National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for molten carbonate fuel

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, Richard C.

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  6. Cathode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Mrazek, Franklin C.

    1990-01-01

    A porous sintered cathode for a molten carbonate fuel cell and method of making same, the cathode including a skeletal structure of a first electronically conductive material slightly soluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell covered by fine particles of a second material of possibly lesser electronic conductivity insoluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell, the cathode having a porosity in the range of from about 60% to about 70% at steady-state cell operating conditions consisting of both macro-pores and micro-pores.

  7. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  8. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gap Analysis | Department of Energy Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells:

  9. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell ...

  10. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  11. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrance J.; Pearson, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  13. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maricle, Donald L.; Putnam, Gary C.; Stewart, Jr., Robert C.

    1984-10-23

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  14. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  15. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    The carbonate fuel cell promises highly efficient, cost-effective and environmentally superior power generation from pipeline natural gas, coal gas, biogas, and other gaseous and liquid fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has been engaged in the development of this unique technology, focusing on the development of the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC{reg_sign}). The DFC{reg_sign} design incorporates the unique internal reforming feature which allows utilization of a hydrocarbon fuel directly in the fuel cell without requiring any external reforming reactor and associated heat exchange equipment. This approach upgrades waste heat to chemical energy and thereby contributes to a higher overall conversion efficiency of fuel energy to electricity with low levels of environmental emissions. Among the internal reforming options, FuelCell Energy has selected the Indirect Internal Reforming (IIR)--Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) combination as its baseline design. The IIR-DIR combination allows reforming control (and thus cooling) over the entire cell area. This results in uniform cell temperature. In the IIR-DIR stack, a reforming unit (RU) is placed in between a group of fuel cells. The hydrocarbon fuel is first fed into the RU where it is reformed partially to hydrogen and carbon monoxide fuel using heat produced by the fuel cell electrochemical reactions. The reformed gases are then fed to the DIR chamber, where the residual fuel is reformed simultaneously with the electrochemical fuel cell reactions. FuelCell Energy plans to offer commercial DFC power plants in various sizes, focusing on the subMW as well as the MW-scale units. The plan is to offer standardized, packaged DFC power plants operating on natural gas or other hydrocarbon-containing fuels for commercial sale. The power plant design will include a diesel fuel processing option to allow dual fuel applications. These power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed power

  16. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  17. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-12-19

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC

  18. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Zwick, Stanley A. (Darien, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  20. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  1. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The FCE PDI program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement, and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry.

  2. Cathode preparation method for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.; Sim, James W.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparing a porous cathode structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell begins by providing a porous integral plaque of sintered nickel oxide particles. The nickel oxide plaque can be obtained by oxidizing a sintered plaque of nickel metal or by compacting and sintering finely divided nickel oxide particles to the desired pore structure. The porous sintered nickel oxide plaque is contacted with a lithium salt for a sufficient time to lithiate the nickel oxide structure and thus enhance its electronic conductivity. The lithiation can be carried out either within an operating fuel cell or prior to assembling the plaque as a cathode within the fuel cell.

  3. All ceramic structure for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1992-01-01

    An all-ceramic molten carbonate fuel cell having a composition formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The structure includes an anode and cathode separated by an electronically conductive interconnect. The electrodes and interconnect are compositions ceramic materials. Various combinations of ceramic compositions for the anode, cathode and interconnect are disclosed. The fuel cell exhibits stability in the fuel gas and oxidizing environments. It presents reduced sealing and expansion problems in fabrication and has improved long-term corrosion resistance.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  5. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Chao M.; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1999-01-01

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  6. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Voyentzie; T. Leo; A. Kush; L. Christner; G. Carlson; C. Yuh

    1998-12-20

    Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the sixteen Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) stacks, ERC is finalizing the next generation commercial entry product design. The second generation cells are 50% larger in area, 40% lighter on equal geometric area basis, and 30% thinner than the earlier design. These improvements have resulted in doubling of the full-height stack power. A low-cost and high-strength matrix has also been developed for improving product ruggedness. The low-cost advanced cell design incorporating these improvements has been refined through six short stack tests. Power production per cell of two times the SCDP maximum power operation, over ten thermal cycles, and overall operating flexibility with respect to load and thermal changes have been demonstrated in these short stack tests. An internally insulated stack enclosure has been designed and fabricated to eliminate the need for an inert gas environment during operation. ERC has acquired the capability for testing 400kW full-height direct fuel ceil (DFC) stack and balance-of-plant equipment. With the readiness of the power plant test facility, the cell package design, and the stack module, full-height stack testing has begun. The first full- height stack incorporating the post-SCDP second generation design was completed. The stack reached a power level of 253 kW, setting a world record for the highest power production from the advanced fuel cell system. Excellent performance uniformity at this power level affirmed manufacturing reproducibility of the components at the factory. This unoptimized small size test has achieved pipeline natural gas to DC electricity conversion efficiency of 47% (based on lower heating value - LHV) including the parasitic power consumed by the BOP equipment; that should translate to more than 50% efficiency in commercial operation, before employing cogeneration. The power plant system also operated smoothly. With the success of this

  8. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells. Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, Robert; Wheeler, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    This report details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs.

  9. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  10. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs.

  11. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Raj N.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  12. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell. [lithium aluminate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, R.N.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-27

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H/sub 2/ and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55 to 65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  13. Non-segregating electrolytes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M.; Kaun, T.; Lanagan, M.

    1996-08-01

    Current MCFCs use a Li/K carbonate mixture; the segregation increases the K concentration near the cathode, leading to increase cathode solubility and performance decline. ANL is developing molten carbonates that have minimal segregation; the approach is using Li-Na carbonates. In screening tests, fully developed potential distributions were obtained for 4 Li/Na compositions, and performance data were used to compare these.

  14. Process of making electrolyte structure for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, R.H.; Curran, M.J.

    1980-08-05

    An electrolyte structure is produced by forming matrix material powder into a blank at room temperature and impregnating the resulting matrix blank with molten electrolyte.

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-92MC28065, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test (PDT) during the period of October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. Information is presented on stack design, manufacturing, stack assembly, procurement, site preparation, and test plan.

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, Jack; Furukawa, Vance; Frost, Grant; Danna, Mike; Figueroa, Al; Scroppo, Joseph

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation's molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  18. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9072 September 2010 Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Robert Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology, LLC National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No.

  19. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  20. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  1. NAS Miramar Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell demonstration status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scroppo, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Part of M-C Power`s Technology Development Program, this MCFC power plant is designed to supply 250 kW of electricity to Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar. It also cogenerates steam for the district heating system. The power plant is a fully integrated unit incorporating an advanced design fuel cell based on years of laboratory tests and a prior field test. This demonstration incorporates many innovative features, one of which is the plate type reformer which processes the natural gas fuel for use in the fuel cell. M-C Power Corp. has completed the design, fabrication, and conditioning of a 250-cell fuel cell stack, which was shipped to the site where it will be installed, tested, and evaluated as a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept MCFC Power Plant. (Originally going to Kaiser Permanente`s Sand Diego Medical Center, it was relocated to Miramar.)

