, Pavel

    to be their daughter. I am grateful to my sister Cynthia for being one of my best friends and an essential part of my to thank to my dear friends: Pedro Lima, Renato Alejandro, Ismael Sobrinho, Laura Lobato, Roberta Pacheco

  13. Faculty of Informatics Institute for Anthropomatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    and their fantastic support during the last few years. I wish to thank my friends and colleagues in T Williamson, Suzanne Oliveira-Martens, Tom Stepleton, and Yunus Saatc¸i. Furthermore, I am grateful to Cynthia

  14. X-RAY EJECTA KINEMATICS OF THE GALACTIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhalerao, Jayant

    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra High Energy Transmision Grating Spectrometer observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the three-dimensional structure ...

  15. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  16. Testing and Validation of Phasor Measurement Based Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to provide internship opportunity related to PMU performance testing to Saugata Biswas. We would also like at Washington State University for their help in PMU and PDC testing. Additionally, we are grateful

  17. Springer Publishers has just published the monumental (12,500 pages) Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (ed. Robert Meyers). Prof. Nickolas Themelis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    as Power Plants Marcel van Berlo 8 Waste-to-Energy using Refuse-derived Fuel Hasselriis and Mahoney 9 Life Neubacher 6 Incinerator Grate Combustion Phenomena Swithenbank and Sharifi 7 Waste-to-Energy Facilities

  18. CHANDRA/HETGS OBSERVATIONS OF THE BRIGHTEST FLARE SEEN FROM Sgr A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markoff, S. B.

    Starting in 2012, we began an unprecedented observational program focused on the supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy, Sgr A*, utilizing the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) instrument ...

  19. The Economic Impacts of Climate Change: Evidence from Agricultural Output and Random Fluctuations in Weather: Reply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschenes, Oliver

    Fisher et al. (2012) (hearafter, FHRS) have uncovered coding and data errors in our paper, Deschênes and Greenstone (2007), henceforth, DG. We acknowledge and are embarrassed by these mistakes. We are grateful to FHRS for ...

  20. AALBORG UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    . This report is a direct consequence of their supervision. I am also grateful to Aalborg University lab for their help and for the material they put at my disposal. Finally I would like to thank my

  1. NEAR-INSTANTANEOUSLY ADAPTIVE COOPERATIVE UPLINK SCHEMES BASED ON SPACE-TIME BLOCK CODES AND V-BLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zummo, Salam Adel

    University of Petroleum and Metal Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia, Email: zummo@kfupm.edu.sa Abstract and the British Council/BAE Summer Research Program to conduct this research is gratefully acknowledged. Whilst V

  2. Optical characterization of complex mechanical and thermal transport properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremy A. (Jeremy Andrew)

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved impulsive stimulated light scattering (ISS), also known as transient grating spectroscopy, was used to investigate phonon mediated thermal transport in semiconductors and mechanical degrees of freedom linked ...

  3. Narrative, Interpretation, and the Ratification of the Constitution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Pauline

    I am grateful to the participants in this forum for their careful and enthusiastic responses to Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788. Some comments usefully extend the discussion beyond what’s in the ...

  4. Internet Rehab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-05-09

    Broadcast Transcript: This Postcard is a public service message to America's teen internet fans: be grateful you live here and not in China. A recent survey revealed that 14 percent of Chinese teens are considered in danger of becoming internet...

  5. This paper is about the computer analogy of the brain and how it can both help and hinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Sonia

    : that it is some kind of a computer, as contrasted for example with the heart which is a pump. It is a computer and Industry through the RWCP is gratefully acknowledged. 2. Swedish Institute of Computer Science. puns

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 17, NO. 3, AUGUST 2004 455 Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Cu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    by vacuum pump operation, placing a premium on short cycle times. In addition, energy requirements for wafer- ponent in the semiconductor industry in efforts to inte- grate and proliferate environment, safety

  7. Ultrasensitive protein detection using lithographically defined Si multi-nanowire field effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wenchuang "Walter"

