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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Moisture Measurements in Residential Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horizontal radiant barriers, rigorously tested during a typical Tennessee winter, allowed moisture to dissipate on a diurnal cycle and caused no structural, wet insulation, or stained-ceiling problems.

1989-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

2

Analysis of Annual Thermal and Moisture Performance of Radiant Barrier Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed thermal energy analysis model helps identify locations where radiant barriers are cost-effective while analyzing moisture performance to predict potential problem areas. The model described in this report estimates annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates from horizontal radiant barrier applications in a variety of climates.

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

3

Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The models results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The model results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

David M. Dean

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

Radiant barriers in houses: Energy, comfort, and moisture considerations in a northern climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions under which radiant barrier utilization in attics is appropriate technology in building construction for a northern climate in Utah. A sample of 12 appropriate houses with radiant barriers were selected using predetermined criteria. Another 12 houses without radiant barriers were selected as a control sample and paired with the first 12 houses using predetermined criteria. The research involved three different types of data and analyses. First, a questionnaire survey was completed by the occupants of the 12 sample houses, with radiant barriers. The survey included such factors as: (1) comfort, (2) energy, and (3) potential increased moisture content as perceived by the occupants. Second, a t-test was used to calculate the statistical comparison of utility usage between the 12 sample houses with radiant barriers and the 12 control houses without radiant barriers. Third, the moisture content of the wood framing above and below the radiant barriers was measured over a three month period during the winter months. Data analysis indicated: (1) occupants did perceive that more comfort resulted from the installation of radiant barriers, (2) occupants did not observe additional moisture artifacts after the installation of radiant barriers, (3) occupants did perceive cost savings from utility benefits resulting from the use of radiant barriers, especially in cooling the houses in summer, (4) there was no significant difference between utility usage of houses with radiant barriers and houses without radiant barriers, (5) the moisture content in the ceiling joists of all 24 houses, except one, had a moisture content measurement less than eight percent, and (6) houses with radiant barriers have higher humidity levels within the living space than houses without radiant barrier installation.

Mendenhall, R.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Moisture content and unsaturated conditions in UMTRA project radon barriers  

SciTech Connect

A typical Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal facility consists of uranium tailings and other contaminated materials covered by a three to six foot thick radon barrier and six inches of filter sand, overlain by one foot of erosion-protection riprap. To comply with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project, groundwater concentration limits of hazardous constitutents cannot be exceeded at the point of compliance, which is the downgradient limit of the waste management area. The typical radon barrier has a saturated hydraulic conductivity of approximately 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/s). Long-term seepage rates from a disposal facility with an unsaturated radon barrier may permit the concentration limits to be met at the point of compliance. Field studies were undertaken to measure the percent saturation and the relation of percent saturation to soil tension, and to predict the hydraulic conductivity as a function of percent saturation in radon barriers at three UMTRA Project disposal facilities that have been completed for up to two years. Presently typical covers have been completed at the Shiprock, Clive, and Burrell sites, and they are planned or under construction at the Ambrosia Lake, Green River, Lakeview, Mexican Hat, Slick Rock, and Tuba City sites. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier. Final report for the Oregon Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not wall insulation installed without a vapor barrier causes an increased risk of moisture damage (wood decay) within walls. This report describes the results of one of the first major studies in the country aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. The exterior walls of a total of 96 homes in Portland, Oregon were opened, of which 70 had retrofitted insulation and 26 were uninsulated and were a control group. The types of insulation included urea-formaldehyde foam (44), mineral wool (16), and cellulose (10). In each opened wall cavity the moisture content of wood was measured and insulation and wood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of moisture content and for the determination of the presence of absence of decay fungi. Foam shrinkage was also measured. To evaluate the possible influence of the relative air tightness of the homes, fan depressurization tests were run using a door blower unit. The field and laboratory test results indicating the lack of a moisture damage problem in existing homes with wood siding in climates similar to that of western Oregon are described along with results of a statistical analysis of the data. Related problems of interest to homeowners and insulation installers are noted. The standard operating procedures used throughout the study are discussed, including the home selection process, quantitative and qualitative techniques used to identify wall locations with the highest moisture content, wall opening and data/sample collection methodology, laboratory analysis of samples, data processing and analysis, and applicability of the results. Recommendations for furutre tests are made. Finally, the potential and desirability for future retrofitting of wall insulation is explored.

Tsongas, G.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Residential pollutants and ventilation strategies: Moisture and combustion products  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews literature that reports investigations of residential ventilation and indoor air quality. Two important residential pollutant classes, moisture and combustion pollutants, are examined. A companion paper examines volatile organic compounds and radon. Control strategies recommended from the review include appropriate building design to prevent or limit the sources of the pollutants within the space, proper operation and maintenance to prevent adverse conditions from developing during the building's life and appropriate use of ventilation. The characteristics of these pollutant sources suggest that ventilation systems in residences should have several properties. Moisture control puts significant restrictions on a ventilation system. The system should function continuously (averaged over days) and distribute ventilation throughout the habitable space. Combustion sources require task ventilation that functions reliably.

Hadlich, D.E.; Grimsrud, D.T.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Foam is displacing wet suppression as the method of choice for controlling fugitive emissions from coal. Coal treated by wet suppression consumes through moisture addition, a heat energy equivalent of 1 ton out of every 500 tons fired. The application of foam requires less than 10% of the moisture usually required for wet suppression. In addition, foam is a much more effective dust suppressant, especially on respirable dust (particle with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns). To achieve maximum benefit from foam dust control, efficient on-site production of dry, stable foam is required. This paper discusses the basics of foam production and the many variables affecting foam expansion ratios. Successful applications of foam are also described.

Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Anthropogenic moisture production and its effect on boundary layer circulations over New York City  

SciTech Connect

A heat and moisture excess over New York City is shown to exist by the analysis of helicopter soundings of temperature and wet bulb depression. The magnitude of the temporal and spatial distribution of anthropogenic moisture emissions in New York City were estimated from fuel usage data. The URBMET urban boundary layer model was used to evaluate the effects on the dynamics of the urban boundary layer resulting from the observed urban moisture excess. Work is currently in progress which seeks to determine the fraction of the observed moisture excess over New York that is due to anthropogenic sources. (auth)

Bornstein, R.D.; Tam, Y.T.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Moisture Barrier - Energy Innovation Portal  

For example, a photovoltaic cell must able to withstand long durations of rain, snow, fog, dew, environmental contaminants or other substances.

13

Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability ...  

Energy Analysis; Energy Storage ... Technology Marketing Summary Moisture or water vapor barriers are important in ... Software techniques for data an ...

14

Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Soybeans as Functional Foods and IngredientsChapter 8 Barriers to Soy Protein Applications in Food Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybeans as Functional Foods and Ingredients Chapter 8 Barriers to Soy Protein Applications in Food Products Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press ...

17

Moisture Metrics Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

Schuchmann, Mark

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Alpha particle production by molecular single-particle effect in reactions of $^{9}$Be just above the Coulomb barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The $\\alpha $-particle production in the dissociation of $^{9}$Be on $^{209}$Bi and $^{64}$Zn at energies just above the Coulomb barrier is studied within the two-center shell model approach. The dissociation of $^{9}$Be on $^{209}$Bi is caused by a molecular single-particle effect (Landau-Zener mechanism) before the nuclei reach the Coulomb barrier. Molecular single-particle effects do not occur at that stage of the collision for $^{9}$Be+$^{64}$Zn, and this explains the absence of fusion suppression observed for this system. The polarisation of the energy level of the last neutron of $^{9}$Be and, therefore the existence of avoided crossings with that level, depends on the structure of the target.

A. Diaz-Torres; I. J. Thompson; W. Scheid

2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

19

Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Combination moisture and hydrogen getter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

Harrah, Larry A. (Albuquerque, NM); Mead, Keith E. (Peralta, NM); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Controlling moisture in houses  

SciTech Connect

Most moisture problems in homes in Canada and the Northern United States during the winter are related to too-high indoor humidity. Excessive moisture sourecs such as damp crawl spaces, and lack of ventilation cause this humidity problem. Exhaust fans or air-to-air heat exchangers can easily and economically provide sufficient ventilation.

TenWolde, A.; Suleski, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

23

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture The moisture of the soil measured near the surface. This includes soil wetness and soil water potential. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System

24

Fiber optic moisture sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, R.R.

1984-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

25

Moisture, Microbes and Health  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

effects and their mechanisms. Prevalence studies have shown that half of the housing stock has signs of previous or present moisture faults, and the problems are also common in...

26

Roofing Moisture Tolerance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: A New Design Requirement A.O. Desjarlais and J.E. Christian, Oak Ridge National Laboratory N. A. Byars, University of North Carolina Charlotte This calculator performs the calculations described in Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: A New Design Requirement. This calculator allows the roofing practitioner to determine if a roofing system design requires a vapor retarder or if the system can be modified to enhance its tolerance for small leaks. To use the calculator, simply supply the following information and click on the "Check Roof" button at the bottom of the form. Insulation Type and Thickness (in inches): Fiberboard Polyisocyanurate 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Layer 1 None Fiberboard Polyisocyanurate 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Layer 2

27

Moisture Control | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Moisture Control Moisture Control Moisture Control May 30, 2012 - 10:41am Addthis Controlling moisture can make your home more energy-efficient, less costly to heat and cool, more comfortable, and prevent mold growth. Controlling moisture can make your home more energy-efficient, less costly to heat and cool, more comfortable, and prevent mold growth. What does this mean for me? Moisture can support the growth of mold and mildew and can even rot structural members in extreme cases. Effective strategies for addressing moisture in your home will depend on your climate and how your home is constructed. How does it work? Moisture can enter a home as water vapor and as liquid water. Sealing air leaks and providing paths for liquid water to move away from the building can prevent moisture from causing health and comfort problems in your home.

28

Soil Moisture Analyses at ECMWF: Evaluation Using Global Ground-Based In Situ Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ soil moisture from 117 stations across the world and under different biome and climate conditions are used to evaluate two soil moisture products from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)—namely, the operational ...