  2. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swarr, T.E.; Wnuck, W.G.

    1986-01-29

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H/sub 2/ gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800/sup 0/C is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 wt % chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  3. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  4. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, Ashok C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  5. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A.; Maricle, Donald L.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

  6. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

  7. Fundamental stack and system issues in molten carbonate fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Stack research and system issues in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology development and commercialization are discussed within context of status of MCFC development and commercialization in US. Status of MCFC development is addressed. Major known fundamental stack research issues remaining for the MCFC technology are identified and discussed. The cathode remains a focal point of performance improvement and cost reduction. The various aspects of MCFC power plant network and systems issues are also addressed and discussed. These include cost, heat loss management, startup and shutdown modes, dynamic response, footprint, packaging and integration, parasitic power losses, pressurization and reforming. Potential of MCFC networks is discussed. With the initial demonstration of full-area, fullheight 250-kW to 2-MW MCFC power plants, the spatial configuration of the MCFC stacks into networks in the fuel cell power plant takes on importance for the first time.

  8. Development of molten-carbonate fuel-cell technology. Final report, February-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the work was to focus on the basic technology for producing molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) components. This included the development and fabrication of stable anode structures, preparation of lithiated nickel oxide cathodes, synthesis and characterization of a high surface area (gamma-lithium-aluminate) electrolyte support, pressurized cell testing and modeling of the overall electrolyte distribution within a cell to aid performance optimization of the different cell components. The electrode development program is highlighted by two successful 5000 hour bench-scale tests using stabilized anode structures. One of these provided better performance than in any previous state-of-the-art, bench-scale cell (865 mV at 115 mA/cm/sup 2/ under standard conditions). Pressurized testing at 10 atmosphere of a similar stabilized, high surface area, Ni/Co anode structure in a 300 cm/sup 2/ cell showed that the 160 mA/cm/sup 2/ performance goal of 850 mV on low Btu fuel (80% conversion) can be readily met. A study of the H/sub 2/S-effects on molten carbonate fuel cells showed that ERC's Ni/Co anode provided better tolerance than a Ni/Cr anode. Prelithiated nickel oxide plaques were prepared from materials made by a low temperature and a high temperature powder-production process. The methods for fabricating handleable cathodes of various thicknesses were also investigated. In electrolyte matrix development, accelerated out-of-cell and in-cell tests have confirmed the superior stability of ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/.

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish, by 1998, the commercial readiness of MW-class molten carbonate fuel cell power plants for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. Tasks include system design and analysis, manufacturing, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  11. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallaro, S.; Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    M-C Power Corporation will design, fabricate, install, test and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plant. The plant is to be located at the Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with this project in 1994. M-C Power has completed the tape casting and sintering of cathodes and is proceeding with the tape casting and sintering of anodes for the first 250 cell stack. M-C Power and San Diego Gas and Electric relocated the fuel cell demonstration project to an alternate site at the Naval Air Station Miramar. For the new project location at the Naval Air Station Miramar, an Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the Department of Energy in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Environmental Assessment resulted in a categorical exclusion of the proposed action from all environmental permit requirements. Bechtel Corporation has completed the reformer process design coordination, a Process Description, the Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams, a Design Criteria Document and General Project Requirement Document. Bechtel developed the requirements for soils investigation report and issued the following equipment bid packages to the suppliers for bids: Inverter, Reformer, Desulfurization Vessels, Hot Gas Recycle Blower, Heat Recovery Steam Generator, and Recycle Gas Cooler. SDG and E has secured necessary site permits, conducted soils investigations, and is working on the construction plan. They are in final negotiations with the US Navy on a site agreement. Site drawings are required for finalization of the agreement.

  13. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Final report, September 30, 1992--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for manufacturing and demonstrating the performance of its 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack in an integrated system at the Naval Air Station Miramar (NAS Miramar) located in San Diego, California. The stack constructed for the demonstration test at the NAS Miramar consisted of 250 cells. It was manufactured using M-C Power`s patented Internally Manifolded Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) stack design. The demonstration test at NAS Miramar was designed to operate the 250-kW MCFC stack in a cogeneration mode. This test represented the first attempt to thermally integrate an MCFC stack in a cogeneration system. The test was started on January 10, 1997, and voluntarily terminated on May 12, 1997, after 2,350 hours of operation at temperatures above 1,100 F and at a pressure of three atmospheres. It produced 160 MWh of d.c. power and 346,000 lbs of 110 psig steam for export during 1,566 hours of on-load operations. The test demonstrated a d.c. power output of 206 kW. Most of the balance of the plant (BOP) equipment operated satisfactorily. However, the off-the-shelf automotive turbocharger used for supplying air to the plant failed on numerous occasions and the hot gas blower developed seal leakage problems which impacted continuous plant operations. Overall the demonstration test at NAS Miramar was successful in demonstrating many critical features of the IMHEX technology. Lessons learned from this test will be very useful for improving designs and operations for future MCFC power plants.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

    2002-04-01

    The dissolution of NiO cathodes during cell operation is a limiting factor to the successful commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Lithium cobalt oxide coating onto the porous nickel electrode has been adopted to modify the conventional MCFC cathode which is believed to increase the stability of the cathodes in the carbonate melt. The material used for surface modification should possess thermodynamic stability in the molten carbonate and also should be electro catalytically active for MCFC reactions. Two approaches have been adopted to get a stable cathode material. First approach is the use of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}, a commercially available lithium battery cathode material and the second is the use of tape cast electrodes prepared from cobalt coated nickel powders. The morphology and the structure of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} and tape cast Co coated nickel powder electrodes were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction studies respectively. The electrochemical performance of the two materials was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization studies. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. The model gives a good fit to the experimental data. The model has been used to analyze MCFC cathode performance under a wide range of operating conditions.

  16. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  17. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  18. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-10

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of

  19. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  20. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, R. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Nickols, R. C.; Katz, M.; Iczkowski, R. P.; Fredley, R. R.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Smith, S. W.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During the first quarter, effort was initiated in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task-4 developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study task, a study baseline fuel cell system and module configuration were established. Studies to determine user requirements and to characterize the fuel cell power block and coal gasifier subsystems were initiated. Cell stack design was initiated with completion of preliminary design requirements for the cell cathodes. Laboratory tests were also initiated to identify alternative materials for separator plates, reactant manifold seals, and electrolyte tile fillers. A mechanical tape casting technique for producing 18 x 24 inch sheets of electrolyte matrix tape was successfully demonstrated in Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical and experimental studies were initiated to define the effects of known sulfur contaminants on cell performance. A literature survey was initiated to identify other possible contaminants. Planning and design efforts for construction of a mobile cell test unit were initiated. The mobile unit will be used to verify the molten carbonate cell's ability to operate on gasified coal by tests at a gasifier site.

