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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

FUEL CELLS – MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS | Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) emerged during the twentieth century as one of the key fuel cell types. It uses an electrolyte of alkali metal carbonates, operates typically at 650 °C, and is best suited to hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, coal gas, or biogas. The high operating temperature enables such fuels to be fed directly to the MCFC stacks, leading to conversion efficiencies greater than 50%. Molten carbonate fuel cell systems are ideally suited to applications that need continuous base load power. The first commercial systems, at the 300 kW scale, are therefore being used in applications such as hospitals and hotels.

A.L. Dicks

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

Carbon dioxide emission reduction using molten carbonate fuel cell systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The contribution of the molten carbonate fuel cell system (MCFCs) to carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction in power application is analyzed. \\{MCFCs\\} can separate and concentrate CO2 emitted from traditional thermal power plants (PPs) without reducing the plant's overall energy efficiency. \\{MCFCs\\} can also be used by itself as an effective CO2 separator or concentrator by managing the anode gas stream to increase the heat utilization of the system. The CO2 separated and concentrated by \\{MCFCs\\} is most effectively captured by condensation. \\{MCFCs\\} is currently used as a CO2 separator only to a limited extent due to its high cost and relatively small scale operation. However, \\{MCFCs\\} will substantially contribute to reduce CO2 emissions in power generation applications in the near future.

Jung-Ho Wee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

7

Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

8

Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxides and their evaluation in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid ...

Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

10

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

Analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Performance Using a Three-Phase Homogeneous Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures, nickel oxide dissolves in the melt. This slow loss of active material contributes to an increase as compared to nickel oxide. The search for alternate cathode materials could be simplified through the use-phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell MCFC cathode

Popov, Branko N.

12

Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9072 9072 September 2010 Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Robert Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology, LLC National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-560-49072 September 2010 Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Robert Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology, LLC Prepared under Task No. H278.7210

13

Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

Johnson, W.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program. Topical report: Cathode compatibility tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

Johnson, W.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

16

Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

Reiser, Carl A. (Glastonbury, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT)

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

17

A validated dynamic model of the first marine molten carbonate fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we present a modular, dynamic and multi-dimensional model of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) onboard the offshore supply vessel “Viking Lady” serving as an auxiliary power unit. The model is able to capture detailed thermodynamic, heat transfer and electrochemical reaction phenomena within the fuel cell layers. The model has been calibrated and validated with measured performance data from a prototype installation onboard the vessel. The model is able to capture detailed thermodynamic, heat transfer and electrochemical reaction phenomena within the fuel cell layers. The model has been calibrated and validated with measured performance data from a prototype installation onboard the offshore supply vessel. The calibration process included parameter identification, sensitivity analysis to identify the critical model parameters, and iterative calibration of these to minimize the overall prediction error. The calibrated model has a low prediction error of 4% for the operating range of the cell, exhibiting at the same time a physically sound qualitative behavior in terms of thermodynamic heat transfer and electrochemical phenomena, both on steady-state and transient operation. The developed model is suitable for a wide range of studies covering the aspects of thermal efficiency, performance, operability, safety and endurance/degradation, which are necessary to introduce fuel cells in ships. The aim of this MCFC model is to aid to the introduction, design, concept approval and verification of environmentally friendly marine applications such as fuel cells, in a cost-effective, fast and safe manner.

E. Ovrum; G. Dimopoulos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Molten carbonate fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid systems as distributed energy resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)/gas turbine (GT) hybrid system has attracted a great deal of research effort due to its higher electricity efficiency. However, its technology has remained at the conceptual level due to incomplete examination of the related issues, challenges and variables. To contribute to the development of system technology, the MCFC/GT hybrid system is analyzed and discussed herein. A qualitative comparison of the two kinds of MCFC/GT hybrid system, indirect and direct, is hindered by the many variables involved. However, the indirect system may be preferred for relatively small-scale systems with the micro-GT. The direct system can be more competitive in terms of system efficiency and GT selection due to the optionality of system layouts as well as even higher GT inlet temperature. System layout is an important factor influencing the system efficiency. The other issues such as GT selection, system pressurization and part-load operation are also significant.

Jung-Ho Wee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Effects of marine atmosphere on the cell performance in molten carbonate fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of NaCl, a main component in seawater, on molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performance is investigated using a single cell test with 1, 5, and 10 wt.% NaCl-impregnated cathodes for marine applications. The cell performance increases with increasing amounts of impregnated NaCl in the cathode. This cell performance enhancement is due to the reduction in the charge transfer resistance of the electrode. From the analysis of the electrolyte composition using the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and ion chromatography (IC) methods after cell operation, it is confirmed that the Na+ ions are accumulated in the carbonate melts, and approximately 80 at.% of the Cl- ions are emitted into the anode outlet as HCl. Expecting that the emitted \\{HCl\\} causes severe corrosion of the utilities, the concentrations of accumulated Na+ ions of emitted \\{HCl\\} in the anode outlet are calculated when air with a sea-salt particle concentration of 5–500 ugm?3 is supplied to the MCFC stack. Although \\{HCl\\} is a very corrosive gas, it is expected that the emitted \\{HCl\\} does not cause severe corrosion because, even at a high sea-salt concentration of 500 ugm?3, the emitted \\{HCl\\} concentration is low enough to operate the stack safely.

Shin Ae Song; Hyun Koo Kim; Hyung Chul Ham; Jonghee Han; Suk Woo Nam; Sung Pil Yoon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Corrosion of 304 stainless steel in molten-carbonate fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel was characterized with cyclic voltammetry in a eutectic Li/K and Li/Na carbonate melt under anode and cathode gas of the molten-carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The corrosion rate of 304 steel was determined in four different environments of the MCFC with electrochemical methods and from cross-sectional analysis of corrosion layers. These four environments were open-circuit and MCFC-load conditions both under anode and cathode gas. At open-circuit conditions corrosion was more severe under the oxidizing cathode gas then under the reducing anode gas. On the contrary, at load conditions corrosion was more severe under anode than under cathode gas. The anodic polarization under anode gas enhances corrosion, whereas the high anodic polarization under cathode gas leads to anodic protection. Corrosion currents were measured with chronoamperometry and determined with Tafel extrapolation from quasi-stationary polarization-curve measurements. The difference between the corrosion layer thickness estimated from these corrosion currents and the corrosion layer thickness determined from cross-sectional analysis is mainly die to contributing currents of either the MCFC-anode gas reaction under anode gas or the MCFC-cathode gas reaction under cathode gas.

Keijzer, M.; Hemmes, K.; Put, P.J.J.M. van der; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Lindbergh, G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)] [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian metallurgical industry) and supplied to the partner for tests in a stack of fuel cells. A feasibility study on the cost of the Russian material for a BSP is to be done on Tasks 1, 2 in case the annual order makes up 400,000 sheets. The goal of Task 3 of the project is to research on possible implementation of cermet compositions on the basis of LiAlO{sub 2}, TiN, B{sub 4}C, ceramics with Ni and Ni-Mo binders. BaCeO{sub 3} conductive ceramics with metal binders of Ni, Ni-Cr etc. were also planned to be studied. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of samples is to be made and passed to FCE for tests. The goal of Task 4 of the Project is development of a new alloy or alloys with a ceramic coating that will have upgraded corrosion stability in operation within a SOFC. A new alloy was to be worked out by the way of modification of compositions of industrial alloys. Ceramic coatings are to be applied onto ferrite steel produced serially by iron and steel industry of Russia as sheet iron.

Krumpelt, M.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissolution of NiO cathodes during cell operation is a limiting factor to the successful commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Microencapsulation of the NiO cathode has been adopted as a surface modification technique to increase the stability of NiO cathodes in the carbonate melt. The material used for surface modification should possess thermodynamic stability in the molten carbonate and also should be electro catalytically active for MCFC reactions. A simple first principles model was developed to understand the influence of exchange current density and conductivity of the electrode material on the polarization of MCFC cathodes. The model predictions suggest that cobalt can be used to improve the corrosion resistance of NiO cathode without affecting its performance. Cobalt was deposited on NiO cathode by electroless deposition. The morphology and thermal oxidation behavior of Co coated NiO was studied using scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis respectively. The electrochemical performance of cobalt encapsulated NiO cathodes were investigated with open circuit potential measurement and current-potential polarization studies. These results were compared to that of bare NiO. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of cobalt-coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Dissolution of nickel into the molten carbonate melt was less in case of cobalt encapsulated nickel cathodes. Co coated on the surface prevents the dissolution of Ni in the melt and thereby stabilizes the cathode. Finally, cobalt coated nickel shows similar polarization characteristics as nickel oxide. A similar surface modification technique has been used to improve the performance of the SS 304 current collectors used in MCFC cells. SS 304 was encapsulated with nanostructured layers of NiCo and NiMo by electroless deposition. The corrosion behavior of bare and surface modified SS 304 in molten carbonate under cathode gas atmosphere was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, open circuit potential studies, Tafel polarization, impedance analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. This study confirms that the presence of surface modification leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and electronic conductivity.

Dr. Ralph E. White

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study activity of Task 1, preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization has been completed by Bechtel National, Inc. Work under Task 2 defined design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication has been made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated under Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects. Components for the mobile test facility are being ordered.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode and the complete fuel cell. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. This approach can be used to model porous electrodes as it represents the real system much better than the conventional agglomerate model. Using the homogeneous model the polarization characteristics of the MCFC cathode and fuel cell were studied under different operating conditions. Both the cathode and the full cell model give good fits to the experimental data.

Hector Colonmer; Prabhu Ganesan; Nalini Subramanian; Dr. Bala Haran; Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Study on a gas-steam combined cycle system with CO2 capture by integrating molten carbonate fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper studies a gas-steam combined cycle system with CO2 capture by integrating the MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cell). With the Aspen plus software, this paper builds the model of the overall MCFC-GT hybrid system with CO2 capture and analyzes the effects of the key parameters on the performances of the overall system. The result shows that compared with the gas-steam combined cycle system without CO2 capture, the efficiency of the new system with CO2 capture does not decrease obviously and keeps the same efficiency with the original gas steam combined cycle system when the carbon capture percentage is 45%. When the carbon capture percentage reaches up to 85%, the efficiency of the new system is about 54.96%, only 0.67 percent points lower than that of the original gas-steam combined cycle system. The results show that the new system has an obvious superiority of thermal performance. However, its technical economic performance needs be improved with the technical development of MCFC and ITM (oxygen ion transfer membrane). Achievements from this paper will provide the useful reference for CO2 capture with lower energy consumption from the traditional power generation system.

Liqiang Duan; Jingnan Zhu; Long Yue; Yongping Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Molten Metal Anodes for Direct Carbon-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aim of this thesis was to enable the direct utilization of solid carbonaceous fuels like coal and biomass, in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).… (more)

Jayakumar, Abhimanyu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Molten Salt Batteries and Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter describes recent work on batteries and fuel cells using molten salt electrolytes. This entails a comparison with other batteries and fuel cells utilizing aqueous and organic electrolytes; for...(1,2)

D. A. J. Swinkels

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SS 304 was encapsulated with thin layers of Co-Ni by an electroless deposition process. The corrosion behavior of SS304 and Co-Ni-SS304 was investigated in molten carbonate under cathode gas atmosphere with electrochemical and surface characterization tools. Surface modification of SS304 reduced the dissolution of chromium and nickel into the molten carbonate melt. Composition of the corrosion scale formed in case of Co-Ni-SS304 is different from SS304 and shows the presence of Co and Ni oxides while the latter shows the presence of lithium ferrite. Polarization resistance for oxygen reduction reaction and conductivity of corrosion values for the corrosion scales were obtained using impedance analysis and current-potential plots. The results indicated lower polarization resistance for oxygen reduction reaction in the case of Co-Ni-SS304 when compared to SS304. Also, the conductivity of the corrosion scales was considerably higher in case of Co-Ni-SS304 than the SS304. This study shows that modifying the current collector surface with Co-Ni coatings leads to the formation of oxide scales with improved barrier properties and electronic conductivity.

Dr. Ralph E. White

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Removal of H{sub 2}S using molten carbonate at high temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • The performance of molten carbonate for the removal of H{sub 2}S improves at higher temperatures. • The degree of H{sub 2}S removal is significantly affected by the CO{sub 2} concentration in syngas. • Addition of carbon elements, such as char and tar, decrease the negative effects of CO{sub 2}. • Continuous addition of carbon elements into molten carbonate enables continuous desulfurization. • Desulfurization using molten carbonate is suitable for gasification gas. - Abstract: Gasification is considered to be an effective process for energy conversion from various sources such as coal, biomass, and waste. Cleanup of the hot syngas produced by such a process may improve the thermal efficiency of the overall gasification system. Therefore, the cleanup of hot syngas from biomass gasification using molten carbonate is investigated in bench-scale tests. Molten carbonate acts as an absorbent during desulfurization and dechlorination and as a thermal catalyst for tar cracking. In this study, the performance of molten carbonate for removing H{sub 2}S was evaluated. The temperature of the molten carbonate was set within the range from 800 to 1000 °C. It is found that the removal of H{sub 2}S is significantly affected by the concentration of CO{sub 2} in the syngas. When only a small percentage of CO{sub 2} is present, desulfurization using molten carbonate is inadequate. However, when carbon elements, such as char and tar, are continuously supplied, H{sub 2}S removal can be maintained at a high level. To confirm the performance of the molten carbonate gas-cleaning system, purified biogas was used as a fuel in power generation tests with a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The fuel cell is a high-performance sensor for detecting gaseous impurities. When purified gas from a gas-cleaning reactor was continuously supplied to the fuel cell, the cell voltage remained stable. Thus, the molten carbonate gas-cleaning reactor was found to afford good gas-cleaning performance.

Kawase, Makoto, E-mail: kawase@criepi.denken.or.jp; Otaka, Maromu

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Carbonate fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

32

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 1990. These many alternative-fuel initiatives failed tolow-cost, low-carbon alternative fuels would thrive. Theto introduce low-carbon alternative fuels. Former Federal

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

Molten salt fuels with high plutonium solubility  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes a composition of LiF--ThF.sub.4--UF.sub.4--PuF.sub.3 for use as a fuel in a nuclear engine.

Moir, Ralph W; Turchi, Patrice E.A.; Shaw, Henry F; Kaufman, Larry

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

36

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

Erickson, D.C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

Herrmann, Steven Douglas

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

39

Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material.

40

Gaseous fission product management for molten salt reactors and vented fuel systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fission gas disposal is one of the unresolved difficulties for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) and advanced reactors with vented fuel systems. As these systems operate, they produce many radioactive isotopes of xenon and krypton (e.g. {sup 135}Xe t{sub 1/2} = 9.14 hours and {sup 85}Kr t{sub 1/2}= 10.73 years). Removing these gases proves vital to the success of such reactor designs for two reasons. First, the gases act as large neutron sinks which decrease reactivity and must be counterbalanced by increasing fuel loading. Second, for MSRs, inert fission product gases naturally separate quickly from high temperature salts, thus creating high vapor pressure which poses safety concerns. For advanced reactors with solid vented fuel, the gases are allowed to escape into an off-gas system and thus must be managed. Because of time delays in transport of fission product gases in vented fuel systems, some of the shorter-lived radionuclides will decay away thereby reducing the fission gas source term relative to an MSR. To calculate the fission gas source term of a typical molten salt reactor, we modeled a 1000 MWe graphite moderated thorium MSR similar to that detailed in Mathieu et al. [1]. The fuel salt used in these calculations was LiF (78 mole percent) - (HN)F 4 (22 mole percent) with a heavy nuclide composition of 3.86% {sup 233}U and 96.14% {sup 232}Th by mass. Before we can remove the fission product gases produced by this reactor configuration, we must first develop an appropriate storage mechanism. The gases could be stored in pressurized containers but then one must be concerned about bottle failure. Methods to trap noble gases in matrices are expensive and complex. Alternatively, there are direct storage/disposal options: direct injection into the Earth or injecting a grout-based product into the Earth. Advances in drilling technologies, hydro fracture technologies, and methods for the sequestration of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants are creating new options for disposal of fission gas wastes. In each option, lithostatic pressure, a kilometer or more underground, eliminates the pressure driving force for noble gas release and dissolves any untrapped gas in deep groundwater or into incorporated solid waste forms. The options, challenges, and potential for these methods to dispose of gaseous fission products are described. With this research, we hope to help both MSRs and other advanced reactors come one step closer to commercialization. (authors)

Messenger, S. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., 54-1717, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., 24-207, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Massie, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., NW12-230, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Low Carbon Fuel Low Carbon Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Low Carbon Fuel Standard Low Carbon Fuel Standard California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) Program requires a reduction in the carbon intensity of transportation

42

California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

43

Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report March 31, 2012 Michael Schuller, Frank Little, Darren Malik, Matt Betts, Qian Shao, Jun Luo, Wan Zhong, Sandhya Shankar, Ashwin Padmanaban The Space Engineering Research Center Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University Abstract We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials,

44

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Low Carbon Fuels Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services may engage in

45

The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts: carbon nanotubes as  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts are investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. Inorganic nanotubular structures, whose morphologies can be rationalized in terms of the folding, or the removal of sections from, planes of square nets are found to form. The formation mechanisms are found to follow a 'chain-by-chain' motif in which the structures build systematically from charge neutral M–X–M–X chains. The formation mechanisms are rationalized in terms of the ion–ion interactions (intra-chain and inter-chain terms). In addition, the mechanisms of filling are discussed in terms of a 'hopping' between basins on the underlying energy landscape. The role of the carbon nanotube as an energy landscape filter is discussed.

Clare L Bishop; Mark Wilson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was previously known the liquidus temperature of the molten salt would change as spent fuel is processed through the Mk-IV electrorefiner. However, the extent of the increase in liquidus temperature was not known. This work is first of its kind in determining thermodynamic properties of a molten salt electrolyte containing transuranics, fission products and bond sodium. Experimental data concluded that the melting temperature of the electrolyte will become greater than the operating temperature of the Mk-IV ER during current fuel processing campaigns. Collected data also helps predict when the molten salt electrolyte will no longer be able to support electrorefining operations.

Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Low Carbon Fuel and Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on AddThis.com...

49

Molten salt considerations for accelerator-driven subcritical fission to close the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The host salt selection, molecular modeling, physical chemistry, and processing chemistry are presented here for an accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). The core is fueled solely with the transuranics (TRU) and long-lived fission products (LFP) from used nuclear fuel. The neutronics and salt composition are optimized to destroy the transuranics by fission and the long-lived fission products by transmutation. The cores are driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. One such ADSMS system can destroy the transuranics in the used nuclear fuel produced by a 1GWe conventional reactor. It uniquely provides a method to close the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy.

Sooby, Elizabeth; Baty, Austin; Gerity, James; McIntyre, Peter; Melconian, Karie; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station TX 77843 (United States); Adams, Marvin; Tsevkov, Pavel [Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, Spence St., College Station TX 77843 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn [Center for Advanced Energy Studies, University of Idaho, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Simpson, Michael; Tripathy, Prabhat [Materials Fuels Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

50

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, J.L.