C. Albergel; P. de Rosnay; G. Balsamo; L. Isaksen; J. Muñoz-Sabater

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

A Novel Method for Quantifying Value in Spaceborne Soil Moisture Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel methodology is introduced for quantifying the added value of remotely sensed soil moisture products for global land surface modeling applications. The approach is based on the assimilation of soil moisture retrievals into a simple surface ...

Wade T. Crow

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Skill and Global Trend Analysis of Soil Moisture from Reanalyses and Microwave Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ soil moisture measurements from 2007 to 2010 for 196 stations from five networks across the world (United States, France, Spain, China, and Australia) are used to determine the reliability of three soil moisture products: (i) a revised ...

C. Albergel; W. Dorigo; R. H. Reichle; G. Balsamo; P. de Rosnay; J. Muñoz-Sabater; L. Isaksen; R. de Jeu; W. Wagner

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government & commercial sectors - update 1998,7/99,3268845  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BARRIERS TO THE INCREASED UTILIZATION BARRIERS TO THE INCREASED UTILIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION/DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS BY GOVERNMENT AND COMMERCIAL SECTORS - UPDATE 1998 EERC Topical Report DE-FC21-93MC-30097--79 Submitted by: Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett Everett A. Sondreal Edward N. Steadman Kurt E. Eylands Bruce A. Dockter Energy & Environmental Research Center PO Box 9018 Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 99-EERC-07-08 July 1999 i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998  

SciTech Connect

The following conclusions are drawn from the information presented in this report: (1) Joint efforts by industry and government focused on meeting RTC recommendations for reduction/removal of barriers have met with some success. The most notable of these are the changes in regulations related to CCB utilization by individual states. Regionally or nationally consistent state regulation of CCB utilization would further reduce regulatory barriers. (2) Technology changes will continue to be driven by the CAAA, and emission control technologies are expected to continue to impact the type and properties of CCBs generated. As a result, continued RD and D will be needed to learn how to utilize new and changing CCBs in environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically advantageous ways. Clean coal technology CCBs offer a new challenge because of the high volumes expected to be generated and the different characteristics of these CCBs compared to those of conventional CCBs. (3) Industry and government have developed the RD and D infrastructure to address the technical aspects of developing and testing new CCB utilization applications, but this work as well as constant quality control/quality assurance testing needs to be continued to address both industry wide issues and issues related to specific materials, regions, or users. (4) Concerns raised by environmental groups and the public will continue to provide environmental and technical challenges to the CCB industry. It is anticipated that the use of CCBs in mining applications, agriculture, structural fills, and other land applications will continue to be controversial and will require case-by-case technical and environmental information to be developed. The best use of this information will be in the development of generic regulations specifically addressing the use of CCBs in these different types of CCB applications. (5) The development of federal procurement guidelines under Executive Order 12873 titled ''Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention,'' in October 1993 was a positive step toward getting CCBs accepted in the marketplace. Industry needs to continue to work with EPA to develop additional procurement guidelines for products containing CCBs--and to take advantage of existing guidelines to encourage the use of CCBs in high-profile projects. (6) Accelerated progress toward increased utilization of CCBs can be made only if there is an increased financial commitment and technical effort by industry and government. The framework for this has been set by the successful cooperation of industry and government under DOE leadership. Cooperation should continue, with DOE fulfilling its lead role established in the RTC. It is clear that the RTC recommendations continue to have validity with respect to increasing CCB utilization and continue to provide guidance to industry and government agencies.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Precision moisture generation and measurement.  

SciTech Connect

In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Moisture Control | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water. Sealing air leaks and providing paths for liquid water to move away from the building can prevent moisture from causing health and comfort problems in your home....

35

Vehicle barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results of winter experiments conducted in Central Texas are presented. The experiments were side-by-side tests using two identical 144 ft2 houses which responded similarly to weather variations prior to any retrofits. Two radiant barrier orientations were tested, horizontal barrier and barrier against the rafters, in vented and non-vented attics. The results compiled in this paper are for attics with R-19 fiberglass insulation. The data showed that radiant barriers were still effective during the winter season. During a typical day radiant barriers prevented approximately 9-17 percent of the indoor heat from escaping into the attic. No significant difference in moisture accumulation was detected in the attic with the radiant barrier.

Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Process for treating moisture laden coal fines  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

MOISTURE MONITOR TESTING AND CALIBRATION  

SciTech Connect

ABS>Electrolytic moisture monitors which continuously analyze the moisture content of gases are commercially available. After a period of operation, these instruments may give erroneous readings, frequently because of damage to the electrolytic cell. A gas with a known and reproducible moisture content within the operating range would be useful for making operational response tests on these monltors and for checking their calibration. A paired- hydrate system of a chemical compound exhibits a water vapor pressure that is constant at a constant temperature. ff an unreactive gas is allowed to equilibrate with a paired-hydrate system, the moisture content of the gas is determined by the vapor pressure of the hydrate pair, the total pressure, and the temperature. Hydrated magnesium perchlorate was prepared which contained between four and six moles of water per mole of perchlorate. This material was pulverized lightly then packed into a stainless steel column and 100 cc/minute of air at atmospheric pressure was passed through the bed. The exit air from the column was analyzed with a moisture monitor. A gas residence time of two minutes in the column was found to be sufficient for establishing moisture equilibrium in the exit flow. The moisture content of the exit air was found to vary from 34 to 70 ppm by volume as the temperature of the paired-hydrate system varied from 20 to 28 un. Concent 85% C. Other paired-hydrate systems can extend this range to higher moisture levels. (auth)

Montgomery, C.D.; Googin, J.M.; Phillips, L.R.

1963-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

39

NREL: News Feature - NREL Test Helps Make Moisture Barriers Better  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of humidity, water spills, or rainfall - spells early demise for cell phones, light-emitting diode (LED) displays, TVs, and solar photovoltaic (PV) panels worldwide. Standing...

40

Barriers to energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

This study provides policy guidance to the FEA in its efforts to break down barriers to the efficient usage of finite energy sources. Such efforts may involve mechanisms to promote the more-efficient usage of current energy sources or to break down the barriers that presently inhibit the introduction of alternative energy sources. The major concern is with the energy used by finished products and not with the energy used in the production process itself. A wide range of such products, including many forms of construction, are dealt with. The primary exceptions are the various kinds of motor vehicles, which have been thoroughly covered both in Congressional hearings and in other studies. A large number of different types of barriers and potential incentives were examined during the study. They range from those that are essentially purely energy-related, such as the absence of adequate technology, to constraints that only unintentionally inhibit efficient energy usage (e.g., the antitrust laws).

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Moisture Tendency Equations in a Tropical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct diagnostic evaluation of the moisture tendency in the moisture equation is very difficult in practice because two poorly measured terms, moisture convergence and precipitation, dominate the equation. Using the near constancy in space and ...

C. López Carrillo; D. J. Raymond

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Foundation and Moisture Control Research Project | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into building foundation and moisture control technologies. Moisture is a significant market...

43

Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture flux moisture flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dq/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems External Instruments ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

45

Moisture Advection Using Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study introduces a moisture advection formulation that contains relative humidity. In the sigma coordinate system, rewriting the mixing ratio conservation equation in terms of relative humidity leads to an equation that explicitly contains ...

William H. Raymond

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Where radiant barriers really shine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Manufactures of radiant barrier materials claim their products significantly cut cooling costs by reducing summertime radiant heat gain through attics and ceilings. A new study confirms that radiant barriers can indeed conserve cooling energy. However, the study`s authors found that radiant barriers are much more effective at reducing energy losses from attic air conditioner duct runs than at directly lowering heat transfer through the attic floor into conditioned living space. Furthermore the study demonstrated that radiant barrier savings can be significant even in a new well-weatherized house and that these saving may justify specifying smaller capacity cooling systems. This article discusses the findings of the study.

Engel, R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Applying SE Methods Achieves Project Success to Evaluate Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock for Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect

Applying basic systems engineering (SE) tools to the mission analysis phases of a 2.5-million dollar biomass pre-processing project for the U.S. Department of Energy directly assisted the project principal investigator understand the complexity and identify the gaps of a moving-target project and capture the undefined technical/functional requirements and deliverables from the project team and industrial partners. A creative application of various SE tools by non-aerospace systems engineers developed an innovative “big picture” product that combined aspects of mission analysis with a project functional flow block diagram, providing immediate understanding of the depth and breath of the biomass preprocessing effort for all team members, customers, and industrial partners. The “big picture” diagram became the blue print to write the project test plan, and provided direction to bring the project back on track and achieve project success.

Larry R. Zirker; Christopher T. Wright, PhD; R. Douglas Hamelin

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

49

THERMALLY SHIELDED MOISTURE REMOVAL DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is presented for removing moisture from the air within tanks by condensation upon a cartridge containing liquid air. An insulating shell made in two halves covers the cartridge within the evacuated system. The shell halves are hinged together and are operated by a system of levers from outside the tank with the motion translated through a sylphon bellows to cover and uncover the cartridge. When the condensation of moisture is in process, the insulative shell is moved away from the liquid air cartridge, and during that part of the process when there is no freezing out of moisture, the shell halves are closed on the cell so thnt the accumulated frost is not evaporated. This insulating shell greatly reduces the consumption of liquid air in this condensation process.