  1. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

  2. MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiehn, R.M.; King, L.D.P.; Peterson, R.E.; Swickard, E.O. Jr.

    1962-06-26

    A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for criticality control. (AEC)

  3. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  4. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  5. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  6. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  7. Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on April 8, 2017 Title: Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization Molten salt reactors (MSRs) represent a class of reactors that use liquid salt, usually fluoride- or chloride-based, as either a coolant with a solid fuel (such as fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or as a combined coolant and

  8. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems ...

  9. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  10. Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage TEES logo Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material. Approach Graphic of a chart with dots and horizontal lines. TEES measured the specific heat using modulated digital scanning calorimetry and created a system performance and economic

  11. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  12. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  13. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  14. Thermal conditions and functional requirements for molten fuel containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, C.S.; Torri, A.

    1980-05-01

    This paper discusses the configuration and functional requirements for the molten fuel containment system (MFCS) in the GCFR demonstration plant design. Meltdown conditions following a loss of shutdown cooling (LOSC) accident were studied to define the core debris volume for a realistic meltdown case. Materials and thicknesses of the molten fuel container were defined. Stainless steel was chosen as the sacrificial material and magnesium oxide was chosen as the crucible material. Thermal conditions for an expected quasi-steady state were analyzed. Highlights of the functional requirements which directly affect the MFCS design are discussed.

  15. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  16. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  17. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  18. Molten salt fuels with high plutonium solubility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moir, Ralph W; Turchi, Patrice E.A.; Shaw, Henry F; Kaufman, Larry

    2013-08-13

    The present invention includes a composition of LiF--ThF.sub.4--UF.sub.4--PuF.sub.3 for use as a fuel in a nuclear engine.

  19. Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2016-04-08

    Molten salt reactors (MSRs) represent a class of reactors that use liquid salt, usually fluoride- or chloride-based, as either a coolant with a solid fuel (such as fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or as a combined coolant and fuel with fuel dissolved in a carrier salt. For liquid-fuelled MSRs, the salt can be processed online or in a batch mode to allow for removal of fission products as well as introduction of fissile fuel and fertile materials during reactor operation. The MSR is most commonly associated with the 233U/thorium fuel cycle, as the nuclear properties of 233U combined with themore » online removal of parasitic absorbers allow for the ability to design a thermal-spectrum breeder reactor; however, MSR concepts have been developed using all neutron energy spectra (thermal, intermediate, fast, and mixed-spectrum zoned concepts) and with a variety of fuels including uranium, thorium, plutonium, and minor actinides. Early MSR work was supported by a significant research and development (R&D) program that resulted in two experimental systems operating at ORNL in the 1960s, the Aircraft Reactor Experiment and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Subsequent design studies in the 1970s focusing on thermal-spectrum thorium-fueled systems established reference concepts for two major design variants: (1) a molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR), with multiple configurations that could breed additional fissile material or maintain self-sustaining operation; and (2) a denatured molten salt reactor (DMSR) with enhanced proliferation-resistance. T MSRs has been selected as one of six most promising Generation IV systems and development activities have been seen in fast-spectrum MSRs, waste-burning MSRs, MSRs fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU), as well as more traditional thorium fuel cycle-based MSRs. This study provides an historical background of MSR R&D efforts, surveys and summarizes many of the recent development, and provides analysis comparing

  20. Parametric Analyses of Single-zone Thorium-fueled Molten Salt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Parametric Analyses of Single-zone Thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactor Fuel Cycle Options Authors: Powers, Jeffrey J 1 ; Worrall, Andrew 1 ; Gehin, Jess C 1 ; Harrison, ...

  1. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Browall, Kenneth W.

    1985-01-01

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scroppo, J.A.; Camara, E.H.; Figueroa, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    M-C Power Corp. will design, fabricate, install, test, and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept MCFC Power Plant. The plant will be located at Kaiser Permanente`s San Diego Medical Center; it will be designed and built by Bechtel Corp. Two 250 keV MCFC stacks will be assembled and tested at M-C Power; one stack will be used to support the San Diego field demonstration. This report outlines 6 tasks: project management/permitting, demonstration design, stack manufacturing, BOP fabrication, site work, and testing.

  3. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  4. Parametric analyses of single-zone thorium-fueled molten salt reactor fuel cycle options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, J.J.; Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C.; Harrison, T.J.; Sunny, E.E.

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of fuel cycle options based on thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have been performed in support of fuel cycle screening and evaluation activities for the United States Department of Energy. The MSR options considered are based on thermal spectrum MSRs with 3 different separations levels: full recycling, limited recycling, and 'once-through' operation without active separations. A single-fluid, single-zone 2250 MWth (1000 MWe) MSR concept consisting of a fuel-bearing molten salt with graphite moderator and reflectors was used as the basis for this study. Radiation transport and isotopic depletion calculations were performed using SCALE 6.1 with ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. New methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) enables MSR analysis using SCALE, modeling material feed and removal by taking user-specified parameters and performing multiple SCALE/TRITON simulations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. Parametric analyses examined the sensitivity of the performance of a thorium MSR to variations in the separations efficiency for protactinium and fission products. Results indicate that self-sustained operation is possible with full or limited recycling but once-through operation would require an external neutron source. (authors)

  5. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  6. Gaseous fission product management for molten salt reactors and vented fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messenger, S. J.; Forsberg, C.; Massie, M.

    2012-07-01

    Fission gas disposal is one of the unresolved difficulties for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) and advanced reactors with vented fuel systems. As these systems operate, they produce many radioactive isotopes of xenon and krypton (e.g. {sup 135}Xe t{sub 1/2} = 9.14 hours and {sup 85}Kr t{sub 1/2}= 10.73 years). Removing these gases proves vital to the success of such reactor designs for two reasons. First, the gases act as large neutron sinks which decrease reactivity and must be counterbalanced by increasing fuel loading. Second, for MSRs, inert fission product gases naturally separate quickly from high temperature salts, thus creating high vapor pressure which poses safety concerns. For advanced reactors with solid vented fuel, the gases are allowed to escape into an off-gas system and thus must be managed. Because of time delays in transport of fission product gases in vented fuel systems, some of the shorter-lived radionuclides will decay away thereby reducing the fission gas source term relative to an MSR. To calculate the fission gas source term of a typical molten salt reactor, we modeled a 1000 MWe graphite moderated thorium MSR similar to that detailed in Mathieu et al. [1]. The fuel salt used in these calculations was LiF (78 mole percent) - (HN)F 4 (22 mole percent) with a heavy nuclide composition of 3.86% {sup 233}U and 96.14% {sup 232}Th by mass. Before we can remove the fission product gases produced by this reactor configuration, we must first develop an appropriate storage mechanism. The gases could be stored in pressurized containers but then one must be concerned about bottle failure. Methods to trap noble gases in matrices are expensive and complex. Alternatively, there are direct storage/disposal options: direct injection into the Earth or injecting a grout-based product into the Earth. Advances in drilling technologies, hydro fracture technologies, and methods for the sequestration of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants are creating new options

  7. Recovery of protactinium from molten fluoride nuclear fuel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Bamberger, C.; Ross, R.G.