    , it is difficult to have precise control of the nanowire size, doping uniformity, defects, and alignment to their fabrication process of using superlattice nanowire pattern (SNAP) transfer24 or grating mold in nanoimprint.25

  8. Optically transduced MEMS gyro device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Bogart, Gregory R; Langlois, Eric; Okandan, Murat

    2014-05-20

    A bulk micromachined vibratory gyro in which a proof mass has a bulk substrate thickness for a large mass and high inertial sensitivity. In embodiments, optical displacement transduction is with multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings for high sensitivity and low cross-talk with non-optical drive elements. In embodiments, the vibratory gyro includes a plurality of multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings and a plurality of drive electrodes to measure motion of the proof mass induced by drive forces and/or moments and induced by the Coriolis Effect when the gyro experiences a rotation. In embodiments, phase is varied across the plurality gratings and a multi-layer grating having the best performance is selected from the plurality.

  9. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    M. , 1990. “Waste Gas Heat Recovery in Cement Plants” EnergyAdvanced Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants”grate cooler Refractories Heat recovery for power generation

  11. Design and fabrication of high-index-contrast self-assembled texture for light extraction enhancement in LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We developed a high-index-contrast photonic structure for improving the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a self-assembly approach. In this approach, a two-dimensional grating can be ...

  12. Study of Faculty Attrition at UW-Madison: Combined Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    -1- Study of Faculty Attrition at UW-Madison: Combined Results 2006 ­ 2008 Christine Maidl..............................................................................................................................................25 Appendix A: Faculty Attrition Study Interview Protocol .............................................................................................................................................30 Acknowledgements: I am grateful for the honesty and candor of the study participants

  13. Vibrational characteristics of a long and very flexible rotating fixed-free beam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarco Cruz, Juan Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Ciencia y Tecnologia (or CONACYT, National Council for Science and Technology) of the Mexican government under a scholarship loan. I gratefully acknowledge this support. A special thank you goes to my research advisor, Dr. Johnny Hurtado, for his...

  14. Address: Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt -Tel: +202-2466-5630 -Fax: +202-2466-2917 -www.science-ainshams.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    , Egypt - Tel: +202-2466-5630 - Fax: +202-2466-2917 - www.science-ainshams.com March 13, 2013 Dr. Sultana, Egypt is gratefully acknowledging the receipt of the following books for the undergraduate astronomy

  15. AARHUS UNIVERSITET INVENTOR'S GUIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataillon, Thomas

    AARHUS UNIVERSITET INVENTOR'S GUIDE TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AT AARHUS UNIVERSITY #12;#12;AARHUS UNIVERSITY INVENTOR'S GUIdE 3 The Technology Transfer Process of Michigan's "Inventor's Guide to Technology Transfer ." We are grateful to the University of Michigan

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    27 ICT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY T he environment is a large complex sys- tem. Managing. Environmental Monitoring and Associated Resource Management and Risk Mitigation ICTimprovestheabilitytoobtain,storeandinte- grate large volumes of environmental data and to conductsimulationandanalysisinrealtime

  17. Ultrathin micropatterned porphyrin films assembled via zirconium phosphonate chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultrathin micropatterned porphyrin films assembled via zirconium phosphonate chemistry Aaron M films; Zirconium phosphonates; Diffraction gratings 1. Introduction Directed assembled and layer, the fabrication of stable and ordered multilayer films has often proved challenging. Repetitive zirconium

  18. 3-MANIFOLDS, TANGLES AND PERSISTENT INVARIANTS JOZEF H. PRZYTYCKI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Dan

    in the last section. We are grateful to J. Scott Carter, Mietek D¸abkowski and Seiichi Kamada for stimu3-MANIFOLDS, TANGLES AND PERSISTENT INVARIANTS J´OZEF H. PRZYTYCKI Department of Mathematics

  19. AI Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 16-41, 1991. A Survey of the Eighth National

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    am especially grateful to Alan Meyrowitz at the Office of Naval Research for intellectual, and illustrated with excerpts from AAAI-90, in Appendix 1. Section 3 paints a picture of AAAI-90 with broad

  20. apsdpp07_ver1.eps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diagnostics using a Visible Transmission Grating Spectrometer at the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak 1 A. Graf, 2 M. May, 2 P. Beiersdorfer and 3 D. Whyte, 3 B. Labombard, 3 N. Smick, 3...