Miller, O.E.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

50

Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND RELEVANCE TO THE DOE COMPLEX  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was initiated to reduce risk and uncertainties in the performance assessments that directly impact U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup and closure programs. The CBP is supported by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) and has been specifically addressing the following critical EM program needs: (i) the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities and (ii) increased understanding of contaminant transport behavior within cementitious barrier systems to support the development and deployment of adequate closure technologies. To accomplish this, the CBP has two initiatives: (1) an experimental initiative to increase understanding of changes in cementitious materials over long times (> 1000 years) over changing conditions and (2) a modeling initiative to enhance and integrate a set of computational tools validated by laboratory and field experimental data to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. In FY10, the CBP developed the initial phase of an integrated modeling tool that would serve as a screening tool which could help in making decisions concerning disposal and tank closure. The CBP experimental programs are underway to validate this tool and provide increased understanding of how CM changes over time and under changing conditions. These initial CBP products that will eventually be enhanced are anticipated to reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the DOE assessment process. These tools have application to low activity waste forms, high level waste tank closure, D&D and entombment of major nuclear facilities, landfill waste acceptance criteria, and in-situ grouting and immobilization of vadose zone contamination. This paper summarizes the recent work provided by the CBP to support DOE operations and regulatory compliance and the accomplishments over the past 2 years. Impacts of this work include: (1) a forum for DOE-NRC technical exchange, (2) material characterization to support PA predictions, (3) reducing uncertainty in PA predictions, (4) establishing base case performance to improve PA predictions, and (5) improving understanding and quantification of moisture and contaminant transport used in PAs. Additional CBP accomplishments include: sponsorship of a national test bed workshop to obtain collaboration in establishing the path forward in obtaining actual data to support future predictions on cementitious barrier performance evaluations, and participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Project on the use of cementitious barriers for low-level radioactive waste treatment and disposal.

Burns, H.; Langton, C.; Flach, G.; Kosson, D.

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and dusting potential. (6) Evaluate drift conditions and configurations to determine the suitability of Richards Barrier installation methodology. (7) Perform cost assessment of barrier material placement. (8) Evaluate the feature with criteria that will be supplied by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Team. (9) Comment on the use of depleted uranium as a Richards Barrier material.

N.E. Kramer

1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX): Background, Hydrometeorological Conditions, and Preliminary Findings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in conjunction with the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) during June and July 2002 near Ames, Iowa—a corn and soybean production region. The primary objective of SMEX02 ...

William P. Kustas; Jerry L. Hatfield; John H. Prueger

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Global Soil Moisture Data Bank  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture is an important variable in the climate system. Understanding and predicting variations of surface temperature, drought, and flood depend critically on knowledge of soil moisture variations, as do impacts of climate change and ...

Alan Robock; Konstantin Y. Vinnikov; Govindarajalu Srinivasan; Jared K. Entin; Steven E. Hollinger; Nina A. Speranskaya; Suxia Liu; A. Namkhai

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Radiant barrier applications: Symposium and workshop proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities and their customers are continually looking for ways to improve the thermal integrity of buildings. Radiant barrier systems can reduce summer air conditioning loads by reducing radiant heat transfer in attics. EPRI conducted two programs to help utilities with radiant barriers. A Symposium and Workshop were conducted in April 1988. The Symposium reviewed the state of the art in radiant barriers. The Workshop brought industry experts together to identify research needs for radiant barriers. The Workshop found that research is needed in six major areas. Listed in order of importance these are: (1) Field and laboratory testing, (2) Materials research, (3) Modeling, (4) Materials standards, (5) Economic issues, and (6) Installation methods. The leading research topics within these six major areas in order of importance include:(1) Modeling to fill voids in existing field data and aid in the development of performance standards, (2) Calculation of energy savings for various configurations, (3) Analysis of existing data to better understand radiant barrier performance, (4) Assessment of the effect of dust accumulation on performance, (5) Development of standard testing procedures, (6) Development of systems standards, (7) Measurement of changes in the emissivity of radiant barrier materials with time, (8) Determination of the possibility of moisture accumulation under horizontal radiant barriers during heating season operation, (9) Ventilation effects, (10) Configuration testing, (11) Costs of new and retrofit applications, and (12) Characterization of side effects. 34 refs., 5 figs.

Isaksen, L.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Designing for Absolute Moisture Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rarely is an industry trade journal published without at least one article included concerning the topic of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) or the related Sick Building Syndrome (SBI). Whether the subject of the article is a school, an office building or a public assembly building, chances are the origin of the IAQ problems stem from excessive moisture in the space. Excessive moisture in the space can either come from water damage (leaking pipes or poor integrity of the building envelope), or it comes from uncontrolled, excessive humidity in the space. This paper pertains to the latter of these two sources. With the air conditioning technologies available, and the published design data available through ASHRAE today, appropriate HVAC systems can be designed to adequately control not just the temperature in the spaces, but also the humidity.

Nunnelly, R. M.; Fex, J. P.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

ASCAT Soil Moisture: An Assessment of the Data Quality and Consistency with the ERS Scatterometer Heritage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a first comparison between remotely sensed surface soil moisture retrieved with the European Remote Sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2) scatterometer (SCAT) and the corresponding product provided by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)...

Vahid Naeimi; Zoltan Bartalis; Wolfgang Wagner

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Indian and Pacific Ocean Influences on Southeast Australian Drought and Soil Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative influences of Indian and Pacific Ocean modes of variability on Australian rainfall and soil moisture are investigated for seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales. For the period 1900–2006, observations, reanalysis products, and ...

Caroline C. Ummenhofer; Alexander Sen Gupta; Peter R. Briggs; Matthew H. England; Peter C. McIntosh; Gary A. Meyers; Michael J. Pook; Michael R. Raupach; James S. Risbey

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin film PV modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) deposited by PECVD on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have typically included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to actual barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface as well as enhancing adhesion of the SiOxNy barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp heat exposure. PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pre-treatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal new low molecular weight PET fragments are created which are volatile upon heating and water soluble. Failure analysis of the coupons determined that the moisture barrier is, in fact, transferred to the encapsulant side.

Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Flour moisture control for maximum water addition.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis examines flour moisture control and how this control can be an effective tool for cost minimization in a flour mill. Specifically, this thesis… (more)

Bontrager, Chad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Soil Moisture: Empirical Data and Model Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique dataset of soil moisture in the upper 1-m soil layer at sites with natural plant cover in the Soviet Union is compared to simulations of soil moisture for the present climate by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Oregon State ...

K. Ya Vinnikov; I. B. Yeserkepova

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

A Soil Moisture Climatology of Illinois  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten years of soil moisture measurements (biweekly from March through September and monthly during winter) within the top 1 m of soil at 17 grass-covered sites across Illinois are analyzed to provide a climatology of soil moisture for this ...

Steven E. Hollinger; Scott A. Isard

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which incurs in signals that reflect from the Earth surface with higher peak power. Previous investigations have demonstrated the capability of GPS bistatic scatterometers to obtain high enough signal to noise ratios in order to sense small changes in surface reflectivity. Furthermore, these systems present some advantages with respect to others currently used to retrieve soil moisture. Upcoming satellite navigation systems, such as the European Galileo, will represent an excellent source of opportunity for soil moisture remote sensing for vario...

Egido, Alejandro; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Soil Moisture Modeling Based on Multiyear Observations in the Sahel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two simple soil moisture models useful for drought monitoring and climate change studies were proposed, based on 4-yr ground observations of root-zone soil moisture in Sahelian Niger. One is a water balance model that calculates soil moisture ...

Y. Yamaguchi; M. Shinoda

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

A Coupled Soil Moisture and Surface Temperature Prediction Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for soil moisture and soil surface temperature prediction for bare soil is considered in this paper. In describing evaporation rate. soil structure and moisture were taken into account as much as possible. Soil moisture prediction was ...

F. Ács; D. T. Mihailovi?; B. Rajkovi?

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The Role of Moisture and Hydrogen in Hot-Salt Cracking of Titanium Alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study investigated the role of moisture and hydrogen in the stress corrosion cracking of Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V exposed to hot chloride salts. The adsorption and retention of moisture during the application of salt deposits and subsequent heating, and the extent of HCl and hydrogen generation during corrosion were studied using radiotracer techniques and mass spectrographic analysis of volatile corrosion products.

Rideout, S.P.

2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

67

The Measurement of the Moisture Concentration of Selected Test...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Measurement of the Moisture Concentration of Selected Test Model Ore Zones (April 1977) The Measurement of the Moisture Concentration of Selected Test Model Ore Zones (April...

68

Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a summary of the efforts at ORNL in modeling residential attics with radiant barriers. Analytical models based on a system of macroscopic heat balances have been developed. Separate models have been developed for horizontal radiant barriers laid on top of the insulation, and for radiant barriers attached to the bottom of the top chords of the attic trusses. The models include features such as a radiation interchange analysis within the attic space, convective coupling with the ventilation air, and sorption/desorption of moisture at surfaces facing the attic enclosure. The paper gives details of the models and the engineering assumptions that were made in their development. The paper also reports on the status of efforts that are underway to verify the models by comparing their predictions with the results of laboratory and field tests on residential attics and test cells, both with and without radiant barriers. Comparisons are given for a number of selected sets of experimental data. Suggestions are given for needed model refinements and additional experimental data. Plans for utilization of the models for extrapolation to seasonal and annual performance in a variety of climatic conditions are also described.

Wilkes, K. E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Illinois Soil Moisture under Sod Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term data collection of volumetric soil moisture under sod has been conducted in Illinois for more than 25 years. Numerous applied and modeling studies have been undertaken with these data, often relating results to regional conditions under ...

Robert W. Scott; Edward C. Krug; Stephen L. Burch

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Mississippi Moisture Budgets on Regional Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two years of regional analyses based on the Eta Data Assimilation System (EDAS) are used to examine the mesoscale features of the moisture budgets of the Mississippi River basin and its subbasins. Despite the short period, basic aspects of the ...

Ernesto H. Berbery; Eugene M. Rasmusson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

Entekhabi, Dara

72

A Global Climatology of Tropical Moisture Exports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent paper, a climatology of tropical moisture exports (TMEs) to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) was constructed on the basis of 7-day forward trajectories, started daily from the tropical lower troposphere, which were required to reach a ...

Peter Knippertz; Heini Wernli; Gregor Gläser

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water balance considerations at the soil surface lead to an equation that relates the autocorrelation of soil moisture in climate models to 1) seasonality in the statistics of the atmospheric forcing, 2) the variation of evaporation with soil ...