    1973-12-25

    A method is provided for separating protactinium from a molten fluonlde salt composition consisting essentially of at least one alkali and alkaline earth metal fluoride and at least one soluble fluoride of uranium or thorium which comprises oxidizing the protactinium in said composition to the + 5 oxidation state and contacting said composition with an oxide selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal oxide, an alkaline earth oxide, thorium oxide, and uranium oxide, and thereafter isolating the resultant insoluble protactinium oxide product from said composition. (Official Gazette)

  8. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  9. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1996-12-03

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

  10. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

    2008-10-24

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0

  11. Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    removal of fission products as well as introduction of fissile fuel and fertile materials ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR ...

  12. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  13. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  14. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  15. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, Abdul Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ThF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  16. Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

  17. Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.L.

    1985-12-23

    A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

  18. Molten salt considerations for accelerator-driven subcritical fission to close the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sooby, Elizabeth; Baty, Austin; Gerity, James; McIntyre, Peter; Melconian, Karie; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Adams, Marvin; Tsevkov, Pavel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Simpson, Michael; Tripathy, Prabhat

    2013-04-19

    The host salt selection, molecular modeling, physical chemistry, and processing chemistry are presented here for an accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). The core is fueled solely with the transuranics (TRU) and long-lived fission products (LFP) from used nuclear fuel. The neutronics and salt composition are optimized to destroy the transuranics by fission and the long-lived fission products by transmutation. The cores are driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. One such ADSMS system can destroy the transuranics in the used nuclear fuel produced by a 1GWe conventional reactor. It uniquely provides a method to close the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy.

  19. Analysis of molten fuel-coolant interaction during a reactivity-initiated accident experiment. [BWR; PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a reactivity-initiated accident experiment, designated RIA-ST-4, are discussed and analyzed with regard to molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI). In this experiment, extensive amounts of molten UO/sub 2/ fuel and zircaloy cladding were produced and fragmented upon mixing with the coolant. Coolant pressurization up to 35 MPa and coolant overheating in excess of 940 K occurred after fuel rod failure. The initial coolant conditions were similar to those in boiling water reactors during a hot startup (that is, coolant pressure of 6.45 MPa, coolant temperature of 538 K, and coolant flow rate of 85 cm/sup 3//s). It is concluded that the high coolant pressure recorded in the RIA-ST-4 experiment was caused by an energetic MFCI and was not due to gas release from the test rod at failure, Zr/water reaction, or to UO/sub 2/ fuel vapor pressure. The high coolant temperature indicated the presence of superheated steam, which may have formed during the expansion of the working fluid back to the initial coolant pressure; yet, the thermal-to-mechanical energy conversion ratio is estimated to be only 0.3%.

  20. Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Simpson, Michael

    2013-04-19

    A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

  1. Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These {open_quotes}static{close_quotes} properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions.

  2. Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

    2003-05-20

    Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

  3. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power

  4. Conceptual design characteristics of a denatured molten-salt reactor with once-through fueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1980-07-01

    A study was made to examine the conceptual feasibility of a molten-salt power reactor fueled with denatured /sup 235/U and operated with a minimum of chemical processing. Because such a reactor would not have a positive breeding gain, reductions in the fuel conversion ratio were allowed in the design to achieve other potentially favorable characteristics for the reactor. A conceptual core design was developed in which the power density was low enough to allow a 30-year life expectancy of the moderator graphite with a fluence limit of 3 x 10/sup 26/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 50 keV). This reactor could be made critical with about 3450 kg of 20% enriched /sup 235/U and operated for 30 years with routine additions of denatured /sup 235/U and no chemical processing for removal of fission products. A review of the chemical considerations assoicated with the conceptual fuel cycle indicates that no substantial difficulties would be expected if the soluble fission products and higher actinides were allowed to remain in the fuel salt for the life of the plant.

  5. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Researchers make progress fighting climate change by capturing carbon dioxide from power plants and storing it deep underground in geological reservoirs March 25, 2013 Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Most of the world's existing energy supply is stored underground in

  6. Pyrolytic carbon-coated nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindemer, Terrence B.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Beatty, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    An improved nuclear fuel kernel having at least one pyrolytic carbon coating and a silicon carbon layer is provided in which extensive interaction of fission product lanthanides with the silicon carbon layer is avoided by providing sufficient UO.sub.2 to maintain the lanthanides as oxides during in-reactor use of said fuel.

  7. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Greening up fossil...

  8. Direct Carbon Fuel Cells: Assessment of their Potential as Solid Carbon Fuel Based Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolk, R

    2004-04-23

    Small-scale experimental work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has confirmed that a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) containing a molten carbonate electrolyte completely reacts solid elemental carbon with atmospheric oxygen contained in ambient air at a temperature of 650-800 C. The efficiency of conversion of the chemical energy in the fuel to DC electricity is 75-80% and is a result of zero entropy change for this reaction and the fixed chemical potentials of C and CO{sub 2}. This is about twice as efficient as other forms power production processes that utilize solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal. These range from 30-40% for coal fired conventional subcritical or supercritical boilers to 38-42% for IGCC plants. A wide range of carbon-rich solids including activated carbons derived from natural gas, petroleum coke, raw coal, and deeply de-ashed coal have been evaluated with similar conversion results. The rate of electricity production has been shown to correlate with disorder in the carbon structure. This report provides a preliminary independent assessment of the economic potential of DCFC for competitive power generation. This assessment was conducted as part of a Director's Research Committee Review of DCFC held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on April 9, 2004. The key question that this assessment addresses is whether this technology, which appears to be very promising from a scientific standpoint, has the potential to be successfully scaled up to a system that can compete with currently available power generation systems that serve existing electricity markets. These markets span a wide spectrum in terms of the amount of power to be delivered and the competitive cost in that market. For example, DCFC technology can be used for the personal power market where the current competition for delivery of kilowatts of electricity is storage batteries, for the distributed generation market where the competition for on-site power

  9. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Eddie C.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  10. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Shores, David A. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1985-01-01

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  11. Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel-Cell Commercialization Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, S.S.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  12. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, E.C.

    1995-10-03

    An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode. 3 figs.

  13. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  14. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  15. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K.; Oomori, T.

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  16. Low-Carbon Fuels Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by Tom Zawodzinski to DOE's Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop held February 1-5, 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona. 06_zawodzinski_proton.pdf (204.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells for Transportation - FY 2001 Progress Report DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 2: MEAs, Components, and Integration Minutes of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Monday, May 18, 2009 Energy

    This overview of GTP's Low

  17. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director...

