National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for moisture rh atmospheric

  1. The role of moisture transport between ground and atmosphere in global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rind, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Stieglitz, M.

    1997-12-31

    Projections of the effect of climate change on future water availability are examined by reviewing the formulations used to calculate moisture transport between the ground and the atmosphere. General circulation models and climate change impact models have substantially different formulations for evapotranspiration, so their projections of future water availability often disagree, even though they use the same temperature and precipitation forecasts. General circulation models forecast little change in tropical and subtropical water availability, while impact models show severe water and agricultural shortages. A comparison of observations and modeling techniques shows that the parameterizations in general circulation models likely lead to an underestimate of the impacts of global warming on soil moisture and vegetation. Such errors would crucially affect the temperature and precipitation forecasts used in impact models. Some impact model evaporation formulations are probably more appropriate than those in general circulation models, but important questions remain. More observations are needed, especially in the vicinity of forests, to determine appropriate parameterizations.

  2. Response of the regional water cycle to an increase of atmosphere moisture related to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frei, C.; Widmann, M.; Luethi, D.

    1997-11-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the mid-latitude regional hydrological cycle to an imposed warming. Mesoscale limited-area climate simulations over Europe are performed. The modelling study is complemented with a detailed analysis of the observed precipitation and circulation trends in the same region. It is demonstrated that an increase of the moisture content leads to an enhancement of the model`s water cycle during the synoptically active seasons. The simulations suggest that this mechanism may contribute towards an increase in mean precipitation and more frequency occurrence of heavy precipitation events. Observational analysis results illustrate that the relationship between precipitation and atmospheric moisture seen in the climate simulations constitutes a possible physical mechanism relevant for the interpretation of the observed trends. A key feature of the model results is the pronounced increase in the frequency of strong precipitation events associated with the intensification of the water cycle. This large sensitivity highlights the vulnerability of the precipitation climate with respect to global climate change. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Modeling the impact of atmospheric moisture transport on global ice volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nisancioglu, Kerim Hestnes, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Following Milankovitch's original hypothesis most model studies of changes in global ice volume on orbital time scales have focused on the impact of ablation on ice sheet mass balance. In most cases, poleward moisture flux ...

  4. International H2O Project (IHOP) 2002: Datasets Related to Atmospheric Moisture and Rainfall Prediction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schanot, Allen [IHOP 2002 PI; Friesen, Dick [IHOP 2002 PI

    IHOP 2002 was a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains of the United States from 13 May to 25 June 2002. The chief aim of IHOP_2002 was improved characterization of the four-dimensional (4-D) distribution of water vapor and its application to improving the understanding and prediction of convection. The region was an optimal location due to existing experimental and operational facilities, strong variability in moisture, and active convection [copied from http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/ihop/]. The project's master list of data identifies 146 publicly accessible datasets.

  5. Localization of Deep Water Formation: Role of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Geometrical Constraints on Ocean Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, John C.

    A series of coupled atmosphere–ocean–ice aquaplanet experiments is described in which topological constraints on ocean circulation are introduced to study the role of ocean circulation on the mean climate of the coupled ...

  6. IMPACTS OF SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY ON CONVECTIVE PRECIPITATION IN THE CENTRAL PLAINS THROUGH LAND-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Aubrey R.

    2008-08-20

    radiation was not impacted by mean soil moisture. Spatial scaling properties of modeled fields were examined to determine whether these fields exhibit scale invariance. There is large temporal variability in the scaling coefficients of soil moisture, Bowen...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distribution ARM Datamoisture ARM

  8. Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miloshevich, Larry

    2008-01-15

    Corrections for inaccuracy in Vaisala radiosonde RH measurements have been applied to ARM SGP radiosonde soundings. The magnitude of the corrections can vary considerably between soundings. The radiosonde measurement accuracy, and therefore the correction magnitude, is a function of atmospheric conditions, mainly T, RH, and dRH/dt (humidity gradient). The corrections are also very sensitive to the RH sensor type, and there are 3 Vaisala sensor types represented in this dataset (RS80-H, RS90, and RS92). Depending on the sensor type and the radiosonde production date, one or more of the following three corrections were applied to the RH data: Temperature-Dependence correction (TD), Contamination-Dry Bias correction (C), Time Lag correction (TL). The estimated absolute accuracy of NIGHTTIME corrected and uncorrected Vaisala RH measurements, as determined by comparison to simultaneous reference-quality measurements from Holger Voemel's (CU/CIRES) cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH), is given by Miloshevich et al. (2006).

  9. Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miloshevich, Larry

    Corrections for inaccuracy in Vaisala radiosonde RH measurements have been applied to ARM SGP radiosonde soundings. The magnitude of the corrections can vary considerably between soundings. The radiosonde measurement accuracy, and therefore the correction magnitude, is a function of atmospheric conditions, mainly T, RH, and dRH/dt (humidity gradient). The corrections are also very sensitive to the RH sensor type, and there are 3 Vaisala sensor types represented in this dataset (RS80-H, RS90, and RS92). Depending on the sensor type and the radiosonde production date, one or more of the following three corrections were applied to the RH data: Temperature-Dependence correction (TD), Contamination-Dry Bias correction (C), Time Lag correction (TL). The estimated absolute accuracy of NIGHTTIME corrected and uncorrected Vaisala RH measurements, as determined by comparison to simultaneous reference-quality measurements from Holger Voemel's (CU/CIRES) cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH), is given by Miloshevich et al. (2006).

  10. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01

    74 ii Soil Moisture Sensors: Decagon ECH2O Capacitance133 A.10 Soil types corresponding to each75 Soil Moisture and Temperature Probe

  11. A Simulation of Moisture Diffusion Process in Furniture-Grade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    made for solid wood along the three principal directions Partial vapor pressure ­ the most proper for the moisture diffusion process through MDF using partial vapor pressure as the driving force, and (c/cm/mmHg/Hr) P = partial vapor pressure (mmHg) X = dimension coordinate (cm) Diffusion Cell RH1, P1 RH2, P2 Salt

  12. Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Narendra N.

    2007-04-25

    Soil moisture in the shallow subsurface is a primary hydrologic state governing land-atmosphere interaction at various scales. The primary objectives of this study are to model soil moisture in the root zone in a distributed ...

  13. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

  14. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code. Requests for new or revised content codes may be submitted to the WIPP RH-TRU Payload Engineer for review and approval, provided all RH-TRAMPAC requirements are met.

  15. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01

    groundwater, land-surface, and mesoscale atmospheric model-and modification of mesoscale circulations. , Mon. Wea.J. Davis, The effects of mesoscale surface heterogeneity on

  16. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

  17. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code.

  18. Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Trenton W.

    2013-03-06

    and-atmosphere interactions are an important component of climate, especially in semi-arid regions such as the Southern Great Plains. Interactions between soil moisture and vegetation modulate land-atmosphere coupling and thus represent a crucial...

  19. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created by the interaction of UF/sub 6/ with atmospheric moisture in a contained volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1982-04-30

    Several experiments have been performed in which UF/sub 6/ has been released into air under static conditions and contained in small release chambers (the largest was 8 cu ft) in order to characterize the solid product(s) created by reaction of the UF/sub 6/ with moisture in the air. Relative humidity of the air was varied, experiment to experiment, from < 2 to 100% and the amount of UF/sub 6/ released, experiment to experiment, varied from 5 to 230 mg. The releases were effected by rupture from internal pressure of the UF/sub 6/ containers (some were glass and some were metal) and the solids produced were collected and characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser light scattering, and a cascaded impactor which used mass measurement to evaluate aerodynamic behavior. Various morphologies and several compounds, dependent upon conditions of release, were observed, i.e., particle size and degree of agglomeration were dependent upon the relative humidity of the air into which the UF/sub 6/ was released and the temperature of the UF/sub 6/ at time of release.

  20. Comment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    . Obviously, heating Rh in pure oxygen to T ) 230 °C and above will lead to the formation of surface Rh oxideComment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111) under Realistic suggest the importance of a surface oxide phase for high CO2 formation in CO-O2 reactions. However

  1. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  2. Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of rigid-flexible multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) rigid-flexible printed wiring boards were determined. It was found that test specimens had absorbed 0.95 weight percent moisture when equilibrated to a 50 percent RH, 25{degree}C environment. Heating those equilibrated specimens in a 120{degree}C static air oven removed 92 percent of this absorbed moisture in 24 h. Heating the samples in a 80{degree}C static air oven removed only 64 percent of the absorbed moisture at the end of 24 h. A 120{degree}C vacuum bake removed moisture at essentially the same rate with parylene slowed the absorption rate by approximately 50 percent but did not appreciably affect the equilibrium moisture content or the drying rate.

  3. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

  4. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  5. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  6. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-07-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code. Requests for new or revised content codes may be submitted to the WIPP RH-TRU Payload Engineer for review and approval, provided all RH-TRAMPAC requirements are met.

  7. Check for chirality in {sup 102}Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Petkov, P.; Angelis, G. de; Bhowmik, R. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Kumar, R.; Raju, M. Kumar; Kaur, J.; Mahanto, G.; Singh, A.; Kaur, N.; Garg, R.; Sukla, A.; Marinov, Ts. K.; Brant, S.

    2012-10-20

    Excited states in {sup 102}Rh, populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 94}Zr({sup 11}B,3n){sup 102}Rh at a beam energy of 36 MeV, were studied using the INGA spectrometer at IUAC, New Delhi. The angular correlations and the electromagnetic character of some of the gamma-ray transitions observed were investigated in details. A new chiral candidate sister band was found in the level-scheme of {sup 102}Rh. Lifetimes of exited states in {sup 102}Rh were measured by means of the Doppler-shift attenuation technique. The experimental results do not support the presence of static chirality in {sup 102}Rh.

  8. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  9. Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala-processed winds, press., temp, and RH

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Coulter, Richard; Ritsche, Michael

    Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala-processed winds, press., temp, and RH. The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

  10. 6. Impact of smoke and moisture on shortwave radia7ve hea7ng profile Dynamical and Radia7ve Influences of Smoke Transport on the Southeast Atlan7c Atmospheric Ver7cal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    6. Impact of smoke and moisture on shortwave radia7ve hea7ng profile-tropospheric air above the cloud-top inversion layer, thereby inhibi:ng the entrainment stability impac:ng the stratocumulus deck. What is the role of regional circula

  11. Soil Density/Moisture Gauge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 -...

  12. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  13. University Policy No.: RH8205 Classification: Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    which requires, as a condition of deducting expenses, that the type of research carried out under the #12;research project be a type of research that is different from the type of research work ordinarilyUniversity Policy No.: RH8205 Classification: Research RESEARCH GRANTS IN LIEU OF Approving

  14. Designing for Absolute Moisture Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunnelly, R. M.; Fex, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    public assembly building, chances are the origin of the IAQ problems stem from excessive moisture in the space. Excessive moisture in the space can either come from water damage (leaking pipes or poor integrity of the building envelope), or it comes from...

  15. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  16. Porous Alumina Based Capacitive MEMS RH Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juhasz, L; Timar-Horvath, Veronika; Desmulliez, Marc; Dhariwal, Resh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of a joint research and development project at the BME and HWU is to produce a cheap, reliable, low-power and CMOS-MEMS process compatible capacitive type relative humidity (RH) sensor that can be incorporated into a state-of-the-art, wireless sensor network. In this paper we discuss the preparation of our new capacitive structure based on post-CMOS MEMS processes and the methods which were used to characterize the thin film porous alumina sensing layer. The average sensitivity is approx. 15 pF/RH% which is more than a magnitude higher than the values found in the literature. The sensor is equipped with integrated resistive heating, which can be used for maintenance to reduce drift, or for keeping the sensing layer at elevated temperature, as an alternative method for temperature-dependence cancellation.

  17. Moisture absorption in hybrid composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dan Laro

    1983-01-01

    Moisture Analysis for Steady State Boundary Conditions", Journal of Com osite Materials, Vol. 15, March 1981, pp. 142-152. 7. Weitsman, Y. , Priorate Communication, Texas A&M University, January 1983. 8. Wirth, Patricia E. and Rodin, Ervin Y. , "A... of Department) December 1983 111. ABSTRACT Moisture Absorption in Hybrid Composites (December 1983) Dan Laro Clark, B. S. Aerospace Engineering Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Y. Weitsman Dr. W. J. Horn This thesis presents...

  18. Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous Pd/Rh Alloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous PdRh Alloy Particles for Hydrogen Storage. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical and Morphological Evolution of...

  19. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  20. Anomalous emissions of 103mRh biphoton transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Cheng; Bing Xia

    2009-08-06

    In this report, the anomalous emissions, centered on the one half transition energy 39.76/2 keV, are observed from the long-lived Mossbauer state of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung exposure. Strong coupling with identical nuclei in Rh crystals opens cascade channels for biphoton transitions.

  1. Origin of room temperature ferromagnetic moment in Rh-rich Rh/Fe multilayer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    doing the magnetic measure- ments, a constant in-plane field of 0.8 T was applied to satu- rate the film in the antiferromagnetic AFM to ferromagnetic FM state on heating above 350 K and switch back on cooling, with a hysteresis. This property makes FeRh a very attractive choice as a write-assist layer material for low temperature heat

  2. Effects of social cues on GnRH-I, GnRH-II, and reproductive physiology in female house

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Troy G.

    Effects of social cues on GnRH-I, GnRH-II, and reproductive physiology in female house sparrows Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA c Department of Animal Physiology(s) of male social cues on the peripheral and neural responses of female house sparrows (Passer domesticus

  3. MEA 213 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences I FALL Semester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    and define the major terms that apply to meteorology. Structure of the atmosphere: Explain the chemical composition and vertical structure of the atmosphere. Weather maps: Read, interpret and plot station moisture parameter such as dew point, specific humidity, and mixing ratio from measured atmospheric

  4. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  5. Moisture Control | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy FacilitiesCleantechthe openControlling moisture can make your

  6. Ethanol Oxidation on the Ternary Pt–Rh–SnO2/C Electrocatalysts with Varied Pt:Rh:Sn ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Li, M.; Kowal, A.; Sasaki, K.; Marinkovic, N.; Su, D.; Korach, E.; Liu, P.

    2010-05-30

    Ternary Pt-Rh-SnO{sub 2}/C electrocatalysts with the atomic ratio Pt:Rh:Sn = 3:1:x, where x varies from 2 to 6, were synthesized using the modified polyol method followed by thermal treatment. Several techniques used to characterize these electrocatalysts showed they were composed of homogeneous PtRh alloy and SnO{sub 2}, having all three constituents coexisting in single nanoparticles with the average particle size around 1.4 nm and a narrow size distribution. While all the electrocatalysts investigated exhibited high catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation, the most active one had the composition with the Pt:Rh:Sn = 3:1:4 atomic ratio. These ternary-electrocatalysts effectively split the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acidic solutions, which is verified using the in situ IRRAS technique.

  7. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    that the influence of the urban region on wind patterns and atmospheric stability could be studied. HeightAtmospheric Environment ] (

  8. Aalborg Universitet Moisture risks arising from retrofitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    on an evaluation by the building owner or user. However, the risk is not quantified. To make the decision moreAalborg Universitet Moisture risks arising from retrofitting Møller, Eva B.; Aagaard, Niels for published version (APA): Møller, E. B., & Aagaard, N-J. (2013). Moisture risks arising from retrofitting

  9. RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS University Policy No.: RH8105

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    1 RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS University Policy No.: RH8105 Classification: Research Approving: Mandated Review: September, 2017 Associated Procedures Procedures for Conducting Human Research PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of this policy is to: a) set out provisions to ensure Research Involving Human Participants

  10. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

  11. Quantitative EDS Analysis of Nanometer-Scale Core/Shell Pd/Rh...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quantitative EDS Analysis of Nanometer-Scale CoreShell PdRh Structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantitative EDS Analysis of Nanometer-Scale CoreShell PdRh...

  12. Lecture(s) 9 Slides from atmosphere-ocean lectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the required energy poleward. the atmosphere is a heat engine, with Hadley convection cells driven moisture: both the `sensible' and `latent' heat fuels the vigorous overturning of the cloud visible albedo and ice can insulate the ocean from the atmosphere above. When the ocean surface freezes

  13. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  14. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  15. Superconductivity versus structural phase transition in the closely related Bi2Rh3.5S2 and Bi2Rh3S2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Xie, Weiwei; Lin, Qisheng; Taufour, Valentin; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Miller, Gordon J.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-05-19

    Single crystals of Bi2Rh3S2 and Bi2Rh3.5S2 were synthesized by solution growth, and the crystal structures and thermodynamic and transport properties of both compounds were studied. In the case of Bi2Rh3S2, a structural first-order transition at around 165 K is identified by single-crystal diffraction experiments, with clear signatures visible in resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat data. No superconducting transition for Bi2Rh3S2 was observed down to 0.5 K. In contrast, no structural phase transition at high temperature was observed for Bi2Rh3.5S2; however, bulk superconductivity with a critical temperature, Tc ? 1.7 K, was observed. The Sommerfeld coefficient ? and the Debye temperaturemore »(?D) were found to be 9.41 mJ mol–1K–2 and 209 K, respectively, for Bi2Rh3S2, and 22 mJ mol–1K–2 and 196 K, respectively, for Bi2Rh3.5S2. As a result, the study of the specific heat in the superconducting state of Bi2Rh3.5S2 suggests that Bi2Rh3.5S2 is a weakly coupled, BCS superconductor.« less

  16. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  17. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  18. How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dermody, Orla [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Engel, Elizabeth C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allen, Phillip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture content and leaf area index (LAI) are properties that will be particularly important in mediating whole system responses to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], warming and altered precipitation. Warming and drying will likely reduce soil moisture, and this effect may be exacerbated when these factors are combined. However, elevated [CO2] may increase soil moisture contents and when combined with warming and drying may partially compensate for their effects. The response of LAI to elevated [CO2] and warming will be closely tied to soil moisture status and may mitigate or exacerbate the effects of global change on soil moisture. Using open-top chambers (4-m diameter), the interactive effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and differential irrigation on soil moisture availability were examined in the OCCAM (Old-Field Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in eastern Tennessee. Warming consistently reduced soil moisture contents and this effect was exacerbated by reduced irrigation. However, elevated [CO2] partially compensated for the effects of warming and drying on soil moisture. Changes in LAI were closely linked to soil moisture status. LAI was determined using an AccuPAR ceptometer and both the leaf area duration (LAD) and canopy size were increased by irrigation and elevated [CO2]. The climate of the southeastern United States is predicted to be warmer and drier in the future. This research suggests that although elevated [CO2] will partially ameliorate the effects of warming and drying, losses of soil moisture will increase from old field ecosystems in the future.

  19. Towards tailoring the magnetocaloric response in FeRh-based ternary compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barua, Radhika Jiménez-Villacorta, Félix; Lewis, L. H.

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we demonstrate that the magnetocaloric response of FeRh-based compounds may be tailored for potential magnetic refrigeration applications by chemical modification of the FeRh lattice. Alloys of composition Fe(Rh{sub 1?x}A{sub x}) or (Fe{sub 1?x}B{sub x})Rh (A?=?Cu, Pd; B?=?Ni; 0?Rh-based systems were determined using isothermal M(H) curves measured in the vicinity of the magnetostructural temperature (T{sub t}). It is found that the FeRh working temperature range (?T{sub FWHM}) may be chemically tuned over a wide temperature range, 100?K???T???400?K. While elemental substitution consistently decreases the magnetic entropy change (?S{sub mag}) of the FeRh-based ternary alloys from that of the parent FeRh compound (?S{sub mag},{sub FeRh}???17?J/kg?K; ?S{sub mag,FeRh-ternary?=}?7–14?J/kg?K at H{sub app}?=?2?T), the net refrigeration capacity (RC), defined as the amount of heat that can be transferred during one magnetic refrigeration cycle, of the modified systems is significantly higher (RC{sub FeRh}???150?J/kg; RC{sub FeRh-ternary?=}?170–210?J/kg at H{sub app}?=?2?T). These results are attributed to stoichiometry-induced changes in the FeRh electronic band structure and beneficial broadening of the magnetostructural transition due to local chemical disorder.

  20. Soil Moisture Constants and Physical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Kauai, and Oahu. These soils represent 10 great soil groups commonly found in the State of HawaiiSoil Moisture Constants and Physical Properties of Selected Soils in Hawaii Teruo Yamamoto U S is a geologist with the Pacific Southwest Sta- tion's watershed management research project in Honolulu, Hawaii

  1. Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings J. L. Armstrong, M. J. Matthewson and C. R Fiber Coatings Janet L. Armstrong, 1 M. John Matthewson, 1 Charles R. Kurkjian 2 1 Rutgers University for measuring the diffusion coefficients of water vapor through optical fiber polymer coatings has been

  2. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  3. Field observations of soil moisture variability across scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, James S; Ryu, Dongryeol; Berg, Aaron A; Rodell, Matthew; Jackson, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    extent scales and wet- ness conditions. The more than 36,000deviation, CV, and skew- ness versus mean moisture contentstandard deviation and skew- ness versus mean soil moisture,

  4. Climate Change Effects on California Precipitation and Soil Moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Neil

    2015-01-01

    soil moisture, water year-average 2 meter air temperature (soil moisture, water year-average 2 meter air temperature (air temperature (“T2 dry ssn ”, unit ? C) changes for all 10 water

  5. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  7. Surface moisture measurement system operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-11

    The purpose of this manual is to provide detailed operating instructions for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS).In addition, operating instructions for the Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS) are included. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  8. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  9. Electronic structure and magnetism of the Rh[l brace]001[r brace] surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.C. Physics Department, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ); Garrison, K. ); Begley, A.M.; Jona, F. ); Johnson, P.D. )

    1994-05-15

    Spin-polarized-photoemission experiments on clean Rh[l brace]001[r brace] show that the surface resonance at the [ital [bar M

  10. Using moisture transport properties of rice seed components for identifying fissure resistance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Audrey Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Fissure resistance was related to the moisture transport properties of Cypress, Lemont, LaGrue, and Teqing rice varieties. The moisture transport properties, moisture diffusivity and resistance, were calculated using a three-dimensional moisture...