  1. A Detection Of An X-ray Wind And An Ionized Disk In The Chandra HETGS Observation Of The Seyfert 2 Galaxy IRAS 18325-5926

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocz, Philip

    We analyze the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observation of the Seyfert 2 AGN IRAS 18325-5926. We detect a v = –360[superscript +41] [subscript –66] km s[superscript –1] blueshifted ionized absorber ...

  2. On understanding the lives of dead stars : Supernova Remnant N103B, radio pulsar B1951+32, and the Rabbit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migliazzo, Joshua Marc, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we observed the young Supernova Remnant N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud as part of the Guaranteed Time Observation program. N103B has a small overall ...

  3. A HYBRID MAGNETICALLY/THERMALLY DRIVEN WIND IN THE BLACK HOLE GRO J1655–40?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, Jeroen

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655-40 was observed twice with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; the second observation revealed a spectrum rich with ionized absorption lines from elements ranging ...

  4. Confirming the Detection of an Intergalactic X-Ray Absorber toward PKS 2155–304

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Taotao

    We present new observations of PKS 2155-304 with the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG), using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). We confirm the detection of an absorption line plausibly identified ...

  5. Ultralow-noise packaged 1.55-m semiconductor external-cavity laser with 0.37-W output power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juodawlkis, Paul W.

    We demonstrate a semiconductor external-cavity laser comprising a slab-coupled optical waveguide amplifier (SCOWA) and a fiber Bragg grating. The laser exhibits a Lorentzian linewidth of 1.75 kHz and a sidemode suppression ...

  6. R U T C O R R E P O R T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " is small. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Office of Naval Research (Grant statistics, and newer ones, like machine learning and data mining. Numerous methods have been developed

  7. Multiscalar line measurements in nonisobaric high-pressure underexpanded supersonic jets using rotational-vibrational raman spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Benjamin Nathan

    2009-05-15

    This work describes the development of a Raman spectroscopy system for measuring aerothermochemistry in high-speed jets and flames. A transmissive grating spectrometer was newly developed for capturing pure rotational Raman and rotationalvibrational...

  8. Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    for dehydrogenation of hydrides 2.increase the energy density of electrodes Applications: The resulting nanoporous.B. Garcia gratefully acknowledges traineeship support University of Washington Bioenergy IGERT (DGE-0654252

  9. Digital Stereo Image Interpretation for Natural Hazard Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for their dedication and guidance in the realization of this thesis; without them it could not be possible to finish for her care and dedication. My sincere grateful is also for the people that provided me help

  10. Mathematical and computational modeling of the diffraction problems by discrete singularities method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesvit, K. V.

    2014-11-12

    The main objective of this study is reduced the boundary-value problems of scattering and diffraction waves on plane-parallel structures to the singular or hypersingular integral equations. For these cases we use a method of the parametric representations of the integral and pseudo-differential operators. Numerical results of the model scattering problems on periodic and boundary gratings and also on the gratings above a flat screen reflector are presented in this paper.

  11. Real time monitoring of superparamagnetic nanoparticle self-assembly on surfaces of magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Crawford, T. M., E-mail: crawftm@mailbox.sc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, 712 Main Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Qi, B.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 161 Sirrine Hall, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), 91 Technology Dr., Anderson, South Carolina 29625 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Nanoparticle self-assembly dynamics are monitored in real-time by detecting optical diffraction from an all-nanoparticle grating as it self-assembles on a grating pattern recorded on a magnetic medium. The diffraction efficiency strongly depends on concentration, pH, and colloidal stability of nanoparticle suspensions, demonstrating the nanoparticle self-assembly process is highly tunable. This metrology could provide an alternative for detecting nanoparticle properties such as colloidal stability.