  18. Tilted fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine; Krueger, Roger L.

    2005-04-12

    Bipolar, tilted embodiments of high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cells capable of directly converting carbon fuel to electrical energy are disclosed herein. The bipolar, tilted configurations minimize the electrical resistance between one cell and others connected in electrical series. The tilted configuration also allows continuous refueling of carbon fuel.

  19. Fuel cell apparatus and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Krueger, Roger; Cherepy, Nerine

    2004-11-09

    Highly efficient carbon fuels, exemplary embodiments of a high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cell are capable of directly converting ash-free carbon fuel to electrical energy. Ash-free, turbostratic carbon particles perform at high efficiencies in certain direct carbon conversion cells.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany...

  1. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-03-29

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of LSC (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2CoO.sub.3) and lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1).

  2. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements. [Patent application; continuous process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heckman, R.A.

    1980-12-19

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support te liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  3. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  4. Graphitized-carbon fiber/carbon char fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-28

    A method for recovery of intact graphitic fibers from fiber/polymer composites is described. The method comprises first pyrolyzing the graphite fiber/polymer composite mixture and then separating the graphite fibers by molten salt electrochemical oxidation.

  5. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  6. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  7. Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Fuels challenges in the evolving global energy market deer11_simnick.pdf (572.51 KB) More Documents & Publications Green Racing Initiative: Accelerating the Use of Advanced Technologies & Renewable Fuels Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: VTO Analysis Portfolio

  8. Protection of porous carbon fuel particles from boudouard corrosion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2015-05-26

    A system for producing energy that includes infusing porous carbon particles produced by pyrolysis of carbon-containing materials with an off-eutectic salt composition thus producing pore-free carbon particles, and reacting the carbon particles with oxygen in a fuel cell according to the reaction C+O.sub.2=CO.sub.2 to produce electrical energy.

  9. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  10. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Molten core retention assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  12. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  13. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to establish by 1998 the commercial readiness of MW- class IMHEX{reg_sign} MCFC power plants for distributed generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. Various tasks are reported on.

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement. Quarterly report, December 1994--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Primary objective is to establish the commercial readiness of MW- class IMHEX {reg_sign} MCFC power plants for distributed generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. The following tasks are reported: product definition/planning, system design/analysis, manufacturing process development, packaging/assembly, test facilities, and technology development/improvement/verification.

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement. Quarterly report, January 1--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Objective is to establish by 1998 the commercial readiness of MW- class IMHEX{reg_sign} MCFC power plants for distributed generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This will require an advanced IMHEX{reg_sign} technology base, lower-cost manufacturing processes, verified balance-of-plant components, proven packaging and assembly approaches, demonstrated prototype power plants, finalized manufacturing and market distribution plans, and a committed commercialization team. Various tasks are reported on.

  17. Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Accelerator-driven ...

  18. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  19. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  20. ALARA Controls and the Radiological Lessons Learned During the Uranium Fuel Removal Projects at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliam, B. J.; Chapman, J. A.; Jugan, M. R.

    2002-02-26

    The removal of uranium-233 (233 U) from the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), performed from January through May 2001, created both unique radiological challenges and widely-applicable lessons learned. In addition to the criticality concerns and alpha contamination, 233U has an associated intense gamma photon from the cocontaminant uranium-232 (232U) decaying to thallium-208 (208Tl). Therefore, rigorous contamination controls and significant shielding were implemented. Extensive, timed mock-up training was also imperative to minimize individual and collective personnel exposures. Back-up shielding and containment techniques (that had been previously developed for defense in depth) were used successfully to control significant, changed conditions. Additional controls were placed on tests and on recovery designs to assure a higher level of safety throughout the removal operations. This paper delineates the manner in which each difficulty was solved, while relating the relevance of the results and the methodology to other projects with high dose-rate, highly-contaminated ionizing radiation hazards. Because of the distinctive features of and current interest in molten salt technology, a brief overview is provided. Also presented is the detailed, practical application of radiological controls integrated into, rather than added after, each evolution of the project--thus demonstrating the broad-based benefits of radiological engineering and ALARA reviews. The resolution of the serious contamination-control problems caused by unexpected uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gaseous diffusion is also explicated. Several tables and figures document the preparations, equipment and operations. A comparison of the pre-job dose calculations for the various functions of the uranium deposit removal (UDR) and the post-job dose-rate data are included in the conclusion.

  1. Stability of Molten Core Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a literature and data search for data and information pertaining to the stability of nuclear reactor molten core materials. This includes data and analysis from TMI-2 fuel and INL’s LOFT (Loss of Fluid Test) reactor project and other sources.

  2. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  3. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest, J.B.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  4. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt082tibowen2012o.pdf (647.19 KB) More Documents & ...

  5. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. ... testingmore of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system. less ...

  6. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion exchange

  7. Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, Richard; Yuh, Chao-Yi; Farooque, Mohammad

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

  8. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  9. An Innovative Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix, Abstract #188

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Surendranath, Arun; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2015-05-28

    The electrolyte matrix in direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) is a microporous ceramic structure sandwiched between the electrodes to isolate the fuel from the oxidant, store electrolyte and facilitate ionic transport. FCE has advanced DFC electrolyte matrix over the years and demonstrated that the matrix meets the requirements for greater than 5 year life based on accelerated tests and field stack operations. However, development of advanced designs and materials that can further increase the performance and extend cell life will enable accelerated MCFC deployment. This paper will report the progress on the development of an unique and innovative matrix design that offers numerous benefits to the carbonate fuel cell performance and durability. In addition, this paper will also review parameters that affect matrix material stability and approaches to extend cell life.

  10. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized into carbon dioxide when the fuel is burned. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published information on carbon dioxide emissions from

  11. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  12. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 December 14, 2010 Hydrogen Bus Lets Lab Visitors Glimpse Future The hydrogen bus uses the same basic technology as a conventional gasoline-powered engine but runs on renewable hydrogen. October 25, 2010 New Report Identifies Ways to Reduce Cost of Fuel Cell Power Plants A new report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing

  13. Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

    2007-09-30

    The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

  14. Norwegian carbon taxes and their implication for fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarstad, O.

    1995-12-31

    The Scandinavian countries, and in particular Norway and Sweden, have since 1990/91 taxed CO{sub 2}-emissions with carbon tax of about US $150 per ton of CO{sub 2}. One may therefore say that these countries have placed themselves in a role as {open_quotes}carbon tax laboratories{close_quotes}. These very high CO{sub 2}-taxes have been in place for about four years and the first lessons from this experience are reported. In general it would seem as if the taxation mechanism is less efficient than economists have expected. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are increasing in both Norway and Sweden and the stabilization goal to the year 2000 will not be achieved in spite of the high taxation. The fossil fuel industry will have to learn to live with the climate change question which is inherently hostile to fossil fuels. It is argued that a more informed and active participation by the fossil fuel industry is needed in the climate change discussion. In addition the image of fossil fuels will benefit from showing real and potential improvement in the area of greenhouse gas emissions in the whole energy chain from production to combustion. The R&D effort being done into CO{sub 2}-capture and -disposal is creating such an option for the future. It is argued that the image of the entire fossil fuel industry will benefit from the creation of a {open_quotes}CO{sub 2}-free{close_quote} option or vision for oil, gas and coal. A number of examples are shown where today (or in the near future) actual CO{sub 2}-disposal in underground formations are taking place.