  11. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  12. Evidence for Methane -Complexes in Reductive Elimination Reactions from TpRh(L)(CH3)H

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Evidence for Methane -Complexes in Reductive Elimination Reactions from TpRh(L)(CH3)H Douglas D of methane from TpRh(L)(CH3)H in benzene/perfluorobenzene solvent mixtures is found to be dependent upon the concentration of benzene, indicating an associative component to the reductive elimination of methane. Both

  13. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  14. Moisture and temperature effects in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Gwo-Ping

    1987-01-01

    ) Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Y. Weitsman Th1s thesis concerns env1ronmental effects in graphite/epoxy composites, with emphas1s on environmentally induced damage. The thesis consists of two major parts. The first part presents an experimental 1... weight gain (in %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate during exposure to 346'K, 95% R. H. environment. Data (i) and predictions of Flck's law (solid line) Moisture content (ln %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite...

  15. Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowling, Sharon A.

    Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation on atmospheric exchange of heat and moisture. Our CONTROL simulation had a mean global net primary production (NPP) of 56.3 GtCyr-1 which is half that of our scenario value of 115.1 GtCyr-1 . LAI and latent energy

  16. Assimilation of Remote-sensing Soil Moisture in Short-term River Forecasting M. Pan1, E. F. Wood1, W. Crow2, J. Schaake3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ming

    Assimilation of Remote-sensing Soil Moisture in Short-term River Forecasting M. Pan1, E. F. Wood1 Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab, US Department of Agriculture 3 National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1. Introduction This study focuses on evaluation of hydrologic remote sensing

  17. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  18. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-03-27

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to producemore »carbon monoxide and methane. In addition, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.« less

  19. The effect of Fe-Rh alloying on CO hydrogenation to C2+ oxygenates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palomino, Robert; Magee, Joseph W.; Llorca, Jordi; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.

    2015-05-20

    A combination of reactivity and structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the active phases of Fe-modified Rh/TiO2 catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates from CO hydrogenation. XRD and TEM confirm the existence of Fe–Rh alloys for catalyst with 1–7 wt% Fe and ~2 wt% Rh. Rietveld refinements show that FeRh alloy content increases with Fe loading up to ~4 wt%, beyond which segregation to metallic Fe becomes favored over alloy formation. Catalysts that contain Fe metal after reduction exhibit some carburization as evidencedmore »by the formation of small amounts of Fe3C during CO hydrogenation. Analysis of the total Fe content of the catalysts also suggests the presence of FeOx also increased under reaction conditions. Reactivity studies show that enhancement of ethanol selectivity with Fe loading is accompanied by a significant drop in CO conversion. Comparison of the XRD phase analyses with selectivity suggests that higher ethanol selectivity is correlated with the presence of Fe–Rh alloy phases. As a result, the interface between Fe and Rh serves to enhance the selectivity of ethanol, but suppresses the activity of the catalyst which is attributed to the blocking or modifying of Rh active sites.« less

  20. Magnitude of the magnetic exchange interaction in the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Pinaki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lin, S. -Z. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ghimire, N.? J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Huang, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ronning, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, E.? D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, J.? D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, C.? D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ehlers, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janoschek, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We have used high-resolution neutron spectroscopy experiments to determine the complete spin wave spectrum of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn?. The spin wave dispersion can be quantitatively reproduced with a simple frustrated J??J? model that also naturally explains the magnetic spin-spiral ground state of CeRhIn? and yields a dominant in-plane nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange constant J?=0.74(3)??meV. Our results pave the way to a quantitative understanding of the rich low-temperature phase diagram of the prominent CeTIn? (T = Co, Rh, Ir) class of heavy-fermion materials.

  1. The moisture budget in relation to convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Robert Wilson

    1976-01-01

    : x10-6g cm-2s-1) 30 (, 'j I" '~, ". :, ', :, ':: P, ' r 0 (a) 0600 GMT, 24 April 1975 . . . ~t' . '. a--'-, . ' ' P) D (b) 0600 GiXT, 25 April 1975 Analyses of the net vertacal boundary flux of moisture in the layer from 500-350 mb... 120 4 060 , J 16O I 2 1" , 090 ~ J 120 32+ r I 24~ 190 12 10 (b) 700 mb Fig. 3. Synoptic charts for 0600 GMT on 24 April 1975. 16 86. 16 04 08 I 12 I I f 08 I 08 I L 08 12 16 (a) Surface 20 - 8 A 4X 4 0 ) O2O ~~(~ -2 J--4...

  2. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  3. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  4. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  5. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  6. The valence band structure of Ag{sub x}Rh{sub 1–x} alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yayama, Tomoe; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Koyama, Michihisa; and others

    2014-10-13

    The valence band (VB) structures of face-centered-cubic Ag-Rh alloy nanoparticles (NPs), which are known to have excellent hydrogen-storage properties, were investigated using bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed VB spectra profiles of the Ag-Rh alloy NPs do not resemble simple linear combinations of the VB spectra of Ag and Rh NPs. The observed VB hybridization was qualitatively reproduced via a first-principles calculation. The electronic structure of the Ag{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 0.5} alloy NPs near the Fermi edge was strikingly similar to that of Pd NPs, whose superior hydrogen-storage properties are well known.

  7. W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thorium fuel reprocessing experience Brooksbank, R.E.; McDuffee, W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; NUCLEAR MATERIALS DIVERSION; SAFEGUARDS; SPENT FUELS;...

  8. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  9. Relationships of radon diffusion coefficient with saturated hydraulic conductivity, fines content and moisture saturation of radon/infiltration barriers for the UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.Y.; Chen, P.K. [Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    1994-01-24

    The release of {sup 222}Radon to the atmosphere is controlled by the rate of its gas transport through earthen materials. Of the many soil-related parameters, radon diffusion coefficient is the key parameter that characterizes this transport. We compared the radon diffusion coefficients measured at the laboratories for the UMTRA Project with simple empirical correlations developed by others. The empirical correlations predict the radon diffusion coefficient based on the fraction of moisture saturation and porosity. One of the more recent correlations agrees reasonably well with the measurements. In addition, by using a series of correlation curves, we studied the empirical relationships of the. radon diffusion coefficient with the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the fines content, and the moisture saturation in soil. The results reveal that a reliable determination of the long-term moisture and porosity is essential in the design of an adequate radon barrier with respect to the radon diffusion coefficient.

  10. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Albrecht, Karl O.; Kovarik, Libor; Flake, Matthew D.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O4 supported Rh and Ir catalysts was investigated. Experimentally, it has been found that both highly dispersed Rh and Ir clusters (1-2 nm) on the MgAl2O4 spinel support are stable during the BSR in the temperature range of 700-850?C. Compared to the Ir/MgAl2O4 catalyst, the Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst is more active with higher benzene turnover frequency and conversion. At typical steam conditions with the steam-to-carbon ratio > 12, the benzene conversion is only a weak function of the H2O concentration in the feed. This suggests that the initial benzene decomposition step rather than the benzene adsorption is most likely the rate-determined step in BSR over supported Rh and Ir catalysts. In order to understand the differences between the two catalysts, we followed with a comparative DFT study of initial benzene decomposition pathways over two representative model systems for each supported metal (Rh and Ir) catalysts. A periodic terrace (111) surface and an amorphous 50-atom metal cluster with a diameter of 1.0 nm were used to represent the two supported model catalysts under low and high dispersion conditions. Our DFT results show that the decreasing catalyst particle size enhances the benzene decomposition on supported Rh catalysts by lowering both C-C and C-H bond scission. The activation barriers of the C-C and the C-H bond scission decrease from 1.60 and 1.61 eV on the Rh(111) surface to 1.34 and 1.26 eV on the Rh50 cluster. For supported Ir catalysts, the decreasing particle size only affects the C-C scission. The activation barrier of the C-C scission of benzene decreases from 1.60 eV on the Ir(111) surface to 1.35 eV on the Ir50 cluster while the barriers of the C-H scission are practically the same. The experimentally measured higher BSR activity on the supported highly dispersed Rh catalyst can be rationalized by the thermodynamic limitation for the very first C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst. The C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst is highly endothermic although the barrier is competitive with the barriers of both the C-C and the C-H bond-breakings on the small Rh50 catalyst. The calculations also imply that, for the supported Rh catalysts the C-C and C-H bond scissions are competitive, independently of the Rh cluster sizes. After the initial dissociation step via either the C-C or the C-H bond scission, the C-H bond breaking seems to be more favorable rather than the C-C bond breaking on the larger Rh terrace surface. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Biomass Program’s. Computing time was granted by a user project at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  11. The effect of moisture on a glass/epoxy composite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatawanich, Candy Suda

    1996-01-01

    Research was done to determine the effect of moisture on the transverse tensile strength and the interfacial shear strength of a glass/epoxy composite. Specimens with two different fiber sizings, one epoxy compatible and one vinyl-ester compatible...

  12. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  13. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  14. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission: Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, Peggy

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. Its mission design consists of L-band ...

  15. Moisture Diffusion in Asphalt Binders and Fine Aggregate Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.

    2011-08-08

    cost in highway maintenance and vehicle operations. One key mechanism of how moisture reaches the asphalt-aggregate interface is by its permeation or diffusion through the asphalt binder or mastic. Different techniques are available for diffusion...

  16. Transient Analysis for Thermal and Moisture Behavior of Building Elements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, X.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    hybrid numerical method of Laplace transformation and the finite difference is first applied to solve its transient hygrothermal problem, in which the temperature and moisture coupling at the inner and outer surfaces is taken into account in the boundary...

  17. Building Integrated Heat and Moisture Exchange | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 of 2 Building-integrated heat and moisture exchanger, the AirFlow(tm) Panel, installed for evaluation at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Image: Architectural Applications 2 of 2...

  18. The spatial and temporal organization of soil moisture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gregor Klaus

    1995-01-01

    . The spatial correlation remains unchanged with the scale and follows a power law decay typical of scaling processes. Soil moisture also shows clear scaling properties on its spatial clustering patterns. A well-defined organization of statistical character...

  19. Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy...

  20. Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility of Warm Mix Asphalt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Cucalon, Maria Lorena

    2013-05-03

    Economic, environmental and engineering benefits promote the rapid implementation of WMA technologies. However, concerns remain based on changes in the production process that may lead to moisture susceptibility in the ...

  1. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  2. Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Brij D.

    2004-09-30

    (Member) (Head of Department) August 2003 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Evaluation of Moisture Damage within Asphalt Concrete Mixes. (August 2003) Brij D. Shah, B.E., Gujarat University Chair...

  3. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  4. Investigation of moisture content variations in highway subgrades and bases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Edward Donald

    1957-01-01

    MOVEMENT OF MOISTURE BY CAPILLARITY Frost Action Temperature Gradient Hydraulic Gradient Textural Gradient Summa + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ MOVElfZNT OF MOISTURE IN THE VAPOR PHASE GRAVITATIONAL FLO)V EVAPORATION TRANSPIRATION CONTROLLING... by caoillarity are these: (l) frost action, (2) temperature gradient, ()) hydraulic gradient, and (4) textural gradient. Frost Action Of these causes, frost action is the best known and understood, as it is a common problem in the northern United States...

  5. Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H. [Voest-Alpine Stahl Linz GmbH (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

  6. Modifications to WRFs dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; et al

    2015-10-29

    Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in themore »acoustic sub-stepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature ? with one for the moist potential temperature ?m=?(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic sub-steps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. In conclusion, this modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.« less

  7. Cooling effect in emissions of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Cheng; Bing Xia; Chinping Chen

    2009-04-29

    Nonlinear characteristic emissions of K alpha, K beta and gamma with a significant triplet splitting at room temperature are observed from the long-lived nuclear state of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung irradiation. A pronounced phase-transition-like narrowing of the emission profiles occurs immediately after the sample is cooled down to 77 K. The room temperature profiles reappear again abruptly and almost reversibly as the temperature drifts freely back to approximately the ice point after the filling of liquid nitrogen is stopped. These emission properties at 300 K and at low temperature may indicate that the 103mRh nuclei are in collective states.

  8. A Tropical Atmosphere Model with Moisture: Global Well-posedness and Relaxation Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, J; Titi, ES

    2015-01-01

    and con- volution inequalities, Comm. Partial Differentiallimit; variational inequality. JINKAI LI AND EDRISS S. TITIreplaced by three inequalities (1.16)–(1.18). Inequality (

  9. Validation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder temperature and moisture profiles over tropical oceans and their impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Zhaoxia

    ] Tropical cyclones are one of the costliest and deadliest natural disasters in the United States and other the potential for economic damage and deaths. However, due to the lack of the conventional observations over/I satellite rainfall rates results in improvements in hurricane track forecasts in the GEOS global model [Hou

  10. Investigation of SGP Atmospheric Moisture Budget for CLASIC Â… Recycling Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the Richard P.Schmidt UnitInvestigation of Budget

  11. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations was initiated in 2009. Computational investigations were performed first to elucidate understanding of the nature of the catalytically active site. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that Mn likely exists as a metallic alloy with Rh in Rh-rich environments under reducing conditions at the temperatures of interest. After determining that reduced Rh-Mn alloy metal clusters were in a reduced state, the activation energy barriers of numerous transition state species on the catalytically active metal particles were calculated to compute the activation barriers of several reaction pathways that are possible on the catalyst surface. Comparison of calculations with a Rh nanoparticle versus a Rh-Mn nanoparticle revealed that the presence of Mn enabled the reaction pathway of CH with CO to form an adsorbed CHCO species, which was a precursor to C2+ oxygenates. The presence of Mn did not have a significant effect on the rate of CH4 production. Ir was observed during empirical catalyst screening experiments to improve the activity and selectivity of Rh-Mn catalysts. Thus, the addition of Ir to the Rh-Mn nanoparticles also was probed computationally. Simulations of Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles revealed that, with sufficient Ir concentrations, the Rh, Mn and Ir presumably would be well mixed within a nanoparticle. Activation barriers were calculated for Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles for several C-, H-, and O-containing transitional species on the nanoparticle surface. It was found that the presence of Ir opened yet another reactive pathway whereby HCO is formed and may undergo insertion with CHx surface moieties. The reaction pathway opened by the presence of Ir is in addition to the CO + CH pathway opened by the presence of Mn. Similar to Mn, the presence of Ir was not found to not affect the rate of CH4 production.

  12. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    2015-01-14

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  13. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  14. Electronic Effects of Rh(II)-Mediated Carbenoid Intramolecular C-H Insertion: A Linear Free Energy Correlation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianbo

    Electronic Effects of Rh(II)-Mediated Carbenoid Intramolecular C-H Insertion: A Linear Free Energy. The mechanistic significance of these Hammett correlations is discussed. Introduction The electronic effects of Rh is enhanced by an electron-donating group while an electron-withdrawing group retards the C-H insertion, thus

  15. Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    examine the dynamics of the NO H2 reaction on the Rh 111 surface by measuring the velocity distribution. Product velocity distributions have been measured for a number of surface reactions, and show a wideDynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product J

  16. David A. DeLambo, Rh.D., CRC Department of Rehabilitation and Counseling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    David A. DeLambo, Rh.D., CRC Department of Rehabilitation and Counseling University of Wisconsin-Stout 231a Vocational Rehabilitation Building Menomonie, WI 54751 delambod@uwstout.edu (715) 232-2499 Education 1997 Doctor of Rehabilitation/Rehabilitation Southern Illinois University Carbondale

  17. Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation between] in interaction with propane. Two complexes have been found as minima coordinated through either a methyl the methylene complex of propane into a methyl complex of pro- pane. This latter reaction has a much lower

  18. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product J. I of surface temperature and oxygen coverage. Both the velocity and angular distributions are bimodal without first accommodating on the surface, the velocity, angular, and internal state distributions may

  19. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  1. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  2. Effect of prostaglandin E? (PGE?) on the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from infundibular explants of cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Tyler Paul

    2001-01-01

    GnRH neuronal terminals located in the infundibulum of rodents have been shown to release GnRH when stimulated with PGE? in vivo and in vitro. The effect of PGE? on the release of GnRH has not been determined in cattle. Thus, the objective...

  3. Association of intracellular calcium oscillations with release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from GT1-1 neuronal cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Chrystal Dawn

    1999-01-01

    the relationship of GnRH release with [Ca²?][] oscillations using the GT1-1 neuronal cell line. GnRH release was measured by radioimmunoassay of media incubated with GT1-1 neuronal cells for 1 hr with control or test substances to induce release of GnRH. [Ca...

  4. Is It Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Catalysis Derived from [RhCp*Cl2]2? In Operando-XAFS, Kinetic and Crucial Kinetic Poisoning Evidence for Subnanometer Rh4 Cluster-Based Benzene Hydrogenation Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayram, Ercan; Linehan, John C.; Fulton, John L.; Roberts, John A.; Szymczak, Nathaniel; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Ozkar, Saim; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Finke, Richard G.

    2011-11-23

    Determining the true, kinetically dominant catalytically active species, in the classic benzene hydrogenation system pioneered by Maitlis and co-workers 34 years ago starting with [RhCp*Cl2]2 (Cp* = [{eta}5-C5(CH3)5]), has proven to be one of the most challenging case studies in the quest to distinguish single-metal-based 'homogeneous' from polymetallic, 'heterogeneous' catalysis. The reason, this study will show, is the previous failure to use the proper combination of (i) operando spectroscopy to determine the dominant form(s) of the precatalyst's mass under catalysis (i.e., operating) conditions, plus then and crucially also (ii) the previous lack of the necessary kinetic studies, catalysis being a 'wholly kinetic phenomenon' as J. Halpern long ago noted. An important contribution from this study will be to reveal the power of quantitiative kinetic poisoning experiments for distinguishing single-metal, or in this case subnanometer Rh4 cluster-based catalysis from larger, polymetallic Rh(0)n nanoparticle catalysis, at least under favorable conditions. The combined operando-XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) spectroscopy and kinetic evidences provide a compelling case for Rh4-based, with average stoichiometry 'Rh4Cp*2.4Cl4Hc', benzene hydrogenation catalysis in 2-propanol with added Et3N and at 100 C and 50 atm initial H2 pressure. The results also reveal, however, that if even ca. 1.4% of the total soluble Rh(0)n had formed nanoparticles, then those Rh(0)n nanoparticles would have been able to account for all the observed benzene hydrogenation catalytic rate (using commercial, ca. 2 nm, polyethyleneglycol-dodecylether hydrosol stabilized Rh(0)n nanoparticles as a model system). The results 'especially the poisoning methodology developed and employed' are of significant, broader interest since determining the nature of the true catalyst continues to be a central, often vexing issue in any and all catalytic reactions. The results are also of fundamental interest in that they add to a growing body of evidence indicating that certain, appropriately ligated, coordinatively unsaturated, subnanometer M4 transition-metal clusters can be relatively robust catalysts. Also demonstrated herein is that Rh4 clusters are poisoned by Hg(0), demonstrating for the first time that the classic Hg(0) poisoning test of 'homogeneous' vs 'heterogeneous'catalysts cannot distinguish Rh4-based subnanometer catalysts from Rh(0)n nanoparticle catalysts, at least for the present examples of these two specific, Rh-based catalysts.

  5. Synthesis of few-walled carbon nanotube-Rh nanoparticles by arc discharge: Effect of selective oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yanfeng

    2012-06-15

    Highly crystalline rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes were prepared by selective oxidation method. Carbon nanotubes and FeRh nanoparticles were simultaneously generated in hydrogen arc plasma. The as-grown nanomaterials can be purified by heat treatment in open air and by soaking in HCl. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction results reveal that as-grown FeRh nanoparticles have a typical chemical CsCl-type structure which can be transformed into a face-centered cubic structure by thermal annealing in the purification process. The purification process is selective toward the removal of the amorphous carbon coating the nanoparticles, and transforms Fe to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be easily dissolved in hydrochloric acid, leaving carbon nanotubes-Rh nanoparticles. Rh nanoparticles with diameters of 2-60 nm are deposited uniformly on the surface of the carbon nanotube bundles. This simple and selective chemistry offers a new process for synthesizing and controlling Fe content in carbon nanotube-FeRh nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-crystallinity CNTs and FeRh nanoparticles were simultaneously generated in arc plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The diameter distribution of CNTs depends on different gases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat treatment in open air and soaking in HCl can convert CNTs-FeRh to CNTs-Rh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selective oxidation mechanisms of metal nanoparticles and carbon materials differ.

  6. Specific heat of apple at different moisture contents and temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viacheslav Mykhailyk; Nikolai Lebovka

    2013-05-11

    This work discusses results of experimental investigations of the specific heat, $C$, of apple in a wide interval of moisture contents ($W=0-0.9$) and temperatures ($T = 283-363$ K). The obtained data reveal the important role of the bound water in determination of $C(W,T)$ behaviour. The additive model for description of $C(W)$ dependence in the moisture range of $0.1apple was considered as a mixture of water and hydrated apple material (water plasticised apple) with specific heat $C_h$. The difference between $C_h$ and specific heat of dry apple, $\\Delta Cb=C_h-C_d$, was proposed as a measure of the excess contribution of bound water to the specific heat. The estimated amounts of bound water $W_b$ were comparable with the monolayer moisture content in apple. The analytical equation was proposed for approximation of $C(W,T)$ dependencies in the studied intervals of moisture content and temperature.