1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

51

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel [Dept. of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 and Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Simpson, Michael [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls ID 83402 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

53

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop July 30, 2003 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Carbon Anode Electrochemistry Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells Coal Preprocessing Prior to Introduction Into the Fuel Cell Potential Market Applications for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells Discussion of Key R&D Needs Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

54

Development of Molten Corium Using An Exothermic Chemical Reaction for the Molten- Fuel Moderator-Interaction Studies at Chalk River Laboratories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has partnered with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a corium thermite prototypical of Candu material and test the concept of ejecting {approx}25 kg of the molten material from a pressure tube with a driving pressure of 10 MPa. This development program has been completed and the technology transferred to AECL. Preparation for the molten-fuel moderator-interaction tests at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories is well underway. A mixture of 0.582 U/0.077 U{sub 3}O{sub 8}/0.151 Zr/0.19 CrO{sub 3} (wt%) as reactant chemicals has been demonstrated to produce a corium consisting of 0.73 UO{sub 2}/0.11 Zr/0.06 ZrO{sub 2}/0.10 Cr (wt%) at {approx}2400 deg. C. This is comparable to the target Candu specific corium of 0.9 UO{sub 2}/0.1 Zr (wt%), with limited oxidation. The peak melt temperature was confirmed from small-scale thermitic reaction tests. Several small-scale tests were completed to qualify the thermite to ensure operational safety and a quantifiable experimental outcome. The proposed molten-fuel moderator-interaction experiments at Chalk River Laboratories will consist of heating the thermite mixture inside a 1.14-m long insulated pressure tube. Once the molten material has reached the desired temperature of {approx}2400 deg. C, the pressure inside the tube will be raised to about 10 MPa, and the pressure tube will fail at a pre-machined flaw, ejecting the molten material into the surrounding tank of water. The test apparatus, instrumentation, data acquisition and control systems have been assembled, and a series of successful commissioning tests have been completed. (authors)

Nitheanandan, T.; Sanderson, D.B.; Kyle, G. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Farmer, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700, S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

56

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

order for the low carbon fuel standard, 2012. URL http://mediated e?ects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioForum, 15(Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? American

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

security, renewable energy, bio- fuel, carbon tax, mandate,and taxpayer cost of bio- fuel excise tax credits dwarf the

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Intermetallic FeAl based coatings deposited by the electrospark technique: corrosion behavior in molten (Li+K) carbonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the strongly corrosive environment of the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) the protection of the wet-seal areas of the bipolar plates is accomplished by aluminum diffusion coatings. The coating layer is usually produced by depositing metallic aluminum onto a stainless steel surface with the ion vapor deposition (IVD) technique followed by a diffusion annealing treatment in order to transform the as-deposited Al into a corrosion resistant FeAl-based intermetallic surface alloy. In an attempt to find cheaper alternatives, in this work we report the results obtained depositing directly a layer of FeAl intermetallic alloy onto a 316L austenitic stainless steel by using the electrospark deposition (ESD) technique. ESD can apply metallurgical bonded coatings in ambient conditions without the need of post-deposition annealing treatments. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the FeAl coating has been analyzed and compared to a standard IVD aluminized coating. By electrochemical measurements and long-term immersion tests it is inferred that the corrosion resistance of the electrospark coating is comparable to that of the IVD coating. Some sign of coating degradation after 1000 h immersion in the (Li+K) carbonate mixture at 650 °C was due to coating microcracking and Al depletion.

S. Frangini; A. Masci

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Carbon-based Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

Steven S. C. Chuang

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation- resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ~2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (~1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver wire and electrolyte composition remains the same. The resulting design maximizes the use of commercial components and can be fabricated with commonly available skills. This has resulted in a significant reduction of effort and cost to fabricate replacements. The piece count requiring assembly in a high purity glove box atmosphere has been reduced by over half and all specialized joints have been eliminated. The new design has been tested in a lab scale electrorefiner and has also been successfully scaled up and installed in the engineering scale electrorefiners.

Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Thermodynamics of an Aqueous-Alkaline/Carbonate Carbon Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab in London, these recent results suggest the potential use of aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cells for vehicular transportation. ... Thus, biocarbons can be a sustainable, environmentally friendly fuel for carbon fuel cell applications, whose production complements the production of bioethanol and biodiesel fuels in a biomass refinery. ... Our interest in the aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell is stimulated by the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial London Black Cab.29-31 Thus, the development of a functional aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cell could facilitate the replacement of non-renewable, liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels by renewable, solid biocarbons. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Gérard C. Nihous

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

62

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells ... After optimization for minimum activation polarization, the authors then produced impedance spectra to assess cell performance and achieved a peak power density of around 18 and 53 mW cm–2 at 700 and 800 °C, respectively. ... solid oxide fuel cell system under 600° just by optimizing the anode microstructure and operating conditions. ...

Adam C. Rady; Sarbjit Giddey; Sukhvinder P. S. Badwal; Bradley P. Ladewig; Sankar Bhattacharya

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biofuels. Let p denote the fuel price, q denote the quantitya carbon tax, domestic fuel price increases, and domesticbiofuel mandate on domestic fuel price, fuel, h dq t d ? dp

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Method for removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the pyrometallurgical process for recycling spent metal fuels from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which involves electrorefining spent fuel in a molten salt electrolyte (LiCl-KCI-U/PuCl{sub 3}) at 500{degree}C. The total heavy metal chloride concentration in the salt will be about 2 mol %. At some point, the concentrations of alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products in the salt must be reduced to lower the amount of heat generated in the electrorefiner. The heavy metal concentration in the salt must be reduced before removing the fission products from the salt. The operation uses a lithium-cadmium alloy anode that is solid at 500{degree}C, a solid mandrel cathode with a ceramic catch crucible below to collect heavy metal that falls off it, and a liquid cadmium cathode. The design criteria that had to be met by this equipment included the following: (1) control of the reduction rate by lithium, (2) good separation between heavy metal and rare earths, and (3) the capability to collect heavy metal and rare earths over a wide range of salt compositions. In tests conducted in an engineering-scale electrorefiner (10 kg uranium per cathode), good separation was achieved while removing uranium and rare earths from the salt. Only 13% of the rare earths was removed, while 99.9% of the uranium in the salt was removed; subsequently, the rare earths were also reduced to low concentrations. The uranium concentration in the salt was reduced to 0.05 ppm after uranium and rare earths were transferred from the salt to a solid mandrel cathode with a catch crucible. Rare earth concentrations in the salt were reduced to less than 0.01 wt % in these operations. Similar tests are planned to remove plutonium from the salt in a laboratory-scale (100--300 g heavy metal) electrorefiner.

Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel-Cell Commercialization Working Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

Penner, S.S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, E.C.

1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

SPOUTED BED ELECTRODES (SBE) FOR DIRECT UTILIZATION OF CARBON IN FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Phase I project was focused on an investigation of spouted bed particulate electrodes for the direct utilization of solid carbon in fuel cells. This approach involves the use of a circulating carbon particle/molten carbonate slurry in the cell that provides a few critical functions: it (1) fuels the cell continuously with entrained carbon particles; (2) brings particles to the anode surfaces hydrodynamically; (3) removes ash from the anode surfaces and the cell hydrodynamically; (4) provides a facile means of cell temperature control due to its large thermal capacitance; (5) provides for electrolyte maintenance and control in the electrode separator(s); and (6) can (potentially) improve carbon conversion rates by ''pre-activating'' carbon particle surfaces via formation of intermediate oxygen surface complexes in the bulk molten carbonate. The approach of this scoping project was twofold: (1) adaptation and application of a CFD code, originally developed to simulate particle circulation in spouted bed electrolytic reactors, to carbon particle circulation in DCFC systems; and (2) experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of carbon slurry circulation in DCFC systems using simulated slurry mixtures. The CFD model results demonstrated that slurry recirculation can be used to hydrodynamically feed carbon particles to anode surfaces. Variations of internal configurations were investigated in order to explore effects on contacting. It was shown that good contacting with inclined surfaces could be achieved even when the particles are of the same density as the molten carbonate. The use of CO{sub 2} product gas from the fuel cell as a ''lift-gas'' to circulate the slurry was also investigated with the model. The results showed that this is an effective method of slurry circulation; it entrains carbon particles more effectively in the draft duct and produces a somewhat slower recirculation rate, and thus higher residence times on anode surfaces, and can be controlled completely via pressure balance. Experimental investigations in a rectangular spouted vessel hydrodynamics apparatus (SVHA) showed that hydrodynamics can be used to control the circulation, residence time, and distribution of carbon within the spouted bed, as well as provide good particle contact with anode surfaces. This was shown to be a function of viscosity, carbon loading, and particle size, as well as relative densities. Higher viscosities and smaller particle sizes favor more efficient particle entrainment in the draft duct, and particle recirculation. Both the computational and experimental results are consistent with each another and exhibit the same general qualitative behavior. Based upon this work, a design of a prototype SBE/DCFC cell was developed and is presented.

J.M. Calo

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Molten metal reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

71

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode. 3 figs.

Gay, E.C.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

72

A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Fuels challenges in the evolving global energy market deer11simnick.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Racing Initiative:...

74

Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LCFS limits carbon emissions per unit of current energycarbon fuel standard expressed as a limit on the emissions per energy

Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LCFS limits carbon emissions per unit of current energycarbon fuel standard expressed as a limit on the emissions per energy

Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Carbon Capture by Fossil Fuel Power Plants: An Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Capture by Fossil Fuel Power Plants: An Economic Analysis ¨Ozge I¸slegen Graduate School excellent research assistance. #12;Carbon Capture by Fossil Fuel Power Plants: An Economic Analysis Abstract: For fossil fuel power plants to be built in the future, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer

Silver, Whendee

77

Evaluation of a zirconium additive for the mitigation of molten ash formation during combustion of residual fuel oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Florida Power & Light Company (FP&L) currently fires a residual fuel oil (RFO) containing catalyst fines, which results in a troublesome black aluminosilicate liquid phase that forms on heat-transfer surfaces, remains molten, and flows to the bottom of the boiler. When the unit is shut down for a scheduled outage, this liquid phase freezes to a hard black glass that damages the contracting waterwalls of the boiler. Cleaning the boiler bottom and repairing damaged surfaces increase the boiler downtime, at a significant cost to FP&L. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) proposed to perform a series of tests for FP&L to evaluate the effectiveness of a zirconium additive to modify the mechanism that forms this liquid phase, resulting in the formation of a dry refractory phase that may be easily handled during cleanup of the boiler.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Planning a Commercial Fuel Cell Installation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the alkaline and molten carbonate cells as they may have special ap~lications since their operating characteristics are noticeably different from the phosphoric acid cells. Next, the Los Alamos study concludes that the phosphoric acid fuel cell matches...

Bowden, J. R.; May, G. W.

79

Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass January 14, 2009 DOE/NETL-2009/1349 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

80

Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Perry, W. L. (William Lee); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

Turgut Gur

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Graphitized-carbon fiber/carbon char fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovery of intact graphitic fibers from fiber/polymer composites is described. The method comprises first pyrolyzing the graphite fiber/polymer composite mixture and then separating the graphite fibers by molten salt electrochemical oxidation.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

83

The Results From the First High-Pressure Melt Ejection Test Completed in the Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction Facility at Chalk River Laboratories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River Laboratories. This test was planned by the CANDU Owners Group to study the potential for an energetic interaction between molten fuel and water under postulated single-channel flow-blockage events. The experiments were designed to address regulator concerns surrounding this very low probability postulated accident events in CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The objective of the experimental program is to determine whether a highly energetic 'steam explosion' and associated high-pressure pulse, is possible when molten material is finely fragmented as it is ejected from a fuel channel into the heavy-water moderator. The finely fragmented melt particles would transfer energy to the moderator as it is dispersed, creating a modest pressure pulse in the calandria vessel. The high-pressure melt ejection test consisted of heating up a {approx} 5 kg thermite mixture of U, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, Zr, and CrO{sub 3} inside a 1.14-m length of insulated pressure tube. When the molten material reached the desired temperature of {approx} 2400 deg C, the pressure inside the tube was raised to 11.6 MPa, failing the pressure tube at a pre-machined flaw, and releasing the molten material into the surrounding tank of 68 deg C water. The experiment investigated the dynamic pressure history, debris size, and the effects of the material interacting with tubes representing neighbouring fuel channels. The measured mean particle size was 0.686 mm and the peak dynamic pressures were between 2.54 and 4.36 MPa, indicating that an energetic interaction between the melt and the water did not occur in the test. (authors)

Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O'Connor, R.; Sanderson, DB. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation`s carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Meyers, S.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Hauserman, W.B. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation's carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Meyers, S.J. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)); Hauserman, W.B. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process.

NONE

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Feasibility Study of Fuel Cell Cogeneration in Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% based on the HHV of the fuel. Four primary types of fuel cells have thus far emerged. They are classified by the type of electrolyte: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC... Electrolyte PEMFC 80-1OO?C ion exchange membrane PAFC 150-220?C phosphoric acid MCFC 600-700?C molten carbonate SOFC 650-1000?C solid metal oxide T bl 3 E .. a e mISSIOn and sound pressure levels of PC25C (ONSI Corp., 1995) Emissions at 200 kW California...

Phelps, S. B.; Kissock, J. K.

88

The Effect of Silica Nanoparticles on Corrosion of Steel by Molten Carbonate Eutectics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 4 A Schematic of Sample Bomb with Reference to an Actual Sample Bomb Photograph?????????????????????????. 19 Figure 5 Type of Salt Indicators????????????????????... 20 Figure 6 Exposure Time Indicators???????????????????. 21 Figure 7.... The compositions of the 2 identified eutectics are as follows: 1) The currently used Hitec solar salt: NaNO3 ? KNO3 : Molar composition of 46 % NaNO3 2) Lithium-potassium carbonate: Li2CO3 ? K2CO3 Molar composition of 42.7% Li2CO3 There have been several...

Padmanaban Iyer, Ashwin

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

89

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: TechnicalEnergy Air Quality, and Fuels 2000. Schwarzenegger, Arnold.Order S-01-07: Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Sacramento, CA.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ITS—RR—07—07 A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California PartEnergy Commission. A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For CaliforniaPont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To Tank

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Fossil Fuels and Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reducing CO2...emissions, including those from the energy sector, ­presents a major challenge to the world at large. Fossil fuels provide two-thirds of the world’s electricity, with coal, in particular, the fuel ...

Keith Burnard; Sean McCoy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Cathode response model and literature review of metal solubility in carbonates. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research described in this report is intended to explain some of the aspects of molten carbonate fuel cell system. The research currently being investigated is an important part of MCFC performance development.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Handbook of fuel cell performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Transform entire existing gas stations into clean transportation hubs, offering new fuel options to a broader customer base * Create cost-effective efficiencies for quick...

95

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Ocean Sequestration of Crop Residue Carbon: Recycling Fossil Fuel Carbon Back to Deep Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

burial of crop residues in the deep ocean (hereafter, CROPS: Crop Residue Oceanic Permanent Sequestration). ... As long as fuels exist with higher energy yield-to-carbon content (E/C) ratios than biomass, it will always be more energy efficient and less carbon polluting to sequester the biomass in the deep oceans, and use those fuels with higher E/C ratios for power generation, rather than to burn biomass for power generation. ...

Stuart E. Strand; Gregory Benford

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

97

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna* a Laboratoire de Physique or chlorides) have been taken in consideration very soon in nuclear energy production researches with solid fuels, liquid fuel in molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case

Boyer, Edmond

98

Research and development of alternative components at Argonne National Laboratory for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to improve the lifetime of MCFCs. Doped LiFeO{sub 2} cathodes, Nb-doped CeO{sub 2} anodes, and a new CaCO{sub 3}-Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} electrolyte were developed and tested.

Krumpelt, M.; Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.; Indacochea, E.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Molten carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement. Quarterly report, January 1--March 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to establish by 1998 the commercial readiness of MW- class IMHEX{reg_sign} MCFC power plants for distributed generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This will require an advanced IMHEX{reg_sign} technology base, lower-cost manufacturing processes, verified balance-of-plant components, proven packaging and assembly approaches, demonstrated prototype power plants, finalized manufacturing and market distribution plans, and a committed commercialization team. Various tasks are reported on.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

Johnsen, Richard (Waterbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing A method for...

102

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black-based materials that have good catalytic activity, but the electrical conductivity of the AC is poor compared as a binder, as opposed to Nafion with Pt, which greatly reduces the cost of the cathode materials. AC

103

Stability of Molten Core Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document a literature and data search for data and information pertaining to the stability of nuclear reactor molten core materials. This includes data and analysis from TMI-2 fuel and INL’s LOFT (Loss of Fluid Test) reactor project and other sources.

Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system has run on actual syn-gas. Consequently, the Electric Power Research Institute (“EPRI”) has sponsored a 20 kW carbonate fuel cell pilot plant that will begin operating in March at Destec Energy’s coal gasification plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana...

Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

106

* Corresponding author -kfingerman@berkeley.edu 1 Integrating Water Sustainability into the Low Carbon Fuel Standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it to Average Fuel Carbon Intensity (AFCI) (c) Charge a tax on water use for biofuel production (d) Establish Carbon Fuel Standard Kevin Fingerman1* , Daniel Kammen1,2 , and Michael O'Hare2 1 Energy & Resources (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2004). As the State of California implements the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS

Kammen, Daniel M.

107

Strategic jet engine system design in light of uncertain fuel and carbon prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strategic jet engine system design in light of uncertain fuel and carbon prices UTC a strategic engine design that is robust with regard to fuel and carbon price uncertainty in 2030, a SurplusIn order to find a strategic engine design that is robust with regard to fuel and carbon price uncertainty

Sóbester, András

108

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Alternative Fossil Fuel Price and Carbon RegulationScenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includescap- and-trade and high fuel prices – are compared to other

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fuel processing for fuel cells: a model for fuel conversion and carbon formation in the adiabatic steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In present fuel cell power plants the fuel processor is a catalytic steam reformer which is limited to the use of fuels such as naphtha and natural gas. The sulfur content of these feeds must be reduced to low levels by hydrotreatment before contacting the nickel catalyst in the reformer. However, future fuel cell power plants may be required to ue coal-derived liquid fuel or heavy petroleum distillates which are more difficult to hydrotreat and reform. To meet this requirement, an adiabatic steam reformer is being developed by United Technologies Corporation with the support of the Electric Power Research Institute. In the adiabatic reformer, air is added to the process stream to provide, by combustion, the heat for endothermic reforming in a catalyst bed. In the inlet section of the reformer, air and fuel combust, and reforming is initiated on special catalysts whose primary functon is to prevent formation and accumulation of carbon. Following the inlet section, catalysts with high activity for steam reforming complete the conversion of the remaining fuel, principally methane. The objective of the present program is to establish a reactor model for the adiabatic reformer which would predict process stream compositions and temperatures and include carbon formation processes. Progress is reported on the four tasks: (1) determine rate expressions for catalytic reactions occurring in the adiabatic reformer; (2) establish a reactor model to predict process stream compositions in the adiabatic reformer using data from Task 1 for cataytic reactions and data from the literature for homogeneous gas-phase reactions; (3) determine critical conditions for carbon formation on selected catalysts using microbalance experiments; and (4) establish a model to predict carbon formation by combination of the model for process stream composition from Task 2 and data for carbon formation from Task 3. (WHK)

Bett, J.A.S.; Cutlip, M.C.; Foley, P.F.; Lesieur, R.R.; Meyer, A.P.; Sederquist, R.A.; Setzer, H.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Austin Lays Plans for Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet on AddThis.com... Jan. 15, 2011 Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City Fleet L earn how Austin, Texas, is planning to build a carbon-neutral city fleet

111

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5003: Carbon Displacement Using Net-Zero Carbon Sources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Date: January 4, 2006 3 Date: January 4, 2006 Title: Carbon Displacement Using Net-Zero Carbon Sources Originator: Elvin Yuzugullu Approved by: JoAnn Milliken Date: April 4, 2006 Item: "... if 175 billion kWh of grid electricity (10% of the growth of the electric generation market in 2025) is replaced by fuel cells operating on hydrogen at 50% LHV efficiency, about 10.5 million tons of hydrogen would be needed. If this hydrogen were made from a non-carbon (e.g. nuclear) or net-zero carbon (e.g. biomass, coal with carbon sequestration) source, then it could potentially displace about 27.5 million tons of carbon." Calculations/References: Analysis by TIAX for DOE, August 24, 2005: * "10.5 million tons of hydrogen" Required H 2 = 175 billion kWhe

112

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Azobenzene-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes As High-Energy Density Solar Thermal Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Azobenzene-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes As High-Energy Density Solar Thermal Fuels ... Solar thermal fuels, which reversibly store solar energy in molecular bonds, are a tantalizing prospect for clean, renewable, and transportable energy conversion/storage. ... Here we present a novel solar thermal fuel, composed of azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes, with the volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. ...