  15. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, George; Meyers, Steven J.; Lee, Arthur

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

  16. A new leaf: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into fuel | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Argonne postdoctoral researcher Cong Liu and chemists Larry Curtiss and Peter Zapol discuss their recent research results on converting carbon dioxide into usable fuel. Photo by Wes Agresta. Argonne postdoctoral researcher Cong Liu and chemists Larry Curtiss and Peter Zapol discuss their recent research results on converting carbon dioxide into usable fuel. Photo by Wes Agresta. A new leaf: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into fuel July 29, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint As

  17. Fuel cell systems program plan, Fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Goal of the fuel cell program is to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness through development and commercialization of fuel cell systems which operate on fossil fuels in multiple end use sectors. DOE is participating with the private sector in sponsoring development of molten carbonate fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cells for application in the utility, commercial, and industrial sectors. Commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells is well underway. Besides the introduction, this document is divided into: goal/objectives, program strategy, technology description, technical status, program description/implementation, coordinated fuel cell activities, and international activities.

  18. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Roland

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

  19. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  20. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  1. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  2. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C

  3. Hydrodesulfurization and prereforming of logistic fuels for use in fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piwetz, M.M.; Larsen, J.S.; Christensen, T.S.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell development programs have traditionally emphasized the use of natural gas as the primary fuel. However, to meet strategic requirements for fuel cells in military use, the fuel of choice must be accessible throughout the world, easily transported and stored, and compatible with other military uses. The United States military`s logistic fuels (DF-2 diesel or JP-8 jet fuel) meet these requirements. The objectives of this program were to design and construct a fuel processing system (FPS) and by connecting the FPS with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), respectively, to demonstrate that such a system can be used to convert diesel or jet-fuel into a feed stream compatible with the fuel cell.

  4. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  5. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  6. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  7. Carbonate fuel cell system with integrated carbon dioxide/thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paetsch, L.; Ding, J.; Hunt, J.

    1995-12-31

    Upon successful completion of Phase 1, the Phase 2 activities were initiated in July 1994 to define the stack design and system requirements for a commercial-scale burnerless carbonate fuel cell stack with an integrated carbon dioxide management system. The major goals of this program are to define the stack design and the system requirements of the integrated design. The approach taken was to maximize the similarities of this stack with ERC`s proven baseline stack design and power plant system. Recent accomplishments include a detailed stack design which retains all the essential elements of the baseline stack as well as the power plant system designs. All the auxiliary hardware and external flow patterns remain unchanged, only the internal flow configurations are modified.

  8. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for {sup 233}U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G. Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-12-15

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of {sup 233}U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  9. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy News EC News & Events Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning The Molten Salt...

  10. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    County, WY | Department of Energy 2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for Download November 27, 2009 EIS-0432: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Federal Loan Guarantee to Support the Construction and Startup of the Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, Wyoming December 16, 2009

  11. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  12. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  13. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  14. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  15. Carbon-based composite electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.; Lee, Jog-Won; Subramanian, Nalini P.; Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Nallathambi, Vijayadurga; Li, Xuguang; Wu, Gang

    2009-12-08

    A process for synthesis of a catalyst is provided. The process includes providing a carbon precursor material, oxidizing the carbon precursor material whereby an oxygen functional group is introduced into the carbon precursor material, and adding a nitrogen functional group into the oxidized carbon precursor material.

  16. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  17. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.

    2006-07-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since {sup 233}U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing {sup 233}U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce {sup 233}U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/{sup 233}U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into {sup 233}U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with {sup 233}U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with {sup 233}U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  18. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  19. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  20. A New Leaf: Scientists Turn Carbon Dioxide Back Into Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory found a way to recycle CO2 back into fuel, much the same way plants absorb and convert it.

  1. Method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Grens, John Z.; Parrish, Sr., William H.

    1983-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuels, including actinide fuels, volatile and non-volatile fission products, are reprocessed and separated in a molten metal solvent housed in a separation vessel made of a carbon-containing material. A first catalyst, which promotes the solubility and permeability of carbon in the metal solvent, is included. By increasing the solubility and permeability of the carbon in the solvent, the rate at which actinide oxides are reduced (carbothermic reduction) is greatly increased. A second catalyst, included to increase the affinity for nitrogen in the metal solvent, is added to increase the rate at which actinide nitrides form after carbothermic reduction is complete.

  2. Method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Parrish, W.H. Sr.

    1982-01-19

    Spent nuclear fuels, including actinide fuels, volatile and nonvolatile fission products, are reprocessed and separated in a molten metal solvent housed in a separation vessel made of a carbon-containing material. A first catalyst, which promotes the solubility and permeability of carbon in the metal solvent, is included. By increasing the solubility and permeability of the carbon in the solvent, the rate at which actinide oxides are reduced (carbothermic reduction) is greatly increased. A second catalyst, included to increase the affinity for nitrogen in the metal solvent, is added to increase the rate at which actinide nitrides form after carbothermic reduction is complete.

  3. Development of fluoride reprocessing technologies devoted to molten-salt reactor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhlir, Jan; Marecek, Martin; Tulackova, Radka; Chuchvalcova Bimova, Karolina

    2007-07-01

    Main fuel processing and reprocessing technologies proposed for Molten Salt Reactor fuel cycle are pyrochemical or pyrometallurgical, majority of them are fluoride technologies. It is based on the fact that Molten Salt Reactor fuel is in the chemical form of molten fluorides and the reprocessing technology is needed to be an 'on-line' process. The corresponding pyrochemical separation processes proposed for MSR fuel processing and reprocessing are mainly fluoride volatilization processes, molten salt / liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media and gas extraction from the molten salt medium. Techniques based on fluoride volatilization and on electrochemical separation from fluoride molten salt media are under development in the Czech Republic. Whereas the Fluoride Volatility Method is proposed to be the main 'Front-end' technology of the MSR used as the actinide burner (transmuter), the electro-separation methods should be dedicated to the 'on-line' reprocessing of the circulating MSR fuel and should be used as for MSR incinerating transuranium fuel as for MSR working within the {sup 232}Th - {sup 233}U fuel cycle. (authors)

  4. Fuel cell market applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

  5. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  6. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-12

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  8. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  9. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  10. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  11. Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

    2001-03-07

    We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

  12. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  13. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  14. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore » melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  15. An option making for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Youichi; Sawada, Kayo; Shimada, Takashi; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2007-07-01

    A four-year-research has been completed as a collaborative work by Nagoya University Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Corporation and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in order to develop a super critical carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) based technology, 'SUPER-DIREX process', for nuclear fuel reprocessing. As a result obtained in Phase II of the Japan's feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems, this technology was evaluated as one of the alternatives for the advanced Purex process for he future FBR fuel cycle. Although further investigation is required for a scaled-up demonstration of processing spent fuels by SUPER-DIREX process, we could conclude that an option has been made for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide. (authors)

  16. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  17. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather by the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.