  12. Weak power law rheology of soft glassy and gelled materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Patricio; Catarina R. Leal

    2015-09-07

    We make a parallel excursion to the generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt models to find which general conditions may lead to the weak power law behaviours of the elastic and viscous moduli, $G'(w)\\sim G''(w)\\sim w^\\alpha$, with $0cells. We find that these behaviours are obtained for analogous, but essentially different power law spectra of relaxation and retardation times, stemming from the different nature of the models. The first, based on the generalised Maxwell model, retains the fluid properties of a soft glassy material (SGM) above the glass transition. The second, based on the generalised Kelvin-Voigt model, retains the elastic properties of a soft solid or gelled material. Using these models, we calculate with accuracy the power law exponents of $G'(w)\\sim w^x$ and $G''(w)\\sim w^y$, for the whole families of relaxation and retardation spectra previously obtained. Within the region corresponding to $0 y\\approx \\alpha$ and $y> x\\approx \\alpha$ for respectively the generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt models. Beyond this region, we find very different and interesting exponents.

  13. Structure and strain-relaxation effects of defects in InxGa1-xN epilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode, S. L.; Fu, W. Y.; Moram, M. A.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.; Kappers, M. J.; McAleese, C.; Oehler, F.; Humphreys, C. J.; Dusane, R. O.; Sahonta, S.-L.

    2014-09-10

    , Mumbai, 400076, India *sr583@cam.ac.uk a) S. L. Rhode and W. Y. Fu contributed equally to this work. Abstract The formation of trench-defects is observed in 160 nm-thick InxGa1-xN epilayers with x ? 0.20, grown on GaN on (0001) sapphire substrates... -resolution X-ray diffraction was performed in a Philips X’ Pert diffractometer using Cu K?1 radiation with a double-bounce Ge (220) asymmetric monochromator and a double- bounce analyser. Reciprocal space maps (RSMs) were recorded for the symmetric 0006...

  14. The New Structural Materials Science Beamlines BL8A and 8B at Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakao, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Koyama, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-06-23

    BL8A and 8B are new beamlines for structural materials science at Photon Factory. The primary characteristics of both beamlines are similar. The incident beam is monochromatized by the Si(111) double-flat crystal monochromator and focused at the sample position by a Rh-coated bent cylindrical quartz mirror. The Weissenberg-camera-type imaging-plate (IP) diffractometers were installed. The X-ray diffraction experiments for structural studies of strongly correlated materials, such as transition metals, molecular conductors, endohedral fullerenes, nano-materials, etc, are conducted at these stations.

  15. Bent crystal analyzer without grooves for inelastic scattering -- first experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Macrander, A.T.

    1996-11-01

    A new design of a bent crystal analyzer for high energy resolution inelastic X-ray scattering has been recently proposed. It has been theoretically predicted that an analyzer with reflecting planes at a certain angle with respect to a crystal surface, bent with two different radii of curvature, will have the same energy resolution as a perfect crystal. The first experimental measurement obtained at the Advanced Photon Source of a bandwidth of such an analyzer is presented. The overall energy resolution of the analyzer and monochromator observed with a narrow beam is equal to 16.4 meV (FWHM) at 13.84 KeV.

  16. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  17. A monolithic polarization-independent frequency-filter system for filtering of photon pairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahlrichs, Andreas; Berkemeier, Christoph; Sprenger, Benjamin; Benson, Oliver [Institute of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-09

    We set up a long-term stable filtering system that consists of cascaded monolithic Fabry-Pérot filters to enhance the suppression and free spectral range. An effective free spectral range of hundreds of GHz allows the system to be used as a high resolution monochromator, with a linewidth of 192 MHz. As an important application a single mode is filtered from photon pairs generated by a parametric down-conversion source, and their indistinguishability is proven by measuring the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with a visibility of 96%. We report that undesired birefringence, which is often encountered with monolithic cavities, can be avoided by stress-free mounting.