Alexie M. Kolpak; Jeffrey C. Grossman

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

Wehrli, Bernhard

115

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures ... (1-4) Although the concept of SOFCs was first reported more than one century ago,(5) major technological advances in cell materials, reactor configuration, operation mode, and balance of plant system integration and optimization were realized in the last 20–30 years only. ... The hybrid start-up process is optimized with respect to a specific setup as an example, but is of general nature and utility to similar systems. ...

Chao Su; Yubo Chen; Wei Wang; Ran Ran; Zongping Shao; João C. Diniz da Costa; Shaomin Liu

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

116

Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLDGDL)(catalyst) (pulsed laser deposition PLD) (plasma plume) () #12;III Abstract key word: Fuel CellPulsed Laser. People begin to develop fuel cells for seeking alternative energy sources. Fuel cell use the chemical

117

Strategic power plant investment planning under fuel and carbon price uncertainty.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The profitability of power plant investments depends strongly on uncertain fuel and carbon prices. In this doctoral thesis, we combine fundamental electricity market models with… (more)

Geiger, Ansgar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fabrication of carbon-aerogel electrodes for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An experiment was done to determine the ability to fabricate carbon aerogel electrodes for use in a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). It was found… (more)

Tharp, Ronald S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

Steinfeld, George (Southbury, CT); Meyers, Steven J. (Huntington Beach, CA); Lee, Arthur (Fishkill, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture ... CO2 can be captured from 34% to over 50% solar energy efficiency (depending on the level of solar heat inclusion), as solid carbon and stored, or used as carbon monoxide to be available for a feedstock to synthesize (with STEP generated hydrogen) solar diesel fuel, synthetic jet fuel, or chemical production. ... STEP Iron, a Chemistry of Iron Formation without CO2 Emission: Molten Carbonate Solubility and Electrochemistry of Iron Ore Impurities ...

Stuart Licht; Baohui Wang; Susanta Ghosh; Hina Ayub; Dianlu Jiang; Jason Ganley

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

Licht, Stuart

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

Landfill Gas Cleanup for Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Generation: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the United States and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined.

Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Structure of middle distillate fuels on the atomic carbon and hydrogen to carbon ratio at alpha position to aromatic rings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The alkyl, naphthenic, or total carbon atoms of the functional groups at alpha position to aromatic rings and their hydrogen to carbon ratio are some of the important parameters for structural analysis of fossil fuel products. In this paper, the authors present a number of novel formula-structure relationships for precise determination of different carbon atom types at alpha position to aromatic rings and the average number of hydrogens per alpha-carbon.

Glavincevski, B.; Gulder, O.L.; Gardner, L

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Application of advanced fuel cells for utility load leveling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three system designs are described and analyzed for Molten Carbonate (MCFC) and Solid Oxide (SOFC) Fuel Cells operating on natural gas. The two MCFC systems reach fuel to bus bar efficiencies of 50% HHV and can be ramped up or down over short time spans. The SOFC system is less efficient, but has fewer components and can also follow load variations. The effect of electrochemical fuel utilization on net system efficiencies and subsystem behavior is analyzed.

Krumpelt, M.; Fee, D.C.; Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Optical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon-Based Nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and thermal systems as an advanced heat-transfer fluid, e.g., advanced cooling of electronics systemsOptical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon characteristics of nanofluid fuels with stable suspension of carbon-based nanostructures under radiation

Qiao, Li

128

Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S. energy and carbon intensity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a lower energy-and-carbon-intensive mix of economicintensity into fuel mix and energy intensity terms. Thisof fuel mix and weather on energy and carbon intensity using

Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa , Frédéric MAILLARDb , Jean of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells in order to decrease the mass transport limitations The catalytic layer configuration is a key-element in the design of PEM fuel cells [1]. Indeed, besides

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Cost-Effective Choices of Marine Fuels in a Carbon-Constrained World: Results from a Global Energy Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Choices of Marine Fuels in a Carbon-Constrained World: Results from a Global Energy Model ... † Department

Maria Taljegard; Selma Brynolf; Maria Grahn; Karin Andersson; Hannes Johnson

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

131

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

132

Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

1996-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Carbonation of Fly Ash in Oxy-fuel CFB Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion of fossil fuel is one of the most promising methods to produce a stream of concentrated CO2 ready for sequestration. Oxy-fuel FBC (fluidized bed combustion) can use limestone as a sorbent for

Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capping an industry’s carbon emissions per unit of output.be an increase in carbon emissions. The LCFS may also reducestandard, which limits carbon emissions per unit of output,

Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

139

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hansen,3 T. W. Kirchstetter,1 M. Sato,3 J. E. Sinton,1 and J. A. Sathaye1 Received 26 September 2002, M. Sato, J. E. Sinton, and J. A. Sathaye, Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon

140

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Review of Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) Manufacture and Its Characteristics as a Fuel Additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Review of Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) Manufacture and Its Characteristics as a Fuel Additive ... Add to ACS ChemWorx ... Regeneration of this catalyst with dry HCl is an added complication. ...

Michael A. Pacheco; Christopher L. Marshall

1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide." Sciencefor CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyCTLs, or CTL synfuels), and oil shale-based synthetic crude

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

HISTORY | Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Together with the electric motor, dynamo, gas turbine, internal combustion engine, and the fused salt electrolysis of aluminum, the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century brought about the fuel cell – the silent or cold combustion of fossil fuels by the electrochemical oxidation with atmospheric oxygen to water and carbon dioxide. Wilhelm Ostwald, in 1894, emphasized the high efficiency and the nonpolluting properties of the direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity – in contrast to the then combination of steam engine and dynamo, which reached only about 10% efficiency. Direct coal fuel cells designed for the propulsion of ships, however, have not become a reality so far. Instead of fuel cells and batteries, internal combustion engines determined the nineteenth- and twentieth- century technological landscape. Against the background of the oil crisis and the long-term scarcity of natural gas, crude oil, and coal, new hopes have focused on fuel cell technology, which saw first early splendid applications during the space programs of the 1960s, in submarines since the 1980s, and in experimental zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) since the 1990s. This article outlines (1) early insights about energy conversion: Grove's cell, direct conversion of coal and indirect fuel cells; (2) historical roots of alkaline fuel cells: the discovery of gas diffusion electrodes; low-pressure alkaline fuel cell conquer spacecrafts and submarines; (3) polymer electrolyte fuel cells: solid polymer technology, electric vehicles, direct methanol fuel-cell, stationary power systems and portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems; (4) phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC): acid fuel cells, PAFC plants in Japan, gasoline fuel cells; and (5) high-temperature fuel cells: molten carbonate fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell.

P. Kurzweil

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA This paper investigates the effects of dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a PEM fuel cell. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel, although normally less than 5% in molar

Stefanopoulou, Anna

146

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Sivagaminathan Balasubramanian, Charles E. Holland,* and John W. Weidner*,z Center in reformate hydrogen. In this design, the potential and gas flow are switched between the two filter cells so

Weidner, John W.

147

Performance characteristic of a tubular carbon-based fuel cell short stack coupled with a dry carbon gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A carbon gasified carbon-based fuel cell (CFC) short stack was fabricated and investigated for generating effective carbon fuel cell reactions. Anode-supported tubular CFC cells with a 45 cm2 active electrode area were used to manufacture the CFC short stack, which was coupled with a dry gasifier induced by a reverse Boudouard reaction. Activated carbon (BET area 1800 m2/g) powder was mixed with K2CO3 powder (5 wt.%) and used to fill a dry gasifier as a solid carbon fuel, and pure CO2 gas was supplied to the gasifier. The CO fuel generated by the reverse Boudouard reaction in the dry gasifier increased the performance of the CFC short stack. The tubular CFC short stack showed a maximum power of 29.4 W at 800 °C. It was operated under a range of operating conditions by changing the operating temperature, flow rate of the pure CO2 and the thermal cycle operation. The results indicate that the fabricated tubular CFC is a promising power generation system candidate for many practical applications, such as residential power generation (RPG) and stationary power systems.

Tak-Hyoung Lim; Sun-Kyung Kim; Ui-Jin Yun; Jong-Won Lee; Seung-Bok Lee; Seok-Joo Park; Rak-Hyun Song

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy, Climate Topics: GHG inventory, Background...

151

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon anode fuels in molton salt media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are conducting research into the direct electrochemical conversion of reactive carbons into electricity--with experimental evidence of total efficiencies exceeding 80% of the heat of combustion of carbon. Together with technologies for extraction of reactive carbons from broad based fossil fuels, direct carbon conversion addresses the objectives of DOE's ''21st Century Fuel Cell'' with exceptionally high efficiency (>70% based on standard heat of reaction, {Delta}H{sub std}), as well as broader objectives of managing CO{sub 2} emissions. We are exploring the reactivity of a wide range of carbons derived from diverse sources, including pyrolyzed hydrocarbons, petroleum cokes, purified coals and biochars, and relating their electrochemical reactivity to nano/microstructural characteristics.

Cherepy, N; Krueger, R; Cooper, J F

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

152

The feasibility of a unitised regenerative fuel cell with a reversible carbon-based hydrogen storage electrode.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis seeks to experimentally demonstrate the possibility of reversible storage of hydrogen directly into a carbon-based electrode of a PEM unitised regenerative fuel cell.… (more)

Jazaeri, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

1990-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

154

Dissolution of Irradiated Commercial UO2 Fuels in Ammonium Carbonate and Hydrogen Peroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose and test a disposition path for irradiated nuclear fuel using ammonium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide media. We demonstrate on a 13 g scale that >98% of the irradiated fuel dissolves. Subsequent expulsion of carbonate from the dissolver solution precipitates >95% of the plutonium, americium, curium, and substantial amounts of fission products, effectively partitioning the fuel at the dissolution step. Uranium can be easily recovered from solution by any of several means, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, or direct precipitation. Ammonium carbonate can be evaporated from solution and recovered for re-use, leaving an extremely compact volume of fission products, transactinides, and uranium. Stack emissions are predicted to be less toxic, less radioactive, chemically simpler, and simpler to treat than those from the conventional PUREX process.

Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Hanson, Brady D.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Carson, Katharine J.; Peper, Shane M.

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

155

Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Carbon Nanotube Film by Filtration as Cathode Catalyst Support for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotube Film by Filtration as Cathode Catalyst Support for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell ... 1-10 Some early investigations found that by using the normal paste method and simply replacing carbon black particles with disordered multiwalled CNTs as the support for Pt catalyst nanoparticles higher PEMFC and DMFC performances were achieved. ... activity of the CNT cathode catalysts was measured in a direct methanol fuel cell by use of a Pt-Ru/C anode, and use of a Nafion-115 membrane. ...

Wenzhen Li; Xin Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Mahesh Waje; Yushan Yan

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

157

Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance.

Adam C. Rady; Sarbjit Giddey; Aniruddha Kulkarni; Sukhvinder P.S. Badwal; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Carbon monoxide-silicon carbide interaction in HTGR fuel particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The corrosion of the coating-layers of silicon carbide (SiC) by carbon monoxide (CO) was observed in irradiated Triso-coated uranium dioxide particles, used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, by optical ...

Kazuo Minato; Toru Ogawa; Satoru Kashimura; Kousaku Fukuda…

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Pt NANOCLUSTERS ON CARBON NANOMATERIALS FOR HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The detailed study of carbon nanomaterials constitution with allowance for of reduction conversions Pt (II, IV) allows to realize directional looking up of methods of preparation of platinum catalysts for redo...

N.S. KUYUNKO; S.D. KUSHCH; V.E. MURADYAN…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-negative voltage at the cathode initiates a dark discharge resulting in a reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. An experiment indicated that nearly 44% of the carbon dioxide in exhaust gas disappears after a high-voltage application to the cathode. The energy needed for the endothermic reaction of the carbon dioxidedissociation corresponding to this concentration reduction is provided mainly by the internal energy reduction of the discharge gas which is nearly 20 times the electrical energy for electron emission.

Han S. Uhm; Chul H. Kim

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Evaluation of cast carbon steel and aluminum for rack insert in MCO Mark 1A fuel basket  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document evaluates the effects ofusing a cast carbon steel or aluminum instead of 3O4L stainless steel in the construction ofthe fuel rack insert for the Spent Nuclear Fuel MCO Mark IA fuel baskets. The corrosion, structural, and cost effects are examined.

Graves, C.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

165

Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube-Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube-Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells Xing Xie energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC

Cui, Yi

167

Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon electricity generation: A technical note Robert Gross Ausilio Bauen ICEPT October 2005 #12;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections ................................................................................................................. 3 Current and projected medium-term costs of electricity generating technologies....... 4 Biofuels

168

Ranking of enabling technologies for oxy-fuel based carbon capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has begun a process to identify and rank enabling technologies that have significant impacts on pulverized coal oxy-fuel systems. Oxy-fuel combustion has been identified as a potential method for effectively capturing carbon in coal fired power plants. Presently there are a number of approaches for carbon capture via oxy-fuel combustion and it is important to order those approaches so that new research can concentrate on those technologies with high potentials to substantially lower the cost of reduced carbon electricity generation. NETL evaluates these technologies using computer models to determine the energy use of each technology and the potential impact of improvements in the technologies on energy production by a power plant. Near-term sub-critical boiler technologies are targeted for this analysis because: • most of the world continues to build single reheat sub-critical plants; • the overwhelming number of coal fired power plants requiring retrofit for CO2 capture are sub-critical plants. In addition, even in the realm of new construction, subcritical plants are common because they are well understood, easy to operate and maintain, fuel tolerant, and reliable. Following the initial investigation into sub-critical oxy-fuel technology, future investigations will move into the supercritical range.

Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.L.; Ciferno, J.P.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Mobility and Carbon: The Blind Side of Transport Fuel Demand in the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mobility and Carbon: The Blind Side of Transport Fuel Demand in the Mobility and Carbon: The Blind Side of Transport Fuel Demand in the Developed and Developing World Speaker(s): Lee Schipper Date: February 15, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Anita Estner James McMahon A new "Great Wall" has emerged in China, this one a string of miles of cars stuck in traffic. Emissions from road transport in developing countries are expected to rise sharply in the coming decades if current trends continue. Projections of passenger and freight activity, vehicle use, and CO2 emissions push up overall CO2 emissions by a factor of three in Latin American and five in Asia by 2030, even with fuel economy improvements. The increase in car use is in part a result of growing incomes and economic activity, but it also reflects the poor quality of transit and

170

Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (NDP-058) data Data image ASCII Text Documentation PDF file PDF file Contributors R. J. Andres, G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews (contributors) DOI DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058 This data package presents data sets recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

171

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons ... (1, 3-6) Methanol and derived dimethyl ether (DME) are also excellent fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE) and in a new generation of direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFC), as well as convenient starting materials for producing light olefins (ethylene and propylene) and subsequently practically any derived hydrocarbon product. ... Methanol produced this way was used in the 19th century for lighting, cooking, and heating purposes but was later replaced by cheaper fuels, especially kerosene. ...

George A. Olah; Alain Goeppert; G. K. Surya Prakash

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

172

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003?2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8?GtC? yr?1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

G Myhre; K Alterskj?r; D Lowe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2012 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2009. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

174

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2013 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2010. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

175

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2011 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of del 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2008. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric del 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

176

Table 2. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,,,," Shares " "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas" "Alabama",67.81545193,35.95576449,28.97505976,132.7462762,0.5108651925,0.2708608145,0.218273993 "Alaska",1.364880388,19.58916888,17.77313443,38.72718369,0.03524347131,0.5058247724,0.4589317562 "Arizona",43.2377726,34.82066125,17.85460129,95.91303514,0.4508018387,0.3630440972,0.1861540641 "Arkansas",27.72445786,23.82768621,14.56726112,66.11940519,0.4193089424,0.3603735717,0.2203174859 "California",5.157135123,241.2575077,123.3955377,369.8101805,0.01394535736,0.6523820067,0.3336726359

177

Sulphur impacts during pulverised coal combustion in oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxy-fuel process is one of three carbon capture technologies which supply CO2 ready for sequestration – the others being post-combustion capture and IGCC with carbon capture. As yet no technology has emerged as a clear winner in the race to commercial deployment. The oxy-fuel process relies on recycled flue gas as the main heat carrier through the boiler and results in significantly different flue gas compositions. Sulphur has been shown in the study to have impacts in the furnace, during ash collection, CO2 compression and transport as well as storage, with many options for its removal or impact control. In particular, the effect of sulphur containing species can pose a risk for corrosion throughout the plant and transport pipelines. This paper presents a technical review of all laboratory and pilot work to identify impacts of sulphur impurities from throughout the oxy-fuel process, from combustion, gas cleaning, compression to sequestration with removal and remedial options. An economic assessment of the optimum removal is not considered. Recent oxy-fuel pilot trials performed in support of the Callide Oxy-fuel Project and other pilot scale data are interpreted and combined with thermodynamic simulations to develop a greater fundamental understanding of the changes incurred by recycling the flue gas. The simulations include a sensitivity analysis of process variables and comparisons between air fired and oxy-fuel fired conditions - such as combustion products, SO3 conversion and limestone addition.

Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Transport Properties of Molten Transuranic Chloride Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Accelerator Research Laboratory at Texas A&M is proposing a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt (ADSMS), a system that destroys the transuranic elements in used nuclear fuel. The transuranics (TRU) are the most...

Baty, Austin Alan

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

179

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Carbon nanotube (CNT) gas sensors for emissions from fossil fuel burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fossil fuels endow wide applications in industrial, transportation, and power generation sectors. However, smoke released by burning fossil fuels contains toxic gases, which pollutes the environment and severely affects human health. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potential material for gas sensors due to their high structural porosity and high specific surface area. Defects present on the CNT sidewalls and end caps facilitate adsorption of gas molecules. The chemical procedures adopted to purify and disperse carbon nanotubes create various chemical groups on their surface, which further enhance the adsorption of gas molecules and thus improve the sensitivity of CNTs. Present review focuses on CNT chemiresistive gas sensing mechanisms, which make them suitable for the development of next generation sensor technology. The resistance of carbon nanotubes decreases when oxidizing gas molecules adsorb on their surface, whereas, adsorption of reducing gas molecules results in increasing the resistance of CNTs. Sensing ability of carbon nanotubes for the gases namely, NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and SO2, released on burning of fossil fuels is reviewed. This review provides basic understanding of sensing mechanisms, creation of adsorption sites by chemical processes and charge transfer between adsorbed gas molecules and surface of CNTs. In addition, useful current update on research and development of CNT gas sensors is provided.