  18. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather bymore » the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.« less

  19. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis but rather by the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.

  20. Copper clusters capture and convert carbon dioxide to make fuel | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Copper clusters capture and convert carbon dioxide to make fuel By Payal Marathe * August 6, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Capture and convert-this is the motto of carbon dioxide reduction, a process that stops the greenhouse gas before it escapes from chimneys and power plants into the atmosphere and instead turns it into a useful product. One possible end product is methanol, a liquid fuel and the focus of a recent study conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)

  1. Humidifier for fuel cell using high conductivity carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Stinton, David P.

    2006-12-12

    A method and apparatus of supplying humid air to a fuel cell is disclosed. The extremely high thermal conductivity of some graphite foams lends itself to enhance significantly the ability to humidify supply air for a fuel cell. By utilizing a high conductivity pitch-derived graphite foam, thermal conductivity being as high as 187 W/m.dot.K, the heat from the heat source is more efficiently transferred to the water for evaporation, thus the system does not cool significantly due to the evaporation of the water and, consequently, the air reaches a higher humidity ratio.

  2. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  3. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  4. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore » in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.« less

  5. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  6. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  7. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  8. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  9. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  10. Proceedings of the third annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, W.J.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop the essential technology for private sector characterization of the various fuel cell electrical generation systems. These systems promise high fuel to electricity efficiencies (40 to 60 percent), distinct possibilities for cogeneration applications, modularity of design, possibilities of urban siting, and environmentally benign emissions. The purpose of this meeting was to provide the research and development (R D) participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with the opportunity to present key results of their research and to establish closer business contacts. Major emphasis was on phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide technology efforts. Research results of the coal gasification and gas stream cleanup R D activities pertinent to the Fuel Cells Program were also highlighted. Two hundred seventeen attendees from industry, utilities, academia, and Government participated in this 2-day meeting. Twenty-three papers were given in three formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells R D (9 papers), solid oxide fuel cells (8 papers), phosphoric acid fuel cells R D (6 papers). In addition to the papers and presentations, these proceedings also include comments on the Fuel Cells Program from the viewpoint of DOE/METC Fuel Cell Overview by Rita A. Bajura, DOE/METC Perspective by Manville J. Mayfield, Electric Power Research Institute by Daniel M. Rastler, Natural Gas by Hugh D. Guthrie, and Transportation Applications by Pandit G. Patil.

  11. Evaluation of cast carbon steel and aluminum for rack insert in MCO Mark 1A fuel basket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, C.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-21

    This document evaluates the effects ofusing a cast carbon steel or aluminum instead of 3O4L stainless steel in the construction ofthe fuel rack insert for the Spent Nuclear Fuel MCO Mark IA fuel baskets. The corrosion, structural, and cost effects are examined.

  12. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  14. Combined Power Generation and Carbon Sequestration Using Direct FuelCell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2006-03-01

    The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cell offers an innovative approach for separation of carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases (GHG). The carbonate fuel cell system also produces electric power at high efficiency. The simultaneous generation of power and sequestration of greenhouse gases offer an attractive scenario for re-powering the existing coal-fueled power plants, in which the carbonate fuel cell would separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and would generate additional pollutant-free electric power. Development of this system is concurrent with emergence of Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) technology for generation of electric power from fossil fuels. DFC is based on carbonate fuel cell featuring internal reforming. This technology has been deployed in MW-scale power plants and is readily available as a manufactured product. This final report describes the results of the conceptualization study conducted to assess the DFC-based system concept for separation of CO2 from GHG. Design and development studies were focused on integration of the DFC systems with coal-based power plants, which emit large amounts of GHG. In parallel to the system design and simulation activities, operation of laboratory scale DFC verified the technical concept and provided input to the design activity. The system was studied to determine its effectiveness in capturing more than ninety percent of CO2 from the flue gases. Cost analysis was performed to estimate the change in cost of electricity for a 200 MW pulverized coal boiler steam cycle plant retrofitted with the DFC-based CO2 separation system producing an additional 127 MW of electric power. The cost increments as percentage of levelized cost of electricity were estimated for a range of separation plant installations per year and a range of natural gas cost. The parametric envelope meeting the goal (<20% increase in COE) was identified. Results of this feasibility study indicated that DFC-based separation

  15. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing A method for integrating an external source of high-energy neutrons with a conventional moderated high conversion ratio molten salt reactor, thereby creating a self-contained hybrid system which fissions any

  16. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results from molecular dynamics simulations. Extreme Carbon: Liquid Diamond or Molten Graphite? Versatile carbon takes on a dizzying array of forms and functions. Chains of carbon...

  17. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http:carboncycle2.lbl.gov Authors: Alivisatos, Paul...

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  19. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  20. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    The Vulcan Project is a NASA/DOE funded effort under the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to quantify North American fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at space and time scales much finer than has been achieved in the past. The purpose is to aid in quantification of the North American carbon budget, to support inverse estimation of carbon sources and sinks, and to support the demands posed by higher resolution CO2 observations (in situ and remotely sensed). The detail and scope of the Vulcan CO2 inventory has also made it a valuable tool for policymakers, demographers, social scientists and the public at large. The Vulcan project has achieved the quantification of the 2002 U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the scale of individual factories, powerplants, roadways and neighborhoods on an hourly basis. The entire inventory was built on a common 10 km x 10 km grid to facilitate atmospheric modeling. In addition to improvement in space and time resolution, Vulcan is quantified at the level of fuel type, economic sub-sector, and county/state identification. Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  1. Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is

  2. Summary of the Workshop on Molten Salt Reactor Technologies Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Startup of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Mays, Gary T

    2016-01-01

    A workshop on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) technologies commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on October 15 16, 2015. The MSRE represented a pioneering experiment that demonstrated an advanced reactor technology: the molten salt eutectic-fueled reactor. A multinational group of more than 130 individuals representing a diverse set of stakeholders gathered to discuss the historical, current, and future technical challenges and paths to deployment of MSR technology. This paper provides a summary of the key messages from this workshop.

  3. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  4. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U.

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  5. Method of evaluating the integrity of the outer carbon layer of triso-coated reactor fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caputo, Anthony J.; Costanzo, Dante A.; Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Layton, Frank L.; Stinton, David P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for determining defective final layers of carbon on triso-coated fuel particles and the like. Samples of the particles are subjected to a high temperature treatment with gaseous chlorine and thereafter radiographed. The chlorine penetrates through any defective carbon layer and reacts with the underlying silicon carbide resulting in the volatilization of the silicon as SiCl.sub.4 leaving carbon as a porous layer. This porous carbon layer is easily detected by the radiography.