  7. The Influence of Soil Moisture Upon the Geothermal Climate Signal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    The Influence of Soil Moisture Upon the Geothermal Climate Signal A.W. England*, Xiaohua Lin climate warming over the past few hundred years are being obtained from profiles of borehole temperature fractions of the geothermal climate signal. One of the long-term objectives of this investigation is to use

  8. Stress and Moisture Effects on Thin Film Buckling Delamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    ­2 GPa compres- sive residual stresses were sputter deposited on top of thin (below 100 nm) copperStress and Moisture Effects on Thin Film Buckling Delamination P. Waters & A.A. Volinsky Received, commonly called telephone cords, shown in Fig. 2 for the 1 2m W film on top of a 20 nm diamond-like carbon

  9. ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH C. P. Kumar* ABSTRACT The amount of water that may be extracted from an aquifer without causing depletion is primarily dependent upon the ground water recharge. Thus, a quantitative evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution

  10. SOIL MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS IN UPPER PART OF HINDON RIVER CATCHMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    1 SOIL MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS IN UPPER PART OF HINDON RIVER CATCHMENT C. P. Kumar* Vijay Kumar** Vivekanand Singh*** ABSTRACT Knowledge of the physics of soil water movement is crucial to the solution for estimating the soil hydraulic properties are required for prediction of soil water flow. This paper presents

  11. Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts over the United and vegetation on 30 h convective precipitation forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over, the complete removal of vegetation produced substantially less precipitation, while conversion to forest led

  12. Magnitude of the magnetic exchange interaction in the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Pinaki; Lin, S. -Z.; Ghimire, N. J.; Huang, K.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Batista, C. D.; Ehlers, G.; Janoschek, M.

    2014-12-08

    We have used high-resolution neutron spectroscopy experiments to determine the complete spin wave spectrum of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn?. The spin wave dispersion can be quantitatively reproduced with a simple frustrated J?-J? model that also naturally explains the magnetic spin-spiral ground state of CeRhIn? and yields a dominant in-plane nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange constant J?=0.74(3) meV. Our results lead the way to a quantitative understanding of the rich low-temperature phase diagram of the prominent CeTIn? (T = Co, Rh, Ir) class of heavy-fermion materials.

  13. A Continuum Coupled Moisture-mechanical Constitutive Model for Asphalt Concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shakiba, Maryam

    2013-12-09

    The presence and flow of moisture degrade engineering properties of asphalt concrete as part of thermodynamic, chemical, physical, and mechanical processes. This detrimental effect is referred to as moisture damage. The aim of this dissertation...

  14. Moisture degradation in FRP bonded concrete systems : an interface fracture approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Au, Ching, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) characterization, and kink criterion implementation, form a synergistic analysis of the mechanistic debonding behavior affected by moisture. Results have shown that moisture affected debonding is a highly complex ...

  15. Modeling and application of soil moisture at varying spatial scales with parameter scaling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Narendra Narayan

    2009-05-15

    The dissertation focuses on characterization of subpixel variability within a satellite-based remotely sensed coarse-scale soil moisture footprint. The underlying heterogeneity of coarse-scale soil moisture footprint is masked by the area...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID TEST TO DETERMINE MOISTURE SENSTIVITY OF HMA (SUPERPAVE) MIXTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiwakoti, Harihar

    2007-12-14

    Exiting test methods to determine moisture sensitivity in hot mix asphalt are time consuming and inconsistent. This research focused on wheel tracking devices to develop a rapid test method to evaluate moisture sensitivity. The Asphalt Pavement...

  17. Long-term functional plasticity in plant hydraulic architecture in response to supplemental moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Long-term functional plasticity in plant hydraulic architecture in response to supplemental of nearby individuals growing where soil moisture had been supplemented for 14 years. Traditional parameters receiving supplemental moisture consistently showed significant responses in all considered traits related

  18. A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro Spinel, Silvia

    2011-02-22

    The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture ...

  19. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle ...

  20. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA IN SELECTED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K). This study involved field and laboratory determination of soil

  1. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission and Opportunities for Applications Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Molly E.

    Water in the soil—both its amount (soil moisture) and its state (freeze/thaw)—plays a key role in water and energy cycles, in weather and climate, and in the carbon cycle. Additionally, soil moisture touches upon human ...

  2. MoistureMap: A soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system for sustainable land and water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    algorithms or rainfall forecasts provide. It is widely recognised that passive microwave is the most promising remote sensing method for soil moisture measurement [Njoku et al., 2002]. While passive microwave must be combined by data assimilation [Walker and Houser, 2005], with point measurements used

  3. Magnetism and superconductivity in U2PtxRh1?xC2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Ni, Ni; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Tegtmeier, E.; Ronning, F.

    2015-01-09

    We report the phase diagram of the doping series U?PtxRh(1–x)C?, studied through measurements of resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility. The Néel temperature of U?Rh?C? of ~ 22 K is suppressed with increasing Pt content, reaching zero temperature close to x = 0.7, where we observed signatures of increased quantum fluctuations. Additionally, evidence is presented that the antiferromagnetic state undergoes a spin-reorientation transition upon application of an applied magnetic field. This transition shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of x, peaking at around x = 0.3. Superconductivity is observed for x ? 0.9, with Tc increasing with increasing x. Themore »reduction in Tc and increase in residual resistivity with decreasing Pt content is inconsistent with the extension of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory to unconventional superconductivity.« less

  4. Anisotropic intermediate valence in Yb2M3Ga9 (M = Rh, Ir)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christianson, A.D.; Lawrence, J.M.; Lobos, A.M.; Aligia, A.A.; Bauer, E.D.; Moreno, N.O.; Booth, C.H.; Goremychkin, E.A.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.; Batista, C.D.; Trouw, F.R.; Hehlen, M.P.

    2005-04-26

    The intermediate valence compounds Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} (M = Rh, Ir) exhibit an anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the 4f occupation number, n{sub f}(T), for Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} as well as the magnetic inelastic neutron scattering spectrum S{sub mag}({Delta}E) at 12 and 300 K for Yb{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}. Both n{sub f}(T) and S{sub mag}({Delta}E) were calculated for the Anderson impurity model with crystal field terms within an approach based on the non-crossing approximation. These results corroborate the importance of crystal field effects in these materials; they also suggest that Anderson lattice effects are important to the physics of Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}.

  5. Magnetism and superconductivity in U?PtxRh(1–x)C?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Ni, Ni; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Tegtmeier, E.; Ronning, F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the phase diagram of the doping series U?PtxRh(1–x)C?, studied through measurements of resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility. The Néel temperature of U?Rh?C? of ~ 22 K is suppressed with increasing Pt content, reaching zero temperature close to x = 0.7, where we observed signatures of increased quantum fluctuations. In addition, evidence is presented that the antiferromagnetic state undergoes a spin-reorientation transition upon application of an applied magnetic field. This transition shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of x, peaking at around x = 0.3. Superconductivity is observed for x ? 0.9, with Tc increasing with increasing x.more »The reduction in Tc and increase in residual resistivity with decreasing Pt content is inconsistent with the extension of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory to unconventional superconductivity.« less

  6. Electronic structure of U2PtC2 and U2RhC2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronning, F.; Zhu, J. -X.

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we present density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation of U2RhC2 and U2PtC2. We find the calculated density of states are significantly less than that measured by specific heat indicating the need for electronic correlations. The mass enhancement found for U2PtC2 is m*/mband ? 4.

  7. 2,3-Migration in Rh(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of -Trifluoroacetamido

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianbo

    2,3-Migration in Rh(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of -Trifluoroacetamido r-Diazocarbonyl Compounds Feng(II)-catalyzed reactions of these diazo compounds gave 2,3-migration products in high yields. 1,2-Migration is one,2-migration reactions, the 1,2-hydride migration is generally predominant, but 1,2-alkyl, 1,2-aryl, 1,2-thio

  8. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE -II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    1 SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE - II C. P. Kumar* Sanjay knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated presents the soil moisture retention characteristics at RD 838 of Indira Gandhi Nahar Priyojana, Stage - II

  9. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less than 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the ?-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.

  10. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less thanmore »100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the ?-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.« less

  11. Specific heat of CeRhIn5: Pressure-driven evolution of the ground state from antiferromagnetism to superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    Specific Heat of CeRhIn5: Pressure–Driven Evolution of the32306 Measurements of the specific heat of antiferromagneticsee text). Fig. 2. (a) The specific heat, for representative

  12. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  13. Ovarian and hormonal events during synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, GnRH and prostaglandin F2(alpha) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldarriaga Lopez, Juan Pablo

    2007-04-25

    of GnRH (GnRH-1) on day 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of prostaglandin F2a (PGF on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. In experiment 1 (Exp. 1), 335 females were stratified by BCS, parity and d postpartum before random...

  14. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approaches—in other words, systems—usually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  15. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-04-04

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms` underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940`s. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination.

  16. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry and global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ

    1999-01-01

    and particles. Thus Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Changethe future of atmospheric chemistry. BROWSINGS Tornadothe complexity of atmospheric chemistry well, but trips a

  18. Structural and ferromagnetic properties of an orthorhombic phase of MnBi stabilized with Rh additions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taufour, Valentin; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; March, Stephen; Saunders, Scott; Sun, Kewei; Lamichhane, Tej Nath; Kramer, Matthew J.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-07-28

    The article addresses the possibility of alloy elements in MnBi which may modify the thermodynamic stability of the NiAs-type structure without significantly degrading the magnetic properties. The addition of small amounts of Rh and Mn provides an improvement in the thermal stability with some degradation of the magnetic properties. The small amounts of Rh and Mn additions in MnBi stabilize an orthorhombic phase whose structural and magnetic properties are closely related to the ones of the previously reported high-temperature phase of MnBi (HT MnBi). The properties of the HT MnBi, which is stable between 613 and 719 K, have notmore »been studied in detail because of its transformation to the stable low-temperature MnBi (LT MnBi), making measurements near and below its Curie temperature difficult. The Rh-stabilized MnBi with chemical formula Mn1.0625–xRhxBi [x=0.02(1)] adopts a new superstructure of the NiAs/Ni2In structure family. It is ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 416 K. The critical exponents of the ferromagnetic transition are not of the mean-field type but are closer to those associated with the Ising model in three dimensions. The magnetic anisotropy is uniaxial; the anisotropy energy is rather large, and it does not increase when raising the temperature, contrary to what happens in LT MnBi. The saturation magnetization is approximately 3?B/f.u. at low temperatures. Thus, while this exact composition may not be application ready, it does show that alloying is a viable route to modifying the stability of this class of rare-earth-free magnet alloys.« less

  19. GnRH-induced LH release in heifers: effect of nutrient restriction during gestation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Killen, James Harold

    1983-01-01

    RH-Induced LH Release in Heif era: Effect of Nutrient Restriction During Gestation. (May 1983) James Harold Killen, B. S. , University of Arizona Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. David W. Forrest Dr. Paul G. Harms This study was undertaken.... 4+/-18. 4, 64. 9+/-16. 8, and 29. 6+/-12. 4 ng/ml (P&. 10) for pr spartum heifer s snd 18. 4+/-4. 7, 14. 6+/-S. 4 and 31. 7+/- 5. 7 ng/ml (P&. 10) f or postpartum heifers in the L, M snd G groups, r eepectively. LSM for plasma LH response and peak...

  20. Syngas production from butane using a flame-made Rh/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 Nico Hotz a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Syngas production from butane using a flame-made Rh/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst Nico Hotz a , Michael J the production of H2- and CO-rich syngas from butane was investigated for different Rh loadings (0­2.0 wt% Rh for a temperature range from 225 to 750 8C. The main goal of this study was the efficient processing of butane

  1. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO? for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO? cubes and CeO? rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO?-cubes > RhPd/CeO? -rods > RhPd/CeO?- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO?-cubes and RhPd/CeO? -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic -more »oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria« less

  2. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  3. Synthesis, structure and chemical bonding of CaFe{sub 2?x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x=0, 1.32, and 2) and SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hlukhyy, Viktor Hoffmann, Andrea V.; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2013-07-15

    The finding of superconductivity in Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} put the attention on the investigation of compounds that crystallize with ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type such as AT{sub 2}X{sub 2} (A=alkali/alkaline earth/rare earth element; T=transition metal and X=element of the 13–15th group). In this context the silicides CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, CaFe{sub 0.68(6)}Rh{sub 1.32(6)}Si{sub 2}, CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been synthesized by reaction of the elements under an argon atmosphere. Single crystals were obtained by special heat treatment in welded niobium/tantalum ampoules. The compounds were investigated by means of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds crystallize in the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure with space group I4/mmm (No. 139): a=3.939(1) Å, c=10.185(1) Å, R{sub 1}=0.045, 85 F{sup 2} values, 8 variable parameters for CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}; a=4.0590(2) Å, c=9.9390(8) Å, R{sub 1}=0.030, 90 F{sup 2} values, 10 variable parameters for CaFe{sub 0.68(6)}Rh{sub 1.32(6)}Si{sub 2}; a=4.0695(1) Å, c=9.9841(3) Å, R{sub 1}=0.031, 114 F{sup 2} values, 9 variable parameters for CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}; and a=3.974(1) Å, c=10.395(1) Å, R{sub 1}=0.036, 95 F{sup 2} values, 8 variable parameters for SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. The structure of SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} contains isolated [Co{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2?} 2D-layers in the ab-plane whereas in CaFe{sub 2?x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} the [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}] layers (T=Fe and Rh) are interconnected along the c-axis via Si3Si bonds resulting in a three-dimentional (3D) [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2?} polyanions and therefore belong to the so-called collapsed form of the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. The SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are isoelectronic to the parent 122 iron–pnictide superconductors AeFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ae=alkaline earth elements), whereas CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is a full substituted variant (As/Si) of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The crystal chemistry and chemical bonding in the title compounds are discussed in terms of LMTO band structure calculations and a topological analysis using the Electron Localization Function (ELF). - Graphical abstract: The SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CaFe{sub 2?x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x==0, 1.32, and 2) crystallize in the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type. The structure of SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} contains isolated [Co{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2?} layers in the ab-plane, whereas the [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}] layers in CaFe{sub 2?x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} are interconnected along the c-axis via Si3Si bonds resulting in a [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2?} network. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of ternary silicides SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CaFe{sub 2?x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x=0, 1.32, and 2). • The SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are isoelectronic to the parent 122 iron–pnictide superconductors AeFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. • CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is a full substituted variant (As/Si) of superconductor CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. • The title compounds demonstrate the tunable Si3Si distances.

  4. Moisture monitoring of ferrocyanide tanks: An evaluation of methods and tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meacham, J.E.; Babad, H.; Toffer, H.

    1993-04-01

    This report reviews the strengths and limitations of moisture monitoring technologies that could be used for determining moisture concentration in Hanford Site single-shell ferrocyanide waste tanks. Two technologies (neutron diffusion and near-infrared spectroscopy) are being pursued as part of the ferrocyanide program. A third technology, Raman spectroscopy, is in development as a speciation tool at the Westinghouse Hanford Company 222-S Laboratory. The potential application of Raman spectroscopy to moisture monitoring is discussed.

  5. Temperature and moisture dependence of dielectric constant for silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.H., LLNL

    1997-03-01

    The dielectric constants of silica aerogels are among the lowest measured for any solid material. The silica aerogels also exhibit low thermal expansion and are thermally stable to temperatures exceeding 500{degrees}C. However, due to the open porosity and large surface areas for aerogels, their dielectric constants are strongly affected by moisture and temperature. This paper presents data for the dielectric constants of silica aerogels as a function of moisture content at 25{degrees}C, and as a function of temperature, for temperatures in the range from 25{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C. Dielectric constant data are also given for silica aerogels that are heat treated in dry nitrogen at 500{degrees}C, then cooled to 25{degrees}C for measurements in dry air. All measurements are made on bulk aerogel spheres at 22GHz microwave frequency, using a cavity perturbation method. The results of the dependence found here for bulk materials can be inferred to apply also to thin films of silica aerogels having similar nano-structures and densities.

  6. UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL THERMAL & MOISTURE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS ROOF DRAINS & ROOFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL THERMAL & MOISTURE. ii. General #12;UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL

  7. Effectiveness of vertical moisture barriers in highway pavements on expansive soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayatilaka, Ranasinghege

    1993-01-01

    barriers will have little effect. Sites in wet and semi-arid climates, with medium cracked clay soils show the greatest benefit from using vertical moisture barriers....

  8. Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences 1959­2009 WayneBurt. #12;Oceanography and Atmospheric in Oceanography (TENOC). Wayne Burt immediately responds with proposal to President Strand of Oregon State College to start a graduate Department of Oceanography. 1959 Oregon State Board of Higher Education approves

  9. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  10. Single to Multiquasiparticle Excitations in the Itinerant Helical Magnet CeRhIn5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Schmalzl, K.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Stunault, A.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-06-19

    Neutron scattering is used to measure the quantum spin fluctuations in CeRhIn5 - the parent material of the eXIn5 superconducting series. Out-of-plane spin fluctuations are gapped and localized in momentum, similar to the spin excitons in CeCoIn5. The in-plane fluctuations consist of sharp spin-wave excitations parameterized by a nearest neighbor exchange JRKKY =0.88 ± 0.05 meV that crossover to a temporally and spatially broad multiparticle spectrum with energies of ~ 2 × JRKKY . This continuum represents composite fluctuations that illustrate the breakdown of single magnons originating from the delicate energy balance between localized 4f and itinerant behavior in amore »heavy metal. The experiment therefore shows how quasiparticle behavior is changed by the close proximity of quantum criticality.« less

  11. Synthesis, NMR spectra, and structure of rhodium hydride complexes with Rh-Sn bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krut'ko, B.P.; Permin, A.B.; Petrosyan, V.S.; Reutov, O.A.

    1985-06-20

    The authors study the hydride complexes using Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The spectra were taken in a pulse mode on a Varian FT-80A spectrometer equipped with a wideband system at 29.66 and 79.54 MHz. The Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectral parameters for a solution of the complex (Bu/sub 4/N)/sub 3/ (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) in CD/sub 3/CN are shown, the spectra show that the (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sup 3 -/ anion has octahedral structure with four equatorial and one axial Rh-Sn bonds. New rhodium hydride complexes with general formula (R/sub 4/N)/sub 3/(HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) were synthesized.

  12. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  13. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    address: Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Departmenttween phytoplankton, atmospheric chemistry, and climate areno. 12 ? 4601– 4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition

  14. Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials Jingyao Cao, D of liquid water contributes little, if any, to the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials. Moisture loss Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Fiber reinforcement; Cement paste; Electrical properties

  15. Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine The individual soil moisture stations in the Ukraine are shown in Figure 1. The data are averaged into the 25

  16. Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet) Alan Robock­October for 141 stations from fields with either winter or spring cereals from the Ukraine for 1958­2002. We-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet), Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

  17. Dendroclimatic Response along a Moisture Gradient in the Southern Rocky Mountains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Shelby Lynn

    2015-06-01

    the moisture gradient. Using tree-ring analysis, I found growth to be slower and more sensitive to climate at the low moisture distributional limit than elsewhere within the spatial distribution. Trees at this site were more impacted by the 1950s drought...

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes work by Building America researchers who visited 24 manufactured home factories between 1996 and 2003 to investigate moisture problems while improving energy efficiency and identified insufficient air sealing and poor HVAC installation as the biggest culprits. One manufacturer reported zero moisture-related issues in 35,000 homes built after implementing Building America recommendations.

  19. In-situ Soil Moisture Sensing: Measurement Scheduling and Estimation using Compressive Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    In-situ Soil Moisture Sensing: Measurement Scheduling and Estimation using Compressive Sensing mingyan@eecs.umich.edu ABSTRACT We consider the problem of monitoring soil moisture evolu- tion using desirable to rely on fewer measurements and estimate with higher accu- racy the original signal (soil

  20. Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuligowski, Bob

    Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model Christopher. In general, dry soil or stressed vegetation heats up more rapidly than wet soil or unstressed vegetation, using one dual polarized channel (either Cband or Xband) for the retrieval of soil moisture

  1. Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends Alan Robock1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends Alan Robock1 and Haibin Li1 Received 15 July solar dimming and upward CO2 trends, we conducted experiments with a sophisticated land surface model. Li (2006), Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20708

  2. Proof of principle report for in-tank moisture monitoring using an active neutron probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, W.T.

    1993-12-01

    This document establishes the proof of principle for use of a neutron probe to measure moisture concentrations in ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Computer modeling and experiments with a modified neutron probe have shown that neutron-based measurements will provide accurate moisture determinations in Hanford Site ferrocyanide waste tanks. Moisture measurement using neutron moderation and diffusion is an established and extensively documented technology for the well logging industry. Sophisticated neutron transport modeling and calibrations with known moisture concentrations have provided the necessary developmental analyses and validations. Proof of principle was accomplished using the existing in-tank neutron surveillance tool and its support equipment. A minor, inexpensive hardware modification permitted extending the use of the existing probe to moisture measurements. A limited moisture calibration was performed using the modified in-tank neutron probe, and the results were used to adjust model parameters. Scan data from three ferrocyanide tanks have been obtained using the modified in-tank neutron probe, and interpretation of these scans is in progress. Modeling analyses and experimental test results have provided information that will be used to develop a prototype neutron device for improved in-tank moisture monitoring at the Hanford Site. Now a prototype device must be assembled, tested, and fully calibrated in known moisture ferrocyanide waste simulants.

  3. Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: Effect of moisture,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: Effect of moisture, product type, and material direction Guangping Han Qinglin Wu Xiping Wang Abstract The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave veloc- ity, particleboard, and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave velocity decreased

  4. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussell, J.H., WHC

    1996-06-12

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

  5. Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions moisture transport, snow accumulation and melting, and soil freezing and thawing are investigated transport, snow cover, and soil freezing. 1. Introduction Prediction of ground temperature is an important

  6. Application of stochastic parameter optimization to the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagener, Thorsten

    parameter set and underlying posterior distribution within a single optimization run. In particular, weApplication of stochastic parameter optimization to the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model Moisture Accounting model (SAC-SMA) model using historical data from the Leaf River in Mississippi

  7. Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product J; accepted 17 January 1996 The velocity and angular distributions of N2 produced from the reduction temperature. Both the angular and velocity distributions are well fit by bimodal forms. The high energy

  8. Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh,,111...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    the yield of CO from the partial oxidation of CH4 on a Rh 111 catalytic substrate, CH4+ 1/2 O2CO+2H2 to the multistep route to methane utilization, namely, steam reforming coupled with the water gas shift reaction.1

  9. Energetics of C-H Bond Activation of Fluorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using a [TpRh(CNneopentyl)] Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Energetics of C-H Bond Activation of Fluorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using a [Tp activation of fluorinated aromatic hydrocarbons by [TpRh(CNneopentyl)] resulted in the formation of products of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts to activate and functionalize C-H bonds of hydrocarbons for industrial

  10. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  11. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  12. Autumn 2014 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    to perform atmospheric chemistry measurements in this remote region of ubiquitous oil and gas drilling 30 days they raised $12,000, enough to support Maria's travel to Utah and to cover the costs

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Moisture Transport Through Walls and Associated Cooling Loads in the Hot/Humid Climate of Florianopolis, Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.