Randal D. Koster; Max J. Suarez

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Wellbore stress distribution produced by moisture adsorption  

SciTech Connect

For this study, the authors evaluated the stress distribution produced by moisture adsorption around a wellbore by applying the mechanics of deformable solids. This paper shows that the moisture-adsorption process is governed by a diffusion equation and that the equations governing the moisture-induced stress around the hole are similar to those equations used in thermoelasticity. A computational method is developed for calculating the stress distribution around the borehole, and the experimental procedure for obtaining the material constants needed in the computation is presented. This paper also studies the effect of borehole pressure on the stress distribution around the hole. Results show that the magnitude and distribution of stresses around the borehole are very sensitive to the adsorption characteristics and the moisture-induced modulus change of the material.

Yew, C.H.; Chenevert, M.E.; Wang, C.L.; Osisanya, S.O. (Univ. of Texas, TX (US))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Heat and moisture transfer through clothing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for2008. Study of heat and moisture transfer within multi-layer

Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Soil Moisture Impacts on Convective Margins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An idealized prototype for the location of the margins of tropical land region convection zones is extended to incorporate the effects of soil moisture and associated evaporation. The effect of evaporation, integrated over the inflow trajectory ...

Benjamin R. Lintner; J. David Neelin

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms` underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940`s. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination.

Board, B.D.

1996-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evaluation of Reanalysis Soil Moisture Simulations Using Updated Chinese Soil Moisture Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using 19 yr of Chinese soil moisture data from 1981 to 1999, the authors evaluate soil moisture in three reanalysis outputs: the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40); the National Centers for ...

Haibin Li; Alan Robock; Suxia Liu; Xingguo Mo; Pedro Viterbo

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Barrier Coatings Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

82

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA); Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

One-Dimensional Soil Moisture Profile Retrieval by Assimilation of Near-Surface Measurements: A Simplified Soil Moisture Model and Field Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Kalman filter assimilation technique is applied to a simplified soil moisture model for retrieval of the soil moisture profile from near-surface soil moisture measurements. First, the simplified soil moisture model is developed, based on an ...

Jeffrey P. Walker; Garry R. Willgoose; Jetse D. Kalma

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

85

Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

Kempe, M. D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

NERSC's Hopper Breaks Petaflops Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERSC's Hopper Breaks NERSC's Hopper Breaks Petaflops Barrier NERSC's Hopper Breaks Petaflops Barrier Ranks 5th in the World November 14, 2010 Media Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, 510-486-5849 hopper1.jpg NERSC's Cray XE6-Hopper BERKELEY, Calif.-The Department of Energy's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), already one of the world's leading centers for scientific productivity, is now home to the fifth most powerful supercomputer in the world and the second most powerful in the United States, according to the latest edition of the TOP500 list, the definitive ranking of the world's top computers NERSC's newest supercomputer, a 153,408 processor-core Cray XE6 system, posted a performance of 1.05 petaflops (quadrillions of calculations per second) running the Linpack benchmark. In keeping with NERSC's tradition of

87

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Catalytic thermal barrier coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Moisture transport in silica gel particle beds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A theoretical and experimental study of the performance of silica gel packed particle beds is described. A bench-scale test rig was used to obtain data for parameter values pertinent to solar air-conditioning applications. Both adsorption and desorption experiments were performed for Regular Density (RD) silica gel for a wide range of particle size. Adsorption data were also obtained for Intermediate Density (ID) gel. A model of heat and mass transfer in the bed was developed with special attention paid to the modeling of solid side resistance. For this latter purpose an extensive review of the available literature on moisture adsorption and moisture transport in silica gel was made. Both Knudsen and surface diffusion are found to be important mechanisms of moisture transport in Intermediate Density gels while surface diffusion is dominant in Regular Density gels. A general equation for moisture transport in a spherical silica gel particle was developed and was incorporated into the model equations governing heat and mass transfer between the gel particles and air flowing through a packed particle bed. A computer code DESICCANT was written to solve the coupled set of partial differential equations using a finite difference numerical method. The agreement between theory and experiment for adsorption on RD gel is satisfactory, and is somewhat better for the outlet water vapor concentration than for the outlet air temperature. The agreement for desorption from RD gel and adsorption to ID gel is satisfactory, but not as good as for adsorption on RD gel.

Pesaran, A.A.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

Bill Landman

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of the Effective Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. BE12.0201

92

Impact of Atmospheric Moisture Storage on Precipitation Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computations of precipitation recycling using analytical models are generally performed under the assumption of negligible change in moisture storage in the atmospheric column. Because the moisture storage term is nonnegligible at smaller time ...

Francina Dominguez; Praveen Kumar; Xin-Zhong Liang; Mingfang Ting

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

New Soil Property Database Improves Oklahoma Mesonet Soil Moisture Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture data from the Oklahoma Mesonet are widely used in research efforts spanning many disciplines within Earth Sciences. These soil moisture estimates are derived by translating measurements of matric potential into volumetric water ...

Bethany L. Scott; Tyson E. Ochsner; Bradley G. Illston; Christopher A. Fiebrich; Jeffery B. Basara; Albert J. Sutherland

94

The Choice of Variable for Atmospheric Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implications of using different control variables for the analysis of moisture observations in a global atmospheric data assimilation system are investigated. A moisture analysis based on either mixing ratio or specific humidity is prone to ...

Dick P. Dee; Arlindo M. da Silva

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Simulated Water Table and Soil Moisture Climatology Over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate the link between two terrestrial water reservoirs: the root-zone soil moisture and the groundwater, and contribute our simulated climatologic water table depth and soil moisture fields over North America to the community. Because ...

Gonzalo Miguez-Macho; Haibin Li; Ying Fan

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Soil Moisture Feedbacks to Precipitation in Southern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of increased soil moisture on wet season (October–March) precipitation in southern Africa are investigated using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3). In the CTRL case, soil moisture is allowed to interact dynamically ...

Benjamin I. Cook; Gordon B. Bonan; Samuel Levis

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Mesoscale Monitoring of Soil Moisture across a Statewide Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture is an important component in many hydrologic and land–atmosphere interactions. Understanding the spatial and temporal nature of soil moisture on the mesoscale is vital to determine the influence that land surface processes have on ...

Bradley G. Illston; Jeffrey B. Basara; Christopher A. Fiebrich; Kenneth C. Crawford; Eric Hunt; Daniel K. Fisher; Ronald Elliott; Karen Humes

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Attribution of Seasonal and Regional Changes in Arctic Moisture Convergence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal changes in high-latitude moisture convergence simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) are investigated. Moisture convergence is calculated using the ...

Natasa Skific; Jennifer A. Francis; John J. Cassano

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Retractable barrier strip  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wowczuk, Andrew (Wheeling, WV); Vellenoweth, Thomas E. (Wheeling, WV)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Impact of Moisture Transport on the Release of Constituents ...  

12 December 2006 a.garrabrants@vanderbilt.edu 3 Moisture Transport Full Saturation Capillary Saturation Continuous Liquid Discontinuous Gas Transition ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Grain Moisture Meter Technical Training - 2013-04-23  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain Moisture Meter Technical Training. Purpose: This seminar provides participants ... nist.gov. Technical Contact: G. Diane ...

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

102

Retractable barrier strip  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); McQueen, Miles A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Retractable barrier strip  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

104

Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

105

Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

106

Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, and other natural processes in the land-atmosphere continuum. Presence of soil moisture in the root zone is vital for the crop and plant life cycle. Soil moisture distribution is highly non-linear across time and space. Various geophysical factors (e.g., soil properties, topography, vegetation, and weather/climate) and their interactions control the spatio-temporal evolution of soil moisture at various scales. Understanding these interactions is crucial for the characterization of soil moisture dynamics occurring in the vadose zone. This dissertation focuses on understanding the spatio-temporal variability of near-surface soil moisture and the associated physical control(s) across varying measurement support (point-scale and passive microwave airborne/satellite remote sensing footprint-scale), spatial extents (field-, watershed-, and regional-scale), and changing hydro-climates. Various analysis techniques (e.g., time stability, geostatistics, Empirical Orthogonal Function, and Singular Value Decomposition) have been employed to characterize near-surface soil moisture variability and the role of contributing physical control(s) across space and time. Findings of this study can be helpful in several hydrological research/applications, such as, validation/calibration and downscaling of remote sensing data products, planning and designing effective soil moisture monitoring networks and field campaigns, improving performance of soil moisture retrieval algorithm, flood/drought prediction, climate forecast modeling, and agricultural management practices.

Joshi, Champa

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

Shurter, R.P.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

109

Moisture Control Handbook: New, low-rise, residential construction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moisture problems are prevalent all over North America, almost independent of climate. They are viewed as one of the single largest factors limiting the useful service life of a building. Elevated levels of moisture in buildings also can lead to serious health effects for occupants. Until recently, very little consensus on moisture control existed in the building community. The information available was typically incomplete, contradictory, usually limited to specific regions, and in many cases misleading. A need to develop a document which presented the issues relating to moisture from a building science or ``systems`` approach existed. This handbook attempts to fill that need and illustrates that energy-efficient, tight envelope design is clearly part of the solution to healthy buildings when interior relative humidity, temperature, and pressure are controlled simultaneously. The first three chapters of the handbook present the basic principles of moisture problems and solutions in buildings. Chapter 1 -- Mold, Mildew, and Condensation, examines surface moisture problems. Chapter 2 -- Moisture Movement, examines how building assemblies get wet from both the exterior and interior. Chapter 3 -- Wetting and Drying of Building Assemblies, introduces the concepts of acceptable performance, moisture balance, and the redistribution of moisture within building assemblies. Chapters 4 through 6 apply the concepts outlined in the previous chapters and present specific moisture control practices for three basic US climate zones. The advantages and disadvantages of several wall, foundation, and roof assemblies are discussed for each climate zone.

Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corp., Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Carmody, J. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Underground Space Center

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Energy measurements of attic radiant barriers installed in single-family houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the energy savings attributable to radiant barriers installed in attics of unoccupied single-family houses. Three levels of fiberglass attic insulation (R-11 ,R-19, and R-30) were tested with two types of barrier installation (horizontal and truss). The results showed that horizontally installed radiant barriers were more effective than truss barriers in reducing heating and cooling loads. Measured cooling load reductions ranged form 0 to 22% (compared to same attic insulation insulation R-value with no radiant barrier) and heating load changes from /plus/4% to /minus/10% were measured (compared to same attic insulation R-value with no radiant barrier). Radiant barriers appeared to decrease the heating and cooling loads more when lesser amounts of insulation (R-11 and R-19) were present in an attic. Minimal changes were measured when R-30 was present in an attic. Long-term effects of dust on the performance of radiant barriers as well as the effects of moisture condensing on the surface of a radiant barrier during cold winter temperatures remain unanswered.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Cooling energy measurements of houses with attics containing radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The radiant barrier has the potential to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. Working as a system in conjunction with an air space, the radiant barrier could theoretically block up to 95% of far-infrared radiation heat transfer. The results showed a savings in the cooling loads of 21% when the radiant barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation and 13% with the radiant barrier attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The savings in electrical consumption was 17% and 9%, respectively.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.; Knight, D.K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Reducing the moisture content of clean coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The radiant barrier has the potential to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. Working as a system in conjunction with an air space, the radiant barrier could theoretically block up to 95% of far-infrared radiation heat transfer. The experiment was conducted in three unoccupied research houses that are operated by ORNL. One house was used as the control house (no barrier was installed), while the other two were used to test the two different methods for installing the radiant barriers. In one house, the barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass batt insulation, and in the other house, the barrier was attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The attics of all three houses were insulated with kraft paper faced nominal R-19 fiberglass batt insulation. The results showed a savings in the cooling loads of 21% when the radiant barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation and 13% with the radiant barrier attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The savings in electrical consumption was 17% and 9%, respectively. The electrical consumption data and the cooling load data indicated that the most effective way of installing the foil was to lay it on top of the fiberglass batt insulation. The radiant barriers reduced the measured peak ceiling heat fluxes by 39% for the case where the barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation. The radiant barrier reduced the integrated heat flows from the attic to house by approximately 30-35% over a 7-day time period.

Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Thermal barrier coating  

SciTech Connect

A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavements are a major part of the infrastructure in the United States. Moisture damage of these pavements is a significant problem. To predict and prevent this kind of moisture damage a great deal of research has been performed on this issue in past. This study validates an analytical approach based on surface energy aimed at assessing moisture damage. Two types of bitumen and three aggregates are evaluated in the study. The two types of bitumen represent very different chemical extremes and the three aggregates (a limestone, siliceous gravel, and granite) represent a considerable range in mineralogy. Moisture damage was monitered as a change in dynamic modulus with load cycles. The analysis demonstrates the need to consider mixture compliance as well as bond energy in order to predict moisture damage. Mixtures with the two types of bitumen and each aggregate with and without hydrated lime were evaluated. The hydrated lime substantially improved the resistance of the mixture to moisture damage.

Shah, Brij D.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Barriers to energy conservation. Conservation paper Number 55  

SciTech Connect

This study's aim is to provide policy guidance to the FEA in its efforts to break down barriers to the efficient usage of finite energy sources. Such efforts may involve mechanisms to promote the more-efficient usage of current energy sources or to break down the barriers which presently inhibit the introduction of alternative energy sources. Only the energy used by finished products is considered and not energy used in the production process itself. The majority of barriers that can be easily and/or directly affected involve the marketplace. This is true even where the barriers are technolgical; for, in many cases, the problem is not the absence of adequate technology, but its cost. For this reason, considerable time was spent developing an understanding of the various ways in which economic barriers affect efficient energy usage.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Steel in Road Barriers and Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) and steel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead, steel and products created from these materials by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead and steel recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead and steel as a waste within the complex. This approach promotes the safe and cost-effective reuse of scrap metals in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological release limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and steel by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were originally selected from the American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled ''Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance'' (Health Physics Society, 1999) but were subsequently modified as a result of application-specific issues. Both the health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

Coleman, RL

2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

Borns, D.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and-atmosphere interactions are an important component of climate, especially in semi-arid regions such as the Southern Great Plains. Interactions between soil moisture and vegetation modulate land-atmosphere coupling and thus represent a crucial, but not well understood climate factor. This study examines soil moisture-vegetation health interactions using both in situ observations and land surface model simulations. For the observational study, soil moisture is taken from 20 in situ Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture observation sites, and vegetation health is represented by MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). For the modeling study, the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model is employed with two different vegetation parameterizations. The first is the model default vegetation parameter which is interannually-invariant leaf area index (LAI). This parameter is referred to as the control parameter. The second is MODIS-derived LAI, which captures interannual differences in vegetation health. Soil moisture simulations from both vegetation parameterizations are compared and the VIC-simulated soil moisture’s sensitivity to the vegetation parameters is also examined. Correlation results from the observation study suggest that soil moisture-vegetation interactions in Oklahoma are inconsistent, varying both in space and time. The modeling results show that using a vegetation parameterization that does not capture interannual vegetation health variability could potentially result in dry or wet biased soil moisture simulations.

Ford, Trenton W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

MOISTURE CONTROL METHODOLOGY FOR GAS PHASE COMPOST BIOFILTERS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gas phase biofilters are used for controlling odors from animal facilities. Some characteristics can affect their performance and moisture content is one very important. A… (more)

Dutra de Melo, Lucas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Grain Moisture Air-Oven Reference Methods in the United ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Sunflower ground 50/50 with celite None (for moisture cor? rection of crude oil results Icing Mix Powder Triticale ? 16 % Lasagna ...

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Investigation of SGP Atmospheric Moisture Budget for CLASIC ?...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of a recently completed investigation of the moisture budget over the Midwestern Corn Belt (Zangvil et al. 2001, 2004) This study will be expanded with * Extended seasons...

123

Monitoring moisture content in the production of check gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

xenon mixture. Xenon. Methane n-Butane. Neon. Propane. Carbon dioxide. Ethane. " 0.016. Not subject to norm. Not more than 0.02. Not subject to norm.

124

Radiant Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barriers Barriers Radiant Barriers May 30, 2012 - 2:07pm Addthis What does this mean for me? Properly installed radiant barriers can reduce your cooling costs. Radiant barriers are easiest to install in new construction, but can be installed in your existing house, especially if it has an open attic. How does it work? Radiant barriers work by reflecting radiant heat away from living spaces. Radiant barriers are installed in homes -- usually in attics -- primarily to reduce summer heat gain and reduce cooling costs. The barriers consist of a highly reflective material that reflects radiant heat rather than absorbing it. They don't, however, reduce heat conduction like thermal insulation materials. How They Work Heat travels from a warm area to a cool area by a combination of

125

Radiant Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Barriers Radiant Barriers Radiant Barriers May 30, 2012 - 2:07pm Addthis What does this mean for me? Properly installed radiant barriers can reduce your cooling costs. Radiant barriers are easiest to install in new construction, but can be installed in your existing house, especially if it has an open attic. How does it work? Radiant barriers work by reflecting radiant heat away from living spaces. Radiant barriers are installed in homes -- usually in attics -- primarily to reduce summer heat gain and reduce cooling costs. The barriers consist of a highly reflective material that reflects radiant heat rather than absorbing it. They don't, however, reduce heat conduction like thermal insulation materials. How They Work Heat travels from a warm area to a cool area by a combination of

126

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yearns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

Shurter, R.P.

1990-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

127

Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the past six years, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has conducted extensive experimental research on radiant barrier systems (RBS). This paper presents recent research on the development of mathematical attic models. Two levels of modeling capability have been developed. A very simplified model based on ASHRAE procedures in used to study the sensitivity of RBS performance parameters, and a very detailed finite element model is used to study highly complex phenomena, including moisture adsorption and desorption in attics. The speed of the simple model allows a large range of attic parameters to be studies quickly, and the finite element model provides a detailed understanding of combined heat and moisture transport in attics. This paper concentrates on a parametric analysis of attic RBS using the simplified model. The development of the model is described, and results of the parametric analyses are presented and discussed. Preliminary results from the finite element model are also compared with measurements from a test attic to illustrate the effects of moisture adsorption and desorption in common attics.

Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Breaking Down the Barriers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breaking Down the Barriers Breaking Down the Barriers Engaging Agency Legal Resources to be Part of the Solution Daniel Gore US Coast Guard Energy Manager X ESPC ISC Kodiak ESPC/UESC Unit Contract Type Coast Guard Alternatively Financed Project Status Estimated Contract Value (Millions) Under Consideration Initial Proposal Delayed by lack of Contracting Officer or Champion Detailed Design Study Recently Awarded TRACEN Cape May ESPC X TRACEN Petaluma PPA X X ISC San Pedro UESC X X CG Academy ESPC X TRACEN Cape May UESC X Air Station Borenquin ESPC X X Sector New York (3 sites) ESPC X X CG Yard (BAMF) ESPC X E-City ESPC X West Coast - 9 Sites ESPC X Five Essentials for Alt. Financed Project * Site approval * Technical Champion * Contracting Officer * Financial Analyst * Legal Support

130

Underground waste barrier structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Barrier breaching device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

Honodel, Charles A. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Barrier breaching device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

Honodel, C.A.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

ENTREPRENEURSHIP ON THE FARM: KENTUCKY GROWERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF BENEFITS AND BARRIERS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study analyzed the perceptions of Kentucky Homebased Processors and Microprocessors of the benefits of and barriers to developing and selling value-added products. The final… (more)

Camenisch, Amy L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Soil Moisture Drought in China, 1950–2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four physically based land surface hydrology models driven by a common observation-based 3-hourly meteorological dataset were used to simulate soil moisture over China for the period 1950–2006. Monthly values of total column soil moisture from the ...