M. Mittal; A. Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Corrosion Behavior of AISI 316L Stainless Steel and ODS FeAl Aluminide in Eutectic Li2CO3–K2CO3 Molten Carbonates under Flowing CO2–O2 Gas Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A kinetics study on AISI 316L stainless steel and ODS(Oxide-Dispersion-Strenghtened) FeAl iron aluminide was conducted concerningits corrosion behavior in moltenLi2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic at 650°C in flowingCO2-O2 gas...

S. Frangini

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The European carbon balance. Part 1: fossil fuel emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyzed the magnitude, the trends and the uncertainties of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in the European Union 25 member states (hereafter EU-25), based on emission inventories from energy-use statistics. The stability of emissions during the past decade at EU-25 scale masks decreasing trends in some regions, offset by increasing trends elsewhere. In the recent 4 years, the new Eastern EU-25 member states have experienced an increase in emissions, reversing after a decade-long decreasing trend. Mediterranean and Nordic countries have also experienced a strong acceleration in emissions. In Germany, France and United Kingdom, the stability of emissions is due to the decrease in the industry sector, offset by an increase in the transportation sector. When four different inventories models are compared, we show that the between-models uncertainty is as large as 19% of the mean for EU-25, and even bigger for individual countries. Accurate accounting for fossil CO2 emissions depends on a clear understanding of system boundaries, i.e. emitting activities included in the accounting. We found that the largest source of errors between inventories is the use of distinct systems boundaries (e.g. counting or not bunker fuels, cement manufacturing, nonenergy products). Once these inconsistencies are corrected, the between-models uncertainty can be reduced down to 7% at EU-25 scale. The uncertainty of emissions at smaller spatial scales than the country scale was analyzed by comparing two emission maps based upon distinct economic and demographic activities. A number of spatial and temporal biases have been found among the two maps, indicating a significant increase in uncertainties when increasing the resolution at scales finer than 200 km. At 100km resolution, for example, the uncertainty of regional emissions is estimated to be 60 gCm2 yr1, up to 50% of the mean. The uncertainty on regional fossil-fuel CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere could be reduced by making accurate 14C measurements in atmospheric CO2, and by combining them with transport models.

Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Paris, J. D. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Peylin, Philippe [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Piao, S. L. [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; River, L. [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Levin, I. [University of Heidelberg; Pregger, T. [Universitat Stuttgart; Scholz, Y. [Universitat Stuttgart; Friedrich, R. [Universitat Stuttgart; Schulze, E.-D. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

1999-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

184

Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is compatible with much of the existing fuel infrastructure.

Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

Gourishankar, K. V.

1998-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

186

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

187

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

188

Ceramic-composite waste forms from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a method to treat spent nuclear fuel in a molten-salt electrorefiner. Glass...

C. Pereira; M. Hash; M. Lewis; M. Richmann

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Behavior of carbonate-rich fuels in ACFBC and PFBC conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estonian oil shale is known as one of richest in carbonate fuels. High mineral matter content (60--75% in dry mass), moderate moisture (9--12%) and carbonate carbon dioxide content (17--19%), and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg as received) are characteristic for Estonian oil shale. Approximately half of the mineral matter is in the carbonate form, mainly as calcium carbonate. The sulfur content of dry mass is 1.5--1.7% and Ca/S molar ratio is 8--10. Due to limestone present in oil shale, the additional sorbent for sulfur retention during combustion is not needed. The behavior of carbonates as well as the formation of ash at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was the main topics to study. At Thermal Engineering Department (TED) of Tallinn Technical University a laboratory pressurized combustion facility was used for investigation the decomposition of soil shale carbonates in atmospheric and pressurized burning conditions. The experiments with oil shale were performed at pressures 0.1 MPa and 1.2 MPa and at the temperature 850 C. Based on the carbonate decomposition rate (CDR) 0.3--0.4 established experimentally at pressurized combustion, it may be concluded that the heating value of oil shale increases approximately by 5.5--8% and the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gas decreases by 13--20% compared with the conditions of the complete decomposition of carbonate. Combustion of oil shale was tested in 0.15--1.0 MW{sub th} test facilities. The tests confirmed the suitability of both ACFBC and PFBC technologies to utilize oil shale. The tests showed a nearly complete binding of sulfur by oil shale ash and a limited formation of NO{sub x} at combustion. Oil shale FBC is characterized by the formation of large amounts (40--85% from total) of fine-grained fly ash.

Ots, A.; Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.

Gmeindl, Frank D. (Morgantown, WV); Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...

Chakroun, Nadim Walid

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

State-By-State Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in the United States 1960–2000  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time series of fossil fuel carbon emissions from 1960–2000 for each of the U.S. states and the District of Columbia are presented and discussed. Comparison of the nationally summarized results with other natio...

T. J. Blasing; Christine Broniak…

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

New materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells to be powered by carbon- and sulfur-containing fuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to use a wide variety of fuels, including hydrocarbons and gasified coal or… (more)

Yang, Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy, Climate Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/meth_reg.html Country: United States, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Luxembourg, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Egypt, South Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand

195

Carbonized Hemoglobin Functioning as a Cathode Catalyst for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

development, i.e., (a) transition from poly(styrenesulfonic acid) to Nafion-type membranes; (b) a 10- to 100-fold redn. in the platinum loading in electrode by using nanosize electrocatalyst particles supported on high surface area carbon and impregnation of the proton conducting electrolyte into the active layer of the electrode; (c) optimization of structure of electrode and of membrane and electrode assembly to enhance power densities to 0.5-0.7 W/cm2 at desirable efficiencies; and (d) using Nafion-type membranes for direct methanol fuel cells instead of liq. ... Preparative procedures were optimized to enhance the performance of these nanocomposites as anode electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cells. ... To improve the performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), it is necessary to optimize the structure of the interface between polymer electrolyte and catalyst particles in the electrodes of PEMFCs. ...

Jun Maruyama; Ikuo Abe

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

196

Carbon and energy prices under uncertainty: A theoretical analysis of fuel switching with heterogenous power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract European power producers have a major influence on the EU ETS, given that both their CO2 emissions and their EUA (European Union Allowance) allocations account for more than half of the total volumes of the scheme. Fuel switching is often considered as the main short-term abatement measure under the EU ETS. It consists in substituting combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) for hard-coal plants in power generation. Thereby coal plants run for shorter periods, and CO2 emissions are reduced. This paper provides the first theoretical analysis of fuel switching, in a context where power plants involved are not equally efficient. We begin with a preliminary work using illustrative examples and sensitivity analyses, which enables us to observe how differences in the efficiency of power plants impact the cost of fuel switching, and how this is related to the level of switching effort. Based on this, we build a theoretical model taking into account the effect of differences in the efficiency of power plants involved in fuel switching. We also investigate the effect of the timing of fuel switching abatements, within the temporally defined environment of our dynamic model. Results demonstrate that the gas price and uncontrolled CO2 emissions act together on the carbon price. We show that the influence of the gas price on the carbon price depends on the level of uncontrolled CO2 emissions, due to heterogeneity of power plants that are used in the fuel switching process. Furthermore, we show that the time of occurrence of uncontrolled emissions matters so that shocks have a stronger impact when they occur in a period that is closed to the end of the phase.

Vincent Bertrand

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Electroreduction of Oxygen in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells by Activated Carbon Coated Cobalt Nanocrystallites Produced by Electric Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electroreduction of Oxygen in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells by Activated Carbon Coated Cobalt Nanocrystallites Produced by Electric Arc Discharge ... A recent review of the encapsulation of rare earth and iron group metals (Fe, Co, Ni) using electric arc discharge has been published by Saito. ... Nanotubes have been observed after activation of catalytically inactive carbon-coated Co nanocrystallites generated by electric arc discharge. ...

G. Lalande; D. Guay; J. P. Dodelet; S. A. Majetich; M. E. McHenry

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

199

Chapter 4 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this chapter, hydrogen and fuel cell systems are introduced. Hydrogen is closely related to fuel cells because fuel cells are very efficient devices for power generation which when supplied with hydrogen generate non-polluting effluents, mainly water or steam. A hydrogen economy is necessary in the context of continuous growth of population and per-capita energy consumption. In this context, renewable energy solutions—especially solar—become more important and their harvesting requires hydrogen as energy carrier. Therefore the role of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in power generation becomes very important. As detailed in the chapter, these systems are useful for converting the fluctuating and intermittent energy of renewable sources and providing power on demand. Hydrogen and fuel cell systems can work either as grid-connected or as independent power generators. Connection to the grid allows for better load leveling and major savings as well as for reduction of pollution associated with power generation. Hydrogen can also be used to power residences and to cogenerate heat or other commodities. In addition, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies are much required for the transportation sector, where they can contribute to pollution and cost reduction and increased efficiency. Hydrogen production methods are reviewed in this chapter with a focus on electrolysis and thermochemical cycles. These systems appear to be leading technologies for the future. Other revised hydrogen production methods are gasification and reforming, which are very relevant for biomass conversion into hydrogen. Photochemical and photo-biochemical hydrogen production methods are also discussed. All types of fuel cells are introduced; these include alkaline, proton-exchange-membrane, phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, direct methanol, and direct ammonia fuel cells. Construction and specific application for power generation are presented for each type. The modeling and optimization aspects of fuel cells and their systems are explained. Several power generation systems with fuel cells are discussed, in which each type of fuel cells has specific system requirements. The overall system must include various types of separators, pumps, and compressors depending on the case. In aqueous systems water must be recycled, e.g., in the case of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells water must be actually fed in excess so that the membrane is wetted. Also for a direct methanol fuel cell water must be recovered and recycled. In molten carbonate fuel cell systems carbon dioxide must be recovered and recycled. In solid oxide fuel cell systems, the fuel must be supplied in excess and is not completely consumed; therefore it is important to couple these systems with gas turbines.

Ibrahim Dincer; Calin Zamfirescu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Selective adsorption of tert-butylmercaptan and tetrahydrothiophene on modified activated carbons for fuel processing in fuel cell applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of surface oxidation and KOH impregnation on activated carbon for the selective adsorption of tert-butylmercaptan (TBM) and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) present in natural fuel gas were studied. Physicochemical properties of the adsorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface pH measurements. Oxidation treatments by HNO3 or H2O2 gave rise to considerable increases in both TBM and THT adsorption capacity, about a threefold enhancement from those on pristine activated carbon. Notably, it was found that the oxidative modifications led to an enhancement in THT adsorption selectivity, whereas KOH impregnation led to a marked increase in TBM adsorption selectivity. The properties of the adsorption sites and the adsorption strength of TBM and THT on the sites were characterized. These results agree well with the experimental sulfur adsorption capacities of the samples and can be explained by an adsorption model proposed in this work.

Phuoc Hoang Ho; So-Yun Lee; Doohwan Lee; Hee-Chul Woo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

basis (e.g. , to remove bunker fuels, cement production,+ imports ?exports ? bunkers ? non ? fuel uses ? stockMarland and Rotty, 1984). Bunker fuels are fuels used in

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Energy. “Alternative Fuels Data Center (HomeMotor Fuels: the Alternative Fuels Trade Model. Oak Ridge,Challenges for Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Transportation

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Energy. “Alternative Fuels Data Center (HomeMotor Fuels: the Alternative Fuels Trade Model. Oak Ridge,Challenges for Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Transportation

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

205

Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Converting Plants to Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab's Chris Somerville is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls, which comprise most of the body mass of higher plants. He views the knowledge of cell wall structure and function as furthering the development of plants with improved usefulness: these plants are strong potential sources of renewable materials and biofuel feedstocks. His scientific expertise defines an ideal match of his interest - in the development of cellulosic and other solar-to-fuel science - with his recent appointment as Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). With colleagues in biology, physical sciences, engineering, and environmental and the social sciences, he now leads the EBI multidisciplinary teams' research efforts to develop next-generation, carbon-neutral transportation fuels.

Somerville, Chris

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

207

Dioxin and trace metal emissions from combustion of carbonized RDF slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1994, the U.S. generated approximately 209 million tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), with 61% landfilled, 24% recycled, and 15% processed through Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC). In order to divert a larger portion of this generated MSW from landfills, MWC will have to play a growing role in MSW disposal. However, recently promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for MWC will add an additional financial burden, through mandated emission reductions and air pollution control technologies, to an already financially pressured MWC marketplace. In the past, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a solid fuel produced from MSW, has been fired in industrial and coal boilers as an alternative means of MWC. While lower sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions provided the impetus, firing RDF in industrial and coal boilers frequently suffered from several disadvantages including increased solids handling, increased excess air requirements, increased air emissions, increased slag formation in the boiler, and higher fly ash resistivity. This paper summarizes the latest emissions and combustion tests with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel. With EnerTech`s SlurryCarb{trademark} process, a pumpable slurry of RDF is continuously pressurized with a pump to between 1200 and 2500 psi. The RDF slurry is pressurized above the saturated steam curve to maintain a liquid state when the slurry is heated to approximately 480-660{degrees}F. Slurry pressure and temperature then are maintained for less than 30 minutes in plug-flow reactors. At this temperature and pressure, oxygen functional groups in the molecular structure of the RDF are split off as carbon dioxide gas. This evolved carbon dioxide gas comprises a significant weight percentage of the feed RDF, but only a minimal percentage of the heating value.

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Fisher, M. [American Plastics Council, Washington, DC (United States); Singhania, A. [American Plastics Council/Amoco Chemicals, Alpharetta, GA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To utilize landfill gas for power generation using carbonate fuel cells, the LFG must be cleaned up to remove sulfur and chlorine compounds. This not only benefits the operation of the fuel cell, but also benefits the environment by preventing the emission of these contaminants to the atmosphere. Commercial technologies for gas processing are generally economical in relatively large sizes (3 MMSCFD or larger), and may not achieve the low levels of contaminants required. To address the issue of LFG clean-up for fuel cell application, a process was developed utilizing commercially available technology. A pilot-scale test facility utilizing this process was built at a landfill site in Anoka, Minnesota using the EPRI fuel cell test facility used for coal gas testing. The pilot plant was tested for 1000 hours, processing 970,000 SCF (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of landfill gas. Testing indicated that the process could achieve the following concentrations of contaminants in the clean gas: Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppm (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv if any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm (average) Sulfur Dioxide. The paper describes the LFG composition for bulk and trace compounds; evaluation of various methods to clean landfill gas; design of a LFG cleanup system; field test of pilot-scale gas cleanup process; fuel cell testing on simulated landfill gas; single cell testing on landfill gas contaminants and post test analysis; and design and economic analyses of a full scale gas cleanup system.

Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Can ethanol alone meet California's low carbon fuel standard? An evaluation of feedstock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The feasibility of meeting California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) using ethanol from various feedstocks is assessed. Lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, direct agricultural land use, petroleum displacement directly due to ethanol blending, and production costs for a number of conventional and lignocellulosic ethanol pathways are estimated under various supply scenarios. The results indicate that after considering indirect land use effects, all sources of ethanol examined, except Midwest corn ethanol, are viable options to meet the LCFS. However, the required ethanol quantity depends on the GHG emissions performance and ethanol availability. The quantity of ethanol that can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass resources within California is insufficient to meet the year 2020 LCFS target. Utilizing lignocellulosic ethanol to meet the LCFS is more attractive than utilizing Brazilian sugarcane ethanol due to projected lower direct agricultural land use, dependence on imported energy, ethanol cost, required refueling infrastructure modifications and penetration of flexible fuel E85 vehicles. However, advances in cellulosic ethanol technology and commercial production capacity are required to support moderate- to large-scale introduction of low carbon intensity cellulosic ethanol. Current cellulosic ethanol production cost estimates suffer from relatively high uncertainty and need to be refined based on commercial scale production data when available.

Yimin Zhang; Satish Joshi; Heather L MacLean

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Ordered Hierarchical Nanostructured Carbon as a Highly Efficient Cathode Catalyst Support in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ordered hierarchical nanostructured carbon (OHNC) has been fabricated through inverse replication of silica template and explored for the first time to support high loading of Pt nanoparticles as cathode catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). ... Ordered porous carbon materials with three-dimensionally interconnected pore structures and highly developed porosity have a variety of potential applications such as catalyst supports in low temperature fuel cells,(1, 2) electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors(3, 4) and for lithium ion batteries,(5) adsorbents, and hydrogen storage materials. ... Carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC) is widely used as an electrocatalyst support in the PEMFCs due to its relatively large surface area and excellent chemical stability in the fuel cell environment. ...

Baizeng Fang; Jung Ho Kim; Minsik Kim; Jong-Sung Yu

2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

211

System and process for the production of syngas and fuel gasses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The production of gasses and, more particularly, to systems and methods for the production of syngas and fuel gasses including the production of hydrogen are set forth. In one embodiment system and method includes a reactor having a molten pool of a material comprising sodium carbonate. A supply of conditioned water is in communication with the reactor. A supply of carbon containing material is also in communication with the reactor. In one particular embodiment, the carbon containing material may include vacuum residuum (VR). The water and VR may be kept at desired temperatures and pressures compatible with the process that is to take place in the reactor. When introduced into the reactor, the water, the VR and the molten pool may be homogenously mixed in an environment in which chemical reactions take place including the production of hydrogen and other gasses.

Bingham, Dennis N; Kllingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Benefiel, Bradley C

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Accelerator-Based Irradiation Creep of Pyrolytic Carbon Used in TRISO Fuel Particles for the (VHTR) Very Hight Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the important structural materials in the TRISO fuel particles which will be used in the next generation of gas-cooled very-high-temperature reactors (VHTR). When the TRISO particles are under irradiation at high temperatures, creep of the PyC layers may cause radial cracking leading to catastrophic particle failure. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the creep behavior of PyC during irradiation is required to predict the overall fuel performance.

Lumin Wang; Gary Was

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

213

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Energy and Environmental Solutions

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

various data sets, estimates of bunker fuel consumption forvarious data sets, estimates of bunker fuel consumption foras international marine bunker fuel. For the remaining 5% of

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as international marine bunker fuel. For the remaining 5% ofOf the distillate fuel consumed by all marine vessels, weresidual fuel oil from international marine travel. However,

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prospects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells,” Organization forquiet and powerful. .Hydrogen and fuel cells also offer thevehicles (PHEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

Jonemann, M.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fuel cells for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuel cell is a nineteenth century invention and a twentieth century technology development. Due to the high power and energy density, high efficiency, reliability, and production of pure water, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems have no competition as auxiliary power sources for space vehicles. The alkaline fuel cell system is a well developed and proven technology for this application. The solid polymer electrolyte system may be its future competitor. The energy crisis of 1973 stimulated research, development and demonstration of the phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems using natural gas, petroleum or coal derived hydrogen (and carbon monoxide for the high temperature systems) for terrestrial applications. The direct methanol-air fuel cell is still an electrochemist's dream. Though considerable technological advances have been made, the present price of crude oil, and the high capital costs and limited lifetime of fuel cell systems impede their terrestrial applications in the developed countries. Conversely, the potential for lower capital costs of labor intensive manufacturing processes and the relatively higher fossil fuel prices make these systems more attractive for such applications in the developing countries. 11 refs.