    1996-01-01

    . The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials. and the influence of solar radiation...

  14. Australian Root Zone Soil Moisture: Assimilation of Remote Sensing Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    parameters and atmospheric forcing (Houser et al., 2002). Advances in passive microwave remote sensing have. Ursinob , R.B. Graysona and P.R. Houserc a Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University. The C-band passive microwave remote sensing data from the Scanning Multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer

  15. Forests, Water, and the Atmosphere in Northern California: Insights from Sap-Flow Data Analysis and Numerical Atmospheric Model Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Percy

    2015-01-01

    4 Sensitivity of wind forecasts to regional soil moisture: A4 Sensitivity of wind forecasts to regional soil moisture: Ainformation can improve wind forecasts. This study serves as

  16. Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content was used to assess the role of root water uptake on the spatial variability of moisture content the spa- tial variability in moisture content due to root water uptake from variability in soil hydraulic

  17. 13, 1479714822, 2013 Atmospheric waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    .5194/acpd-13-14797-2013 © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Sciences ss Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Discussions Atmospheric Measurement s Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  18. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  19. Predicting long-term moisture contents of earthen covers at uranium mill tailings sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-09-01

    The three methods for long-term moisture prediction covered in this report are: estimates from water retention (permanent wilting point) data, correlation with climate and soil type, and detailed model simulation. The test results have shown: soils vary greatly in residual moisture. Expected long-term moisture saturation ratios (based on generalized soil characteristics) range from 0.2 to 0.8 for soils ranging in texture from sand to clay, respectively. These values hold for noncompacted field soils. Measured radon diffusion coefficients for soils at 15-bar water contents ranged from 5.0E-2 cm/sup 2//s to 5.0E-3 cm/sup 2//s for sands and clays, respectively, at typical field densities. In contrast, fine-textured pit-run earthen materials, subjected to optimum compaction (>85% Proctor density) and dried to the 15-bar water content, ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 moisture saturation. Compacted pit-run soils at these moisture contents exhibited radon diffusion coefficients as low as 3.0E-4 cm/sup 2//s. The residual moisture saturation for cover soils is not known since no engineered barrier has been in place for more than a few years. A comparison of methods for predicting moisture saturation indicates that model simulations are useful for predicting effects of climatic changes on residual soil moisture, but that long-term moisture also can be predicted with some degree of confidence using generalized soil properties or empirical correlations based both on soils and climatic information. The optimal soil cover design will likely include more than one layer of soil. A two-layer system using a thick (1-m minimum) plant root zone of uncompacted soil placed over a moistened, tightly compacted fine-textured soil is recommended. This design concept has been tested successfully at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings piles.

  20. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  1. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  2. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  3. Isolating Effects of Water Table Dynamics, Terrain, and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Coupled Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rihani, Jehan

    2010-01-01

    yearly averages of water and energy balance components forthe transfer of water and energy between the loweryearly averages of water and energy balance components for

  4. Isolating Effects of Water Table Dynamics, Terrain, and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Coupled Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rihani, Jehan

    2010-01-01

    for simulating surface water–groundwater interactions”,Advances in Water Resources, doi: 10.1016/j.hydraulic properties”, Water Resources Research, 43, W07445,

  5. Structural and magnetic properties in the polymorphs of CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Deepti; Subbarao, Udumula [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore-560064 (India); Rayaprol, Sudhindra [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, R-5 Shed, B.A.R.C Campus, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore-560064 (India)

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the structural and magnetic properties in the polymorphs of a new compound CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5}. Depending upon the starting materials, and the slightly different synthesis method, we find that CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} compound exists in two different space groups. The first compound, ?-CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} crystallizes in tetragonal ?-ThSi{sub 2} structure type in space group I4{sub 1}/amd with lattice parameters, a=4.2034(6) Å and c=14.770(3) Å. In this structure, the cerium atoms occupy the position between the Rh/Ge tetrahedral layers. On the other hand, the second compound, namely ?-CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} crystallizes in the AlB{sub 2} type hexagonal structure in space group P6/mmm, with lattice parameters, a=4.2615(7) Å and c=4.1813(9) Å. The crystal structure of ?-CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} consists of two dimensional Rh/Ge hexagonal units and the cerium atoms are sandwiched between them. Magnetization studies exhibit magnetic ordering, as evident from a sharp peak in the plot of magnetic susceptibility measured as a function of temperature in a fixed magnetic field, in ?-CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} and ?-CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} at 3.6 K and 12 K, respectively. Structural and magnetic properties of both compounds are presented and discussed here. - Graphical abstract: Two polymorphs of a new compound CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} in the ?-ThSi{sub 2} and AlB{sub 2} structure types were synthesized by arc melting. The magnetic measurements of both CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} phases suggest spin-glass behavior. - Highlights: • A new compound CeRh{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5} in two difference phases was synthesized by arc melting. • The crystal structure of both compounds was determined from the single crystal XRD. • Isothermal relaxation measurements suggesting spin-glass like anomalies in both phases.

  6. Measurements of Backsheet Moisture Permeation and Encapsulant-Substrate Adhesion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Barber, G.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Measurements of backsheet moisture permeation and encapsulant-substrate adhesion. At the March 2001 NCPV workshop on ''Moisture Ingress and High-Voltage Isolation'', industry participants identified several properties associated with PV module durability that are critical for commercial success. These include interface conductivity, adhesion of encapsulants to substrate materials as a function of in-service exposure conditions, and moisture permeation through backsheet materials as a function of temperature. Electrical data is discussed in a companion paper; adhesion and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) measurements are presented herein.

  7. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; Wang, Liwei; Pan, Xuebiao; Bai, Wei; Niyogi, Dev

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.

  8. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; et al

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (pmore »with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.« less

  9. Mechanistic aspects of [Rh(nbd)CI][sub 2]initiated oligomerization of new acetylenic monomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Densmore, C.G. (Crystal G); Rasmussen, P.G. (Paul G.)

    2004-01-01

    Although a number of papers report the use of rhodium-based initiators, very little has been said about the mechanism of acetylene polymerizations. Kishimoto and coworkers recently proposed an insertion mechanism for the rhodium-initiated polymerization of phenylacetylenes. The initiator consisted of the tetracoordinate rhodium complex, Rh(C{triple_bond}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5})(nbd)(PPh{sub 3}) with 4-(dimethylamino)-pyidine. The product was found to be stereoregular poly(phenylacety1ene) with a cis-transoidal backbone microstructure. Gorman and coworkers found palladium and nickel-based catalysts to be successful in the polymerization of cyanoacetylene. Zhan and Yang addressed the polymerization mechanism of acetylenes using palladium and nickel acetylide catalysts. They propose that the initial activation step, and also the rate-determining step, involve coordination of a nickel or palladium acetylide catalyst with an acetylene. Based on NMR and elemental analysis, we propose a more complete mechanistic picture of acetylene polymerizations, especially those with electron-withdrawing substituents.

  10. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowal, A.; Li, M; Shao, M; Sasaki, K; Vukmirovic, M; Zhang, J; Marinkovic, N; Liu, P; Frenkel, A; Adzic, R

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts1, 2. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO2/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO2, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  11. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Kowal, A.; Li, M.; Shao, M.; Sasaki, K.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Zhang, J.; Marinkovic, N.S. Liu, P.; Frenkel, A.I.

    2009-04-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO{sub 2}/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO{sub 2}, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  12. Asymmetric “melting” and “freezing” kinetics of the magnetostructural phase transition in B2-ordered FeRh epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vries, M. A. de; Loving, M.; Lewis, L. H.; McLaren, M.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Liu, X.; Langridge, S.; Marrows, C. H.

    2014-06-09

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to study the phase transformation processes during the magnetostructural transition in a B2-ordered FeRh (001)-oriented epilayer grown on MgO by sputtering. Out-of-plane lattice constant measurements within the hysteretic regime of the transition reveal a microstructure consistent with the coexistence of lattice-expanded and contracted phases in spatially distinct regions. It was found that the phase separation is more pronounced during cooling than heating. Furthermore, whilst lattice-expanded domains that span the height of the film can be undercooled by several kelvins, there is no equivalent superheating. This asymmetry between the cooling and heating processes in FeRh is consistent with the difference in the kinetics of generic freezing and melting transitions.

  13. Magnetism and superconductivity in U?PtxRh(1–x)C?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeham, N.; Ni, Ni; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Tegtmeier, E.; Ronning, F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the phase diagram of the doping series U?PtxRh(1–x)C?, studied through measurements of resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility. The Néel temperature of U?Rh?C? of ~ 22 K is suppressed with increasing Pt content, reaching zero temperature close to x = 0.7, where we observed signatures of increased quantum fluctuations. In addition, evidence is presented that the antiferromagnetic state undergoes a spin-reorientation transition upon application of an applied magnetic field. This transition shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of x, peaking at around x = 0.3. Superconductivity is observed for x ? 0.9, with Tc increasing with increasing x. The reduction in Tc and increase in residual resistivity with decreasing Pt content is inconsistent with the extension of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory to unconventional superconductivity.

  14. Autumn 2012 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    wind, and accumulated precipitation at a designated city. Forecasts are made over a two-week period Department 1 The UW Atmospheric Sciences spring forecast contest has been an annual tradition there will be a marine push or a convergence zone wrecking their forecast for maximum temperature and precipitation

  15. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2013 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  16. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  17. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2008 University of Colorado at Boulder, Jet Propulsion Laboratory) LASP: A Brief History In 1946-47, a handful of American universities joined Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper

  18. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    1 Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2010 University of Colorado from the Na- val Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  19. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging components of the atmosphere, nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and the noble gases. In the late

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of two new cerium rhodium oxides: Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.12) with Ce mixed valency and Ce{sup 4+}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Zakharov, L.N.; Bhuvanesh, N.S.P.; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2011-06-15

    The new compounds Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.11-0.14) and CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been prepared. Their structures were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Electrical and magnetic properties were also evaluated. Based on the structural analysis and physical properties, oxidation states for CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be assigned as Ce{sup 4+}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 5}. A small variation in x was detected for Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} indicating a formula ranging from Ce{sup 3.64+}{sub 0.55}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4} to Ce{sup 3.81+}{sub 0.525}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: The new compounds Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.11-0.14) and CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been prepared and their structures were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Electrical and magnetic properties were also evaluated. Highlights: > The new compounds CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.11-0.14) have been prepared. > Their structures were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. > Valence picture is Ce{sup 4+}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ce{sup 3.64+}{sub 0.55}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4} to Ce{sup 3.81+}{sub 0.525}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  1. Excited states in {sup 115}Pd populated in the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 115}Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurpeta, J.; Plochocki, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Rissanen, J.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilae, H.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Elomaa, V.-V. [Turku PET Centre, Accelerator Laboratory, Abo Akademi University, FIN-20500 Turku (Finland); Rahaman, S. [Physics Division, P-23, Mail Stop H803, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sonoda, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Szerypo, J. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Excited states in {sup 115}Pd, populated following the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 115}Rh have been studied by means of {gamma} spectroscopy after the Penning-trap station at the IGISOL facility, University of Jyvaeskylae. The 1/2{sup +} spin and parity assignment of the ground state of {sup 115}Pd, confirmed in this work, may indicate a transition to an oblate shape in Pd isotopes at high neutron number.

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  3. Surface ecophysiological behavior across vegetation and moisture gradients in tropical South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest and2002. Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites. Agric. Forestenergy, moisture and carbon ?uxes, at a single point in the Tapajos River National Forest (

  4. Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

  5. Moisture proof columnar Cesium Iodide (CsI) layers for gas avalanche microdetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, I.J.; Cho, H.S.; Hong, W.S.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kadyk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Moisture Proof Columnar Cesium Iodide (CsI) Layers for GasHalogen lamp ) Abstract Cesium iodide columnar layers havingargon-ethane mixtures. The cesium iodide columns are damaged

  6. The effects of aggregate gradation on moisture diffusivity in a cementious based material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szecsy, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Gravel), and the presence of fly ash (10% by cement weight or none). Also developed, is an experimental laboratory procedure which measures the moisture diffusivity of a cementious material. The method and procedure for measuring diffusivity developed...

  7. The Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Physical Properties of Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymer Foams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ya-Jen

    2012-07-16

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams...

  8. Rapid Determination of Moisture and Fat in Meats By Microwave And Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claflin, Amy Elizabeth

    2013-08-30

    methods that require less time, labor, skill, and cost. Microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance technologies for the determination of moisture and fat in meat products, respectively, have been incorporated into the CEM Smart Trac 5 System...

  9. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  10. Deriving soil moisture with the combined L-band radar and radiometer measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jiancheng

    In this study, we develop a combined active/passive technique to estimate surface soil moisture with the focus on the short vegetated surfaces. We first simulated a database for both active and passive signals under SMAP's ...

  11. Mathematical modeling of evaporative cooling of moisture bearing epoxy composite plates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payette, Gregory Steven

    2006-08-16

    Research is performed to assess the potential of surface moisture evaporative cooling from composite plates as a means of reducing the external temperature of military aircraft. To assess the feasibility of evaporative ...

  12. Relationship Between Soil Moisture Storage and Deep Percolation and Subsurface Return Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nieber, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was performed to analyze the relationship between the volume of moisture stored in a soil profile and the rate of percolation and subsurface return flow. The simulation study was derived on the basis of the Richards equation...

  13. Investigation of moisture effects on interfacial properties of an epoxy matrix composite by dynamic mechanical analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jo-Yu

    1994-01-01

    The interfacial properties of polymer matrix composites are critical to the retention of the mechanical properties of the composites in a wet environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of moisture on the interfacial...

  14. Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam is displacing wet suppression as the method of choice for controlling fugitive emissions from coal. Coal treated by wet suppression consumes through moisture addition, a heat energy equivalent of 1 ton out of every ...

  15. Investigation of the physical properties of the tetragonal CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Williams, D. J.; Scott, B. L.; Luo, Yongkang; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties studied by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic, thermal and transport measurements of CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) are reported, along with the electronic structure calculations for LaMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt). These materials adopt a tetragonal crystal structure (space group P4/mmm) comprised of BaAl4 blocks, separated by MAl2 units, stacked along the c-axis. Both CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 order antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 14 and 16 K, respectively, and undergo a second antiferromagnetic transitition at lower temperature (TN2 = 9 and 14 K, respectively). CePtAl4Si2 orders ferromagnetically below TC = 3 Kmore »with an ordered moment of ?sat = 0.8 ?B for a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. Electronic structure calculations reveal quasi-2D character of the Fermi surface.« less

  16. Features of conduction mechanisms in n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with a Rh acceptor impurity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaka, V. A.; Rogl, P.; Stadnyk, Yu. V.; Romaka, V. V.; Hlil, E. K.; Krajovskii, V. Ya.; Horyn, A. M.

    2013-09-15

    The crystal structure and electron-density distribution, as well as the energy, kinetic, and magnetic characteristics of n-HfNiSn intermetallic semiconductor heavily doped with a Rh acceptor impurity in the temperature range T = 80-400 K, in the acceptor-concentration range N{sub A}{sup Rh} Almost-Equal-To 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19}-1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} (x = 0.005-0.10), and in magnetic fields H {<=} 10 kG are investigated. It is established that doping is accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in concentration, the elimination of donor-type structural defects (to x Almost-Equal-To 0.02), and an increase in the concentration of acceptor-type structural defects (0 < x {<=} 0.10). The dependence of the degree of semiconductor compensation on temperature is revealed. A model of the spatial arrangement of atoms in HfNi{sub 1-x}Rh{sub x}Sn is proposed, and the results of calculating the electron structure based on this model agree with the results of investigations of the kinetic and magnetic characteristics of the semiconductor. The results are discussed within the context of the Shklovskii-Efros model for a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  17. C-H Activation of Phenyl Imines and 2-Phenylpyridines with [Cp*MCl2]2 (M ) Ir, Rh): Regioselectivity, Kinetics, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    both by increasing temperature and by using polar solvents such as methanol. The regioselectivity*RhCl2]2. The regioselectivity was temperature independent for both metals. With added acid, the aromatic

  18. Elemental Analyses of Hanford Surface Neutron Moisture Measurement Calibration Standard Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, W.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    Elemental analyses have been performed on twenty samples taken from the moisture standards prepared to use in performing experimental calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement system. These standards consisted of mixtures of sand, hydrated alumina, and boron carbide. Elemental analyses were performed primarily to discover the quantities of any strong thermal neutron absorbers that may have been present in the mixture in unknown trace quantities.

  19. The influence of particle-size distribution and moisture levels on the formation of soil hardpans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Herman John

    1963-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Soil Physics THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Approved as to style and content...

  20. Experimental Study of Multi-type Macromolecule Porosity Moisture-Conditioned Material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, X.; Fan, Y.; Di, Y.

    2006-01-01

    , Passive technology, Solar energy 1. INTRODUCTION Large numbers of Chinese existing housing. Urban construction area of china rapid increase from 1996 to date, end of 2003, total area amounted to 1.4091 billion square meters. At the same time... and evaporative cooling effect of the porosity moisture conditioned material is remarkable, and could effectively reduce the cooling load of buildings. Keywords? Passive evaporative, Porosity moisture conditioned material, Energy efficiency in buildings...

  1. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, M. [ed.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  2. Atmospheric Chemistry Theodore S. Dibble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Atmospheric Chemistry FCH 511 Fall 2014 Theodore S. Dibble Professor of Chemistry 421 in Required Text Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution nineteenth year at ESF, and my seventeenth year teaching FCH 511 (Atmospheric Chemistry). I have done a lot

  3. Lifetimes and eigenstates in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    Perturbation dynamics in atmospheric chemistry. J. Geophys.isotopic variations in atmospheric chemistry. Geophys. Res.M. et al. 2001 Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases (

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    L. , et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from theI. , et al. (2006), Atmospheric chemistry of a 33 – 34 hourvolcanic eruptions on atmospheric chemistry, Chem. Geol. ,

  5. FINAL REPORT FOR MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.

    2013-09-17

    Compaction of lower layers in the fiberboard assembly has been observed in 9975 packages that contain elevated moisture. Lab testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the lower fiberboard assembly, and the behavior of the fiberboard during transport. In laboratory tests of cane fiberboard, higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction, greater rate of compaction, and continued compaction over a longer period of time. In addition, laboratory tests have shown that the application of a dynamic load results in higher fiberboard compaction compared to a static load. The test conditions and sample geometric/loading configurations were chosen to simulate the regulatory requirements for 9975 package input dynamic loading. Dynamic testing was conducted to acquire immediate and cumulative changes in geometric data for various moisture levels. Two sample sets have undergone a complete dynamic test regimen, one set for 27 weeks, and the second set for 47 weeks. The dynamic input, data acquisition, test effects on sample dynamic parameters, and results from this test program are summarized and compared to regulatory specifications for dynamic loading. Compaction of the bottom fiberboard layers due to the accumulation of moisture is one possible cause of an increase in the axial gap at the top of the package. The net compaction of the bottom layers will directly add to the axial gap. The moisture which caused this compaction migrated from the middle region of the fiberboard assembly (which is typically the hottest). This will cause the middle region to shrink axially, which will also contribute directly to the axial gap. Measurement of the axial gap provides a screening tool for identifying significant change in the fiberboard condition. The data in this report provide a basis to evaluate the impact of moisture and fiberboard compaction on 9975 package performance during storage at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  6. Using Whole-House Field Tests to Empirically Derive Moisture Buffering Model Inputs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Hancock, E.

    2014-08-01

    Building energy simulations can be used to predict a building's interior conditions, along with the energy use associated with keeping these conditions comfortable. These models simulate the loads on the building (e.g., internal gains, envelope heat transfer), determine the operation of the space conditioning equipment, and then calculate the building's temperature and humidity throughout the year. The indoor temperature and humidity are affected not only by the loads and the space conditioning equipment, but also by the capacitance of the building materials, which buffer changes in temperature and humidity. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for use with a more accurate moisture capacitance model (the effective moisture penetration depth model). The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative humidity profile, measure all of the moisture transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air conditioner condensate) and calculate the only unmeasured term: the moisture absorption into the materials. After validating the method with laboratory measurements, we performed the tests in a field house. A least-squares fit of an analytical solution to the measured moisture absorption curves was used to determine the three independent model parameters representing the moisture buffering potential of this house and its furnishings. Follow on tests with realistic latent and sensible loads showed good agreement with the derived parameters, especially compared to the commonly-used effective capacitance approach. These results show that the EMPD model, once the inputs are known, is an accurate moisture buffering model.

  7. Cover image: Atmospheric rivers are long and concentrated bands of water vapor originating from the tropics that often result in precipitation extremes and flooding when they hit land. Pictured is a model representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    shows an atmospheric river heading for the U.S. West Coast, transporting abundant moisture from in 2014. We're proud of their impact on science and on some of the most important challenges in energy--in part via development and use of new computational and imaging approaches. Molecular-level discoveries

  8. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric Heat

  9. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric

  10. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL-Atmospheric PSF

  11. Effect of residential air-to-air heat and moisture exchangers on indoor humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barringer, C.G.; McGugan, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    A project was undertaken to develop guidelines for the selection of residential heat and moisture recovery ventilation systems (HRVs) in order to maintain an acceptable indoor humidity for various climatic conditions. These guidelines were developed from reviews on ventilation requirements, HRV performance specifications, and from computer modeling. Space conditions within three house/occupancy models for several types of HRV were simulated for three climatic conditions (Lake Charles, LA; Seattle, WA; and Winnipeg, MB) in order to determine the impact of the HRVs on indoor relative humidity and space-conditioning loads. Results show that when reduction of cooling cost is the main consideration, exchangers with moisture recovery are preferable to sensible HRVs. For reduction of heating costs, moisture recovery should be done for ventilation rates greater than about 15 L/s and average winter temperatures less than about (minus) 10{degrees}C if internal moisture generation rates are low. For houses with higher ventilation rates and colder average winter temperatures, exchangers with moisture recovery should be used.