Aihui Wang; Dennis P. Lettenmaier; Justin Sheffield

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

On the Nature of Soil Moisture in Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The soil moisture state simulated by a land surface model is a highly model-dependent quantity, meaning that the direct transfer of one model’s soil moisture into another can lead to a fundamental, and potentially detrimental, inconsistency. This ...

Randal D. Koster; Zhichang Guo; Rongqian Yang; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Kenneth Mitchell; Michael J. Puma

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls  

SciTech Connect

The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Experimental thermal/moisture mapping of industrial safety helmets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the research on thermal/moisture mapping of typical industrial safety helmets using match-head-sized sensors. Three types of the industrial safety helmet were tested, one without ventilation openings, one with small ventilation holes ... Keywords: comfort, industrial helmet, micro climate, perception, thermal/moisture mapping

Z. W. Guan; A. R. Dullah; H. L. Zhou

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

CPAC moisture study: Phase 1 report on the study of optical spectra calibration for moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopic methods, combined with multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration modeling, to quantitatively predict the moisture content of the crust material in Hanford`s waste tank materials. Experiments were conducted with BY-104 simulant material for the 400--1100 nm (VIS), 1100--2500 (NIR), and 400-4000 cm{sup {minus}1}(IR) optical regions. The test data indicated that the NIR optical region, with a single PLS calibration factor, provided the highest accuracy response (better than 0.5 wt %) over a 0--25 wt % moisture range. Issues relating to the preparation of moisture samples with the BY-104 materials and the potential implementation within hot cell and waste tanks are also discussed. The investigation of potential material interferences, including physical and chemical properties, and the scaled demonstration of fiber optic and camera types of applications with simulated waste tanks are outlined as future work tasks.

Veltkamp, D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Center for Process Analytical Chemistry

1993-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT); Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT.

Ramirez, A.L. [ed.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Inferring soil moisture memory from streamflow observations using a simple water balance model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture is known for its integrative behavior and resulting memory characteristics. Soil moisture anomalies can persist for weeks or even months into the future, making initial soil moisture a potentially important contributor to skill in ...

Rene Orth; Randal D. Koster; Sonia I. Seneviratne

143

Soil Moisture Memory in AGCM Simulations: Analysis of Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture memory is a key aspect of land–atmosphere interaction and has major implications for seasonal forecasting. Because of a severe lack of soil moisture observations on most continents, existing analyses of global-scale soil moisture ...

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Randal D. Koster; Zhichang Guo; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Eva Kowalczyk; David Lawrence; Ping Liu; David Mocko; Cheng-Hsuan Lu; Keith W. Oleson; Diana Verseghy

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Continuous reactor system results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process for converting high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous fuels. This system, in which thermocatalytic conversion takes place in an aqueous environment, was designed to overcome the problems usually encountered with high-water-content feedstocks. The process uses a reduced nickel catalyst at temperatures as low as 350{degree}C and pressures ranging from 2000 to 4000 psig -- conditions favoring the formation of gas consisting mostly of methane. The results of numerous batch tests showed that the system could convert feedstocks not readily converted by conventional methods. Fifteen tests were conducted in a continuous reactor system to further evaluate the effectiveness of the process for high-moisture biomass gasification and to obtain conversion rate data needed for process scaleup. During the tests, the complex gasification reactions were evaluated by several analytical methods. The results of these tests show that the heating value of the gas ranged from 400 to 500 Btu/scf, and if the carbon dioxide is removed, the product gas is pipeline quality. Conversion of the feedstocks was high. Engineering analysis indicates that, based on these results, a tubular reactor can be designed that should convert greater than 99% of the carbon fed as high-moisture biomass to a gaseous product in a reaction time of less than 11 min.

Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Butner, R.S.; Baker, E.G.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of Moisture Damage Test Methods for Evaluatingart and Critical Review of Test Methods. ” NCAT Report No.Pavement Moisture-Damage Test. ” Transportation Research

Lu, Qing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin-film PV (photovoltaic) modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface and enhancing adhesion of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp-heat exposure. (EVA is ethylene vinyl acetate and TPE is Tedlar{reg_sign}-PET-EVA). PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pretreatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal that new low molecular weight PET fragments were created at the PET surface. These fragments are responsible for barrier/PET interfacial failure and barrier transfer to the EVA encapsulant side following damp heat exposure.

Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Moisture retention properties of a mycorrhizal soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The water relations of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants have been compared often, but virtually nothing is known about the comparative water relations of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soils. Mycorrhizal symbiosis typically affects soil structure, and soil structure affects water retention properties; therefore, it seems likely that mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect soil water relations. We examined the water retention properties of a Sequatchie fine sandy loam subjected to three treatments: seven months of root growth by (1) nonmycorrhizal Vigna unguiculata given low phosphorus fertilization, (2) nonmycorrhizal Vigna unguiculata given high phosphorus fertilization, (3) Vigna unguiculata colonized by Glomus intraradices and given low phosphorus fertilization. Mycorrhization of soil had a slight but significant effect on the soil moisture characteristic curve. Once soil matric potential (\\11m) began to decline, changes in \\II m per unit change in soil water content were smaller in mycorrhizal than in the two nonmycorrhizal soils. Within the range of about-1 to-5 MPa, the mycorrhizal soil had to dry more than the nonmycorrhizal soils to reach the same \\11m. Soil characteristic curves of non mycorrhizal soils were similar, whether they contained roots of plants fed high or low phosphorus. The mycorrhizal soil had significantly more water stable aggregates and substantially higher extraradical hyphal densities than the nonmycorrhizal soils. Importantly, we were able to factor out the possibly confounding influence of differential root growth among mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal

Robert M. Augel; Ann L. W. Stodola; Layme E. Tims; Arnold M. Saxton

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

150

The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission: Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. Its mission design consists of L-band ...

O'Neill, Peggy

151

Soil Density/Moisture Gauge | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Soil Density/Moisture Gauge Soil Density/Moisture Gauge Soil Density/Moisture Gauge This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 - Radioactive). This exercise manual is one in a series of five scenarios developed by the Department of Energy Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP). Responding agencies may include several or more of the following: local municipal and county fire, police, sheriff and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel; state, local, and federal emergency response teams; emergency response contractors; and other emergency response resources that could potentially be provided by the carrier and the originating facility (shipper).

152

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal March 11, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility. The DryFining(TM) technology was developed with funding from the first round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Great River Energy of Maple Grove, Minn., has selected the WorleyParsons Group to exclusively distribute licenses for the technology, which essentially uses waste heat from a power plant to reduce moisture content

153

The Signature of the Annular Modes in the Moisture Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mid- and high-latitude variations of mass and momentum, variously termed the Arctic and Antarctic oscillations and/or the Northern and Southern Annular Modes also have a signature in the moisture budget. This is investigated, using associated ...

G. J. Boer; S. Fourest; B. Yu

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Concerning the Relationship between Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evapotranspiration observations have traditionally been scaled by potential evapotranspiration as a means of unifying the soil moisture-evapotranspiration relationship under a variety of meteorological conditions. However, this scaling alone does ...

Peter J. Wetzel; Jy-Tai Chang

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Atmospheric Moisture and Cloud Cover Characteristics Forecast by AMPS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts of atmospheric moisture and cloud fraction (CF) are compared with observations at McMurdo and Amundsen–Scott South Pole station (hereafter, South Pole station) in Antarctica. Overall, it is ...

Ryan L. Fogt; David H. Bromwich

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

GOES-VAS Simultaneous Temperature-Moisture Retrieval Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical soundings of temperature and moisture derived from the GOES VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) measurements have been produced operationally since summer 1987 at the VAS Data Utilization Center (VDUC). The algorithm which was developed for ...

Christopher M. Hayden

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Global Energy and Moisture Budgets from Rawinsonde Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertically integrated budgets of moisture and energy for the global atmosphere are presented, based on the GFDL 10-year rawinsonde data analyses of Oort. The extratropical free atmospheric mean wind divergence is derived from vorticity balance, ...

H. I. Savijärvi

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Soil Moisture Content: Statistical Estimation of Its Probability Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stochastic model for the estimation of soil moisture distribution is derived. The series of daily precipitation amounts is described as a chain-dependent process and the surface water balance equation is simplified so that the probability ...

T. Faragó

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Operational Soil Moisture Estimation for the Midwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An operational soil moisture monitoring capability for the midwestern United States is developed using a multilayer soil water balance model which incorporates daily weather data to calculate precipitation, soil evaporation, plant transpiration, ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Amazon Coastal Squall Lines. Part II: Heat and Moisture Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The column response to propagating deep convection over the central Amazon Basin is investigated with rawinsonde data from the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). Heat and moisture budgets are calculated from a relatively small surface ...

Steven Greco; John Scala; Jeffrey Halverson; Harold L. Massie Jr.; Wei-Kuo Tao; Michael Garstang

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Determination of Moisture From NOAA Polar Orbiting Satellite Sounding Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for deducing lower troposphere moisture fields from radiances measured by the operational polar orbiting NOAA satellites. Statistical evaluation of the technique demonstrates the viability of the approach. A case study with ...

Christopher M. Hayden; William L. Smith; Harold M. Woolf

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Turbulent Moisture Measurements aboard Instrumented Aircraft with a Capacitive Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors show how a capacitive device measuring moisture can be used aboard instrumented atmospheric aircraft as an alternate sensor for turbulence measurement. Using a calibrated Lyman-? sensor as a reference, the time response of the ...

Pierre Durand; Gabriel Abadie; Aimé Druilhet

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Mesoscale Moisture Analysis of the North American Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The regional circulations that contribute moisture to the large precipitation over northwestern Mexico, the core region of the North American monsoon, are investigated using three summer seasons (July–September 1995–97) of Eta Model mesoscale ...