  6. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  7. Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gmeindl, Frank D.; Geisbrecht, Rodney A.

    1990-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.

  8. Behavior of carbonate-rich fuels in ACFBC and PFBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A.; Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.

    1999-07-01

    Estonian oil shale is known as one of richest in carbonate fuels. High mineral matter content (60--75% in dry mass), moderate moisture (9--12%) and carbonate carbon dioxide content (17--19%), and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg as received) are characteristic for Estonian oil shale. Approximately half of the mineral matter is in the carbonate form, mainly as calcium carbonate. The sulfur content of dry mass is 1.5--1.7% and Ca/S molar ratio is 8--10. Due to limestone present in oil shale, the additional sorbent for sulfur retention during combustion is not needed. The behavior of carbonates as well as the formation of ash at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was the main topics to study. At Thermal Engineering Department (TED) of Tallinn Technical University a laboratory pressurized combustion facility was used for investigation the decomposition of soil shale carbonates in atmospheric and pressurized burning conditions. The experiments with oil shale were performed at pressures 0.1 MPa and 1.2 MPa and at the temperature 850 C. Based on the carbonate decomposition rate (CDR) 0.3--0.4 established experimentally at pressurized combustion, it may be concluded that the heating value of oil shale increases approximately by 5.5--8% and the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gas decreases by 13--20% compared with the conditions of the complete decomposition of carbonate. Combustion of oil shale was tested in 0.15--1.0 MW{sub th} test facilities. The tests confirmed the suitability of both ACFBC and PFBC technologies to utilize oil shale. The tests showed a nearly complete binding of sulfur by oil shale ash and a limited formation of NO{sub x} at combustion. Oil shale FBC is characterized by the formation of large amounts (40--85% from total) of fine-grained fly ash.

  9. The Challenge of Achieving Californias Low Carbon Fuel Standard

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Author: Peter Gross, peter.gross@eia.doe.gov, (202)586-8822 Disclaimer: Views not necessarily those of the U. S. Energy Information Administration Date: May 15, 2010 Revised: July 16, 2010 The Challenge of Achieving California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard Peter Gross Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Energy Information Administration This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the author and not

  10. LADWP FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thai Ta

    2003-09-12

    Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is currently one of the most active power utility companies in researching fuel cell technology. Fuel cells offer many benefits and are now used as an alternative to traditional internal combustion engines in power generation. In continuing it's role as the leader in fuel cell research, LADWP has installed a pre-commercial molten carbonate fuel cell on August 2001 at its headquarter, the John Ferraro Building (JFB). The goal of this project is to learn more about the actual behavior of the fuel cell running under real world conditions. The fuel cell ran smoothly through the first year of operation with very high efficiency, but with some minor setbacks. The JFB fuel cell project is funded by the City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power with partial grant funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. The technical evaluation and the benefit-cost evaluation of the JFB fuel cell are both examined in this report.

  11. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skok, A.J.; Abueg, R.Z.; Schwartz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  12. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salt Home Renewable Energy Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt The Molten Salt Test...

  13. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices

  14. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Bigler, Nicolas; Arnaud, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  15. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  16. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  17. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  18. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  19. Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Converting Plants to Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Somerville, Chris

    2011-04-28

    Berkeley Lab's Chris Somerville is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls, which comprise most of the body mass of higher plants. He views the knowledge of cell wall structure and function as furthering the development of plants with improved usefulness: these plants are strong potential sources of renewable materials and biofuel feedstocks. His scientific expertise defines an ideal match of his interest - in the development of cellulosic and other solar-to-fuel science - with his recent appointment as Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). With colleagues in biology, physical sciences, engineering, and environmental and the social sciences, he now leads the EBI multidisciplinary teams' research efforts to develop next-generation, carbon-neutral transportation fuels.

  20. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  1. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  2. Program for fundamental and applied research of fuel cells in VNIIEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anisin, A.V.; Borisseonock, V.A.; Novitskii, Y.Z.; Potyomckin, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    According to VNIIEF the integral part of development of fuel cell power plants is fundamental and applied research. This paper describes areas of research on molten carbonate fuel cells. Topics include the development of mathematical models for porous electrodes, thin film electrolytes, the possibility of solid nickel anodes, model of activation polarization of anode, electrolyte with high solubility of oxygen. Other areas include research on a stationary mode of stack operation, anticorrosion coatings, impedance diagnostic methods, ultrasound diagnostics, radiation treatments, an air aluminium cell, and alternative catalysts for low temperature fuel cells.

  3. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  4. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  5. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of liquid carbon at near-solid densities that can then be compared with results from molecular dynamics simulations. Extreme Carbon: Liquid Diamond or Molten Graphite?...

  6. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  7. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  8. Design of a californium source-driven measurement system for accountability of material recovered from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment charcoal bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentzinger, D.L.; Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1998-05-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (MSRE) operated from 1965 to 1969. The fuel was a molten salt that flowed through the reactor core which consisted of uranium tetrafluoride with molten lithium and beryllium salt used as the coolant. In 1968 the fuel was switched from {sup 235}U to {sup 233}U. The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment was canceled in 1969 at which time approximately 4800 kg of salt was transferred to the fuel drain tanks. There was about 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 grams of plutonium and various fission products present in the fuel salt. The salt was allowed to solidify in the fuel drain tanks. The salt was heated on a yearly basis to recombine the fluorine gas with the uranium salt mixture. In March 1994, a gas sample was taken from the off gas system that indicated {sup 233}U had migrated from the fuel drain tank system to the off gas system. It was found that approximately 2.6 kg of uranium had migrated to the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB). The ACB is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell which is below ground level located outside the MSRE building. Therefore, there was a concern for the potential of a nuclear criticality accident, although water would have to leak into the chamber for a criticality accident to occur. Unstable carbon/fluorine compounds were also formed when the fluorine reacted with the charcoal in the charcoal bed. The purpose of the proposed measurement system was to perform an accountability measurement to determine the fissile mass of {sup 233}U in the primary vessel. The contents of the primary containment assembly will then be transferred to three smaller containers for long term storage. Calculations were performed using MCNP-DSP to determine the configuration of the measurement system. The information obtained from the time signatures can then be compared to the measurement data to determine the amount of {sup 233}U present in the primary containment assembly.

  9. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  10. System and process for the production of syngas and fuel gasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Benefiel, Bradley C

    2015-04-21

    The production of gasses and, more particularly, to systems and methods for the production of syngas and fuel gasses including the production of hydrogen are set forth. In one embodiment system and method includes a reactor having a molten pool of a material comprising sodium carbonate. A supply of conditioned water is in communication with the reactor. A supply of carbon containing material is also in communication with the reactor. In one particular embodiment, the carbon containing material may include vacuum residuum (VR). The water and VR may be kept at desired temperatures and pressures compatible with the process that is to take place in the reactor. When introduced into the reactor, the water, the VR and the molten pool may be homogenously mixed in an environment in which chemical reactions take place including the production of hydrogen and other gasses.