  18. Fault-tree construction and calculations on a microcomputer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckmann, Jeffery Linn

    1985-01-01

    , is the primary way of receiving information or output from the computer. 30 DISPLAY UNIT SYSTEM UNIT KEYBOARD Note: This diagram depicts a system u uni t wi th one t drive and the di spl ay unit heing a monochrome di kette drives and a color monitor... formatting the disk. The disk drive red in-use light comes on for DRIVE B while the new diskette is being formatted. After about 30 seconds, the screen wi 1 1 show the text in Figure 13. 5) At this point the disk has been formatted and is ready...

  19. Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Smirnov, I V; Ryabukho, V P [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector. (optical coherence tomography)

  20. Note: Deep ultraviolet Raman spectrograph with the laser excitation line down to 177.3 nm and its application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shaoqing; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Fan, Fengtao; Guo, Meiling; Zhang, Ying; Feng, Zhaochi E-mail: canli@dicp.ac.cn; Li, Can E-mail: canli@dicp.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Deep UV Raman spectrograph with the laser excitation line down to 177.3 nm was developed in this laboratory. An ellipsoidal mirror and a dispersed-subtractive triple monochromator were used to collect and disperse Raman light, respectively. The triple monochromator was arranged in a triangular configuration with only six mirrors used. 177.3 nm laser excited Raman spectrum with cut-off wavenumber down to 200 cm{sup ?1} and spectral resolution of 8.0 cm{sup ?1} can be obtained under the condition of high purity N{sub 2} purging. With the C–C ? bond in Teflon selectively excited by the 177.3 nm laser, resonance Raman spectrum of Teflon with good quality was recorded on the home-built instrument and the ?-?{sup *} transition of C–C bond was studied. The result demonstrates that deep UV Raman spectrograph is powerful for studying the systems with electronic transition located in the deep UV region.

  1. Surface Curvatures and Diffraction Profiles of Sagittaly Bent Laue Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, X.; Takacs, P.; Ghose, S.; Zhong, Z.; Rehak, M.L.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Dooryhee, E.

    2011-05-17

    The performance of a bent Laue crystal monochromator crucially depends on the sagittal and meridional bending curvatures of the crystal. To optimize the design of monochromator crystals, the surface curvatures and diffraction profiles of a set of sagittally bent Laue crystals with different aspect ratios have been studied experimentally by optical metrology and X-ray measurements. The results were confirmed with finite-element analysis using large-deformation theory. The nonlinear relationship between the curvatures necessitates an experimentally determined parameter in the theoretical modeling of the diffraction profiles. By taking into account the local stress and the aspect ratio of the sagittally bent Laue crystal, the modified analytical approach successfully predicts the rocking-curve width and the integrated reflecting power. The effect of extreme sagittal bending on the rocking curve is also discussed. To retain high reflectivity, the bending curvature should not exceed its critical value for the specified crystal geometry. Furthermore, the uniformity of the bending curvatures across the crystal surface has been examined, which suggests that the minimum crystal dimension should be approximately twice the size of the beam footprint.

  2. Bent Diamond Crystals and Multilayer Based Optics at the new 5-Station Protein Crystallography Beamline 'Cassiopeia' at MAX-lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mammen, Christian B.; Als-Nielsen, Jens; Ursby, Thomas; Thunnissen, Marjolein

    2004-05-12

    A new 5-station beamline for protein crystallography is being commissioned at the Swedish synchrotron light source MAX-II at Lund University. Of the 2K/{gamma} = 14 mrad horizontal wiggler fan, the central 2 mrad are used and split in three parts. The central 1 mrad will be used for a station optimized for MAD experiments and on each side of the central fan, from 0.5 mrad to 1 mrad, there are two fixed energy stations using different energies of the same part of the beam. These, in total five stations, can be used simultaneously and independently for diffraction data collection. The two upstream monochromators for the side stations are meridionally bent asymmetric diamond(111) crystals in Laue transmission geometry. The monochromators for the downstream side stations are bent Ge(111) crystals in asymmetric Bragg reflection geometry. Curved multilayer mirrors inserted in the monochromatic beams provide focusing in the vertical plane. The first side station is under commissioning, and a preliminary test protein data set has been collected.