Ernesto Hugo Berbery

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Precipitation Recycling: Moisture Sources over Europe using ERA-40 Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric moisture within a region is supplied by both local evaporation and advected from external sources. The contribution of local evaporation in a region to the precipitation in the same region is defined as “precipitation recycling.” ...

B. Bisselink; A. J. Dolman

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Moisture Budget of the Polar Atmosphere in MERRA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric moisture budget from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is evaluated in polar regions for the period 1979–2005 and compared with previous estimates, accumulation syntheses over polar ice ...

Richard I. Cullather; Michael G. Bosilovich

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Overview of the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX), including the field operations, aircraft platforms and missions, instrumentation, and data acquired during 1998 and 2001 field campaigns. A total of eight tropical ...

Ramesh Kakar; Michael Goodman; Robbie Hood; Anthony Guillory

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture in the shallow subsurface is a primary hydrologic state governing land-atmosphere interaction at various scales. The primary objectives of this study are to model soil moisture in the root zone in a distributed manner and determine scaling properties of surface soil moisture using passive microwave remote sensing. The study was divided into two parts. For the first study, a root zone soil moisture assessment tool (SMAT) was developed in the ArcGIS platform by fully integrating a one-dimensional vadose zone hydrology model (HYDRUS-ET) with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation capability. The tool was tested with dataset from the Southern Great Plain 1997 (SGP97) hydrology remote sensing experiment. Results demonstrated that SMAT displayed a reasonable capability to generate soil moisture distribution at the desired resolution at various depths of the root zone in Little Washita watershed during the SGP97 hydrology remote sensing experiment. To improve the model performance, several outstanding issues need to be addressed in the future by: including "effective" hydraulic parameters across spatial scales; implementing subsurface soil properties data bases using direct and indirect methods; incorporating appropriate hydrologic processes across spatial scales; accounting uncertainties in forcing data; and preserving interactions for spatially correlated pixels. The second study focused on spatial scaling properties of the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR)-based remotely sensed surface soil moisture fields in a region with high row crop agriculture. A wavelet based multi-resolution technique was used to decompose the soil moisture fields into larger-scale average soil moisture fields and fluctuations in horizontal, diagonal and vertical directions at various resolutions. The specific objective was to relate soil moisture variability at the scale of the PSR footprint (800 m X 800 m) to larger scale average soil moisture field variability. We also investigated the scaling characteristics of fluctuation fields among various resolutions. The spatial structure of soil moisture exhibited linearity in the log-log dependency of the variance versus scale-factor, up to a scale factor of -2.6 (6100 m X 6100 m) irrespective of wet and dry conditions, whereas dry fields reflect nonlinear (multi-scaling) behavior at larger scale-factors.

Das, Narendra N.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A simplified model of saltcake moisture distribution. Letter report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This letter report describes the formulation of a simplified model for finding the moisture distribution in a saltcake waste profile that has been stabilized by pumping out the drainable interstitial liquid. The model is based on assuming that capillarity mainly governs the distribution of moisture in the porous saltcake waste. A stead upward flow of moisture driven by evaporation from the waste surface is conceptualized to occur for isothermal conditions. To obtain hydraulic parameters for unsaturated conditions, the model is calibrated or matched to the relative saturation distribution as measured by neutron probe scans. The model is demonstrated on Tanks 104-BY and 105-TX as examples. A value of the model is that it identifies the key physical parameters that control the surface moisture content in a waste profile. Moreover, the model can be used to estimate the brine application rate at the waste surface that would raise the moisture content there to a safe level. Thus, the model can be applied to help design a strategy for correcting the moisture conditions in a saltcake waste tank.

Simmons, C.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Measurement of effective thermal conductivity of wheat as a function of moisture content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain drying and storage are one of the main activities of agricultural industry. Increasing energy costs have stressed the importance of calculation of heat and mass transfer in a grain bulk in order to be able to optimize drying facilities. Another limitation during drying is the preservation of grain structure and its nutritional values, Muehlbauer and Christ have shown that damage to the grain structure and grain nutritional value is dependent upon grain temperature and drying time. Therefore, proper conditions during drying and storage of cereal grains require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the grains. The effective thermal conductivity of two varieties of Triticum durum wheat and a wheat product, bulgur, is determined at different moisture contents and at ambient temperature by the transient lime heat source method. The moisture contents of the samples ranged from 9.17 to 38.65% wet basis and the bulk densities ranged from 675 to 827 kg/m{sup 3}. Under those conditions, the measured effective thermal conductivities ranged from 0.159 to 0.201 W/m.K. The effective thermal conductivity is found to be linearly increasing with moisture content. The results are also in good agreement with literature values.

Tavman, S. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.] [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.; Tavman, I.H. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Analysis of Soil Moisture Changes in Europe during a Single Growing Season in a New ECMWF Soil Moisture Assimilation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aims at stimulating the development of soil moisture data assimilation systems in a direction where they can provide both the necessary control of slow drift in operational NWP applications and support the physical insight in the ...

Bart van den Hurk; Janneke Ettema; Pedro Viterbo

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Use of Midlatitude Soil Moisture and Meteorological Observations to Validate Soil Moisture Simulations with Biosphere and Bucket Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture observations in sites with natural vegetation were made for several decades in the former Soviet Union at hundreds of stations. In this paper, the authors use data from six of these stations from different climatic regimes, along ...

Alan Robock; Konstantin Ya Vinnikov; C. Adam Schlosser; Nina A. Speranskaya; Yongkang Xue

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier -- 15 Years of Performance Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring is an essential component of engineered barrier system design and operation. A composite capacitive cover, including a capillary break and an evapotranspiration (ET) barrier at the Hanford Site, is generating data that can be used to help resolve these issues. The prototype Hanford barrier was constructed over the 216-B-57 Crib in 1994 to evaluate surface-barrier constructability, construction costs, and physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. The barrier has been routinely monitored between November 1994 and September 1998 as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) treatability test of barrier performance for the 200 BP 1 Operable Unit. Since FY 1998, monitoring has focused on a more limited set of key water balance, stability, and biotic parameters. In FY 2009, data collection was focused on: (1) water-balance monitoring, consisting of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture storage, and drainage measurements with evapotranspiration calculated by difference; (2) stability monitoring, consisting of asphalt-layer-settlement, basalt-side-slope-stability, and surface-elevation measurements; (3) vegetation dynamics; and (4) animal use. September 2009 marked 15 years since the start of monitoring and the collection of performance data. This report describes the results of monitoring activities during the period October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, and summarizes the 15 years of performance data collected from September 1994 through September 2009.

Ward, Anderson L.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Link, Steven O.; Clayton, Ray E.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to soil moisture skill in a land data assimilation system are assessed. Relative to baseline estimates from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (...

Qing Liu; Rolf H. Reichle; Rajat Bindlish; Michael H. Cosh; Wade T. Crow; Richard de Jeu; Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy; George J. Huffman; Thomas J. Jackson

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Dry Barrier Mix in Reduction Cell Cathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Dry Barrier Mix in Reduction Cell Cathodes ... successfully tested as a replacement for barrier bricks in several reduction cell technology types ...

175

Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Phoenix Overcomes Barriers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades to someone by E-mail Share Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes...

176

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

94E 94E Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response F. Rubinstein, G. Ghatikar, J. Granderson, D. Watson Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory P. Haugen, C. Romero Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory February 2009 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe

177

ORNL Radiant Barrier - ETSD Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Zone 2), radiant barriers could reduce your utility bills by as much as 150 per year using average residential electricity prices. If you're able to participate in one of...

178

In-situ formation of multiphase air plasma sprayed barrier coatings for turbine components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base, planar-grained thermal barrier layer (28) applied by air plasma spraying on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide overlay material (32') covers the bottom thermal barrier coating (28), and the overlay material is the reaction product of the precursor ceramic oxide overlay material (32) and the base thermal barrier coating material (28).

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

Moschler, William W [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hanson, Gregory R [ORNL

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Investigation of moisture in titanium metal powder by pulsed NMR  

SciTech Connect

A sample of titanium metal powder QC 1779 was subjected to five different treatments of dyring and moisture exposure to estimate the effectiveness of normal drying and handling procedures used in the pyrotechnics processing. The treatments were drying in air, drying in two different vacuum furnaces, exposure to normal humidity, and exposure to 100 percent humidity. Statistical evaluation of the NMR results indicates that there is a significant difference between the moisture content of each treatment. Although the combined effects of temperature, pressure, humidity, and treatment time were not studied in a designed manner to determine their significance on the effectiveness of the drying techniques and moisture uptake by sample QC 1779, the experimental evidence does indicate that all four variables do affect the results of the treatments. 2 figures, 6 tables.

Attalla, A.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Craft, B.D.; Love, C.M.; Yauger, R.L.

1977-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called electrostatically enhanced barrier filter collection (EBFC). This concept combines electrostatic precipitation (ESP) with candle filters in a single unit. Similar technology has been recently proven on a commercial scale for atmospheric applications, but needed to be tested at high temperatures and pressures. The synergy obtained by combining the two control technologies into a single system should actually reduce filter system capital and operating costs and make the system more reliable. More specifically, the ESP is expected to significantly reduce candle filter load and also to limit ash reintrainment, allowing for full recovery of baseline pressure drop during backpulsing of the filters.

John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lowering Barriers to someone by Lowering Barriers to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Lowering Barriers Fostering Growth Lowering Barriers DOE is working to improve solar market conditions in order to create green jobs and increase the availability of clean, renewable energy for Americans. Efforts to promote favorable policies and encourage easier

184

Development of dry barriers for containment and remediation at waste sites  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a concept in which dry air is injected into an unsaturated formation to reduce the soil moisture content, referred to here as a dry (or sometimes tensiometric) barrier. The objective is to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated media to the point where liquid phase transport becomes negligible, thereby achieving containment. The concept could be applied in subsurface formations to provide containment from a leaking facility, or it could be incorporated into a cover design to provide redundancy for a capillary barrier. The air injection process could in principle be coupled with a vacuum extraction system to recover soil vapors, which would then provide a remediation process that would be appropriate if volatile organic compounds were present. Work to date has consisted of a combined theoretical, laboratory, and field research investigation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the dry barrier concept by identifying the parameters which determine its effectiveness. Based on the results obtained for the experimental and theoretical studies, feasibility analyses were prepared for as a modification for a landfill cover design to prevent infiltration from atmospheric precipitation and for potential application of dry barriers to achieve subsurface containment and removal of volatile constituents. These analyses considered the technical as well as the economic aspects of the dry barrier concept.