Srinivasan, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from diesel (or marine bunker fuel) to electricity, assumingports. Marine capacity will be competing with non-fuel goods

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from diesel (or marine bunker fuel) to electricity, assumingports. Marine capacity will be competing with non-fuel goods

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

DR Brown; R Jones

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

223

Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review article presents: the current status and expected progress status of the fuel cell research and development programs in the USA, electrochemical problem areas, techno-economic assessments of fuel cells for electric and/or gas utilities and for transportation, and other candidate fuel cells and their applications. For electric and/or gas utility applications, the most likely candidates are phosphoric, molten carbonate, and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum-derived, or biomass fuels to hydrogen), while the second and third will be linked with a coal gasifier. A fuel cell/battery hybrid power source is an attractive option for electric vehicles with projected performance characteristics approaching those for internal combustion or diesel engine powered vehicles. For this application, with coal-derived methanol as the fuel, a fuel cell with an acid electrolyte (phosphoric, solid polymer electrolyte or super acid) is essential; with pure hydrogen (obtained by splitting of water using nuclear, solar or hydroelectric energy), alkaline fuel cells show promise. A fuel cell researcher's dream is the development of a high performance direct methanol-air fuel cell as a power plant for electric vehicles. For long or intermittent duty cycle load leveling, regenerative hydrogen-halogen fuel cells exhibit desirable characteristics.

Srinivasan, S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation.

Ralph E.H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Attenuated degradation of a PEMFC cathode during fuel starvation by using carbon-supported IrO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

IrO2, a water electrolysis catalyst, has been known to be effective in preventing corrosion of the carbon support in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Particulate IrO2 can agglomerate easily, which can decrease substantially the catalytic surface area required for oxygen evolution reaction, causing the loss of catalytic efficiency. Furthermore, agglomerated IrO2 nanoparticles can have an adverse effect on the oxygen reduction reaction by covering the active surface area of the Pt/C cathode catalyst, which is a damaging factor for the intrinsic performance of PEMFC. Carbon-supported iridium oxide, IrO2/C, which can prevent the agglomeration of Ir nanoparticles more effectively, was synthesized to overcome these problems. Compared to the cell with the Pt/C cathode only, the cell with 10 wt.% IrO2 particles and Pt/C cathode showed stronger durability during fuel starvation but the cell performance at normal operation decreased severely by 35%. The cell with the same amount of IrO2 dispersed on a carbon support, 10 wt.% IrO2/C, showed similar durability during fuel starvation maintaining the cell performance comparable to the cell using a Pt/C cathode only. Carbon-supported IrO2, IrO2/C, was more effective than IrO2 particles in both maintaining the intrinsic performance and improving the cell durability during fuel starvation.

Injoon Jang; Imgon Hwang; Yongsug Tak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

61 4.3 Carbon capture andPart II: Policy Analysis Page 5 R12: Carbon capture andstorage If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

61 4.3 Carbon capture andPart II: Policy Analysis Page 5 R12: Carbon capture andstorage If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

230

European Fuel Cells R&D Review. Final report, Purchase Order No. 062014  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J. [Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Polarization Losses under Accelerated Stress Test Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Supported Pt Catalyst in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical behavior for Pt catalysts supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Vulcan XC-72 in proton exchange membrane fuel cells under accelerated stress test was examined by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization technique. Pt catalyst supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes exhibited highly stable electrochemical surface area, oxygen reduction kinetics, and fuel cell performance at a highly oxidizing condition, indicating multiwalled carbon nanotubes show high corrosion resistance and strong interaction with Pt nanoparticles. The Tafel slope, ohmic resistances, and limiting current density determined were used to differentiate kinetic, ohmic, mass-transfer polarization losses from the actual polarization curve. Kinetic contribution to the total overpotential was larger throughout the stress test. However, the fraction of kinetic overpotential decreased and mass-transfer overpotential portion remained quite constant during accelerated stress test, whereas the fraction of ohmic overpotential primarily originating from severe proton transport limitation in the catalyst layer increased under the anodic potential hold.

Park, Seh K.; Shao, Yuyan; Kou, Rong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

membranes membranes B-370 Post-Combustion membranes u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 eleCtroChemiCal membrane for Carbon DioxiDe CaPture & Power generation primary project goals FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing an electrochemical membrane (ECM)-based Combined Electric Power and Carbon Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture that also provides additional electrical power generation. The project includes bench-scale testing of an 11.7 m 2 -area ECM (molten carbonate fuel cell) system for CO 2 capture, purification, and compression. technical goals * Perform contaminant effect testing to establish maximum permissible concentrations of

233

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - News Release Archives  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 December 14, 2010 Hydrogen Bus Lets Lab Visitors Glimpse Future The hydrogen bus uses the same basic technology as a conventional gasoline-powered engine but runs on renewable hydrogen. October 25, 2010 New Report Identifies Ways to Reduce Cost of Fuel Cell Power Plants A new report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs. October 18, 2010 NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies NREL uses its hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine bus as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the lease for the bus to

234

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of residual fuel oil are identical in the inventory and inCARB SEDS inventory fuel use Residual fuel oil Distillatein their oil and gas extraction processes. In its inventory,

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biofuel”) and bio-based and FT diesel fuels are indicated,Diesel Bio-Diesel Hydrogen Electric Figure 5-6: Fuel energyDiesel Bio-Diesel Hydrogen Electric Figure 5-16: Fuel energy

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biofuel”) and bio-based and FT diesel fuels are indicated,Diesel Bio-Diesel Hydrogen Electric Figure 5-6: Fuel energyDiesel Bio-Diesel Hydrogen Electric Figure 5-19: Fuel energy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Analysis of Strategies of Companies under Carbon Constraint: Relationship between Profit Structure of Companies and Carbon/Fuel Price Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines the relationship between future carbon prices and the expected profit of companies by case studies with model companies. As the future carbon price will vary significantly in accordance with the political ...

Hashimoto, Susumu

238

Comparative degradation study of carbon supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts – The influence of the platinum to carbon ratio on the degradation rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A colloidal synthesis approach is used to prepare supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts with various Pt loadings – from low to extremely high ones. The catalyst samples are used to continue our investigation of the role of the Pt:C ratio in the degradation processes. The influence of the platinum loading on the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss is evaluated in a systematic electrochemical study by using two commercially available carbon blacks, namely Vulcan XC72R and Ketjenblack EC-300J. Accelerated degradation tests simulating load cycle and start-up/shutdown conditions are carried out in accordance with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan (FCCJ) recommendations. Under conditions simulating the load cycle of PEM fuel cells no unambiguous correlation between the ECSA loss and the Pt:C ratio is found. By contrast, under conditions simulating the repetitive start-up/shutdown processes of \\{PEMFCs\\} the ECSA loss first increases with increasing Pt loading. However, it decreases again for very high loadings. Furthermore, the Vulcan samples exhibited higher ECSA losses than the Ketjenblack samples, indicating the important role of the physical and chemical properties of pristine carbon supports in the carbon degradation mechanism.

Jozsef Speder; Alessandro Zana; Ioannis Spanos; Jacob J.K. Kirkensgaard; Kell Mortensen; Marianne Hanzlik; Matthias Arenz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines.

Hershberger, J.; Ozturk, O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Woodford, J. B.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

2002-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

240

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel energy exceeds ethanol fuel energy on a GGE basis.2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel energy exceeds ethanol fuel energy on a GGE basis.2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 #2;C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

245

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalysis Dimethyl Ether Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropschpure hydrogen fuel product. Flash pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalysis Dimethyl Ether Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropschpure hydrogen fuel product. Flash pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen production could fuel about 30 million fuel cell cars,H2 fuel cell car uses 0.7 kg H2/day. However, hydrogen cancar, 30-50% more efficient than a gasoline hybrid, quiet and powerful. .Hydrogen and fuel cells

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen production could fuel about 30 million fuel cell cars,H2 fuel cell car uses 0.7 kg H2/day. However, hydrogen cancar, 30-50% more efficient than a gasoline hybrid, quiet and powerful. .Hydrogen and fuel cells

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

110 Table 4-14: WESTCARB carbon capture and sequestrationThat $25 charge might make carbon capture and storage (CCS)combined cycle with carbon capture and storage Natural gas

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

110 Table 4-14: WESTCARB carbon capture and sequestrationThat $25 charge might make carbon capture and storage (CCS)combined cycle with carbon capture and storage Natural gas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for calculating the carbon intensity of biofuels. London:is introduced with a carbon intensity of -14 gCO 2 eq. /the average biofuel carbon intensity to 40 gCO 2 eq. /MJ by

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

253

Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt test loop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Partnership, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Engineering AREVA and Sandia began operations of their molten salt...

254

Development of an anode structure consisting of graphite tubes and a SiC shroud for the electrowinning process in molten salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molten salt based pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel for actinide recycling...1]. These technologies have been developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Argonne West, USA) [2–4...]. The Korea Atomic En...

Tack-Jin Kim; Gha-Young Kim; Dalseong Yoon…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and a method are disclosed for converting hydrocarbon fuel or an alcohol into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. The apparatus includes a first vessel having a partial oxidation reaction zone and a separate steam reforming reaction zone that is distinct from the partial oxidation reaction zone. The first vessel has a first vessel inlet at the partial oxidation reaction zone and a first vessel outlet at the steam reforming zone. The reformer also includes a helical tube extending about the first vessel. The helical tube has a first end connected to an oxygen-containing source and a second end connected to the first vessel at the partial oxidation reaction zone. Oxygen gas from an oxygen-containing source can be directed through the helical tube to the first vessel. A second vessel having a second vessel inlet and second vessel outlet is annularly disposed about the first vessel. The helical tube is disposed between the first vessel and the second vessel and gases from the first vessel can be directed through second vessel.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H.J. (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The Marine Isolate Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y Shows Specific Adaptation to Use the Aromatic Fraction of Fuels as the Sole Carbon and Energy Source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In some ways, strain PP1Y has properties more similar to OHCBs rather than to other Sphingomonads. In fact, these marine bacteria use petroleum and fuels as carbon and energy sources and form...10, 31]. With the ...

Eugenio Notomista; Francesca Pennacchio; Valeria Cafaro…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium ... A simple and efficient process was presented for the selective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into the high-quality liquid fuel 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). ... (1-3) Among the many possible chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be produced from a variety of biomass-derived carbohydrates,(4-8) is recognized as a versatile intermediate (Scheme 1), and it can be further converted into a series of high-quality fuels such as ethyl levulinate (EL),(9) 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF),(10) 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF),(11) C9–C15 alkanes,(12) and high-value chemicals such as levulinic acid (LA),(13) 2,5-dihydroxymethylfurfural (DHMF),(14) 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF),(15) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). ...

Lei Hu; Xing Tang; Jiaxing Xu; Zhen Wu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2014-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

259

Refinement in the ultrasonic velocity data and estimation of the critical parameters for molten uranium dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the reactor and its vicinity. A reliable equation of state for the nuclear fuel, therefore, necessitates, reliable data on the sound prop- agation velocity in molten uranium dioxide have been obtained. An equation reserved. 1. Introduction The analysis of hypothetical and undesirable yet highly improbable accidents

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

260

Sandia National Laboratories: Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David Gill, ddgill@sandia.gov, (505)-844-1524. Tagged with: Concentrating Solar Power * CSP * Molten Salt * molten salt test loop * National Solar Thermal Test Facility * NSTTF *...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt energy storage demonstration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

molten salt energy storage demonstration Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power,...

262

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar...

263

Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power...

264

Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

Marchetti, George A. (Western Springs, IL)

2003-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

265

Sizing particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels using poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate autoradiography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels...low enriched, depleted and natural uranium and also aged...committed doses and cancer risks(4...Bristol, UK, sized uranium fragments found...nuclear fuels of depleted uranium (depUO2......

G. Hegyi; R. B. Richardson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil)residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil22 CHP plants. For petroleum coke, CALEB only reports final

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Carbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sources for countries heavily reliant on imported fuels4 . Why CCS is not just a synonym for `clean coal

268

On-line Monitoring of Actinide Concentrations in Molten Salt Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyroprocessing, a treatment method for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), is currently being studied at the Idaho National Laboratory. The key operation of pyroprocessing which takes place in an electrorefiner is the electrochemical separation of actinides from other constituents in spent fuel. Efficient operation of the electrorefiner requires online monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte. Square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and normal pulse voltammetry (NPV) are being investigated to assess their applicability to the measurement of actinide concentrations in the electrorefiner.

Curtis W. Johnson; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar; Shelly X. Li

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Novel Carbon Monoxide Sensor for PEM Fuel Cell Systems C.T. Holt, A.-M. Azad, S.L. Swartz, W.J. Dawson, and P.K. Dutta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel Carbon Monoxide Sensor for PEM Fuel Cell Systems C.T. Holt, A.-M. Azad, S.L. Swartz, W The importance of carbon monoxide sensors for automotive PEM fuel cell systems is illustrated by a schematic will protect the PEM fuel cell stack; detection of CO is extremely important because too much CO will poison

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

270

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The kinetics of gas-liquid metal reactions involving levitated drops. Carburization and decarburization of molten iron in Co-Co2 gas mixtures at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of decarburization and carburization of levitated molten iron-carbon alloy drops at 1650° in CO-CO2 gas mixtures were studied at a pressure of ... the rates were controlled by transport in the gas ph...

N. H. El-kaddah; D. G. C. Robertson

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

projection to meet the 2050 stabilization goal, the average carbon intensitycarbon intensity reductions. Developing consistent and reasonable cost projectionsprojection should be interpreted as a conservative rate of reduction in the average carbon intensity

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

projection to meet the 2050 stabilization goal, the average carbon intensitycarbon intensity reductions. Developing consistent and reasonable cost projectionsprojection should be interpreted as a conservative rate of reduction in the average carbon intensity

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Platinum/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid as Electrocatalysts for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Pt nanoparticles catalysts have been synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using platinum (II) acetylacetonate as metal precursor. The structure of the catalysts has been characterized with transmission electron micrograph (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TEM images show that platinum particles size is in the range of 5-10nm. XPS analysis indicates the presence of zero-valence platinum. The Pt-CNT exhibited high catalytic activity both for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction. The higher catalytic activity has been attributed to the large surface area of carbon nanotubes and the decrease in the overpotential for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction. Cyclic voltammetric measurements at different scan rates showed that the oxygen reduction reaction at the Pt-CNT electrode is a diffusion-controlled process. Analysis of the electrode kinetics using Tafel plot suggests that Pt-CNT from scCO2 provides a strong electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. For the methanol oxidation reaction, a high ratio of forward anodic peak current to reverse anodic peak current was observed at room temperature, which implies good oxidation of methanol to carbon dioxide on the Pt-CNT electrode. This work demonstrates that Pt-CNT nanocomposites synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide are effective electrocatalysts for low-temperature fuel cells.

Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli; Yen, Clive; Wai, Chien M.

2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

275

Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

276

Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Carbon nanotube/microwave interactions and applications to hydrogen fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??One of the leading problems that will be carried into the 21st century is that of alternative fuels to get our planet away from the… (more)

Imholt, Timothy James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

Willit, James L. (Ratavia, IL)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

279

Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

280

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

over the vehicle's useful life. Low carbon fuels include hydrogen, biomethane, electricity, or natural gas blends of at least 90%. State agencies must phase in fuel economy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Experimental study on optimized composition of mixed carbonate for phase change thermal storage in solar thermal power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

36 kinds of mixed carbonate molten salts were prepared by mixing potassium carbonate, lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate in accordance with different proportions. The data of melting point and latent heat are...

Nan Ren; Yu-ting Wu; Tao Wang; Chong-fang Ma

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Molten-Salt Reactor Program for power applications was initiated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1956. In 1965 the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) went critical and was successfully operated for several years. Operation of the MSRE revealed two deficiencies in the Hastelloy N alloy that had been developed specifically for molten-salt systems. The alloy embrittled at elevated temperatures as a result of exposure to thermal neutrons (radiation damage) and grain boundary embrittlement occurred in materials to fuel salt. Intergranular cracking was found to be associated with fission products, viz. tellurium. An improved Hastelloy N composition was subsequently developed that had better resistance to both of these problems. However, the discovery that fission product cracking could be significantly decreased by making the salt sufficiently reducing offers the prospect of improved compatibility with molten salts containing fission products and resistance to radiation damage in ABC applications. Recommendations are made regarding the types of corrosion tests and mechanistic studies needed to qualify materials for operation with PuF{sub 3}-containing molten salts.

DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Eatherly, W.P.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT] [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU] [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT] [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT] [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT] [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT] [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT] [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University] [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT] [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT] [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT] [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT] [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT] [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU] [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU] [MSU

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

284

Oxygen reduction on carbon-supported platinum fuel-cell electrodes in H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reduction of oxygen on carbon supported fuel cell electrodes was investigated in phosphoric acid electrolytes in the concentration range of 85% to 101% and at temperatures from 25/sup 0/ to 180/sup 0/C. In purified acid the Tafel slope in the potential region of 0.7 to 0.9 V RHE is approx. 120 mV/decade and is invariant with temperature. The activation energy for oxygen reduction is between 8 kcal and 13 kcal/mole. In impure 101% electrolyte the Tafel slope increases from a value of 85 mV/decade at 80/sup 0/C to 105 mV/decade at 180/sup 0/C and the activation energy is 18.29 kcal/mole. The major discrepancies in the literature can be rationalized on the basis of impurity effects. In pure electrolytes, the kinetic parameters on smooth platinum and high area carbon supported platinum are the same.

McBreen, J.; Olender, H.; Srinivasan, S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Natural gas combined cycle and renewablecoal gasification combined cycle with carbon captureand storage Natural gas combined cycle Price change and

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Natural gas combined cycle and renewablecoal gasification combined cycle with carbon captureand storage Natural gas combined cycle Price change and

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

section). Also, no conversion factor or carbon content isincludes the use of conversion factors. Since refinery fuelrefineries, a conversion factor specific to California

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The Potential for Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Renewable Energy: Photovoltaics and Fuel Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This presentation will detail our recent studies aimed at exploring how single-walled carbon nanotubes may be incorporated into sustainable energy conversion ...

Blackburn, Jeffrey

289

Response to “Comment on ‘Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning’ ” [Phys. Plasmas17, 014701 (2010)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-voltage cathode initiates an electron emission resulting in a reduction in the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. Assuming that the observed carbon dioxide reduction is originated from the molecular decomposition the energy needed for the endothermic reaction of this carbon dioxide reduction may stem primarily from the internal energy reduction in the exhaust gas in accordance of the first law of the thermodynamics. An oxygen increase due to the reduction in carbon dioxide in a discharge gas was observed in real time.

Han S. Uhm; Chul H. Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

study, such as diesel hybrid electric vehicles (D HEVs). Thefuel vehicle Yes Diesel hybrid electric vehicle No SparkF-T Diesel Bio-Diesel Hydrogen Electric Figure 5-6: Fuel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

study, such as diesel hybrid electric vehicles (D HEVs). Thefuel vehicle Yes Diesel hybrid electric vehicle No SparkF-T Diesel Bio-Diesel Hydrogen Electric Figure 5-6: Fuel

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel economies for diesel vehicles, electric vehicles, and10%, /85%) Low-GHG FT diesel blends Electric charging & H2study, such as diesel hybrid electric vehicles (D HEVs). The

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Separation of carbon dioxide with the use of chemical-looping combustion and gasification of fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Matters regarding using new technology for chemical-looping combustion of fuels for solving the problem of...2 (CO2 sequestration) are discussed. The primary results of investigations and possible schemes for imp...

G. A. Ryabov; O. M. Folomeev; D. S. Litun; D. A. Sankin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

An assessment of carbon sources for the production of synthetic fuels from nuclear hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the transportation sector, the current dependence on petroleum to satisfy large transportation fuel demand in the US is unsustainable. Oil resources are finite, and causing heavy US reliance on oil imports. Therefore, ...

Leung, MinWah

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (7 Rocky Brook Rd., Dover, MA 02030); Mitchell, William L. (111 Oakley Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (20 Landmark Rd., Westford, MA 01886); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (1 Richdale Ave.#2, Cambridge, MA 02140)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Civil Engineering CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Approved as to style and content by...