  3. SIBYLS - A SAXS and protein crystallography beamline at the ALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trame, Christine; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Padmore, Howard A.; Cambie, Daniella; Domning, Edward E.; Duarte, Robert M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Holton, James M.; Frankel, Kenneth; Tsutakawa, Susan; Tsuruta, Hiro; Tainer, John A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2003-08-22

    The new Structurally Integrated BiologY for Life Sciences (SIBYLS) beamline at the Advanced Light Source will be dedicated to Macromolecular Crystallography (PX) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). SAXS will provide structural information of macromolecules in solutions and will complement high resolution PX studies on the same systems but in a crystalline state. The x-ray source is one of the 5 Tesla superbend dipoles recently installed at the ALS that allows for a hard x-ray program to be developed on the relatively low energy Advanced Light Source (ALS) ring (1.9 GeV). The beamline is equipped with fast interchangeable monochromator elements, consisting of either a pair of single Si(111) crystals for crystallography, or a pair of multilayers for the SAXS mode data collection (E/{Delta}E {approx} 1/110). Flux rates with Si(111) crystals for PX are measured as 2 x 10{sup 11} hv/sec/400 mA through a 100 {micro}m pinhole at 12.4 KeV. For SAXS the flux is up to 3 x 10{sup 13} photons/sec at 10 KeV with all apertures open when using the multilayer monochromator elements. The performance characteristics of this unique beamline will be described.

  4. Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyer, Ulf; Hauss, Julian; Riedel, Boris; Gleiss, Sebastian; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2008-11-01

    We describe a cost-efficient and large area scalable production process of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with photonic crystals (PCs) as extraction elements for guided modes. Using laser interference lithography and physical plasma etching, we texture the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode layer of an OLED with one- and two-dimensional PC gratings. By optical transmission measurements, the resonant mode of the grating is shown to have a drift of only 0.4% over the 5 mm length of the ITO grating. By changing the lattice constant between 300 and 600 nm, the OLED emission angle of enhanced light outcoupling is tailored from -24.25 deg. to 37 deg. At these angles, the TE emission is enhanced up to a factor of 2.14.

  5. Efficient and accurate laser shaping with liquid crystal spatial light modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared M.; Bartnik, Adam C.; Bazarov, Ivan V. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    A phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) is capable of precise transverse laser shaping by either functioning as a variable phase grating or by serving as a variable mask via polarization rotation. As a phase grating, the highest accuracy algorithms, based on computer generated holograms (CGHs), have been shown to yield extended laser shapes with <10% rms error, but conversely little is known about the experimental efficiency of the method in general. In this work, we compare the experimental tradeoff between error and efficiency for both the best known CGH method and polarization rotation-based intensity masking when generating hard-edged flat top beams. We find that the masking method performs comparably with CGHs, both having rms error??15%. Informed by best practices for high efficiency from a SLM phase grating, we introduce an adaptive refractive algorithm which has high efficiency (92%) but also higher error (16%), for nearly cylindrically symmetric cases.

  6. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  7. Laser bandwidth interlock capable of single pulse detection and rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, James P; Telford, Steven James; Lanning, Rodney Kay; Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-10-09

    A pulse of laser light is switched out of a pulse train and spatially dispersed into its constituent wavelengths. The pulse is collimated to a suitable size and then diffracted by high groove density multilayer dielectric gratings. This imparts a different angle to each individual wavelength so that, when brought to the far field with a lens, the colors have spread out in a linear arrangement. The distance between wavelengths (resolution) can be tailored for the specific laser and application by altering the number of times the beam strikes the diffraction gratings, the groove density of the gratings and the focal length of the lens. End portions of the linear arrangement are each directed to a respective detector, which converts the signal to a 1 if the level meets a set-point, and a 0 if the level does not. If both detectors produces a 1, then the pulse train is allowed to propagate into an optical system.