  12. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St. Clair, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon andamount and timing, N availability, and plant communityparticularly as water availability was increased. These

  13. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Development and validation of personal monitoring methods for low levels of acrylonitrile in workplace atmosphere. I. Test atmosphere generation and solvent desorption methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melcher, R.G.; Borders, R.A.; Coyne, L.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize monitoring methods and to investigate new technology for the determination of low levels of acrylonitrile (0.05 to 5 ppm) in workplace atmospheres. In the first phase of the study, a dynamic atmosphere generation system was developed to produce low levels of acrylonitrile in simulated workplace atmospheres. Various potential sorbents were investigated in the second phase, and the candidate methods were compared in a laboratory validation study over a concentration range from 0.05 to 5 ppm acrylonitrile in the presence of potential interferences and under relative humidity conditions from 30% to 95% RH. A collection tube containing 600 mg Pittsburgh coconut base charcoal was found to be the optimum tube for sampling for a full 8 -hr shift. No breakthrough was observed over the concentrations and humidities tested. The recovery was 91.3% with a total relative precision of +/-21% over the test range, and the recovery was not affected by storage for up to five weeks.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE AXIAL GAP VS FIBERBOARD MOISTURE CONTENT IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    The fiberboard assembly within a 9975 shipping package contains a modest amount of moisture, which can migrate to the cooler regions of the package when an internal heat load is present. Typically, this leads to increased moisture levels in the bottom fiberboard layers, along with elevated chloride levels which can leach from the fiberboard. Concerns have been raised that this condition could lead to corrosion of the stainless steel drum. It has been postulated that checking the axial gap at the top of the package against the current 1 inch maximum criterion provides a sufficient indication regarding the integrity of the fiberboard and drum. This report estimates the increase in axial gap that might be expected for a given moisture increase in the bottom fiberboard layers, and the likelihood that the increase will create a nonconforming condition that will lead to identification of the moisture increase. Using data relating the fiberboard moisture content with the degree of compaction under load, the present analysis indicates that the axial gap will increase by 0.282 inch as the bottom fiberboard layers approach the saturation point. This increase will cause approximately 58% of packages with otherwise nominal package component dimensions to fail the axial gap criterion, based on a survey of axial gap values recorded in K-Area surveillance activities. As the moisture content increases above saturation, the predicted increase in axial gap jumps to 0.405 inch, which would result in 92% or more of all packages failing the axial gap criterion. The data and analysis described in this report are specific to cane fiberboard. While it is expected that softwood fiberboard will behave similarly, such behavior has not yet been demonstrated.

  16. Moisture in Molasses as a Factor in the Heating of Feeds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halick, John V.; Richardson, L. R.

    1952-01-01

    . To determine the factor in molasses responsible for the heat- ing, 75 samples were collected from the storage tanks of feed manufacturers over the State during the summer 1952, and analyzed for total sugars after inversion, moisture, Brix and ash. Moist.... Total reducing sugars after inversion and ash were cal- culated to a 22 percent moisture basis. The values for sugars ranged from 35 to 54 percent, and those for ash from 6 to 16 percent. These differences in sugars and ash could be due to natural...

  17. Nitrate Distribution in Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Intensive Plantation Management on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantations treatments were much higher than the old field.

  18. Characterization of extreme precipitation within atmospheric river events over California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeon, S.; Prabhat,; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.

    2015-11-17

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States – and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an important role as potential causes of extreme precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in extreme precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for Extrememore »Climate Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation extremes under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076–2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981–2005). We also find that the dependence between extreme precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.« less

  19. Correction of Lightning Effects on Water Content Reflectometer Soil Moisture Data John S. McCartney* and Jorge G. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Correction of Lightning Effects on Water Content Reflectometer Soil Moisture Data John S. Mc content measured using WCR (water content reflectometer) probes are susceptible to lightning. Several lightning strikes at the site caused unrealistic shifts in the inferred moisture content (from 0

  20. Evaluation of SMOS Retrievals of Soil Moisture over the Central United States with Currently Available In-situ Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Evaluation of SMOS Retrievals of Soil Moisture over the Central United States with Currently in November 2009. Using SMOS soil moisture retrievals for 2010 processed using algorithm3 V4.00, we evaluated apart. Observations10 from different sensors within a SMOS footprint differ from each other by a larger

  1. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate and it emits Note: heat balance Fvis( = Fout = Te 4 z #12;(simple Greenhouse cont.) 0 1 2 3 4 Ground Space Top

  2. A RhxSy/C Catalyst for the Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions in HBr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masud, Jahangir; Nguyena, Trung V.; Singh, Nirala; McFarland, Eric; Ikenberry, Myles; Hohn, Keith; Pan, Chun-Jern; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2015-01-01

    Rhodium sulfide (Rh2S3) on carbon support was synthesized by refluxing rhodium chloride with ammonium thiosulfate. Thermal treatment of Rh2S3 at high temperatures (600°C to 850°C) in presence of argon resulted in the transformation of Rh2S3 into Rh3S4, Rh17S15 and Rh which were characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, EDX, and deconvolved XPS analyses. The catalyst particle size distribution ranged from 3 to 12 nm. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode measurements were used to evaluate the catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions in H2SO4 and HBr solutions. The thermally treated catalysts show high activity for the hydrogen reactions. The exchange current densities (io) of the synthesized RhxSy catalysts in H2-saturated 1M H2SO4 and 1M HBr for HER and HOR were 0.9 mA/cm2 to 1.0 mA/cm2 and 0.8 to 0.9 mA/cm2, respectively. The lower io values obtained in 1M HBr solution compared to in H2SO4 might be due to the adsorption of Br- on the active surface. Stable electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of RhxSy catalyst was obtained for CV scan limits between 0 V and 0.65 V vs. RHE. Scans with upper voltage limit beyond 0.65 V led to decreased and unreproducible ECSA measurements.

  3. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850°C. Turnover rate at 850°C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850°C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) located at PNNL. Part of the computational time was provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  4. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric scientists apply physics, mathematics, and chemistry to understandAtmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric the atmosphere and its interactions with land and sea. One of the goals of atmospheric science is to understand

  5. Characterization of fracture patterns and hygric properties for moisture flow modelling in cracked concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of building materials is far from complete. The pore structure of the material itself may change over time assessment, not only of building and building components, but of any built structure in general structures, as well as on the health and comfort of their occupants. Any analysis of moisture transfer

  6. Stable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils effect of antecedent soil moisture content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    contents during the experiment, which caused the soil to be wettable instead of water repellent. The waterStable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils ± effect of antecedent soil moisture content Coen J. Ritsemaa,* , John L. Nieberb , Louis W. Dekkera , T.S. Steenhuisc a DLO Winand Staring

  7. The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

  8. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Requirements of a global near-surface soil moisture satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    : accuracy, repeat time, and spatial resolution 4 Jeffrey P. Walker a,b,*, Paul R. Houser a 5 a Hydrological) remote sensing studies, using 53both thermal infrared and microwave (passive and ac- 54tive) electromagnetic radiation. Of these, passive 55microwave soil moisture measurement has been the 56most promising

  9. Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine ­ barley and maize) and 71 (for winter wheat) Ukraine stations. The total seeded areas are from 2002

  10. Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Alan Robock of Maryland, College Park 4 Ukrainian Research Institute for Environment and Resources, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine Submitted to Geophysical Research

  11. Sensitivity of satellite microwave and infrared observations to soil moisture at a global scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Sensitivity of satellite microwave and infrared observations to soil moisture at a global scale observations include passive microwave emissivities, active microwave scatterometer data, and infrared. For example, we show that the passive microwave polarization differences at 19 GHz and above are essentially

  12. 20th century seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asian montane forests from tree cellulose 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stott, Lowell

    20th century seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asian montane forests from tree cellulose 18 O composition (18 O) of sub- annual tree cellulose samples of Pinus kesiya growing at 1,500 m elevation on Doi Chiang Dao in northern Thailand. The cellulose 18 O values exhibit a distinctive annual cycle

  13. Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared June 2010, in final form 13 December 2010) ABSTRACT An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE the emissivities are fixed in the retrieval process. The results also confirm that the simultaneous retrieval

  14. EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON BENDING AND BREAKING RESISTANCE (IF COMMERCIAL ORIENTED STRANDBOARDS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ABSTRACT This is ZI short addendum to an earlier paper (Wu and Suchsland 1997) on bending resistance (E.1EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON BENDING AND BREAKING RESISTANCE (IF COMMERCIAL ORIENTED STRANDBOARDS1 Qinglin the quality and performance of OSB. In an F ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Wu and Suchsland However, the paper did

  15. Investigation of transient, two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow in soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, L.S.W.

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference numerical model has been developed to study coupled heat and moisture flow in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered construction. The model is based on a mechanistic approach formulated by Milly and developed from the work of Philip and deVries. Using soil temperatures and matric potentials as the dependent variables, the model is capable of simulating unsaturated/saturated flow conditions in heterogeneous soil domains. The model is a fully implicit, integrated finite difference approach based on the Patankar Spalding method. The numerical modeling of the governing heat and moisture equations was validated against a number of analytical and quasi-analytical solutions. An axisymmetric, two-dimensional experiment was then defined to which the numerical model could be compared. The experimental apparatus was composed of a cylinder filled with a dredged Mississippi River sand. A series of one and two dimensional heat and moisture flow experiments were run, using boundary conditions consistent with those that occur in the soil surrounding a building. Soil properties used in the model were either calculated from theoretical models or measured experimentally. Agreement between the model and experiments were good, with an error of 10-15% obtained for the two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow experiment.

  16. Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II V. Masson-Delmottea,1 , B of events involved in Termination II, the transition between the penultimate glacial and interglacial periods. This termination is marked by a north­south seesaw behavior, with first a slow methane concen

  17. A Satellite Study of Tropical Moist Convection and Environmental Variability: A Moisture and Thermal Budget Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masunaga, Hirohiko

    of a variety of satellite sensors including radars, an infrared and microwave sounder unit, and a microwave including air temperature, water vapor, cumulus cloud cover, and surface wind are composited with respect of moisture and dry static energy and their vertical flux at cloud base from satellite observations alone

  18. Phase relationship equation for moisture induced shrink and swell of soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Stacey Bruemmer

    1997-01-01

    and the shrinkage limit. These limits are the soil moisture contents that correspond with extreme volumetric conditions. Evaluation of laboratory swell test results show that the swell limit probably does exist, and a procedure for measuring the swell limit of a...

  19. Soil moisture variability of root zone profiles within SMEX02 remote sensing footprints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the par- titioning of incoming solar radiation and long wave radia- tion into outgoing long wave radiation.e., various active and passive microwave sensors), which provide mean sur- face soil moisture (0­5 cm) values at large spatial scales, are only recently available [24,25,39]. Microwave sensors have many advantages

  20. Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils By C, Evanston, IL. Abstract In this paper vibratory crack response is compared to that produced by volumetric over a period of weeks to several months. On the other hand, crack response produced by volumetric

  1. HIGH-ORDER FINITE VOLUME SCHEMES FOR LAYERED ATMOSPHERIC MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of use of layered models are: air pollution models (see for example the early study in [1]), moisture

  2. CRADA with the Belhaven group and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-081): Automated soil moisture measuring systems. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop an improved, full- scale, inexpensive, soil moisture sensor, using innovative porous ceramic materials as the moisture wicking component and (2) demonstrate the performance of the sensor in the laboratory and in field to determine its reliability and accuracy. The opportunity for this project arose as a result of an inquiry from Belhaven to whom the soil moisture sensor developed at PNNL by John Cary was licensed. The existing Cary sensor needed research and development effort in order to create the type of soil moisture sensor envisioned by the Belhaven for use in an integrated soil moisture systems in the field. PNNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this Collaborative project.

  3. Plant Response and Environmental Data from the Oldfield Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation (OCCAM) Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Oldfield Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation (OCCAM) project is a joint effort of ORNL and the University of Tennessee to investigate community and ecosystem response to global change, specifically looking at the interactive effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide, surface temperatures, and soil moisture. The plants studied for their response to warming temperatures, elevated carbon dioxide, and altered water availability include C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. These plants are typical of an old-field ecosystem that establishes itself on unused agricultural land. The results of the research focus on species abundance, production, phenology, and what is going on chemically below ground. Data are currently available from 2003 through July, 2008.

  4. DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY The missions of the Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry (MAC) are to carry out broadly based research on the chemistry of the atmosphere and marine and stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry Research activities in atmospheric chemistry and modeling are diverse

  5. Hillslope-scale soil moisture estimation with a physically-based ecohydrology model and L-band microwave remote sensing observations from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Soil moisture is a critical hydrosphere state variable that links the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. Knowledge of soil moisture at scales of individual hillslopes (10's to 100's of meters) is critical to advancing ...

  6. A moist aquaplanet variant of the Held–Suarez test for atmospheric model dynamical cores

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thatcher, D. R.; Jablonowski, C.

    2015-09-29

    A moist idealized test case (MITC) for atmospheric model dynamical cores is presented. The MITC is based on the Held–Suarez (HS) test that was developed for dry simulations on a flat Earth and replaces the full physical parameterization package with a Newtonian temperature relaxation and Rayleigh damping of the low-level winds. This new variant of the HS test includes moisture and thereby sheds light on the non-linear dynamics-physics moisture feedbacks without the complexity of full physics parameterization packages. In particular, it adds simplified moist processes to the HS forcing to model large-scale condensation, boundary layer mixing, and the exchange ofmore »latent and sensible heat between the atmospheric surface and an ocean-covered planet. Using a variety of dynamical cores of NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), this paper demonstrates that the inclusion of the moist idealized physics package leads to climatic states that closely resemble aquaplanet simulations with complex physical parameterizations. This establishes that the MITC approach generates reasonable atmospheric circulations and can be used for a broad range of scientific investigations. This paper provides examples of two application areas. First, the test case reveals the characteristics of the physics-dynamics coupling technique and reproduces coupling issues seen in full-physics simulations. In particular, it is shown that sudden adjustments of the prognostic fields due to moist physics tendencies can trigger undesirable large-scale gravity waves, which can be remedied by a more gradual application of the physical forcing. Second, the moist idealized test case can be used to intercompare dynamical cores. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the MITC approach and suggestions are made for further application areas. The new moist variant of the HS test can be considered a test case of intermediate complexity.« less

  7. Figure S1.Technical diagram of the 1-by-3 tandem differential mobility analyzer (cf. schematic diagram shown in Figure 1). Relative humidity sensors are located at positions RH,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    valve used for on-off flow control; MFC, mass flow controller; T, temperature sensor; CA, filtered Diffusion Dryer Pinch Valve Pressure Regulator 3 3 3 Aerosol Out Humidity Conditioner Flow Sheath air out=48% RH0=43% Mobility diameter (nm) Particleconcentration(#cm-3bin-1) Entering DMAmono with RH0 Passing

  8. The effect of GnRH on induction of follicular development and ovulation in anovulatory and ovulatory mares 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennington, Debra Louise

    1981-01-01

    pad faq qua!eabeunooua pue aI!oi 'aouaLged unuse gfasEw u! anaL Iaq aw bufqew pue neM aqq. aw 5u!Moqs uo3. noE queqg 'yanqui og 'F, Cfeufg puff . paydwaqge aneq y ge!fg ffe u! qua!eabeunooua pue quoddns 'aoueueaquog ufaqg uog uopbufuuaW I Cassnff... treatment and 70% of the time during GnRH treatment. Control anovulatory mares exhibited estrous behavior 17'K and 15% of the time during the two 25 U1 Q +J Ql Q CL C) c o ) O fO O O Cl col (LUj/6") SN3BOJS3908d 26 courses of sham...

  9. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY - RESPONSE TO HUMAN INFLUENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOGAN, J; PRATHER, M; WOFSY, S; MCELROY, M

    1978-01-01

    Trans. II 70, 253. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Clyne, M. A. A. &data for modelling atmospheric chemistry. NBS Technical NoteChem. 80, 2711. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Sanadze, G. A. 1963 On

  10. IMPROVED QUASISTEADYSTATEAPPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASI­STEADY­STATE­APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION # L. O. JAY QSSA are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, sti# ordinary di#erential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  11. A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE AT TWO NASA CLPX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE ________________________________________ Department Head #12;iii ABSTRACT A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE

  12. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on main olfactory input to the medial amygdala in male hamsters. Blake, CB, Meredith, M. Florida State University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meredith, Michael

    Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on main olfactory input to the medial amygdala mating behavior is dependent on chemosensory input from the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems, whose. In sexually-naïve males, vomeronasal organ removal (VNX), but not main olfactory lesion, impairs mating

  13. Systematics of the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity in Ba(Fe1-xMx)?As? (M=Co, Rh, Ni, and Pd)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tanatar, M. A.; Ni, N.; Thaler, A.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Prozorov, R.

    2011-07-27

    Temperature-dependent interplane resistivity ?c(T) was measured systematically as a function of transition-metal substitution in the iron-arsenide superconductors Ba(Fe1-xMx)?As?, M=Ni, Pd, Rh. The data are compared with the behavior found in Ba(Fe1-xCox)?As?, revealing resistive signatures of pseudogap. In all compounds we find resistivity crossover at a characteristic pseudogap temperature T* from nonmetallic to metallic temperature dependence on cooling. Suppression of T* proceeds very similarly in cases of Ni and Pd doping and much faster than in similar cases of Co and Rh doping. In cases of Co and Rh doping an additional minimum in the temperature-dependent ?c emerges for high dopings,more »when superconductivity is completely suppressed. These features are consistent with the existence of a charge gap covering part of the Fermi surface. The part of the Fermi surface affected by this gap is notably larger for Ni- and Pd-doped compositions than in Co- and Rh-doped compounds.« less

  14. DNA Cleavage by Photogenerated Rh2(O2CCH3)4(H2O)2 Patty K.-L. Fu, Patricia M. Bradley, and Claudia Turro*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Claudia

    the subject of intense investigation since, upon light activation, they can act as reporters of DNA structure and coordination of the dirhodium core to single-stranded oligonucleotides has been observed, the mode of binding-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (py+),17 results in the formation of the one-electron-oxidized complex, Rh2(O2

  15. Oxidation of H on Rh(111): H2O product velocity and angular distributions K. D. Gibson, J. I. Colonell, and S. J. Sibener

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Oxidation of H on Rh(111): H2O product velocity and angular distributions K. D. Gibson, J. I measured the angular dependence of the energy and intensity of the product H2O at Ts 650 K. The velocity distributed. © 1995 American Institute of Physics. INTRODUCTION The angular and velocity distributions

  16. Tuning the Curie temperature of L1{sub 0} ordered FePt thin films through site-specific substitution of Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Dongbin; Sun, Cheng-Jun E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Heald, Steve M.; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, Gan Moog E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Zhou, Tie-Jun; Bergman, Anders; Sanyal, Biplab

    2014-10-14

    In structurally ordered magnetic thin films, the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of ferromagnetic films depends on the exchange integral of the short range ordered neighboring atoms. The exchange integral may be adjusted by controlling the elemental substitutional concentration at the lattice site of interest. We show how to control the T{sub C} in high anisotropy L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} magnetic thin films by substituting Rh into the Pt site. Rh substitution in L1{sub 0} FePt modified the local atomic environment and the corresponding electronic properties, while retaining the ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The analysis of extended x-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra shows that Rh uniformly substitutes for Pt in L1{sub 0} FePt. A model of antiferromagnetic defects caused by controlled Rh substitution of the Pt site, reducing the T{sub C,} is proposed to interpret this phenomenon and its validity is further examined by ab initio density functional calculations.

  17. Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over fractional cloud cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Prather, Michael J; Penner, Joyce E

    2007-01-01

    trace gases and atmospheric chemistry, in Climate Change2007 Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over2007), Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over

  18. Infrared Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian James Mills

    2012-01-01

    However, atmospheres of cool planets can still be studiedvia outgassing as the planet cools (Rogers & Seager 2010).at low resolution) and the cool, low-mass planet GJ 1214b (

  19. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  20. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  1. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  2. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  3. Heat and moisture transfer through building envelope components subjected to outdoor weather conditions including rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayamaha, S.E.G. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Singapore experiences a warm and humid climate with abundant rainfall during the entire year. Such conditions are typical of tropical climates where many of today`s metropolitan cities are situated. Rain has been found to affect the thermal performance of building components in two ways, namely, by cooling the surface during rain and thereafter by drying of the absorbed moisture after rain. However, existing software used for predicting the thermal performance of building components do not consider such effects and are therefore inadequate for accurate estimation of the thermal performance of building components in tropical climates. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and moisture flow through porous building materials exposed to outdoor conditions such as solar radiation and rain.

  4. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  5. Tropical synoptic scale moisture fields observed from the Nimbus-7 SMMR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Jeffrey David

    1989-01-01

    eastern Pacific Ocean weather systems are ea. sy to observe on visual and infrared satellite images. However, it is difficult to quantify their moisture fields due to the great scarcity of conventional data. . In addition, it is difficult to examine... rainfall over the eastern part of the tropical Pacific Ocean because there are few island stations or ship reports available. Satellite passive microwave instruments have been used to determine precip- itable water, liquid water and precipitation over...