Baumann, Philip Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical characteristics capable of maintaining optimal joule heating and glass forming properties during the conversion process.

Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Carbon Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

299

Proceedings of the fuel cells `94 contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

METC annually sponsors this conference to provide a forum for energy executives, engineers, etc. to discuss advances in fuel cell research and development projects, to exchange ideas with private sector attendees, and to review relevant results in fuel cell technology programs. Two hundred and three people from industry, academia, and Government attended. The conference attempts to showcase the partnerships with the Government and with industry, by seeking activity participation and involvement from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EPRI, GRI, and APRA. In addition to sessions on fuel cells (solid oxide, molten carbonate, etc.) for stationary electric power generation, sessions on US DOE`s Fuel Cell Transporation Program and on DOD/APRA`s fuel cell logistic fuel program were presented. In addition to the 29 technical papers, an abstract of an overview of international fuel cell development and commercialization plans in Europe and Japan is included. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Carpenter, C.P. II; Mayfield, M.J. [eds.] [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

302

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

1990-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

303

Preliminary study on high temperature transport technology for molten salt in pyroprocessing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyroprocessing technology is one of the most promising technologies for an advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. In pyroprocessing technology, the development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a crucial prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. Three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated, a suction pump transport method was selected for molten salt transport owing to its flexibility. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high temperature molten salt transport technology. About 2 kg of LiCl–KCl eutectic salt was prepared by mixing 99.0%, LiCl and \\{KCl\\} and drying in a convection dry oven at 200 °C for 1 h. Predissolution tests of the prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt using the melting reactor of the experimental apparatus was carried out to investigate the dissolution behavior of the prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt. From the results of the pre-dissolution test, it was found that prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt was well dissolved at 500 °C. High temperature molten salt transport experiments by suction are currently being performed using the prepared LiC–KCl eutectic salt. The preliminary experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 m torr–10 torr at 500 °C.

Sung Ho Lee; Hansoo Lee; Jeong-Guk Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Fees and rebates on new vehicles: Impacts on fuel efficiency, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer surplus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several incentive systems are examined that provide rebates on vehicles with higher-than-average fuel efficiency and levy fees on vehicles with less efficiency. The rebates and fees are applied to new vehicles at the time of purchase, and the rates are set such that the total outlay for rebates equals the revenues from fees. We find that moderately-sized rebates and fees result in a substantial increase in average fuel efficiency. Most of the effect is due to manufacturers' incorporating more fuel-efficiency technologies into the vehicles that they offer, since the rebates and fees effectively lower the price to manufacturers of these technologies. Consumer surplus is found to rise, and the profits of domestic manufacturers are estimated to drop only slightly under most systems and actually to rise under one system.

Kenneth E. Train; William B. Davis; Mark D. Levine

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Methanol-tolerant carbon aerogel-supported Pt–Au catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pt–Au nanoparticles supported on carbon aerogel, namely 2:1 has been synthesized by the microwave-assisted polyol process. The structure of Pt–Au nanoparticles is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical property of Pt–Au catalysts for methanol oxidation is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results show that Au-modified Pt catalysts exhibit a high methanol tolerance and improved electrochemical catalytic activity, suggesting that carbon aerogel supported Pt–Au catalysts are better catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol than conventional Pt catalysts.

Hong Zhu; Zhijun Guo; Xinwei Zhang; Kefei Han; Yubao Guo; Fanghui Wang; Zhongming Wang; Yongsheng Wei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Graphite coated with manganese oxide/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites as anodes in marine benthic microbial fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improving anode performance is of great significance to scale up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) for its marine application to drive oceanography instruments. In this study, manganese oxide (MnO2)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites are prepared to be as novel anodes in the \\{BMFCs\\} via a direct redox reaction between permanganate ions (MnO4?) and MWCNTs. The results indicate that the MnO2/MWCNTs anode has a better wettability, greater kinetic activity and higher power density than that of the plain graphite (PG) anode. It is noted that the MnO2 (50% weight percent)/MWCNTs anode shows the highest electrochemical performance among them and will be a promising material for improving bioelectricity production of the BMFCs. Finally, a synergistic mechanism of electron transfer shuttle of Mn ions and their redox reactions in the interface between modified anode and bacteria biofilm are proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance.

Yubin Fu; Jian Yu; Yelong Zhang; Yao Meng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

310

Optimal Design of a Fossil Fuel-Based Hydrogen Infrastructure with Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Case Study in Ohio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrastructure with Carbon Capture and Sequestration: CaseINFRASTRUCTURE WITH CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION: CASEhydrogen production with carbon capture and sequestration,

Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ni, Jason; Johnson, Joshua; Lin, Zhenhong; Ogden, Joan M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Exploratory corrosion tests on alloys in molten salts at 900/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exploratory corrosion tests were conducted on 16 commercial alloys in carbonate, chloride, and hydroxide molten salts at 900/sup 0/C for up to three weeks. Corrosion information, including weight change, observations of the coupons, metallographic examination, and evaluation of the corrosion product by SEM, was obtained on the coupons exposed to these salts. These tests indicated that a number of the alloys showed significant resistance to metal loss in the carbonate molten salt with corrosion rates on the order of several millimeters per year. The corrosion product is an interpenetrating structure of metal from the more noble alloy ingredients and of an oxide made up of the reaction between melt components and oxidizable metals from the alloy.

Coyle, R.T.; Thomas, T.M.; Lai, G.Y.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the same project [1]. However, this work focuses on two materials: the LiF-BeF2 eutectic (67 and 33 mol%, respectively, also known as flibe) as primary coolant and the LiF-NaF-KF eutectic (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, respectively, also known as flinak) as secondary heat transport fluid. At first common issues are identified, involving the preparation and purification of the materials as well as the development of suitable diagnostics. Than issues specific to each material and its application are considered, with focus on the compatibility with structural materials and the extension of the existing properties database.

Pattrick Calderoni

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Reavis, J.G.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

315

Forests, carbon and global climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change...Atmosphere analysis Biomass Carbon metabolism Carbon...through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change...during fossil fuel and biomass combustion and the release of ammo...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Real-world fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions by driving conditions for light-duty passenger vehicles in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The increasing discrepancy between on-road and type-approval fuel consumption for \\{LDPVs\\} (light-duty passenger vehicles) has attracted tremendous attention. We measured on-road emissions for 60 \\{LDPVs\\} in three China's cities and calculated their fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. We further evaluated the impacts of variations in area-averaged speed on relative fuel consumption of gasoline \\{LDPVs\\} for the UAB (urban area of Beijing). On-road fuel consumption under the average driving pattern is 10 ± 2% higher than that normalized to the NEDC (new European driving cycle) cycle for all tested vehicles, and the on-road NEDC-normalized fuel consumption is higher by 30 ± 12% compared to type-approval values for gasoline vehicles. We observed very strong correlations between relative fuel consumption and average speed. Traffic control applied to \\{LDPVs\\} driving within the UAB during weekdays can substantially reduce total fleet fuel consumption by 23 ± 5% during restriction hours by limiting vehicle use and improving driving conditions. Our results confirmed that a new cycle for the type approval test for \\{LDPVs\\} with more real-world driving features is of great necessity. Furthermore, enhanced traffic control measures could play an important role in mitigating real-world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for \\{LDPVs\\} in China.

Shaojun Zhang; Ye Wu; Huan Liu; Ruikun Huang; Puikei Un; Yu Zhou; Lixin Fu; Jiming Hao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

Steven Markovich

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

318

Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

319

Temperature effect on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of molten and solid salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential analytical tool to improve operations and safeguards for electrorefiners, such as those used in processing spent nuclear fuel. This study set out to better understand the effect of sample temperature and physical state on LIBS spectra of molten and solid salts by building calibration curves of cerium and assessing self-absorption, plasma temperature, electron density, and local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Samples were composed of a LiCl–KCl eutectic salt, an internal standard of MnCl2, and varying concentrations of CeCl3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 wt.% Ce) under different temperatures (773, 723, 673, 623, and 573 K). Analysis of salts in their molten form is preferred as plasma plumes from molten samples experienced less self-absorption, less variability in plasma temperature, and higher clearance of the minimum electron density required for local thermal equilibrium. These differences are attributed to plasma dynamics as a result of phase changes. Spectral reproducibility was also better in the molten state due to sample homogeneity.

Cynthia Hanson; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Jill R. Scott

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Development of pyro-processing technology for thorium-fuelled molten salt reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is classified as the non-classical nuclear reactor type based on the specific features coming out from the use of liquid fuel circulating in the MSR primary circuit. Other uniqueness of the reactor type is based on the fact that the primary circuit of the reactor is directly connected with the on-line reprocessing technology, necessary for keeping the reactor in operation for a long run. MSR is the only reactor system, which can be effectively operated within the {sup 232}Th- {sup 233}U fuel cycle as thorium breeder with the breeding factor significantly higher than one. The fuel cycle technologies proposed as ford the fresh thorium fuel processing as for the primary circuit fuel reprocessing are pyrochemical and mainly fluoride. Although these pyrochemical processes were never previously fully verified, the present-day development anticipates an assumption for the successful future deployment of the thorium-fuelled MSR technology. (authors)

Uhlir, J.; Straka, M.; Szatmary, L. [Nuclear Research Inst. ReZ Plc, ReZ 130, Husinec - CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solar fuels and chemicals system design study (ammonia/nitric acid production process). Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Solar Central Receiver Fuels and Chemicals Program, Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation (FWSDC), under contract to Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore (SNLL), developed a conceptual design of a facility to produce ammonia and nitric acid using solar energy as the principal external source of process heat. In the selected process, ammonia is produced in an endothermic reaction within a steam methane (natural gas) reformer. The heat of reaction is provided by molten carbonate salt heated by both a solar central receiver and an exothermic ammonia-fired heater. After absorption by water, the product of the latter reaction is nitric acid.

Not Available

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Viscosity and the Structure of Molten Silicates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

7 December 1954 research-article Viscosity and the Structure of Molten Silicates...devised which enables measurements of the viscosity of liquids to be made at maximum temperatures...instrument has been applied to measure the viscosity of the system CaO-SiO over the composition...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Molten Salt Oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) can be characterized as a simple noncombustion process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes including chemical warfare agents, combustible solids, halogenated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, plutonium-contaminated solids, uranium-contaminated solvents and fission product-contaminated oil. The MSO destruction efficiency of the hazardous organic constituents in the wastes exceeds 99.9999%. Radioactive species, such as actinides and rare earth fission products, are retained in the salt bath. These elements can be recovered from the spent salt using conventional chemical processes, such as ion exchange, to render the salt as nonradioactive and nonhazardous. This paper reviews the principles and capabilities of MSO, previous mixed waste studies, and a new US Department of Energy program to demonstrate the process for the treatment of mixed wastes.

Gay, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Newman, C. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Electrorefining process and apparatus for recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrorefining process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel using an electrolytic cell having a lower molten cadmium pool containing spent nuclear fuel, an intermediate electrolyte pool, an anode basket containing spent fuel, and two cathodes, the first cathode composed of either a solid alloy or molten cadmium and the second cathode composed of molten cadmium. Using this cell, additional amounts of uranium and plutonium from the anode basket are dissolved in the lower molten cadmium pool, and then substantially pure uranium is electrolytically transported and deposited on the first alloy or molten cadmium cathode. Subsequently, a mixture of uranium and plutonium is electrotransported and deposited on the second molten cadmium cathode.

Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst coupled to the hollow fiber, an anode extending along at least part of a length of the structure, and a cathode extending along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure on an opposite side as the anode.

Langry, Kevin C.; Farmer, Joseph C.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

326

Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used for removal of mercury from simulated flue gas. A business model was generated to summarize anti

J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

328

Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

330

Effects of several trace contaminants on fuel cell performance. [Theoretical study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical reactivity of various trace contaminants in coal gas, i.e., Hg/HgS, PbS, CdS, Sn/SnCl/sub 2//SnCl/sub 4/, and TiO/sub 2/, in coal gas at the nickel anode and the nickel oxide cathode in a molten carbonate fuel cell have been examined thermodynamically. Calculations indicate that only SnCl/sub 4/ would undergo reduction at the cathode to SnCl/sub 2/. Other species would remain intact. Contaminants such as H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ and HCl have also been included in the calculation. The results are consistent with the limited observations. Possible chemical interactions between contaminants and electrodes or electrolytes have been examined. Reactions of Sn/sup 2 +/, HgS, H/sub 2/S, and HCl with the nickel anode have negative free energies. Mercury would interact physically with the anode by forming an alloy. Reactions of Sn, SnCl/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, and HCl with the nickel oxide cathode also have negative free energies. Reactions of Sn/sup 2 +/, HCl, H/sub 2/S, and SO/sub 2/ with carbonates have large negative free energies. Born's model of ion transfer was used to calculate the free energy charge for the transfer of ions from aqueous solution to the molten carbonate solution.

Park, S.M.; O'Brien, T.J.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Reactivity during bench-scale combustion of biomass fuels for carbon capture and storage applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reactivities of four biomass samples were investigated in four combustion atmospheres using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under two heating rates. The chosen combustion atmospheres reflect carbon capture and storage (CCS) applications and include O 2 and CO 2 -enrichment. Application of the Coats–Redfern method assessed changes in reactivity. Reactivity varied due to heating rate: the reactivity of char oxidation was lower at higher heating rates while devolatilisation reactions were less affected. In general, and particularly at the higher heating rate, increasing [ O 2 ] increased combustion reactivity. A lesser effect was observed when substituting N 2 for CO 2 as the comburent; in unenriched conditions this tended to reduce char oxidation reactivity while in O 2 -enriched conditions the reactivity marginally increased. Combustion in a typical, dry oxyfuel environment (30% O 2 , 70% CO 2 ) was more reactive than in air in TGA experiments. These biomass results should interest researchers seeking to understand phenomena occurring in larger scale CCS-relevant experiments.

S. Pickard; S.S. Daood; M. Pourkashanian; W. Nimmo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF)  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

Sandia has developed a heat transfer fluid (HTF) for use at elevated temperatures that has a lower freezing point than any molten salt mixture available commercially. This allows the HTF to be used in applications in which the expensive parasitic energy costs necessary for freeze protection can be significantly reduced. The higher operating temperature limit significantly increases power cycle efficiency and overall power plan sun-to-net electric efficiency....

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Interaction of uranium dioxide with molten zircaloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments in which gram quantities of molten Zircaloy were held in contact with UO/sub 2/ for known times (20-600 s) and temperatures (1900-2200/sup 0/C) were conducted. Following each experiment, polished sections of the specimen were examined by optical microscopy, electron microprobe, scanning Auger microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Three closely-related experiments were conducted. In the first, the molten metal was contained in a UO/sub 2/ crucible. The dissolution rate in this system was found to be dominated by natural convection in the melt driven by density gradients established by the dissolving uranium. The mechanism of the interaction also was observed to involve penetration and detachment of the grains of the oxide by the molten metal. Similar tests with single-crystal UO/sub 2/ specimens showed similar dissolution behavior. Less severe attack occurred because of the absence of grain boundaries, although subgrain boundaries or dislocations provided high-diffusivity pathways for preferential oxygen removal. In the third type of test, a disk of UO/sub 2/ was placed at the bottom of a ThO/sub 2/ crucible. This arrangement prevented establishment of unstable density gradients in the liquid phase, resulting in a purely diffusion-controlled interaction.

Kim, K.T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

xTL Fuels to someone xTL Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels xTL Fuels Synthetic liquid transportation fuels, collectively known as xTL fuels, are produced through specialized conversion processes. These production methods, including the Fischer-Tropsch process, produce fuels from carbon-based feedstocks, such as biomass, coal, or natural gas, and can

335

Advanced Heat Exchanger Development for Molten Salts in Nuclear and Non Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

Piyush Sabharwall; Denis Clark; Kumar Sridharan; Guiqiu Zheng; Mark Anderson

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 2. Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions Coefficients,and Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption, and CarbonEnergy – Related Carbon Emissions Fuel Energy Use Carbon (

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D. [Hadley Center for Climate Predictions & Research, Exeter (United Kingdom)

2005-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

339

Review problems on photosynthesis, carbon cycle. Julie Wright, HAS222d/253e 2007 1) Photosynthesis resembles the hydrogen fuel cell we studied in the lab. The following reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resembles the hydrogen fuel cell we studied in the lab. The following reactions were taken from the review) the overall reaction of photosynthesis is: H2O + CO2 ---> O2 + CH2O E'o = -1.24 Hydrogen fuel cell: 2H2O does hydrogen combustion differ from sugar/alcohol/biofuels combustion ecologically? 2) Why is carbon

340

Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory April 15, 2013 | Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will combine...

343

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory Garcia-Diaz A 1152013:Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will...

344

Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

salt receiver A distributed molten salt transport system Hybridization with natural gas or biofuels. Publications, Patents, and Awards J. E. Pacheco, C. Moursund, D. Rogers;...

345

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Advanced Ceramic Materials and Packaging Technologies for Realizing Sensors for Concentrating Solar Power Systems...

346

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

347

Assessment of molten debris freezing in a severe RIA in-pile test. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An understanding of the freezing of molten debris on cold core structures following a hypothetical core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR) is of importance to reactor safety analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the transient freezing of the molten debris produced in a severe reactivity initiated accident (RIA) scoping test, designated RIA-ST-4, which was performed in the Power Burst Facility and simulated a BWR control rod drop accident. In the RIA-ST-4 experiment, a single, unirradiated, 20 wt % enriched, UO/sub 2/ fuel rod contained within a Zircaloy flow shroud was subjected to a single power burst which deposited a total energy of about 700 cal/g UO/sub 2/. This energy deposition is well above what is possible in a commercial LWR during a hypothetical control rod drop (BWR) or ejection (PWR) accident. However, the performance of such an in-pile test has provided important information regarding molten debris movement, relocation, and freezing on cold walls.

El-Genk, M.S.; Moore, R.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

349

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

350

Molten nitrate salt technology development status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

House Committee on Natural Resources The Future of Fossil Fuels: Geological and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Howard Herzog Principal Research Engineer Massachusetts Institute to the Technical Group of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (see www.cslforum.org). Just two weeks ago, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Carbon Dioxide (CO2) geological

352

Forest Bioenergy or Forest Carbon? Assessing Trade-Offs in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation with Wood-Based Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forest Bioenergy or Forest Carbon? ... Forest carbon consequences of biomass harvest for bioenergy production can significantly delay and reduce GHG mitigation and should be included in life cycle studies. ... The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. ...

Jon McKechnie; Steve Colombo; Jiaxin Chen; Warren Mabee; Heather L. MacLean

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

Development and evaluation of carbon and binder loading in low-cost activated carbon cathodes for air-cathode microbial fuel cells{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development and evaluation of carbon and binder loading in low-cost activated carbon cathodes materials in order to optimize and extend the lifetime of AC cathodes in MFCs. 1. Introduction A microbial, with the cathode typically limiting power production.5,6 Catalysts can be used to reduce the activation energy

354

Multi-phase Multi-dimensional Analysis of PEM Fuel Cells with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Oxygen Bleeding.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising alternative green power source for mobile, portable and stationary applications. However, their cost, durability, and performance are… (more)

Li, Yaqun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

UNDERSTANDING OF CATALYST DEACTIVATION CAUSED BY SULFUR POISONING AND CARBON DEPOSITION IN STEAM REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production.… (more)

Xie, Chao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Net carbon flux from agriculture: Carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, crop yield, and land-use change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a potential to sequester carbon in soil by changing agricultural management practices. ... fossil-fuel use, agricultural inputs, and the carbon emissions associated with fossil fuels and other ... with f...