  8. Apparatus and method for optical pulse measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebino, Rick P. (Livermore, CA); Tsang, Thomas (Brooklyn, NY); Fittinghoff, David N. (San Diego, CA); Sweetser, John N. (Livermore, CA); Krumbuegel, Marco A. (Danville, CA)

    1999-12-28

    Practical third-order frequency-resolved optical grating (FROG) techniques for characterization of ultrashort optical pulses are disclosed. The techniques are particularly suited to the measurement of single and/or weak optical pulses having pulse durations in the picosecond and subpicosecond regime. The relative quantum inefficiency of third-order nonlinear optical effects is compensated for through i) use of phase-matched transient grating beam geometry to maximize interaction length, and ii) use of interface-enhanced third-harmonic generation.

  9. Bounded modes to the rescue of optical transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Sarrazin; Jean Pol Vigneron

    2007-10-17

    This paper presents a brief survey of the evolution of knowledge about diffraction gratings. After recalling some basic facts, historically and physically, we introduce the concept of Wood anomalies. Next, we present some recent works in order to introduce the role of bounded modes in transmission gratings. The consequences of these recent results are then introduced. This paper is a secondary publication, published in Europhysics News (EPN 38, 3 (2007) 27-31). In the present version, some additional notes have been added with related references.

  10. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich (Lisle, IL); Koshelev, Alexei E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Evanston, IL); Kwok, Wai-Kwong (Evanston, IL); Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii (Downers Grove, IL)

    2009-10-27

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  11. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2010-05-11

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  12. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash formation and potential fouling mechanisms and to optimize activities in the modified pilot-scale system; and Pilot-scale testing in the grate-fired system. The resulting data will be collected, analyzed, and reported to elucidate ash-related problems during biomass-coal cofiring and offer a range of potential solutions.

  13. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  14. Multiply Complex, Non-Toxic, Anti-Fouling Surfaces Designed for Marine and Biomedical Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollack, Kevin A

    2014-12-09

    (N00014-10-1-0527 and N00014-14-1-0082). The Welch Foundation is gratefully acknowledged for support through the W. T. Doherty-Welch Chair in Chemistry, Grant No. A-0001. I would also like to thank Dr. Jing Wu of the Materials Characterization... Facility at Texas A&M University for her help with the XPS. For Chapter III, I would like to thank the Office of Naval Research (N00014-14-1- 0082, N00014-13-1-0633 and N00014-13-1-0634). The Welch Foundation is gratefully vi acknowledged...

  15. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, P. S.; Intravia, F; Dalvit, Diego A.

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  16. Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1982-05-07

    Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

  17. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  18. Animation/Illustration 2015 graduates, please join us for an evening to celebrate all of your accomplishments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    , Grated Parmesan, Toasted Croutons Mixed Baby Field Greens with Chef's Choice of Dressings Corn Salad with Red and Green Peppers, Zucchini, and Fresh Tomatoes, Tossed with a Creamy Italian Dressing Pasta Two Coffee, and Assorted Hot Teas Entrées Chicken Provencal - Tomatoes, Basil, and Mushrooms in a Garlic

  19. Design of Stripline-Fed Dual Polarization Aperture-Coupled Stacked Microstrip Patch Phased Array Antenna for Wideband Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, David G.

    2010-10-12

    in order to accomplish beam scan angle of /- 30 degrees by /- 15 degrees. Binomial power distribution of 3x2 array structure was used in order to reduce grating lobes, and changing length of feed lines was implemented for phase shifting. Bowtie cross...

  20. 66 NATURE PHOTONICS | VOL 4 | FEBRUARY 2010 | www.nature.com/naturephotonics research highlights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeong-Bong

    diffraction gratings and flexible multiple displays," said Smalyukh. BOSE­EINSTEIN CONDENSATES Optical storage Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233602 (2009) Bose­Einstein condensate confined in an optical dipole trap can localized well below diameters of 80 m in a Bose­Einstein condensate give rapid phase separation, leading