  6. Synoptic scale sensitivity of TIROS-N moisture channels in the tropics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, Keith Gordon

    1987-01-01

    -Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. James P. McGuirk Dr. Aylmer H. Thompson Water vapor radiance data obtained from a satellite-borne radiometer were evaluated for synoptic information content and accuracy over the tropical eastern Pac'fic Ocean. An upper moist... cluster of elevated BTs was observed over the subtropical Pacific adjacent to the western flank of a series of moisture bursts. Collocated rawinsonde soundings and satellite BTs consistently showed excellent agreement within this region, indicating...

  7. ANALYSES OF DEFORMATION IN VISCOELASTIC SANDWICH COMPOSITES SUBJECT TO MOISTURE DIFFUSION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Nikhil P.

    2010-01-16

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Anastasia Muliana Committee Members, Harry Hogan Eyad Masad Head of Department, Dennis L. O?Neal August 2008 Major...% with the increase in moisture concentration. Snead and Palazotto [6] performed an analytical investigation to evaluate the stability characteristics of cylindrical, composite graphite/epoxy (AS/3501-5) laminated panels subjected to axial loads under moist...

  8. Evaluation of moisture sensors for NGV fueling station applications. Topical report, November 1994-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, P.F.; Maniquis, V.T.; Hunecke, D.E.; Blazek, C.F.

    1996-08-01

    Moisture content in natural gas has become an important issue for compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations. The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of four hygrometer technologies and identify the most cost effective designs suitable for CNG fueling station applications. The four technologies evaluated were: aluminum oxide, ceramic dewpoint, electrolytic, and silicon chip sensors. The hygrometer performance was evaluated with respect to accuracy, response time, repeatability, operating conditions, maintenance requirements, and cost.

  9. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Co.

    2009-04-01

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

  10. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  11. Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Pallin, Simon B; Jackson, Roderick K

    2013-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

  12. Effect of external stress on moisture diffusion in an epoxy resin and its composite material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henson, Michael Chamberlain

    1986-01-01

    ) Michael Chamberlain Henson, B. S. , Texas A&N University Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Y. Weitsman The effects of stress on moisture diffusion in a graphite epoxy composrte material have been studied experimentally by examining the correspondrng... diffusion at all stress levels while the graphite epoxy generated results indicative of Non-Fickean, . concentration dependent diffusion at different levels of stress. The external stress affected both materials in a similar manner, causing...

  13. Effect of an external stress on moisture diffusion in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porth, Edward John

    1983-01-01

    . . 49 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Cure Cycle for Hexcel F155 Graphite/Epoxy. . Cure Cycle for Narmco M329-7 Adhesive. Final Configuration of the Graphite/Epoxy and Stainless Steel Tensile Coupons. Load Frame Used to Stress Tensile Coupons During...-ply laminates absorbed more moisture than unidirectional laminates. However, it was also noted that cross-ply laminates are less compact than unidirectional laminates. Gillat and Broutman [5] subjected bidirectional graphite/epoxy laminates to external loads...

  14. Energy Balance Partitioning and Net Radiation Controls on Soil Moisture – Precipitation Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Aubrey R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2009-01-14

    stream_size 63174 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Brunsell_2009_Energy-balance-partitioning.pdf.txt stream_source_info Brunsell_2009_Energy-balance-partitioning.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text... turbulence, with coarser resolutions unable to capture turbulent motions, which are necessary for convective processes. The ability of the model to capture boundary layer turbulence will alter the dynamics of soil moisture–precipitation feedback...

  15. Development of Optical Technologies for Monitoring Moisture and Particulate in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Partin

    2006-08-01

    The results of an investigation directed at evaluating the feasibility of using optical measurements for the real-time monitoring moisture and particulate in geothermal steam is described. The measurements exploit new technologies that have been developed for the telecommunications industry and includes new solid state laser devices, large-bandwidth, high-sensitivity detectors and low loss optical fiber compo-nents. In particular, the design, fabrication, and in-plant testing of an optical steam monitor for the detection of moisture is presented. The measurement principle is based upon the selective absorption of infrared energy in response to the presence of moisture. Typically, two wavelengths are used in the measurements: a wavelength that is strongly absorbed by water and a reference wavelength that is minimally influenced by water and steam which serves as a reference to correct for particulate or droplet scattering. The two wavelengths are chosen to be as close as possible in order to more effectively correct for scattering effects. The basic instrumentation platform developed for the in-situ monitoring of steam moisture can be modified and used to perform other measurements of interest to plant operators. An upgrade that will allow the instrument to be used for the sensitive detection of particulate in process streams has been investigated. The new monitor design involves the use of laser diodes that are much less sensitive to water and water vapor and more sensitive to scattering phenomena, as well as new processing techniques to recover these signals. The design reduces the averaging time and sampling volume, while increasing the laser probe power, enhancing particulate detection sensitivity. The design concept and initial laboratory experiments with this system are also reported.

  16. Effect of moisture on air stripping of non volatile organic contaminants from soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Roberto

    1991-01-01

    of the unsaturated soil zone by organic chemicals has been receiving considerable attention recently since it is the major source of ground water pollution. The main objective of this work was to study the viability of air stripping non volatile organic... in the solid phase. Phenol, an EPA priority pollutant which has been identified in ground water supplies, was the model contaminant. Studies involved stripping the contaminant from a column of Norwood/Westwood soil under several moisture conditions. Removal...

  17. An analysis of moisture accumulation in the roof cavities of manufactured housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, D.

    1995-09-01

    A detailed computer analysis is conducted to investigate whether moisture problems occur in the roof cavity of manufactured homes constructed in compliance with the current Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Standards for manufactured housing. The current HUD Standards require a ceiling vapor retarder, but do not require outdoor ventilation of the roof cavity. In cold climates, the analysis revealed that moisture accumulates at lower roof surface and poses a risk of material degradation. The analysis found the following combination of passive measures to be effective in preventing detrimental winter moisture accumulation at lower surface of the roof: (1) providing a ceiling vapor retarder; (2) sealing penetrations and openings in the ceiling construction, and (3) providing natural ventilation openings in the roof cavity. In addition, the performance of a roof cavity exposed to a hot and humid climate is investigated. The analysis revealed that outdoor ventilation of the roof cavity causes the monthly mean relative humidity at the upper surface of the vapor retarder to exceed 80%. This condition is conducive to mold and mildew growth.

  18. Effects of Compressive Force, Particle Size and Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Biomass Grinds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope Jr.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2006-03-01

    Chemical composition, moisture content, bulk and particle densities, and geometric mean particle size were determined to characterize grinds from wheat and barley straws, corn stover and switchgrass. The biomass grinds were compressed for five levels of compressive forces (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 4400 N) and three levels of particle sizes (3.2, 1.6 and 0.8 mm) at two levels of moisture contents (12% and 15% (wb) to establish the compression and relaxation data. Corn stover grind produced the highest compact density at low pressure during compression. Compressive force, particle size and moisture content of grinds significantly affected the compact density of barley straw, corn stover and switchgrass grinds. However, different particle sizes of wheat straw grind did not produce any significant difference on compact density. Barley straw grind had the highest asymptotic modulus among all other biomass grinds indicating that compact from barley straw grind were more rigid than those of other compacts. Asymptotic modulus increased with an increase in maximum compressive pressure. The trend of increase in asymptotic modulus (EA) with the maximum compressive pressure ( 0) was fitted to a second order polynomial equation. Keywords: Biomass grinds, chemical composition, compact density and asymptotic modulus

  19. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Champa

    2013-05-06

    Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, ...

  20. Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

  1. A wireless soil moisture smart sensor web using physics-based optimal control: Concept and initial demonstrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moghaddam, Mahta

    This paper introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective of the technology, supported by the ...

  2. Examining the Relationship between Antecedent Soil Moisture and Summer Precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Lei

    2010-01-14

    This dissertation focuses on examining the relationship between antecedent soil moisture and summer precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains (GP). The influence of Nino sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on summer precipitation ...

  3. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*, Julia Laskin,*, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate of radiation through Earth's atmosphere. The cloud albedo effect, Special Issue: 2015 Chemistry in Climate

  4. Moisture and temperature effects on curvature of anti-symmetric cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Randall Stephen

    1980-01-01

    MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Approved as to style and content...

  5. Experimental investigation of natural gas moisture content and NGV regulator performance. Topical report, October 1993-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, P.F.; Hunecke, D.E.; Maniquis, V.T.; Blazek, C.F.

    1996-05-01

    High moisture levels in natural gas can result in operational problems on-board natural gas vehicle (NGVs) or at fueling stations. Since some NGV stations have experienced higher than recommended moisture levels, NGV equipment must be able to tolerate a reasonable level of moisture. At the pressure regulator on-board the vehicle, gas is expanded from the storage pressure (up to 3600 psig) to the pressure of the fuel delivery system (typically 100 psig). This gas expansion produces significant temperature decreases ranging 100 deg F to 150 deg F. At these low temperatures, water in the gas may drop out and form water droplets, frost or hydrates, which can obstruct on-board components. Experimental testing was conducted at IGT to evaluate the performance of four commercially available NGV regulators (MECO, ITT Conoflow, MESA, and GFI) at extreme temperatures and gas moisture levels. Specific objectives of this project were to identify moisture levels which interfere with operation of these components and to identify component features or designs which are most resistant to high moisture levels.

  6. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  7. Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric atmospheric entry of NASA's Phoenix Mars probe using Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE) data atmospheric entry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24204, doi:10.1029/2010GL045382. 1. Introduction [2] Phoenix

  8. Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Ba/Rh NOx Traps for Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Harold; Vemuri Balakotaiah

    2010-05-31

    In this project a combined experimental and theoretical approach was taken to advance our understanding of lean NOx trap (LNT) technology. Fundamental kinetics studies were carried out of model LNT catalysts containing variable loadings of precious metals (Pt, Rh), and storage components (BaO, CeO{sub 2}). The Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor provided transient data under well-characterized conditions for both powder and monolith catalysts, enabling the identification of key reaction pathways and estimation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. The performance of model NOx storage and reduction (NSR) monolith catalysts were evaluated in a bench scale NOx trap using synthetic exhaust, with attention placed on the effect of the pulse timing and composition on the instantaneous and cycle-averaged product distributions. From these experiments we formulated a global model that predicts the main spatio-temporal features of the LNT and a mechanistic-based microkinetic models that incorporates a detailed understanding of the chemistry and predicts more detailed selectivity features of the LNT. The NOx trap models were used to determine its ability to simulate bench-scale data and ultimately to evaluate alternative LNT designs and operating strategies. The four-year project led to the training of several doctoral students and the dissemination of the findings as 47 presentations in conferences, catalysis societies, and academic departments as well 23 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. A condensed review of NOx storage and reduction was published in an encyclopedia of technology.

  9. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  10. Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation OLE PETERS1,2,3 * AND J. DAVID NEELIN3 1 convection and precipitation (the order parameter)--with correlated regions on scales of tens to hundreds the climatological mean by an order of magnitude or more. Moist convection and the accompanying precipitation have

  11. Effects of GnRH and Prostaglandin Combined with a Short Progestin Regimen on the Synchrony of Estrus and Ovulation in Ewes During the Breeding Season 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickison, James William

    2012-02-14

    Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, W. Shawn Ramsey David W. Forrest Committee Members, Clay A. Cavinder Glenn A. Holub Chris Boleman Head of Department, Gary Acuff December 2010 Major Subject: Animal Science iii ABSTRACT Effects of Gn... Committee: Dr. W. Shawn Ramsey Dr. David W. Forrest Two trials were conducted to quantify the effects of GnRH and prostaglandin in conjunction with a 7-d CIDR on estrus and on pregnancy rate in comparison with a traditional...

  12. Structure Determination of Ba8CoRh6O21, a New Member of the 2H-Perovskite Related Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    Structure Determination of Ba8CoRh6O21, a New Member of the 2H-Perovskite Related Oxides H.-C. zur of an m = 5, n = 3 member of the A3n+3mA'nB3m+nO9m+6n family of 2H hexagonal perovskite related oxides. For this reason, perovskite and perovskite-related oxides in particular have long provided excellent candidates

  13. Dendrimer Templated Synthesis of One Nanometer Rh and Pt Particles Supported on Mesoporous Silica: Catalytic Activity for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Wenyu; Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Zhang, Yawen; Habas, Susan E.; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-05-09

    Monodisperse rhodium (Rh) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as small as {approx}1 nm were synthesized within a fourth generation polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimer, a hyperbranched polymer, in aqueous solution and immobilized by depositing onto a high-surface-area SBA-15 mesoporous support. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the as-synthesized Rh and Pt nanoparticles were mostly oxidized. Catalytic activity of the SBA-15 supported Rh and Pt nanoparticles was studied with ethylene hydrogenation at 273 and 293 K in 10 torr of ethylene and 100 torr of H{sub 2} after reduction (76 torr of H{sub 2} mixed with 690 torr of He) at different temperatures. Catalysts were active without removing the dendrimer capping but reached their highest activity after hydrogen reduction at a moderate temperature (423 K). When treated at a higher temperature (473, 573, and 673 K) in hydrogen, catalytic activity decreased. By using the same treatment that led to maximum ethylene hydrogenation activity, catalytic activity was also evaluated for pyrrole hydrogenation.

  14. First Measurement of the $^{96}$Ru(p,$?$)$^{97}$Rh Cross Section for the p-Process with a Storage Ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Mei; Thomas Aumann; Shawn Bishop; Klaus Blaum; Konstanze Boretzky; Fritz Bosch; Carsten Brandau; Harald Bräuning; Thomas Davinson; Iris Dillmann; Christina Dimopoulou; Olga Ershova; Zsolt Fülöp; Hans Geissel; Jan Glorius; György Gyürky; Michael Heil; Franz Käppeler; Aleksandra Kelic-Heil; Christophor Kozhuharov; Christoph Langer; Tudi Le Bleis; Yuri Litvinov; Gavin Lotay; Justyna Marganiec; Gottfried Münzenberg; Fritz Nolden; Nikolaos Petridis; Ralf Plag; Ulrich Popp; Ganna Rastrepina; René Reifarth; Björn Riese; Catherine Rigollet; Christoph Scheidenberger; Haik Simon; Kerstin Sonnabend; Markus Steck; Thomas Stöhlke; Tamás Szücs; Klaus Sümmerer; Günter Weber; Helmut Weick; Danyal Winters; Natalya Winters; Philip Woods; Qiping Zhong

    2015-07-10

    This work presents a direct measurement of the $^{96}$Ru($p, \\gamma$)$^{97}$Rh cross section via a novel technique using a storage ring, which opens opportunities for reaction measurements on unstable nuclei. A proof-of-principle experiment was performed at the storage ring ESR at GSI in Darmstadt, where circulating $^{96}$Ru ions interacted repeatedly with a hydrogen target. The $^{96}$Ru($p, \\gamma$)$^{97}$Rh cross section between 9 and 11 MeV has been determined using two independent normalization methods. As key ingredients in Hauser-Feshbach calculations, the $\\gamma$-ray strength function as well as the level density model can be pinned down with the measured ($p, \\gamma$) cross section. Furthermore, the proton optical potential can be optimized after the uncertainties from the $\\gamma$-ray strength function and the level density have been removed. As a result, a constrained $^{96}$Ru($p, \\gamma$)$^{97}$Rh reaction rate over a wide temperature range is recommended for $p$-process network calculations.

  15. First Measurement of the $^{96}$Ru(p,$\\gamma$)$^{97}$Rh Cross Section for the p-Process with a Storage Ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei, Bo; Bishop, Shawn; Blaum, Klaus; Boretzky, Konstanze; Bosch, Fritz; Brandau, Carsten; Bräuning, Harald; Davinson, Thomas; Dillmann, Iris; Dimopoulou, Christina; Ershova, Olga; Fülöp, Zsolt; Geissel, Hans; Glorius, Jan; Gyürky, György; Heil, Michael; Käppeler, Franz; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kozhuharov, Christophor; Langer, Christoph; Bleis, Tudi Le; Litvinov, Yuri; Lotay, Gavin; Marganiec, Justyna; Münzenberg, Gottfried; Nolden, Fritz; Petridis, Nikolaos; Plag, Ralf; Popp, Ulrich; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, René; Riese, Björn; Rigollet, Catherine; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Simon, Haik; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Steck, Markus; Stöhlke, Thomas; Szücs, Tamás; Sümmerer, Klaus; Weber, Günter; Weick, Helmut; Winters, Danyal; Winters, Natalya; Woods, Philip; Zhong, Qiping

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a direct measurement of the $^{96}$Ru($p, \\gamma$)$^{97}$Rh cross section via a novel technique using a storage ring, which opens opportunities for reaction measurements on unstable nuclei. A proof-of-principle experiment was performed at the storage ring ESR at GSI in Darmstadt, where circulating $^{96}$Ru ions interacted repeatedly with a hydrogen target. The $^{96}$Ru($p, \\gamma$)$^{97}$Rh cross section between 9 and 11 MeV has been determined using two independent normalization methods. As key ingredients in Hauser-Feshbach calculations, the $\\gamma$-ray strength function as well as the level density model can be pinned down with the measured ($p, \\gamma$) cross section. Furthermore, the proton optical potential can be optimized after the uncertainties from the $\\gamma$-ray strength function and the level density have been removed. As a result, a constrained $^{96}$Ru($p, \\gamma$)$^{97}$Rh reaction rate over a wide temperature range is recommended for $p$-process network calculations.

  16. Wiedemann-Franz law and nonvanishing temperature scale across the field-tuned quantum critical point of YbRh2Si2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy; Daou, R.; Hu, Rongwei; Petrovic, C.; Taillefer, Louis

    2014-01-23

    The in-plane thermal conductivity kappa and electrical resistivity rho of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh2Si2 were measured down to 50 mK for magnetic fields H parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis, through the field-tuned quantum critical point H-c, at which antiferromagnetic order ends. The thermal and electrical resistivities, w L0T/kappa and rho, show a linear temperature dependence below 1 K, typical of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior found near antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, but this dependence does not persist down to T = 0. Below a characteristic temperature T-star similar or equal to 0.35 K, which depends weakly on H, w(T) and rho(T) both deviate downward and converge as T -> 0. We propose that T-star marks the onset of short-range magnetic correlations, persisting beyond H-c. By comparing samples of different purity, we conclude that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds in YbRh2Si2, even at H-c, implying that no fundamental breakdown of quasiparticle behavior occurs in this material. The overall phenomenology of heat and charge transport in YbRh2Si2 is similar to that observed in the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5, near its own field-tuned quantum critical point.

  17. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  18. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup ?5} gm{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

  19. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  20. Cavitation controlled acoustic probe for fabric spot cleaning and moisture monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a fabric. An acoustic probe generates acoustic waves relative to the fabric. An acoustic sensor, such as an accelerometer is coupled to the acoustic probe for generating a signal representative of cavitation activity in the fabric. The generated cavitation activity representative signal is processed to indicate moisture content of the fabric. A feature of the invention is a feedback control signal is generated responsive to the generated cavitation activity representative signal. The feedback control signal can be used to control the energy level of the generated acoustic waves and to control the application of a cleaning solution to the fabric.

  1. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  2. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  3. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal InteractionsSpace Science: Atmospheres Part- 7a Evolution of planets Out-Gassing/ Volcanoes Evolution Initial Species Solar abundance Solar wind composition? Carbonaceous chondrites? Variables Early sun

  4. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  5. Equilibration of an atmosphere by geostrophic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, Malte F. (Malte Friedrich)

    2013-01-01

    A major question for climate studies is to quantify the role of turbulent eddy fluxes in maintaining the observed atmospheric mean state. It has been argued that eddy fluxes keep the mid-latitude atmosphere in a state that ...

  6. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK 20142015 WELCOME Welcome to the Graduate Program in Land and Atmospheric Science at the University of Minnesota. It is a sciencebased interdisciplinary program focused on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore »and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  8. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  9. Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling...

  10. Sampling, characterization, and remote sensing of aerosols formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Pickrell, P.W.

    1984-05-01

    When gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of HF/sub 6/ in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the temperature of the UF/sub 6/ at the time of its release, the relative humidity of the air into which it is released, and the elapsed time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using stationary samplers for the separate collection of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and HF and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 25 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Sampling and characterization of aerosols formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of UF/sub 6/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Pickrell, P.W.; Branam, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    When gaseous UF/sub 6/ is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride and HF. As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of UF/sub 6/ (from natural uranium) in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregrate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the relative humidity at the time of the release and the elapse time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using isokinetic samplers for the separate collection of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and HF, and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 8 references.

  12. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  13. Building America Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies: Part II, New Construction- August 13, 2014- Moisture Monitoring Results in an R-40 Wall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, Moisture Monitoring Results in an R-40 Wall, was presented at the Building America webinar, High Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part II, on August 13, 2014.

  14. A Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    D/Masters Applied Marine Physics Marine & Atmospheric Chemistry Marine Affairs & Policy (Masters Only) MarineA Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric Studies Our graduate program has over 250 students University of MiaMi rosenstiel school of Marine & atMospheric science #12;Miami Ranks #5: fDi Magazine's Top

  15. Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr. Planetary Chemistry Laboratory Department by Hunten et al. (1983), of Magellan results by Bougher et al. (1997), and atmospheric chemistry on Venus and Ancient Environments Edited by Vivien Gornitz January 2004 #12;2 ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION ON VENUS Overview

  16. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  17. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION SOIL MOISTURE MAPPING USING OPERATIONAL OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    .H. Hendrickx1 , J. Bruce J. Harrison, Brian Borchers, and Graciela Rodríguez-Marín New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM determines near-surface atmospheric conditions and the partition of incoming solar and long-wave radiation

  19. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in urban air. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2881–deep convective system. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4,processes in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical Society Review

  20. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF’s Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  1. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  2. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  3. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  4. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created by the interaction of UF/sub 6/ with atmospheric moisture in a contained volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1984-12-31

    Several experiments have been performed in which UF/sub 6/ was released into air under static conditions in a 6 m/sup 3/ release chamber in order to characterize the solid products of hydrolysis as the amount of UF/sub 6/ released was increased. An aerosol concentration of approx. 25 gm/m/sup 3/ (150 gm) was the largest achieved. Electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology of the aerosol particles and to obtain geometric size measurements from micrographs and a cascaded impactor was used to obtain aerodynamic size measurements by measuring particle masses. Particle sizes and rate of particle size change were observed to be dependent on aerosol concentration.