Tristram O. West; Gregg Marland

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

security and climate change concerns, transportation is the principal culprit. It consumes half the oil

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Nanocarbon-Based Nanocatalysts: Synthesis and Applications in Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this book chapter, we review the recent progress in synthesis and fuel cell applications of nanocatalysts based on carbon nanotubes, mesoporous carbon and other nanostructured carbon materials.

Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Brillouin scattering study of molten zinc chloride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polarized and depolarized Brillouin scattering experiments on molten ZnCl2 were performed between 300 and 600 °C in different geometries. VV spectra measured in backscattering and small angle scattering were analyzed with conventional viscoelastic theory using either a Debye or a Cole-Davidson model for the memory function. We also analyzed in the same way the temperature dependence of the transverse Brillouin lines detected in a 90° VH geometry. We show that the Cole-Davidson memory function yields a consistent interpretation of all the spectra. The resulting shear and longitudinal relaxation times are equal within their error bars, and are about 2.5 times smaller than the ? relaxation time previously determined. The static shear viscosity values deduced from the analysis of the propagating transverse waves agree, at all temperatures, with the measured viscosity values.

C. Dreyfus; M. J. Lebon; F. Vivicorsi; A. Aouadi; R. M. Pick; H. Z. Cummins

2001-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

360

CX-000292: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-000292: Categorical Exclusion Determination A Novel Biogas Desulphurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell - Based Combined...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CX-000293: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-000293: Categorical Exclusion Determination A Novel Biogas Desulphurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell - Based Combined...

362

CX-000294: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-000294: Categorical Exclusion Determination A Novel Biogas Desulphurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell- Based Combined...

363

Destruction of XM-46 (aka LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant XM-46 (or LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. The current methods of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), propellants and wastes containing energetic materials by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD), or by incineration, are becoming undesirable. LLNL is developing MSD as an alternative to OB/OD and incineration of energetic materials. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of XM-46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, show that: XM-46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration. Under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the XM-46 is converted to NO{sub x}, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO. There exist, however, a number of technical uncertainties: We need to understand better why nitrates build up in the salt bath, and what we can do to reduce this amount. We need to understand the mechanism of XM-46 oxidation and ways to minimize the formation of CO and NO{sub x}. In addition, we would like to find out ways by which a more concentrated solution of XM-46 can be introduced into the reactor, so as to increase the throughputs.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Molten salts in nuclear science and technology: a scientometric perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper attempts to highlight quantitatively and qualitatively the growth and development of world literature on molten salts in terms of publication output as per INIS database (1972-2011). The objective of the study was to perform a scientometric analysis of all research publications on molten salts in the world. The parameters studied include year-wise growth of publications, country-wise distribution of publications, activity index of top countries, highly productive institutes, language-wise distribution of publications, distribution of publications as per document type, highly preferred journals and identification of highly cited publications on molten salts.

Ganesh Surwase; Lalit Mohan; B. S. Kademani; K. Bhanumurthy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Carbon Capture and Storage From Fossil Fuels and Biomass – Costs and Potential Role in Stabilizing the Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The capture and storage of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels is gaining attraction as a means to deal with climate change. CO2...emissions from biomass conversion processes can also be captured. If that is done...

Christian Azar; Kristian Lindgren; Eric Larson; Kenneth Möllersten

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Enhanced biodegradation of diesel fuel through the addition of particulate organic carbon and inorganic nutrients in coastal marine waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel fuel pollution in coastal waters, resulting from recreational ... operations, is common and can adversely affect marine biota. The purpose of this study was...Spartina alterniflora...), inorganic nutrients...

Michael F. Piehler; Hans W. Paerl

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with boric acid in molten mixtures of choline salts and carboxylic acids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of glucose into a potential platform chemical for fuels and plastics, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), has been studied using B(OH)3 as a promoter in different solvents, namely molten mixtures made of choline salts and carboxylic acids, with the aim of developing an inexpensive and less harmful alternative to Cr/ionic liquid systems. Choline chloride-based molten mixtures afforded poor yields of HMF, whereas the yields were improved by replacing choline chloride with choline dihydrogen citrate. The combination of choline dihydrogen citrate and glycolic acid was the best choice, providing an HMF yield of ?60% at 140 °C within 4 h by adding a small volume of water as a co-solvent.

Hiroaki Matsumiya; Takeyoshi Hara

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Facility; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Takahashi, N. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Systems Div.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Exploration of molten hydroxide electrochemistry for thermal battery applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrochemistry of molten LiOH–NaOH, LiOH–KOH, and NaOH–KOH was investigated using platinum, palladium, nickel, silver, aluminum and other electrodes. The fast kinetics of the Ag+/Ag electrode reaction sugge...

M.H. Miles

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Degassing of molten alloys with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed in which ultrasonic vibration is used to assist the degassing of molten metals or metal alloys thereby reducing gas content in the molten metals or alloys. High-intensity ultrasonic vibration is applied to a radiator that creates cavitation bubbles, induces acoustic streaming in the melt, and breaks up purge gas (e.g., argon or nitrogen) which is intentionally introduced in a small amount into the melt in order to collect the cavitation bubbles and to make the cavitation bubbles survive in the melt. The molten metal or alloy in one version of the invention is an aluminum alloy. The ultrasonic vibrations create cavitation bubbles and break up the large purge gas bubbles into small bubbles and disperse the bubbles in the molten metal or alloy more uniformly, resulting in a fast and clean degassing.

Han, Qingyou (Knoxville, TN); Xu, Hanbing (Knoxville, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

372

Project Profile: Long-Shafted Molten Salt Pump | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CSP R&D FOA, is validating the manufacturability of a large-scale molten salt receiver panel and then confirming its operation in prototypic solar flux. This work is an...

373

Influence of carbon support on the performance of platinum based oxygen reduction catalysts in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a hydrogen fuelled PEMFC voltage losses are dominated by cathodic overvoltages. Considering the superior performance of DMFC anode catalysts based on carbon materials of the Sibunit...2 g?1 as supports for PEMFC

Jörg Kaiser; Pavel A. Simonov…

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

Lewis, Thomas W. (964 Cork Dr., Bethel Park, PA 15102); Hamill, Jr., Paul E. (R.D. #1, Box 173A1, Jeannette, PA 15644); Ozgu, Mustafa R. (790 Yorkshire Rd., Bethlehem, PA 18017); Padfield, Ralph C. (1918 Paul Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18018); Rego, Donovan N. (1703 W. Brown St., Allentown, PA 18104); Brita, Guido P. (3225 Edna Terrace Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18017)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

1990-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

Development of carbon-carbon composites from solvent extracted pitch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are several methods used to fabricate carbon-carbon composites. One used extensively in the fabrication of aerospace components such as rocket nozzles and reentry vehicle nosetips, as well as commercial components for furnace fixturing and glass manufacturing, is the densification of a woven preform with molten pitch, and the subsequent conversion of the pitch to graphite through heat treatment. Two types of pitch are used in this process; coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch. The objective of this program was to determine if a pitch produced by the direct extraction of coal could be used as a substitute for these pitches in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. The program involved comparing solvent extracted pitch with currently accepted pitches and rigidizing a carbon-carbon preform with solvent extracted pitch for comparison with carbon-carbon fabricated with currently available pitch.

NONE

1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

379

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

380

Miniature ceramic fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Getting the carbon out Alex Farrell, Daniel Sperling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-in hybrids and hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Eventually, consumers will have an array of low-carbon fuel such as blending low-carbon biofuels into conventional gasoline, selling low-carbon fuels such as hydrogen and for their customers. At first, fuel providers will most likely offer liquid fuels that work in today's cars

382

Hydrogen storage enhanced in Li-doped carbon replica of zeolites: A possible route to achieve fuel cell demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We first report the atomistic grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of the synthesis of two realistic ordered microporous carbon replica in two siliceous forms of faujasite zeolite (cubic Y-FAU and hexagonal EMT). Atomistic simulations of hydrogen adsorption isotherms in these two carbon structures and their Li-doped composites were carried out to determine their storage capacities at 77 and 298 K. We found that these new forms of carbon solids and their Li-doped versions show very attractive hydrogen storage capacities at 77 and 298 K respectively. However for a filling pressure of 300 bars and at room temperature bare carbons do not show advantageous performances compared to a classical gas cylinder despite of their crystalline micropore network. In comparison Li-doped nanostructures provide reversible gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities twice larger ( 3.75 ? wt ? % and 33.7 ? kg / m 3 ). The extreme lattice stiffness of their skeleton will prevent them from collapsing under large external applied pressure an interesting skill compared to bundle of carbon nanotubes and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These new ordered composites are thus very promising materials for hydrogen storage issues by contrast with MOFs.

Thomas Roussel; Christophe Bichara; Keith E. Gubbins; Roland J.-M. Pellenq

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Energetic analysis of a syngas-fueled chemical-looping combustion combined cycle with integration of carbon dioxide sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion for power generation has significant advantages over conventional combustion. Mainly, it allows an integration of CO2 capture in the power plant without energy penalty; secondly, a less exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation is achieved, leading to a greater overall thermal efficiency. Most efforts have been devoted to systems based on methane as a fuel, although other systems for alternative fuels have can be proposed. This paper focus on the study of the energetic performance of this concept of combustion in a gas turbine combined cycle when synthesis gas is used as fuel. After optimization of some thermodynamic parameters of the cycle, the power plant performance is evaluated under diverse working conditions and compared to a conventional gas turbine system. Energy savings related with CO2 capture and storage have been quantified. The overall efficiency increase is found to be significant, reaching values of around 5% (even more in some cases). In order to analyze the influence of syngas composition on the results, different H2-content fuels are considered. In a context of real urgency to reduce green house gas emissions, this work is intended to contribute to the conceptual development of highly efficient alternative power generation systems.

Ángel Jiménez Álvaro; Ignacio López Paniagua; Celina González Fernández; Rafael Nieto Carlier; Javier Rodríguez Martín

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

VISION Model: Description of Model Used to Estimate the Impact of Highway Vehicle Technologies and Fuels on Energy Use and Carbon Emissions to 2050  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ESD/04-1 ESD/04-1 VISION Model: Description of Model Used to Estimate the Impact of Highway Vehicle Technologies and Fuels on Energy Use and Carbon Emissions to 2050 Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Operated by The University of Chicago, under Contract W-31-109-Eng-38, for the United States Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated by The University of Chicago under contract W-31-109-Eng-38. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The University of Chicago, nor any of their employees or officers, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes

385

Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report P. Pfeifer (Primary Contact), C. Wexler, P. Yu, G. Suppes, F. Hawthorne, S. Jalisatgi, M. Lee, D. Robertson University of Missouri 223 Physics Building Columbia, MO 65211 Phone: (573) 882-2335 Email: pfeiferp@missouri.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-08GO18142 Subcontractors: Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO Project Start Date: September 1, 2008 Project End Date: November 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Fabricate high-surface-area, multiply surface- * functionalized carbon ("substituted materials") for reversible hydrogen storage with superior storage

386

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

387

Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...

388

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

389

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

390

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

391

Rotating disk electrode measurements on the CO tolerance of a high-surface area Pt/Vulcan carbon fuel cell catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examine the electrocatalytic properties of a Pt/Vulcan carbon catalyst toward the electro-oxidation of CO and CO/H{sub 2} mixtures under proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) relevant conditions (60 to 80 C, continuous reactant flow), employing rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements. They demonstrate that the recently introduced thin-film RDE technique can be applied to predict the performance of real fuel cell anodes operating on CO-contaminated H{sub 2}. The method involves attaching the catalyst particles to a glassy carbon RDE via a thin Nafion film. The thin-film RDE technique opens the possibility for the mass-transport-free determination of the electrode kinetics at 100% catalyst utilization. At identical mass-specific current densities, the overpotentials for CO/H{sub 2} oxidation measured with the thin-film RDE technique are in excellent agreement with performance data from PEMFC anodes. The kinetics of pure CO oxidation were investigated with CO/N{sub 2} mixtures, revealing that the CO oxidation activity increases with decreasing CO partial pressure (negative reaction order). The observed ignition potential for CO oxidation was the same for both the CO/N{sub 2} and the CO/H{sub 2} mixtures. Two H{sub 2} oxidation mechanisms in the presence of CO can be distinguished: (1) a high Tafel slope region at low overpotentials, where H{sub 2} oxidation occurs in vacancies of the CO adlayer; and (2) a low Tafel slope region at high overpotentials where H{sub 2} and CO oxidation occur simultaneously.

Schmidt, T.J.; Behm, R.J. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse] [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse; Gasteiger, H.A. [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Global Alternative Propulsion Center] [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Global Alternative Propulsion Center

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Remote Surveillance of Actinides in Molten Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A potentiometric sensor is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for real-time remote surveillance of actinides during electrorefining of spent nuclear fuel. During electrorefining, fuel in metallic form is oxidized at the anode while refined uranium metal is reduced at the cathode in a high temperature electrochemical cell containing LiCl-KCl-UCl3 electrolyte. Actinides present in the fuel chemically react with UCl3 and form stable metal chlorides that accumulate in the electrolyte. This sensor will be used for process control and safeguarding of activities in the electrorefiner by monitoring the concentrations of actinides in the electrolyte. The work presented focuses on developing a solid-state cation conducting ceramic sensor for detecting varying concentrations of trivalent actinide metal cations in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt. To understand the basic mechanisms for actinide sensor applications in molten salts, gadolinium was used as a surrogate for actinides. The ß?-Al2O3 was selected as the solid-state electrolyte for sensor fabrication based on cationic conductivity and other factors. In the present work Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 was prepared by ion exchange reactions between trivalent Gd3+ from GdCl3 and K+-, Na+-, and Sr2+-ß?-Al2O3 precursors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for characterization of Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 samples. Microfocus X-ray Diffraction (µ-XRD) was used in conjunction with SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to identify phase content and elemental composition. The Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 materials were tested for mechanical and chemical stability by exposing them to molten LiCl-KCl based salts. The effect of annealing on the exchanged material was studied to determine improvements in material integrity post ion exchange. The stability of the ß?-Al2O3 phase after annealing was verified by µ-XRD. Preliminary sensor tests with different assembly designs will also be presented.

Natalie J. Gese; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz

2006-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

394

Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resource. Cathode materials can account for 47-75% of the MFC capital costs,5 and therefore it is important to choose less expensive materials as the cathode catalyst. Several catalysts have been considered for useInfluence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction

395

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

396

Carbon-Supported Pt?Co Catalysts Prepared by a Modified Polyol Process as Cathodes for PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Among others, the conversion of chemical energy into electricity in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) requires the development of better electrocatalyst to improve the cell performance. ... However, to further reduce the voltage losses associated to the cathode performance, it is necessary to develop ORR electrocatalysts more active than platinum. ... In the so-called polyol process, developed by Fievet et al.,36 a diol or polyalcohol (ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol) is used as both solvent and reducing agent of metallic precursors. ...

Elisabete I. Santiago; Laudemir C. Varanda; H. Mercedes Villullas

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Chelating agent assisted heat treatment of carbon supported cobalt oxide nanoparticle for use as cathode catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cobalt-based catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) have been successfully incorporated cobalt oxide (Co3O4) onto Vulcan XC-72 carbon powder by thermal decomposition of Co–ethylenediamine complex (ethylenediamine, NH2CH2CH2NH2, denoted en) at 850 °C. The catalysts were prepared by adsorbing the cobalt complexes [Co(en)(H2O)4]3+, [Co(en)2(H2O)2]3+ and [Co(en)3]3+ on commercial XC-72 carbon black supports, loading amount of Co with respect to carbon black was about 2%, the resulting materials have been pyrolyzed under nitrogen atmosphere to create CoOx/C catalysts, donated as E1, E2, and E3, respectively. The composite materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical compositions of prepared catalysts were determined using inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The catalytic activities for ORR have been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction of E2 is superior to that of E1 and E3. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) containing the synthesized CoOx/C cathode catalysts were fabricated and evaluated by single cell tests. The E2 cathode performed better than that of E1 and E3 cathode. This can be attributed to the enhanced activity for ORR, in agreement with the composition of the catalyst that CoO co-existed with Co3O4. The maximum power density 73 mW cm?2 was obtained at 0.3 V with a current density of 240 mA cm?2 for E2 and the normalized power density of E2 is larger than that that of commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C-ETEK.

Chia-Hung Huang; Shyh-Jiun Liu; Weng-Sing Hwang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

High-value use of weapons-plutonium by burning in molten salt accelerator-driven subcritical systems or reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of thermal-spectrum molten-salt reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems to the destruction of weapons-return plutonium is considered from the perspective of deriving the maximum societal benefit. The enhancement of electric power production from burning the fertile fuel {sup 232}Th with the plutonium is evaluated. Also the enhancement of destruction of the accumulated waste from commercial nuclear reactors is considered using the neutron-rich weapons plutonium. Most cases examined include the concurrent transmutation of the long-lived actinide and fission product waste ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 126}Sn and {sup 79}Se).

Bowman, C.D.; Venneri, F.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Modeling and Analysis of Stress in High Temperature Molten Salt Trough Receivers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract SkyFuel has investigated the stresses and deformations occurring in parabolic trough receivers operating at temperatures above 425 °C. Operating at these temperatures allows for direct molten salt storage and higher efficiency conversion from thermal to electric energy. However, at these temperatures, the typical stainless steels used in receiver construction are susceptible to chromium carbide precipitation. After the precipitation has occurred, the steel is vulnerable to intergranular corrosion, and the fatigue strength of the steel is reduced. Corrosion increases the stresses in the receiver walls, and the reduced fatigue strength lowers the stress limit where failure will occur. This paper presents the results of an analysis of these stresses and an evaluation of the receiver material at these operating temperatures. It is shown that parabolic trough receivers can be designed to mitigate the negative effects of chromium carbide precipitation and operate above 425 °C without risk of premature failure.

Nolan Viljoen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Analysis of molten debris freezing and wall erosion during a severe RIA test. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional physical model was developed to study the transient freezing of the molten debris layer (a mixture of UO/sub 2/ fuel and zircaloy cladding) produced in a severe reactivity initiated accident in-pile test and deposited on the inner surface of the test shroud wall. The wall had a finite thickness and was cooled along its outer surface by coolant bypass flow. Analyzed are the effects of debris temperature, radiation cooling at the debris layer surface, zircaloy volume ratio within the debris, and initial wall temperature on the transient freezing of the debris layer and the potential melting of the wall. The governing equations of this two-component, simultaneous freezing and melting problem in a finite geometry were solved using a one-dimensional finite element code based on the method of weighted residuals.

El-Genk, M.S.; Moore, R.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode. LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion...

405

Molten Salt Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage and Concentrated Solar Power Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermal efficiency from 54 percent to 63 percent. However, very few thermal storage materials are compatible for these high temperatures. Molten salts are thermally stable up to 600 degrees C and beyond. Using the molten salts as the TES materials...

Shin, Donghyun

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

406

Electrorefining process and apparatus for recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrorefining process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuels is disclosed using an electrolytic cell having a lower molten cadmium pool containing spent nuclear fuel, an intermediate electrolyte pool, an anode basket containing spent fuels, two cathodes and electrical power means connected to the anode basket, cathodes and lower molten cadmium pool for providing electrical power to the cell. Using this cell, additional amounts of uranium and plutonium from the anode basket are dissolved in the lower molten cadmium pool, and then purified uranium is electrolytically transported and deposited on a first molten cadmium cathode. Subsequently, a mixture of uranium and plutonium is electrotransported and deposited on a second cathode. 3 figs.