  5. Influence of synoptic weather events on the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture in a coastal city of the western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farlin, James; Lai, Chun-Ta; Yoshimura, Kei

    2013-01-01

    of global reanalysis, Mon. Weather Rev. , 136(8), 2983–2998.to investigate synoptic weather in?uences on air mixing inthat encompass synoptic weather cycles and extreme weather

  6. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  7. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  8. Microsoft Word - ORNL RH

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection of Hydrates on Gas5 15NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: March

  9. Microsoft Word - SRS RH

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection of Hydrates7 UnlimitedSupply6254 3.95AprTheFOR

  10. RH_SRS_Shipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on Global TechnologyProceeding SignPrice Volatility

  11. RH TRU Waste Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton Delivery andInnovations INFORMATION ExplainMadison

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Design and Engineering of most components in the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed System was completed prior to September 1992. The components remaining to be designed at that time were: Aerovalves for the Pulse Combustor; Gas and coal injectors for the Pulse Combustor; Lines for PC tailpipes; Air plenum and inlet silencer; Refractory lined hot gas duct connecting outlet hot cyclone to boiler; Structure and platforms, and ladders around PAFBC vessel access and major equipment. Design work is currently in progress on all of the above components. Items 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 50% completed, and items 5 6 are 75% complete.

  13. Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing, Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry and 1 1 Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Professor Director

  14. Bioorganometallic chemistry: biocatalytic oxidation reactions with biomimetic nad+/nadh co-factors and [cp*rh(bpy)h]+ for selective organic synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Jochen; Hollman, Frank; Ho, The Vinh; Schnyder, Adrian; Fish, Richard H.; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-03-09

    The biocatalytic, regioselective hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl to the corresponding catechol was accomplished utilizing the monooxygenase 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA). The necessary natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) co-factor for this biocatalytic process was replaced by a biomimetic co-factor, N-benzylnicotinamide bromide, 1a. The interaction between the flavin (FAD) containing HbpA enzyme and the corresponding biomimetic NADH compound, N-benzyl-1,4-dihdronicotinamide, 1b, for hydride transfers, was shown to readily occur. The in situ recycling of the reduced NADH biomimic 1b from 1a was accomplished with [Cp*Rh(bpy)H](Cl); however, productive coupling of this regeneration reaction to the enzymatic hydroxylation reaction was not totally successful, due to a deactivation process concerning the HbpA enzyme peripheral groups; i.e., -SH or -NH{sub 2} possibly reacting with the precatalyst, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)](Cl){sub 2}, and thus inhibiting the co-factor regeneration process. The deactivation mechanism was studied, and a promising strategy of derivatizing these peripheral -SH or -NH{sub 2} groups with a polymer containing epoxide was successful in circumventing the undesired interaction between HbpA and the precatalyst. This latter strategy allowed tandem co-factor regeneration using 1a or 2a, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)](Cl){sub 2}, and formate ion, in conjunction with the polymer bound, FAD containing HbpA enzyme to provide the catechol product.

  15. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO.sub.2. In another embodiment, the SiO.sub.2 is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system.

  16. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Frye, G.C.; Schneider, T.W.

    1996-11-05

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO{sub 2}. In another embodiment, the SiO{sub 2} is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system. 8 figs.

  17. Hygric Redistribution in Insulated Assemblies: Retrofitting Residential Envelopes Without Creating Moisture Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Building America program has recognized that most of the current housing stock is in need of energy related retrofits. One of the best ways of reducing the space conditioning energy consumption is to improve the thermal performance of the enclosure by adding exterior board foam insulation. This report quantifies the amount of water that can become trapped in the drainage cavity of typical wall systems, and measures the effect of water trapped in the drainage cavity on the moisture content of the sheathing. This study also attempts to explain the discrepancy between hygrothermal simulations and field performance of low permeance, low R-value exterior insulation (e.g. 3/4-in. foil faced polyisocyanurate) in cold climates.

  18. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  19. Hygric Redistribution in Insulated Assemblies. Retrofitting Residential Envelopes Without Creating Moisture Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Building America program has recognized that most of the current housing stock is in need of energy related retrofits. One of the best ways of reducing the space conditioning energy consumption is to improve the thermal performance of the enclosure by adding exterior board foam insulation. This report quantifies the amount of water that can become trapped in the drainage cavity of typical wall systems, and measures the effect of water trapped in the drainage cavity on the moisture content of the sheathing. This study also attempts to explain the discrepancy between hygrothermal simulations and field performance of low permeance, low R-value exterior insulation (e.g. ¾-in. foil faced polyisocyanurate) in cold climates.

  20. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  1. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

  2. Retrieval of Moisture from Simulated GPS Slant-Path Water Vapor Observations Using 3DVAR with Anisotropic Recursive Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Retrieval of Moisture from Simulated GPS Slant-Path Water Vapor Observations Using 3DVAR with Anisotropic Recursive Filters HAIXIA LIU AND MING XUE Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, and School) ABSTRACT Anisotropic recursive filters are implemented within a three-dimensional variational data

  3. Environmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste in a Parallel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -combustion is a waste-to-energy technology that can use MSW and coal as co-fuels, offering potential energy recoveryEnvironmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content ABSTRACT: Use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as fuel for electricity generation reduces landfill disposal

  4. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benscoter, Brian W.

    5, Canada. D University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several. Additional keywords: bog, boreal, carbon, fire, ground-layer fuels, peat, peatland, Sphagnum, smouldering

  5. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    5, Canada. D University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several. Additional keywords: bog, boreal, carbon, fire, ground-layer fuels, peat, peatland, smouldering, Sphagnum

  6. 988 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 19, NO. 7, JULY 2001 Diffusion of Moisture Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Optical Fiber Coatings Janet L. (Armstrong) Mrotek, Member, OSA, M. John Matthewson, and Charles R. Kurkjian Abstract--The strength of polymer-coated fused silica optical fiber is dependent on the ambient moisture because of stress corro- sion. The diffusion rate of water vapor through the polymer coating can

  7. Characterizing moisture exchange between the Hawaiian convective boundary layer and free troposphere using stable isotopes in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of moisture, energy, trace gases, and pollutants between the ocean surface and free troposphere. Yet bulk and entrainment processes near the Big Island of Hawaii. Profile data from the island's east side are consistent analysis, so long as the thermodynamic properties of the air mass at CBL top are known. Deviations from

  8. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

    2009-03-15

    Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

  9. A dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR-E microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    influences the partitioning of surface available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes and henceA dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR, we have designed a dual-pass assimilation (DP-En4DVar) framework to optimize the model state

  10. ., ~., t.o -., '-'~ Effect of moisture content on the composting of pig-manure sawdust litter disposed from the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

    '- ., ~., t.o - ., '-'~ Effect of moisture content on the composting of pig-manure sawdust litter-situ composting, has been developed as one of the recommended methods in Hong Kong to treat pig waste. The system microbial biomass, which is similar to an immature compost. In order to improve the quality of the spent

  11. Moisture-Driven Deterioration and Abrasion of Concrete Sleeper Rail Seats Submitted for publication in the proceedings of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    -entrained, low- permeability concrete. Care should be exercised when using pads that do not seal waterMoisture-Driven Deterioration and Abrasion of Concrete Sleeper Rail Seats Submitted for publication on the results of a 2008 railway industry survey on concrete sleepers, rail seat deterioration (RSD) is the most

  12. An Extension of the TalbotOgden Hydrology Model to an Affine Multi-dimensional Moisture Content Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Craig C.

    ;2 t = - K + z( )( ), (1) where is water content, t is time, K is hydraulic conductivity, is capillary [3] [4] since both K and are highly nonlinear functions of water content or the pressure head term1 An Extension of the Talbot­Ogden Hydrology Model to an Affine Multi-dimensional Moisture Content

  13. Experimental evidence for the interacting effects of forest edge, moisture and soil macrofauna on leaf litter decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    , Oxford OX2 7DE, UK d Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford radiation and wind at forest edges reduces soil moisture, which in turn affects leaf litter decomposition 12% today, and 75% of the patches are now less than 2 ha (Watts, 2006). Such small forests

  14. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof assemblies against moisture. The key variables investigated were the leakage area from the attic to the outside, leakage area from the attic to the interior, leakage area from the interior to the outside, supply duct leakage in the attic, and interior moisture generation. These investigations are described in this report.

  15. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  16. Fits to the Fermi-LAT GeV excess with RH sneutrino dark matter: implications for direct and indirect dark matter searches and the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerdeno, D G; Robles, S

    2015-01-01

    We show that the right-handed (RH) sneutrino in the NMSSM can account for the observed excess in the Fermi-LAT spectrum of gamma rays from the Galactic Centre, while fulfilling all the current experimental constraints from the LHC as well as from direct and indirect dark matter searches. We have explored the parameter space of this scenario, computed the gamma ray spectrum for each phenomenologically viable solution and then performed a chi^2 fit to the excess. Unlike previous studies based on model independent interpretations, we have taken into account the full annihilation spectrum, without assuming pure annihilation channels. Furthermore, we have incorporated limits from direct detection experiments, LHC bounds and also the constraints from Fermi-LAT on dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and gamma ray spectral lines. In addition, we have estimated the effect of the most recent Fermi-LAT reprocessed data (Pass~8). In general, we obtain good fits to the GCE when the RH sneutrino annihilates mainly into pairs...

  17. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    mesoscale oceanic features are current coarse resolutionmesoscale r current variability associated with oceanic ringthe TIW- currents. These mesoscale oceanic and atmospheric

  18. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    mesoscale oceanic features are current coarse resolutionmesoscale r current variability associated with oceanic ringthe TIW- currents. These mesoscale oceanic and atmospheric

  19. Physics Potential of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2008-12-12

    The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  20. 4, 497545, 2011 atmosphere-wildland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandel, Jan

    by the coupling of a mesoscale weather 498 #12;GMDD 4, 497­545, 2011 Coupled atmosphere-wildland model WRF-Fire 3

  1. Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Bess

    discharges from wastewater treatment, atmospheric deposition, and so forth, resulting in increasing), including oxidized and reduced inorganic and organic forms. The availability of Nr limits primary pro

  2. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth...

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    ET AL. : EREBUS PLUME CHEMISTRY Horrocks, L. A. , C.et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI2007), Reactive halogen chemistry in volca- nic plumes, J.

  4. Non-OH chemistry in oxidation flow reactors for the study of atmospheric chemistry systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W. W.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Tsigaridis, K.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using low-pressure Hg lamp emission at 185 and 254 nm produce OH radicals efficiently and are widely used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. However, knowledge of detailed OFR chemistry is limited, allowing speculation in the literature about whether some non-OH reactants, including several not relevant for tropospheric chemistry, may play an important role in these OFRs. These non-OH reactants are UV radiation, O(1D), O(3P), and O3. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of other reactants to OH for the fate of reactant species in OFR under a wide range of conditions via boxmore »modeling. The relative importance of non-OH species is less sensitive to UV light intensity than to relative humidity (RH) and external OH reactivity (OHRext), as both non-OH reactants and OH scale roughly proportional to UV intensity. We show that for field studies in forested regions and also the urban area of Los Angeles, reactants of atmospheric interest are predominantly consumed by OH. We find that O(1D), O(3P), and O3 have relative contributions to VOC consumption that are similar or lower than in the troposphere. The impact of O atoms can be neglected under most conditions in both OFR and troposphere. Under "pathological OFR conditions" of low RH and/or high OHRext, the importance of non-OH reactants is enhanced because OH is suppressed. Some biogenics can have substantial destructions by O3, and photolysis at non-tropospheric wavelengths (185 and 254 nm) may also play a significant role in the degradation of some aromatics under pathological conditions. Working under low O2 with the OFR185 mode allows OH to completely dominate over O3 reactions even for the biogenic species most reactive with O3. Non-tropospheric VOC photolysis may have been a problem in some laboratory and source studies, but can be avoided or lessened in future studies by diluting source emissions and working at lower precursor concentrations in lab studies, and by humidification. SOA photolysis is shown to be insignificant for most functional groups, except for nitrates and especially aromatics, which may be photolyzed at high UV flux settings. Our work further establishes the OFR's usefulness as a tool to study atmospheric chemistry and enables better experiment design and interpretation, as well as improved future reactor design.« less

  5. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  6. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    2013-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013) Published online in Wiley Online Library Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *Correspondence to: C. Yoo, Center for Atmosphere). A number of studies have shown that the MJO plays an important role in modulating the extratropical cir

  7. Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korn, Andreas

    Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1 Due date: Monday, 24 September 2007 at 10.15 1. LTE of how temperature is defined. (b) Where in the solar atmosphere would you expect the strongest for the photosphere? (c) How does the relation between matter and radiation differ between LTE and NLTE? What must

  8. Results from the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Results from the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment Paul Withers1 and David Catling2 (1 and atmospheric structure reconstruction for Phoenix · Highlight selected aspects of Phoenix reconstruction reconstruction for Phoenix · Highlight selected aspects of Phoenix reconstruction that offer lessons for future

  9. Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , T, and atmospheric composition ¥ ...Kinetics ¥ What are the major minerals? ¥ What is the oxidation of terrestrial alkaline igneous rocks #12;Oxidation State of the Surface ¥ 2CO + O2 = 2CO2 controls O2 ¥ Lack. ¥ S in lower atmosphere is kinetically controlled ¥ CaCO3 + SO2 = CaSO4 + CO removes SO2 , deposits CaSO4 ¥ Fe

  10. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  11. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mattson, Earl D. (Albuquerque, NM); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  12. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1997-07-08

    A portable tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, (a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; (b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; (c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; (d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; (e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; (f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and (g) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed. 12 figs.

  13. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Mattson, E.D.; Sisson, J.B.

    1998-06-02

    A tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, (a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; (b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; (c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; (d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and (e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: (1) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and (2) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus. 6 figs.

  14. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A portable tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and c) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  15. The effect of moisture regimes on the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste from Metepec (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez-Berriel, Ma.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Calz. La Virgen S/N, Metepec, Edo. Mexico (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico); Marquez-Benavides, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico)], E-mail: lili.marquez@gmail.com; Gonzalez-Perez, D.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Calz. La Virgen S/N, Metepec, Edo. Mexico (Mexico); Buenrostro-Delgado, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The State of Mexico, situated in central Mexico, has a population of about 14 million, distributed in approximately 125 counties. Solid waste management represents a serious and ongoing pressure to local authorities. The final disposal site ('El Socavon') does not comply with minimum environmental requirements as no liners or leachate management infrastructure are available. Consequently, leachate composition or the effects of rain water input on municipal solid waste degradation are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to monitor the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW), simulating the water addition due to rainfall, under two different moisture content regimes (70% and 80% humidity). The study was carried out using bioreactors in both laboratory and pilot scales. The variation of organic matter and pH was followed in the solid matrix of the MSW. The leachate produced was used to estimate the field capacity of the MSW and to determine the pH, COD, BOD and heavy metals. Some leachate parameters were found to be within permitted limits, but further research is needed in order to analyze the leachate from lower layers of the disposal site ('El Socavon')

  16. Land Surface Model Data Assimilation for Atmospheric Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    predictions from different models even when using the same parameters, inputs, and initial conditions (Houser remote sensing studies, using visible, thermal infrared (surface temperature) and microwave (passive and active) electromagnetic radiation. Of these, passive microwave soil moisture measurement has been

  17. Interaction between surface and atmosphere in a convective boundary layer /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garai, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    of cold fluid constitute most of the heat transport andevent cold air descends to the ground, heat transport fromcold air during sweep events. The convective boundary layer has a great influence on moisture transport,

  18. Correlation between ERMI values and other Moisture and Mold Assessments of Homes in the American Healthy Home Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cox, David J.; DeWalt, Gary

    2009-11-30

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between ERMI values in the HUD American Healthy Home Survey (AHHS) homes and either inspector reports or occupant assessments of mold and moisture. Methods: In the AHHS, moisture and mold were assessed by a pair of inspectors and with an occupant questionnaire. These results were compared to the results of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) values for each home. Results: Homes in the highest ERMI quartile were most often in agreement with visual inspection and/or occupant assessment. However, in 52% of the fourth quartile ERMI homes, the inspector and occupant assessment did not indicate water or mold problems. Yet the concentrations of each ERMI panel mold species detected in all fourth quartile homes were statistically indistinguishable. Conclusions: About 50% of water-damaged, moldy homes were not detected by inspection or questioning of the occupant about water and mold.

  19. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

  20. Magnitude and reactivity consequences of moisture ingress into the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, O.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Inadvertent admission of moisture into the primary system of a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moisture-ingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. The rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size compared with safety valve capacity and reliability and less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions.

  1. Studying atmosphere-dominated hot Jupiter Kepler phase curves: Evidence that inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection is common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shporer, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We identify 3 Kepler transiting planet systems, Kepler-7, Kepler-12, and Kepler-41, whose orbital phase-folded light curves are dominated by planetary atmospheric processes including thermal emission and reflected light, while the impact of non-atmospheric (i.e. gravitational) processes, including beaming (Doppler boosting) and tidal ellipsoidal distortion, is negligible. Therefore, those systems allow a direct view of their atmospheres without being hampered by the approximations used in the inclusion of both atmospheric and non-atmospheric processes when modeling the phase curve shape. Here we analyze Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b atmosphere based on their Kepler phase curve, while the analysis of Kepler-7b was presented elsewhere. The model we used efficiently computes reflection and thermal emission contributions to the phase curve, including inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection due to longitudinally varying cloud coverage. We confirm Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b show a westward phase shift between the brightest...

  2. Experimental investigation of moisture and temperature conditioning of C600/5208 graphite/epoxy composite material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grieger, Kenneth Allen

    1979-01-01

    I XPERIMENTAI INVESTIGATION OF MOI TURE AND TE11PERATURF CONDITIONING OF CGOO/5208 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE MATL'RIAL KENNETH AILEN GRIFGFR Su5&ritted to the Graduate College of Texa. s AQh University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIFNCE December 1979 Majo, Subject: Ae&ospace Engineering EXPERINENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MOISTURE AND TENPERATURE CONDITIONING OF C600/5208 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE HATERIAL A Thesis by -KENNETH ALLEN GRIEGER Approved...

  3. Electronic structure of Ce?RhIn?: A two-dimensional heavy-fermion system studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Rui; Petrovic, C.; Mou, Daixing; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Xin; Yao, Yongxin; Ryu, Hyejin; Ho, Kai -Ming; Kaminski, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the 2D heavy fermion superconductor, Ce?RhIn?. The Fermi surface is rather complicated and consists of several hole and electron pockets with one of the sheets displaying strong nesting properties with a q-vector of (0.32, 0.32) ?/a. We do not observe kz dispersion of the Fermi sheets, which is consistent with the expected 2D character of the electronic structure. Comparison of the ARPES data to band structure calculations suggests that a localized picture of the f-electrons works best. While there is some agreement in the overall band dispersion and location of the Fermimore »sheets, the model does not reproduce all observed bands and is not completely accurate for those it does. Our data paves the way for improving the band structure calculations and the general understanding of the transport and thermodynamical properties of this material.« less

  4. Electronic structure of Ce2RhIn8: A two-dimensional heavy-fermion system studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Rui; Mou, Daixing; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Xin; Yao, Yongxin; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; Ho, Kai -Ming; Kaminski, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the 2D heavy fermion superconductor, Ce?RhIn?. The Fermi surface is rather complicated and consists of several hole and electron pockets with one of the sheets displaying strong nesting properties with a q-vector of (0.32, 0.32) ?/a. We do not observe kz dispersion of the Fermi sheets, which is consistent with the expected 2D character of the electronic structure. Comparison of the ARPES data to band structure calculations suggests that a localized picture of the f-electrons works best. While there is some agreement in the overall band dispersion and location of the Fermimore »sheets, the model does not reproduce all observed bands and is not completely accurate for those it does. As a result, our data paves the way for improving the band structure calculations and the general understanding of the transport and thermodynamical properties of this material.« less

  5. Soil Moisture Initialization for Climate Prediction: Characterization of Model and Observation Errors Wenge Ni-Meister (1), Jeffrey Walker(3), and Paul R. Houser (2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    and Observation Errors Wenge Ni-Meister (1), Jeffrey Walker(3), and Paul R. Houser (2) 1. Department of Geology of the land surface soil moisture states. Passive microwave remote sensing provides quantitative information

  6. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  7. Calibration of a Neutron Hydroprobe for Moisture Measurements in Small-Diameter Steel-Cased Boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2009-08-01

    Computation of soil moisture content from thermalized neutron counts for the T-Farm Interim cover requires a calibration relationship but none exists for 2-in tubes. A number of calibration options are available for the neutron probe, including vendor calibration, field calibration, but none of these methods were deemed appropriate for the configuration of interest. The objective of this work was to develop a calibration relation for converting neutron counts measured in 2-in access tubes to soil water content. The calibration method chosen for this study was a computational approach using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). Model calibration was performed using field measurements in the Hanford calibration models with 6-in access tubes, in air and in the probe shield. The bet-fit model relating known water content to measured neutron counts was an exponential model that was essentially equivalent to that currently being used for 6-in steel cased wells. The MCNP simulations successfully predicted the neutron count rate for the neutron shield and the three calibration models for which data were collected in the field. However, predictions for air were about 65% lower than the measured counts . This discrepancy can be attributed to uncertainties in the configuration used for the air measurements. MCNP-simulated counts for the physical models were essentially equal to the measured counts with values. Accurate prediction of the response in 6-in casings in the three calibration models was motivation to predict the response in 2-in access tubes. Simulations were performed for six of the seven calibration models as well as 4 virtual models with the entire set covering a moisture range of 0 to 40%. Predicted counts for the calibration models with 2-in access tubes were 40 to 50% higher than in the 6-inch tubes. Predicted counts for water were about 60% higher in the 2-in tube than in the 6-in tube. The discrepancy between the 2-in and 6-in tube can be attributed to the smaller air gap between the probe and the 2-in access tube. The best-fit model relating volumetric water content to count ratio (CR) is of the form e^A x CR^B with A=0.3596 ± 0.0216 and B=0.4629 ± 0.0629 and r^2= 0.9998. It is recommended that the calibration function based on the count ratio, rather than raw counts, be used to avoid the effects of electronic noise in the probe that may arise due to the conditions at the time of measurement. These results suggest that the MCNP code can be used to extend calibrations for the neutron probe to different conditions including access tube size as well as composition without the need to construct additional physical models.