Ackerman, J.P.; Miller, W.E.

1987-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

407

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ET AL. : FOSSIL FUEL CO 2 TRANSPORT IN CALIFORNIA health,fossil fuel combustion, with consequent impacts to human health [health. [ 45 ] Model predictions indicated that some areas within California had higher near-surface fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

the volumes and carbon intensities of the fuels they provide in Oregon. In February 2014, Governor Kitzhaber directed DEQ to draft rules for the next phase of the Program,...

409

Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to fuel range by hydrotreating[36]. These fuel products candistillate undergo hydrotreating to saturate the olefins.be used for further hydrotreating of some FT products like

Liu, Zhongzhe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fossil fuel combustion, with consequent impacts to human health [health. Model predictions indicated that some areas within California had higher near-surface fossil fuel

Riley, W.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

ADVANCED CERAMIC COMPOSITES FOR MOLTEN ALUMINUM CONTACT APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new refractory material which was developed for use in molten aluminum contact applications was shown to exhibit improved corrosion and wear resistance leading to improved thermal management through reduced heat losses caused by refractory thinning and wastage. This material was developed based on an understanding of the corrosion and wear mechanisms associated with currently used aluminum contact refractories under a U.S. Department of Energy funded project to investigate multifunctional refractory materials for energy efficient handling of molten metals. This new material has been validated through an industrial trial at a commercial aluminum rod and cable mill. Material development and results of this industrial validation trial are discussed.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL] [ORNL; Peters, Klaus-Markus [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The integral fast reactor fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-metal reactor (LMR) has the potential to extend the uranium resource by a factor of 50 to 100 over current commercial light water reactors (LWRs). In the integral fast reactor (IFR) development program, the entire reactor system - reactor, fuel cycle, and waste process - is being developed and optimized at the same time as a single integral entity. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. The lead irradiation tests on the new U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II have surpassed 185000 MWd/t burnup, and its high burnup capability has now been fully demonstrated. The metallic fuel also allows a radically improved fuel cycle technology. Pyroprocessing, which utilizes high temperatures and molten salt and molten metal solvents, can be advantageously utilized for processing metal fuels because the product is metal suitable for fabrication into new fuel elements. Direct production of a metal product avoids expensive and cumbersome chemical conversion steps that would result from use of the conventional Purex solvent extraction process. The key step in the IFR process is electrorefining, which provides for recovery of the valuable fuel constituents, uranium and plutonium, and for removal of fission products. A notable feature of the IFR process is that the actinide elements accompany plutonium through the process. This results in a major advantage in the high-level waste management.

Chang, Y.I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator Nicolás del Pozo 1 , Rebecca Dunn. Specifically, the objective was to research the behaviour of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the SG4, this initial investigation suggests that the use of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the ANU 500 m2

414

Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane there between. A bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated in the nanotubes forms at least one portion of the MEA and is in contact with the membrane. A combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into a first reaction zone maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is transmitted to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes. The nanotubes are in contact with a portion of the MEA at production or being positioned in contact thereafter. Methods of forming a PEMFC are also disclosed.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Willow brook, IL)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Uncertainty Studies of Real Anode Surface Area in Computational Analysis for Molten Salt Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines how much cell potential changes with five differently assumed real anode surface area cases. Determining real anode surface area is a significant issue to be resolved for precisely modeling molten salt electrorefining. Based on a three-dimensional electrorefining model, calculated cell potentials compare with an experimental cell potential variation over 80 hours of operation of the Mark-IV electrorefiner with driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. We succeeded to achieve a good agreement with an overall trend of the experimental data with appropriate selection of a mode for real anode surface area, but there are still local inconsistencies between theoretical calculation and experimental observation. In addition, the results were validated and compared with two-dimensional results to identify possible uncertainty factors that had to be further considered in a computational electrorefining analysis. These uncertainty factors include material properties, heterogeneous material distribution, surface roughness, and current efficiency. Zirconium's abundance and complex behavior have more impact on uncertainty towards the latter period of electrorefining at given batch of fuel. The benchmark results found that anode materials would be dissolved from both axial and radial directions at least for low burn-up metallic fuels after active liquid sodium bonding was dissolved.

Sungyeol Choi; Jaeyeong Park; Robert O. Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson; Kwang-Rag Kim; Il Soon Hwang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FuelCell Energy EE ITP 2010 Jennifer Knipe 01012010-12312011 Danbury, CT A Novel Biogas Desulfurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell- Based Combined Heat...

418

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FuelCell Energy EE ITP 2010 Jennifer Knipe 01012010-12312011 Oxnard, CA A Novel Biogas Desulfurization Sorbent Technology for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell- Based Combined Heat...

419

Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosolssplit Fossil fuel sources Bio fuel sources Open burningemissions from fossil-plus-bio-fuel and from open biomass

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The Science | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxidation, and suitable precursor materials are hydrogen ions (for hydrogen gas production) and carbon dioxide (for reduced carbon fuel production). Natural photosynthesis...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Molten Oxide Glass Materials for Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Halotechnics, Inc. is developing an energy storage system utilizing a low melting point molten glass as the heat transfer and thermal storage material. This work is supported under a grant from the Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Advanced oxide glasses promise a potential breakthrough as a low cost, earth abundant, and stable thermal storage material. The system and new glass material will enable grid scale electricity storage at a fraction of the cost of batteries by integrating the thermal storage with a large heat pump device. Halotechnics is combining its proven expertise in combinatorial chemistry with advanced techniques for handling molten glass to design and build a two-tank thermal energy storage system. This system, operating at a high temperature of 1200 °C and a low temperature of 400 °C, will demonstrate sensible heat thermal energy storage using a uniquely formulated oxide glass. Our molten glass thermal storage material has the potential to significantly reduce thermal storage costs once developed and deployed at commercial scale. Thermal storage at the target temperature can be integrated with existing high temperature gas turbines that significantly increase efficiencies over today's steam turbine technology. This paper describes the development and selection of Halotechnics’ molten glass heat transfer fluids with some additional systems considerations.

B. Elkin; L. Finkelstein; T. Dyer; J. Raade

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

Waldrip, Karen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Kerley, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

423

Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquids (CTL) plants with carbon capture and sequestration.RW, Hufton JR, Wright A. Carbon capture by sorption-enhanceden.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_capture_and_storage 5. Johnson

Liu, Zhongzhe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from ambient air could compensate for all carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Such capture would, for example, make it possible to use liquid, carbon-based fuels in cars or airplane...

K.S. Lackner

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

13 - Generation IV reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter looks at Generation IV nuclear reactors, such as the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR), the supercritical water reactor (SCWR), the molten salt reactor (MSR), the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), the lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR). Reactor designs and fuel cycles are also described.

N. Cerullo; G. Lomonaco

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

NONE

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

calculation of the carbon intensity of fuel and electricitys announced a 2015 carbon intensity reduction target of 17%to calculate economic carbon intensities. The China average

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

431

Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle. When used as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of fuel at a fuel cell anode, this structure exhibits low platinum loading and elevated tolerance to carbon...

432

Study of Gas-steam Combined Cycle Power Plants Integrated with MCFC for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the field of fossil-fuel based technologies, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants are currently the best option for electricity generation, having an efficiency close to 60%. However, they produce significant CO2 emissions, amounting to around 0.4 tonne/MWh for new installations. Among the carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, the process based on chemical absorption is a well-established technology, but markedly reduces the NGCC performances. On the other side, the integration of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) is recognized as an attractive option to overcome the main drawbacks of traditional CCS technologies. If the cathode side is fed by NGCC exhaust gases, the MCFC operates as a CO2 concentrator, beside providing an additional generating capacity. In this paper the integration of MCFC into a two pressure levels combined cycle is investigated through an energy analysis. To improve the efficiency of MCFC and its integration within the NGCC, plant configurations based on two different gas recirculation options are analyzed. The first is a traditional recirculation of exhaust gases at the compressor inlet; the second, mainly involving the MCFC stack, is based on recirculating a fraction of anode exhaust gases at the cathode inlet. Effects of MCFC operating conditions on energy and environmental performances of the integrated system are evaluated.

Roberto Carapellucci; Roberto Saia; Lorena Giordano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Different types of gasifiers and their integration withCO 2 in a pressurized-gasifier-based process. Energ Fuel.fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier-bed material and fuel

Liu, Zhongzhe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Minimally refined biomass fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Background The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction converts a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-derived from coal, methane or biomass-to liquid fuels. The Department of Energy (DOE) refers to the coal-based process as Coal-to-Liquids. The F-T process was discovered by German scientists and used to make fuels during World War II. There has been continued interest of varying intensity in F-T technology

436

A Carbon-Supported Copper Complex of 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole as a Cathode Catalyst for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Cell Applications Fikile R. Brushett, Matthew S. Thorum, Nicholas S. Lioutas, Matthew S. Naughton-tri/C) is investigated as a cathode material using an alkaline microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell. The absolute Cu be realized by optimizing catalyst and electrode preparation procedures. Fuel cell-based systems hold promise

Kenis, Paul J. A.

437

Application of Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming in Compression Ignition Engines Fueled by Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, ester-based oxygenated fuels have been used in compression ignition engines in pure form or as an addition to diesel fuel. ... In hydrocarbon steam reforming (SR), high-temperature steam separates hydrogen from carbon atoms. ...

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski

2003-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

438

Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

440

Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Equation of state for molten alkali metal alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calculated results of the liquid density of binary molten alloys of Na-K and K-Cs over the whole range of concentrations and that of a ternary molten eutectic of Na-K-Cs from the freezing point up to several hundred degrees above the boiling point are presented. The calculations were performed with the analytical equation of state proposed by Ihm, Song, and Mason, which is based on statistical-mechanical perturbation theory. The second virial coefficients were calculated from the corresponding-states correlation of Mehdipour and Boushehri. Calculation of the other two temperature-dependent parameters was carried out by scaling. The calculated results cover a much wider range of temperatures and are more accurate than those presented in the previous work.

Eslami, H.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Energy Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass via Hydrothermal Carbonization and Torrefaction .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The work presented in this study demonstrated the potential of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass for the production of carbon-rich solid fuel, known as hydrochar… (more)

Kambo, Harpreet Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

445

Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emisssions...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama...

446

A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. Specific conclusions are as follows: (1) To implement CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration on a national scale will decrease power plant net efficiencies and significantly increase the cost of electricity. To make responsible societal decisions, accurate and consistent economic and environmental analysis of all alternatives for atmospheric CO{sub 2} mitigation are required. (2) Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive and energy intensive, exists today. (3) The most promising approach to more economical CO{sub 2} capture is to develop power plant systems that facilitate efficient CO{sub 2} capture. (4) While CO{sub 2} disposal in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is feasible today, the ability to dispose of large quantities Of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain because of both technical and institutional issues. Disposal into the deep ocean or confined aquifers offers the potential for large quantity disposal, but there are technical, safety, liability, and environmental issues to resolve. Therefore, the highest priority research should focus on establishing the feasibility of large scale disposal options.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main object of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies is the...2...emissions produced in the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or natural gas. CCS involves first the capture of the emit...

Ricardo Guerrero-Lemus; José Manuel Martínez-Duart

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Catalytically upgraded landfill gas as a cost-effective alternative for fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential use of landfill gas as feeding fuel for the so-called molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) imposes the need for new upgrading technologies in order to meet the much tougher feed gas specifications of this type of fuel cells in comparison to gas engines. Nevertheless, MCFC has slightly lower purity demands than low temperature fuel cells. This paper outlines the idea of a new catalytic purification process for landfill gas conditioning, which may be supposed to be more competitive than state-of-the-art technologies and summarises some lab-scale results. This catalytic process transforms harmful landfill gas minor compounds into products that can be easily removed from the gas stream by a subsequent adsorption step. The optimal process temperature was found to be in the range 250–400 °C. After a catalyst screening, two materials were identified, which have the ability to remove all harmful minor compounds from landfill gas. The first material was a commercial alumina that showed a high activity towards the removal of organic silicon compounds. The alumina protects both a subsequent catalyst for the removal of other organic minor compounds and the fuel cell. Due to gradual deactivation caused by silica deposition, the activated alumina needs to be periodically replaced. The second material was a commercial V2O5/TiO2-based catalyst that exhibited a high activity for the total oxidation of a broad spectrum of other harmful organic minor compounds into a simpler compound class “acid gases (HCl, HF and SO2)”, which can be easily removed by absorption with, e.g. alkalised alumina. The encouraging results obtained allow the scale-up of this LFG conditioning process to test it under real LFG conditions.

W. Urban; H. Lohmann; J.I. Salazar Gómez

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

On the Chemla effect in molten alkali nitrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Chemla effect concerns the strong composition dependence of the internal ionic mobilities of cations in mixtures of two molten salts with a common anion in which the mobility of the large cation can be higher than the small one at low concentrations of the latter. Molecular dynamics simulations of molten ( Li Cs)NO 3 ( Li K)NO 3 ( Li Na)NO 3 ( Na Cs)NO 3 each at two different compositions at a given temperature and also pure LiNO 3 and pure KNO 3 have been performed with the aim of reproducing the Chemla effect. The key role played by anion polarization on the Chemla effect in molten alkali nitrates is demonstrated by comparing the calculated mobilities using nonpolarizable and polarizable models. Polarization effects were included in the simulations by using a previously proposed fluctuating charge model (FCM) for the NO 3 ? anion. It is shown that a single potential model for a ( M 1 M 2 ) NO 3 mixture gives the correct composition dependence of the M 1 and the M 2 mobilities provided that polarization effects are included in the model. The FCM is thus transferable between different systems but not its nonpolarizable counterpart. Structure and dynamics of the simulated systems are discussed in light of proposed models for the Chemla effect.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modular and Scalable Baseload Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable

451

Introduction to SAE Hydrogen Fueling Standardization Webinar...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

carbon offsets and offer the possibility of high-efficiency fuel cells for energy conversion (propulsion). Hydrogen is therefore attractive for commercial applications too...

452

Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cells for Microstructure Interrogations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen fuel cell components, many off-the-shelf carbon materials have been adopted as MFC electrodes because of their accessibility and low cost.

Parra, Erika Andrea

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

454

Platinum supported on titanium–ruthenium oxide is a remarkably stable electrocatayst for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects of Pt-based alloy catalysts for fuel cell applications...on carbon corrosion of PEMFC electrodes . J Electrochem...carbon monoxide on PEFC catalyst carbon support degradation...2006 ) PEM fuel cell cathode carbon corrosion due to...of carbon support in PEMFC at fuel starvation . ECS...

Javier Parrondo; Taehee Han; Ellazar Niangar; Chunmei Wang; Nilesh Dale; Kev Adjemian; Vijay Ramani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen & Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Meet Brian Larsen, a materials scientist who is helping lower fuel cell costs by developing the next generation of fuel cell catalysts. Meet Brian Larsen, a materials scientist who is helping lower fuel cell costs by developing the next generation of fuel cell catalysts. Fuel cells produce electricity from a number of domestic fuels, including hydrogen and renewables, and can provide power for virtually any application -- from cars and buses to commercial buildings. This technology, which is similar to a battery, has the potential to revolutionize the way we power the nation while reducing carbon pollution and oil consumption.

456

Development of hot corrosion resistant coatings for gas turbines burning biomass and waste derived fuel gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emission reductions are being sought worldwide to mitigate climate change. These need to proceed in parallel with optimisation of thermal efficiency in energy conversion systems on economic grounds to achieve overall sustainability. The use of renewable energy is one strategy being adopted to achieve these needs; with one route being the burning of biomass and waste derived fuels in the gas turbines of highly efficient, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electricity generating units. A major factor to be taken into account with gas turbines using such fuels, compared with natural gas, is the potentially higher rates of hot corrosion caused by molten trace species which can be deposited on hot gas path components. This paper describes the development of hot corrosion protective coatings for such applications. Diffusion coatings were the basis for coating development, which consisted of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) trials, using aluminising and single step silicon-aluminising processes to develop new coating structures on two nickel-based superalloys, one conventionally cast and one single crystal (IN738LC and CMSX-4). These coatings were characterised using SEM/EDX analysis and their performance evaluated in oxidation and hot corrosion screening tests. A variant of the single step silicon-aluminide coating was identified as having sufficient oxidation/hot corrosion resistance and microstructural stability to form the basis for future coating optimisation.

A. Bradshaw; N.J. Simms; J.R. Nicholls

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

The Carbon Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

458

NETL: Carbon Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation

459

-International Doctorate Program -Identification, Optimization and Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Systems: A Challenge in PDE Constrained Optimization April 23, 2009 Preprint IOC-25 #12;#12;OPTIMAL CONTROL OF LOAD CHANGES FOR MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS: A CHALLENGE carbonate fuel cells provide a promising technology for the operation of future stationary power plants

Dettweiler, Michael

460

-International Doctorate Program -Identification, Optimization and Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PDAE Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Model February 7, 2008 Preprint IOC-12 #12;#12;Optimal Control of a Large PDAE Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Model Armin Rund , Kati Sternberg, Hans Josef Pesch, and Kurt carbonate fuel cells are well suited for stationary power production and heat supply. In order to enhance

Dettweiler, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "molten carbonate fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 85, No. 2, 132140 (2005) / DOI 10.1002/zamm.200310166 Index analysis and numerical solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonate Fuel Cells Kurt Chudej1, , Peter Heidebrecht2 , Verena Petzet1 , Sabine Scherdel1, , Klaus behaviour of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs). MCFCs allow an efficient and environmentally friendly 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1 Introduction Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs

Schittkowski, Klaus

462

Turning carbon dioxide into fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reported studies of CH4-CO2 reforming on aerogel Co/Al2O3 nanoparticulate catalysts in...CCM) 880 (exothermic) Figure 9. Aerogel Co/Al2O3 catalysts for CH4-CO2 reforming...Li2008Fluidization characteristics of aerogel Co/Al2O3 catalyst in a magnetic fluidized...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Turning carbon dioxide into fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...i.e. less negative) Gibbs free energy, e.g. H2 or CH4. These hydrogen-bearing energy carriers give up their intrinsic chemical energy to promote the conversion of CO2. Thus, the heats of reaction...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Materials towards carbon-free, emission-free and oil-free mobility: hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles—now and in the future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of private cars becomes the...generated by the fuel cell, with the...stored in the hydrogen tank. Although...For the hydrogen-storage-material...mobility and car. Figure 3...vehicle; FCHV, fuel-cell hybrid vehicle...Figure 6. Hydrogen vision. HV...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including methanol, ethanol, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and so on, ethanol is the best choice, as it has abundant than Pt and has a much lower price, and thus the cost of fuel cell technology can be greatly. Secondly, Pd is more abundant than Pt and has a much lower price, and thus the cost of fuel cell technology

Zhao, Tianshou

466

Striving To Capture Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Striving To Capture Carbon ... Energy ministers from around the world met in Washington, D.C., for three days earlier this month to wrestle with how to reenergize efforts to cut carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants. ... Their solution, not surprisingly, is a rapid acceleration of R&D for technologies that capture and sequester underground carbon dioxide emitted by power plants, refineries, and industrial manufacturers that burn fossil fuels. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

467

Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3:40 Aligned Carbon Nanotube-Based MEA and PEMFC D-J Liu, ANL 4:00 Light Weight Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Stacks J. Wainright, CWRU 4:20 Adaptive Stack with Subdivided Cells for...

468

Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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