  8. High moisture corn stover pelleting in a flat die pellet mill fitted with a 6 mm die: physical properties and specific energy consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-06-15

    The quality and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the biomass pellets produced depend upon pelleting process conditions. The present study includes understanding the effect of feedstock moisture in the range of 28–38% (wet basis [w.b.]) and preheating in the range of 30–110°C at two die speeds of 40 and 60 Hz on the physical properties and SEC. A flat die pellet mill fitted with a 6 mm die was used in the present study. The physical properties of pellets such as moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density, durability, and expansion ratio and SEC of the pelleting process are measured.more »The results indicate that the pellets produced have durability values in the range of 87–98%, and unit bulk and tapped density in the range of 670–1100, 375–575, and 420–620 kg/m³. Increasing the feedstock moisture content from 33% to 38% (w.b) decreased the unit, bulk and tapped density by about 30–40%. Increasing feedstock moisture content increased the expansion ratio and decreased the density values. A higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and higher preheating temperature of 110°C resulted in lower density and a higher expansion ratio, which can be attributed to flash off of moisture as the material extrudes out of the die. The SEC was in the range of 75–275 kWh/ton. Higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and a lower die speed of 40 Hz increased the SEC, whereas lower to medium preheating temperature (30–70°C), medium feedstock moisture content of 33% (w.b.), and a higher die speed of 60 Hz minimized the SEC to « less

  9. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS...

  10. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Environment 44 (2010) 4678–4734 Brunner, D. , Staehelin,Environment 44 (2010) 4678–4734 Vedantham, A. , Wuebbles,Environment 44 (2010) 4678–4734 global atmosphere’. In:

  11. Optical Intensity Interferometry through Atmospheric Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Kian Tan; Aik Hui Chan; Christian Kurtsiefer

    2015-12-29

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar $g^{(2)}(\\tau)$ signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of $g^{(2)}(\\tau) = 1.693 \\pm 0.003$ from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement schemes with both large baselines and long integration times.

  12. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  13. Uraninite and Fullerene in Atmospheric Particulates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    incineration, uranium mining, and atmospheric testing of nuclearweapons-burning power plants typically contain very small amounts of uranium ( concentrations, the form of the uranium has been unknown. Using a variety of advanced electron microscopy

  14. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  15. The faculty and students in the Atmospheric Sciences Department use physics, chemistry, and mathematics to better understand the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    The faculty and students in the Atmospheric Sciences Department use physics, chemistry chemistry Atmospheric fluid dynamics Biosphere interactions Climate variability Clouds & storms Radiative, and mathematics to better understand the atmosphere and improve the prediction of its future state, both over

  16. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  17. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  18. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  19. Basalt-Atmosphere Interactions on Venus -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Atmosphere? · CaAl2Si2O8 + SO3 CaSO4 + Al2SiO5 + SiO2 ­ Anhydrite + andalusite + quartz !!! · Does this reaction proceed? ­ Venus atmosphere est'd 0.2 - 0.3 ppt SO3. #12;Reaction Position · From this, very possible that SO3 is buffered! · But ... SO3 value is not known very well - who knows what is really going

  20. Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

    2010-05-03

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

  1. Testing a hypothesis concerning the quantitative dependence of evapotranspiration on availability of moisture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covey, Winton Guy

    1959-01-01

    used (items 1 - 10) and the following results are tabulated in Appendix A: 11. Friction velocity ? u (cm/sec) 2 12. Evaporative heat flux ? q (cal/cm sec) e 13 . Surface temperature ? 0 ( 'C) . 0 14. Saturation vapor pressure at surface temperature... ? millibars (mb). The conversion fac 1 cal = 4. 185 1 mb = 1. 000 tora for energy and pressure are: 7 2 2 x 10 gm cm /sec , and 3 2 0 x 10 gm/cm sec from many aspects; for example, (I) it is an addition of water vapor to the atmosphere; (2) it is a...

  2. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howcroft, Caius L.F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  3. Using fractional differentiation in astronomy Amelia Carolina Sparavigna1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    ' such as atmospheric pollution, atmospheric moisture, light pollution, amp glow, dead pixels and stray light, all

  4. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 2, High-G solid-bowl centrifuge: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D.

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  5. The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frédéric

    REVIEW The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere BY SEBASTIEN LEBONNOIS 1'Ae´ronomie, IPSL, CNRS, BP3, 91371 Verrie`res le Buisson, France The atmosphere of Titan is a complex system, where the observed atmospheric structure of Titan's lower atmosphere (mainly in the stratosphere and troposphere

  6. Phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the reactivity of atmospheric SOM particles. atmospheric chemistry chemical aging organic aerosol collectionPhase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity Mikinori Kuwata and Scot T of atmospheric organic particles among solid, semisolid, and liquid phases is of keen current scientific interest

  7. ATM401, ATM601, CHEM601 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    as atmospheric chemistry. You should be able to read and analyze weather maps or climate diagrams, interpret as atmospheric chemistry. Fundamental goals are that you develop skills to think as an atmospheric scientistATM401, ATM601, CHEM601 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences Fall 2013 Class time: TR 11:30am

  8. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yan

    Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Douglas J in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dy- namics simulations are becoming increasingly in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces

  9. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home.

  10. Early genetic evaluation of loblolly pine based on growth characteristics of seedlings grown under four moisture regimes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waxler, Michael Steven

    1980-01-01

    (AVER), 3) relative growth rate (Nilthorpe and I'hoorbey 29 1974) after moisture stress treatments began (RGR) 4, 4) shoot wei ght at 24 weeks of age (SW), 5) root weight at 24 weeks of age (RW), and 6) shoot-root ratio at 24 weeks of age (S... and individual family within treatment differences: 1) aver- age height at 16 and 24 weeks after sowing, 2) SW, 3) RW, and 4) S/R. A correlation coefficient (r) between average seed weight per family and average volume suoeriority per family in the field...

  11. Emergence of the adult pecan weevil Curculio caryae (Horn) in relation to soil mechanical impedance and moisture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchard, Calvin Earl

    1981-01-01

    and content by: (Chairman of the Committee) 1 '~J' r' "'f'/""' (Member) (Member) / ( ead of Depart e t) May 1981 111 ABSTRACT Emergence of the Adu'It Pecan Weevil Curculio ~car ae (Horn) in Relation to Soil Mechanical Impedance and Moisture. (May... and the factors nec- essary for subsequent release follow, Citations of this and the following pages follow the style and f t fE 1 tt~Et REVIEW OF LITERATURE Taxonomic Position The pecan weevil, Curculio ~car ae (Horn), belongs to the order Coleoptera...

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  13. Magnetized Atmospheres around Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zane; R. Turolla; A. Treves

    2000-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation of atmospheres around accreting neutron stars with high magnetic field ($B\\gtrsim 10^{12}$ G) and low luminosity ($L\\lesssim 10^{33}$ erg/s). We compute the atmospheric structure, intensity and emergent spectrum for a plane-parallel, pure hydrogen medium by solving the transfer equations for the normal modes coupled to the hydrostatic and energy balance equations. The hard tail found in previous investigations for accreting, non-magnetic neutron stars with comparable luminosity is suppressed and the X-ray spectrum, although still harder than a blackbody at the star effective temperature, is nearly planckian in shape. Spectra from accreting atmospheres, both with high and low fields, are found to exhibit a significant excess at optical wavelengths above the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the X-ray continuum.

  14. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  15. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  16. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  17. Observation of a Large Magnetic Anisotropy in the New 2H-Perovskite Related Oxide Ba8CoRh6O21: Magnetic Measurements on Aligned Single Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    Observation of a Large Magnetic Anisotropy in the New 2H-Perovskite Related Oxide Ba8CoRh6O21 of the A3n+3mAnB3m+nO9m+6n family of 2H hexagonal perovskite related oxides and contains chains consisting, perovskite and perovskite-related oxides in particular have long provided excellent candidates for structural

  18. Introducing Research College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Jack

    WECOMA Coll ege of Oceanic & Atmospheric Scie nces OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY in the O cean currents introduced by man (e.g., pollutants). Knowledge of upper-ocean currents is important for navigation and for search and rescue. The ocean currents off Oregon vary seasonally and can also vary from year to year

  19. Introducing Research College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    .coas.oregonstate.edu WECOMA WECOMA Coll ege of Oceanic & Atmospheric Scie nces OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY in the O cean currents, to the south in summer and generally to the north in winter, create ocean currents. The strong summertime and the topography of the ocean floor influence the east-west cross-shelf currents. Understanding and being able

  20. Quantifying chaos in the atmosphere Richard Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    , Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, UK Abstract: The atmosphere is known to be forced by a variety of energy sources, including radiation and heat fluxes emanating from the boundary layer associated with sea as the competing champions controlling process in the physical world. With or without Einstein, there can

  1. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions · Mean molecular mass (µ) -> Chemical composition · How did Titan form? · Current reservoirs of volatiles · Ethane/methane puddles/ocean · Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc ­ T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable · Is it possible to know µ based on simple

  2. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    methane chemical losses. INMS Data T-GITM Bell et al. [2010b] #12;Constraints on Escape · Parameter Sweep-Thermosphere Model (GITM) · 3-D, non-hydrostatic, altitude-based atmospheric model ­ Compressible Navier (TVD) MUSCL Scheme. ­ Block-based Massively Parallel Framework ­ Updating with 4th order Runge

  3. Methane present in an extrasolar planet atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark R. Swain; Gautam Vasisht; Giovanna Tinetti

    2008-02-07

    Molecules present in exoplanetary atmospheres are expected to strongly influence the atmospheric radiation balance, trace dynamical and chemical processes, and indicate the presence of disequilibrium effects. Since molecules have the potential to reveal the exoplanet atmospheric conditions and chemistry, searching for them is a high priority. The rotational-vibrational transition bands of water, carbon monoxide, and methane are anticipated to be the primary sources of non-continuum opacity in hot-Jovian planets. Since these bands overlap in wavelength, and the corresponding signatures from them are weak, decisive identification requires precision infrared spectroscopy. Here we report on a near-infrared transmission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b showing the presence of methane. Additionally, a resolved water-vapour band at 1.9 microns confirms the recent claim of water in this object. On thermochemical grounds, carbon-monoxide is expected to be abundant in the upper atmosphere of hot-Jovian exoplanets; thus the detection of methane rather than carbon-monoxide in such a hot planet could signal the presence of a horizontal chemical gradient away from the permanent dayside, or it may imply an ill-understood photochemical mechanisms that leads to an enhancement of methane.

  4. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry, Modeling, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities that release mercury to the atmosphere include coal burning, industrial processes, waste incine and climate projections; critically and quantitatively analyze environmental management and policy proposals mercury research. Global Budget of Mercury Prior to the onset of human industrial activities, the amount

  7. Azores Global Atmosphere Monitoring Complex 1. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honrath, Richard E.

    observations. Prior to the advent of satellite observations, they provided weather data critical to the accuracy of European weather forecasts. Today, they provide a unique base for studies of atmospheric Monitoring Complex (AGAMC) is a set of ground-based measurement stations for use in sampling the marine

  8. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    .8 Static Stability Structure 9.9 Gravity Wave Generation in Unbalanced Jet­Front Systems 10. Equatorial, T. G., 2007: Transport in the Middle Atmosphere. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 85B, 165­191. 1 #12. Vertically Propagating Waves 2.1 Extratropical (Planetary) Rossby Waves 2.2 Extratropical Gravity Waves 2

  9. Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and polarization peculiarities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patlashenko, Zh I

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers environmental problems of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution and its global and regional monitoring. Efficient aerosol investigations may be achieved by spectropolarimetric measurements. Specifically second and fourth Stokes parameters spectral dependencies carry information on averaged refraction and absorption indexes and on particles size distribution functions characteristics.

  10. THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    over large fields, long times and many wave- lengths (heights) simultaneously -- Judge and Peter (1998THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN Sterrekundig Instituut, Postbus 80 000, NL­3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low

  11. Modeling of Alpine Atmospheric Dynamics II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    Modeling of Alpine Atmospheric Dynamics II 707.424, VU 2, SS2005 Unit 7: Model code structure: mesoscale convective system 17-18 April 2004: Sierra hydraulic jump case 21 January 2005: the "Universiade) Introduction (brief description of the phenomenon and a description of the model and of the measurements

  12. Dynamics of Jupiter's Atmosphere Andrew P. Ingersoll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Dowling University of Louisville Peter J. Gierasch Cornell University Glenn S. Orton Jet Propulsion no topography, i.e., no con- tinents or oceans; its atmosphere merges smoothly with the planet's fluid interior with falling ice and rain. On Jupiter, the separation mechanism is still to be determined. The winds of Jupiter

  13. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Atmospheres RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raible, Christoph C.

    MAR 2015 The influence of absorbed solar radiation by Saharan dust on hurricane genesis Sebastian, Bern, Switzerland Abstract To date, the radiative impact of dust and the Saharan air layer (SAL the atmosphere due to absorption of solar radiation but thus shifts convection to regions more conducive

  14. INTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    , scattering, and absorbing solar electromagnetic radiation and by modifying cloud properties due to their roleINTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by reflecting to maximum cover a region once in the daytime. In contrary, up-to-date geostationary instruments like

  15. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of the monsoon forecasting models, which many times do not represent the heat energy available to the atmosphere, have a great demand for accurate, long range forecast (LRF) of mon- soon rainfall, which has always. We studied the impacts of ocean mean temperature (OMT), representing the heat energy of the upper

  16. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    and the transfer of energy among these systems. Global energy balance The Sun is the primary source of energy), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY Submitted to: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    S1 SUPPLEMENTARY Submitted to: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Title: Quantifying/fuels/emission control devices for coal-fired power plants by province. Table S4. The uncertainties of unabated emission Ratio of biomass burning Normal (Province dependent) Questionnaire: Wang and Zhang (2008) B 1 A

  18. Change in magnetic and structural properties of FeRh thin films by gold cluster ion beam irradiation with the energy of 1.67?MeV/atom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koide, T.; Iwase, A. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Saitoh, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Sakamaki, M.; Amemiya, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsui, T., E-mail: t-matsui@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    The effect of energetic cluster ion beam irradiation on magnetic and structural properties of FeRh thin films have been investigated. The cluster ions used in the present studies consist of a few gold atoms with the energy of 1.67?MeV/gold atom. Saturation magnetization of the sample irradiated with Au3 cluster ion beam (280?emu/cc) is larger than that for the irradiated sample with Au1 ion beam (240?emu/cc) for the same irradiation ion fluence. These results can also be confirmed by the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurement; the XMCD signal for Au3 cluster ion irradiation is larger than that for Au1 ion irradiation. Since the ion beam irradiation induced magnetization of FeRh is significantly correlated with the amount of the lattice defects in the samples, cluster ion beam irradiation can be considered to effectively introduce the lattice defects in B2-type FeRh rather than the single ion beam. Consequently, cluster ion irradiation is better than single ion irradiation for the viewpoint of saturation magnetization, even if the same irradiation energy is deposited in the samples.

  19. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  20. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ?

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  2. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  3. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. 12: 5157 (2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guichard, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/asl.288 The large-scale water cycle de Recherche en Geodesie, Institut Geographique National, ENSG ­ Cite Descartes, 6-8 Avenue Blaise of West Africa, such as the role of moisture trans- ported by the southwesterly low-level monsoon flow

  4. MPO 665: General Circulation of the Atmosphere Spring 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    : dnolan@rsmas.miami.edu; phone: 305-421-4930 MSC 329, Mondays and Wednesdays, 10:40-12:10 Topics: I Circulation A. Radiation, temperature, pressure, winds, moisture B. The oceans, land, ice, and their effects C climate models B. Hadley cell models C. First look at wave and eddy transports D. Zonally averaged heat

  5. High Hydrogen Concentrations Detected In The Underground Vaults For RH-TRU Waste At INEEL Compared With Calculated Values Using The INEEL-Developed Computer Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajiv Bhatt; Soli Khericha

    2005-02-01

    About 700 remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste drums are stored in about 144 underground vaults at the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory’s (INEEL’s) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These drums were shipped to the INEEL from 1976 through 1996. During recent monitoring, concentrations of hydrogen were found to be in excess of lower explosive limits. The hydrogen concentration in one vault was detected to be as high as 18% (by volume). This condition required evaluation of the safety basis for the facility. The INEEL has developed a computer program to estimate the hydrogen gas generation as a function of time and diffusion through a series of layers (volumes), with a maximum five layers plus a sink/environment. The program solves the first-order diffusion equations as a function of time. The current version of the code is more flexible in terms of user input. The program allows the user to estimate hydrogen concentrations in the different layers of a configuration and then change the configuration after a given time; e.g.; installation of a filter on an unvented drum or placed in a vault or in a shipping cask. The code has been used to predict vault concentrations and to identify potential problems during retrieval and aboveground storage. The code has generally predicted higher hydrogen concentrations than the measured values, particularly for the drums older than 20 year, which could be due to uncertainty and conservative assumptions in drum age, heat generation rate, hydrogen generation rate, Geff, and diffusion rates through the layers.

  6. Ernest S. Colantonio College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ) and document imaging and workflow processing system (Nolij); developed data warehouse queries; identifiedErnest S. Colantonio College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences Oregon State University State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty Research Assistant Conduct

  7. BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

  8. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. and furnace temperature versus timein air-based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time2 -based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time for

  9. Author's Accepted Manuscript ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    solar and geomagnetic activities and different prediction windows. Compar- ison with previouslyAuthor's Accepted Manuscript ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL Shoemaker, Riccardo Bevilacqua, ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL

  10. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in boundary current systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    2012-01-01

    Isolating Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere in the KuroshioSST coupler . . . . Chapter 3 Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere4.2 Impact of Mesoscale SST on Precipitation Chapter 4 vi

  11. A Temperature and Abundance Retrieval Method for Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhusudhan, Nikku

    We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. We run millions of one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere models in order to cover the large ...

  12. U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Coastal Data Area Network) Project Description: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA consists of four separate components, an administrative local area network (LAN) component; a public access

  13. EPS 22 The Fluid Earth: Oceans, Atmosphere, Climate & Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    . Students are requested not to use laptops or cell phones during class. Textbook: The Atmospheric Balance 02 Feb Atmospheric radiation. Demonstration: Invisibility at 1800 K. Spectra and Planck's Nobel

  14. ATMOS 5000: Intro to Atmospheric Science Fall Term 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    allows: · Atmospheric boundary layer · Carbon cycle, CO2 · Ozone hole, stratospheric chemistry · Air on the atmospheric controls on the weather (beach volleyball versus a rainy day indoors, skiing on a sunny day

  15. Atmospheric rivers as Lagrangian coherent structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaboa, Daniel; Huhn, Florian; Perez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We show that filamentous Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) over the Northern Atlantic Ocean are closely linked to attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the large scale wind field. LCSs represent lines of attraction in the evolving flow with a significant impact on all passive tracers. Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE), we extract LCSs from a two-dimensional flow derived from water vapor flux of atmospheric reanalysis data and compare them to the three-dimensional LCS obtained from the wind flow. We correlate the typical filamentous water vapor patterns of ARs with LCSs and find that LCSs bound the filaments on the back side. Passive advective transport of water vapor from tropical latitudes is potentially possible.

  16. Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations for Earth Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can robustly measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of 4-5 percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.

  17. Measuring Magnetic Fields in the Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wijn, A G

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery by Hale in the early 1900s that sunspots harbor strong magnetic field, magnetism has become increasingly important in our understanding of processes on the Sun and in the Heliosphere. Many current and planned instruments are capable of diagnosing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Photospheric magnetometry is now well-established. However, many challenges remain. For instance, the diagnosis of magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona is difficult, and interpretation of measurements is harder still. As a result only very few measurements have been made so far, yet it is clear that if we are to understand the outer solar atmosphere we must study the magnetic field. I will review the history of solar magnetic field measurements, describe and discuss the three types of magnetometry, and close with an outlook on the future.

  18. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-10-17

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  19. Improved detection of atmospheric turbulence with SLODAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Goodwin; Charles Jenkins; Andrew Lambert

    2007-06-19

    We discuss several improvements in the detection of atmospheric turbulence using SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR). Frequently, SLODAR observations have shown strong ground-layer turbulence, which is beneficial to adaptive optics. We show that current methods which neglect atmospheric propagation effects can underestimate the strength of high altitude turbulence by up to ~ 30%. We show that mirror and dome seeing turbulence can be a significant fraction of measured ground-layer turbulence, some cases up to ~ 50%. We also demonstrate a novel technique to improve the nominal height resolution, by a factor of 3, called Generalized SLODAR. This can be applied when sampling high-altitude turbulence, where the nominal height resolution is the poorest, or for resolving details in the important ground-layer.

  20. Thermalisation of electrons in a stellar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Chevallier

    2006-01-23

    We are interested in electrons kinetics in a stellar atmosphere to validate or invalidate the usually accepted hypothesis of thermalisation of electrons. For this purpose, we calculate the velocity distribution function of electrons by solving the kinetic equation of these particles together with the equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium. We note that this distribution can deviate strongly from a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution if non-LTE effects are important. Some results and astrophysical consequences are examined.