Thomson, B.M.; Morris, C.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Stormont, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ankeny, M.D. [Stephens (Daniel B.) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cooling-energy measurements of unoccupied single-family houses with attics containing radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test is a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The purpose of the radiant barrier is to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. The radiant barrier works as a system in conjunction with an air space and can theoretically block up to 95% of far-infrared radiation heat transfer. The experiment was conducted in three unoccupied research houses that are operated by ORNL. Two variations on the installation of radiant barriers were studied. One house was used as the control house (no barrier was installed), while the other two were used to test the two different methods for installing the radiant barriers. In one house the barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass batt insulation, and in the other house, the barrier was attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The attics of all three houses were insulated with kraft-paper-faced R-19 fiberglass batt insulation. The results showed a savings in the cooling loads of 21% when the radiant barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation and 13% with the radiant barrier attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The savings in electrical consumption were 17% and 9%, respectively. The electrical consumption data and the cooling load data indicate that the most effective way of installing the foil is to lay it on top of the fiberglass insulation. The radiant barriers reduced the measured peak ceiling heat fluxes by 39% for the case where the barrier was laid on top of the fiberglass insulation. The radiant barrier reduced the integrated heat flows from the attic to the house by approximately 30 to 35% over a 7-day time period.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

SURFACE-ALTERED ZEOLITES AS PERMEABLE BARRIERS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this effort is to develop and test a zeolite-based permeable barrier system for containing and remediating contaminated groundwater. The projected product is an engineered and tested permeable barrier system that can be adopted by the commercial sector.

Robert S. Bowman; Zhaohui Li; Stephen J. Roy; Todd Burt; Timothy L. Johnson; Richard L. Johnson

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

187

Barriers and drivers for process innovation in the petrochemical industry: A case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Process innovation and energy efficiency improvement are among the key options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in petrochemicals production. This case study presents some of the main drivers and barriers to activities aimed at improving existing processes ... Keywords: Barriers, Case study, Drivers, Energy efficiency, O31 Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives, Process innovation, Strategic innovation

Tao Ren

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9/2011 9/2011 1 BASF Fuel Cell, Inc. Manufacturing Barriers to high temperature PEM commercialization 39 Veronica Ave Somerset , NJ 08873 Tel : (732) 545-5100 9/9/2011 2 Background on BASF Fuel Cell  BASF Fuel Cell was established in 2007, formerly PEMEAS Fuel Cells (including E-TEK)  Product line is high temperature MEAs (Celtec ® P made from PBI-phosphoric acid)  Dedicated a new advanced pilot manufacturing facility in Somerset NJ May 2009. Ribbon-cutting hosted by Dr. Kreimeyer (BASF BoD, right) and attended by various US pubic officials including former NJ Governor Jon Corzine (left) 9/9/2011 3 Multi-layer product of membrane (polybenzimidazole and phosphoric acid), gas diffusion material and catalysts Unique characteristics:  High operating temperature

189

Procurement and Operation Considerations for Moisture Separator Reheaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art technology can provide solutions for many of the problems that have beset moisture separator reheaters. Changes in design and operating procedures recommended in this study will improve the performance and extend the operating life of these major components.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

An Analysis of Moisture Fluxes into the Gulf of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the nature of episodes of enhanced warm-season moisture flux into the Gulf of California. Both spatial structure and primary time scales of the fluxes are examined using the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis data for the period 1980–...

Man-Li C. Wu; Siegfried D. Schubert; Max J. Suarez; Norden E. Huang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Observation of Atmospheric Fronts Using Raman Lidar Moisture Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a field program using a ground-based Raman lidar system to observe changes in moisture profiles as a cold and a warm front passed over the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The lidar ...

S. H. Melfi; D. Whiteman; R. Ferrare

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Moisture Analysis from Radiosonde and Microwave Spectrometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for analysis of the horizontal and vertical distributions of the moisture field utilizing satellite, upper air and surface data is proposed in this paper. A brief overview of the microwave sensors on board Nimbus 5 and 6 is also ...

Kenneth J. Haydu; T. N. Krishnamurti

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A Negative Soil Moisture–Precipitation Relationship and Its Causes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines a lagged soil moisture–precipitation (S–P) correlation for 24 yr of boreal summer (1979–2002) from the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), the NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis 2 (R-2), the North American Regional ...

Jiangfeng Wei; Robert E. Dickinson; Haishan Chen

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Intercomparison of Soil Moisture Memory in Two Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heavy rain or a dry period can produce an anomaly in soil moisture, and the dissipation of this anomaly may take weeks to months. It is important to understand how land surface models (LSMs) used with atmospheric general circulation models ...

Sarith P. P. Mahanama; Randal D. Koster

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Galvanic battery. [tape wrapping to seal against moisture loss  

SciTech Connect

A galvanic battery comprises rigid battery components and a wrapping of insulating material. The wrapping consists of a length of thin, extensible plastic tape wound in successive laps under lengthwise stretch around the battery and having its outer end secured to a preceeding layer of tape. The tape in combination with the rigid battery components effectively seals the battery against loss of moisture.

Tamminen, P.J.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy performance can not be predicted from only the conductance. These results affect removal criteria for wet insulation board.

Crow, G. W.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are serious concerns about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy and nutrient and water use efficiency of large-scale, first generation bio-energy feedstocks currently in use. A major question is whether biofuels obtained from these feedstocks are effective in combating climate change and what impact they will have on soil and water resources. Another fundamental issue relates to the magnitude and nature of their impact on food prices and ultimately on the livelihoods of the poor. A possible solution to overcome the current potentially large negative effects of large-scale biofuel production is developing second and third generation conversion techniques from agricultural residues and wastes and step up the scientific research efforts to achieve sustainable biofuel production practices. Until such sustainable techniques are available governments should scale back their support for and promotion of biofuels. Multipurpose feedstocks should be investigated making use of the bio-refinery concept (bio-based economy). At the same time, the further development of non-commercial, small scale

Science Council Secretariat

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Marine Products and Marine Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for Marine Products and Marine Oil samples to test Anisidine Value, Free Fatty Acid, Iodine Value, Insoluble Impurities, Moisture, Peroxide Value. Marine Products and Marine Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Labo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Root-zone soil moisture controls the land–atmosphere exchange of water and energy, and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly scales. Assimilation of satellite-based surface soil moisture observations into a land ...

Sujay V. Kumar; Rolf H. Reichle; Randal D. Koster; Wade T. Crow; Christa D. Peters-Lidard

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Observed and Simulated Soil Moisture Variability over the Lower Mississippi Delta Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To better understand error and spatial variability sources of soil moisture simulated with land surface models, observed and simulated values of soil moisture (using offline simulations with the Noah land surface model with four soil layers and ...

Georgy V. Mostovoy; Valentine G. Anantharaj

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Evaluation of Soil Moisture Effects on the Generation and Modification of Mesoscale Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current study provides an evaluation of thermally induced circulation over flat terrain due to nonuniform horizontal distribution of soil moisture availability. Additionally, the effect of soil moisture availability on the thermally induced ...

Y. Ookouchi; M. Segal; R. C. Kessler; R. A. Pielke

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Parameter Sensitivity in LSMs: An Analysis Using Stochastic Soil Moisture Models and ELDAS Soil Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integration of simulated and observed states through data assimilation as well as model evaluation requires a realistic representation of soil moisture in land surface models (LSMs). However, soil moisture in LSMs is sensitive to a range of ...

Adriaan J. Teuling; Remko Uijlenhoet; Bart van den Hurk; Sonia I. Seneviratne

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Diagnosis of Tropospheric Moisture over Saudi Arabia and Influences of IOD and ENSO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic study of atmospheric moisture data over Saudi Arabia derived from a 43-yr National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis revealed that moisture convergence in the lower ...

Arun Chakraborty; Swadhin K. Behera; Milind Mujumdar; Ryohji Ohba; Toshio Yamagata

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Measurement scheduling for soil moisture sensing: From physical models to optimal control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider the problem of monitoring soil moisture evolution using a wireless network of in situ sensors. Continuously sampling moisture levels with these sensors incurs high-maintenance and energy consumption ...

Shuman, David I.

207

Evaluating the Simulated Seasonality of Soil Moisture with Earth Observation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A critical function of a land surface scheme, used in climate and weather prediction models, is to partition the energy from insolation into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Many use a soil moisture function to control the surface moisture fluxes ...

Richard J. Ellis; Christopher M. Taylor; Graham P. Weedon; Nicola Gedney; Douglas B. Clark; Sietse Los

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

From Near-Surface to Root-Zone Soil Moisture Using Different Assimilation Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Root-zone soil moisture constitutes an important variable for hydrological and weather forecast models. Microwave radiometers like the L-band instrument on board the European Space Agency’s (ESA) future Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) ...

Joaquín Muñoz Sabater; Lionel Jarlan; Jean-Christophe Calvet; François Bouyssel; Patricia De Rosnay

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Summer Rainfall Forecast Spread in an Ensemble Initialized with Different Soil Moisture Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of an ensemble forecasting system initialized using varied soil moisture alone has been evaluated for rainfall forecasts of six warm season convective cases. Ten different soil moisture analyses were used as initial conditions in ...

Eric A. Aligo; William A. Gallus Jr.; Moti Segal

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Assimilation of Disaggregated Microwave Soil Moisture into a Hydrologic Model Using Coarse-Scale Meteorological Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-surface soil moisture retrieved from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)-type data is downscaled and assimilated into a distributed soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model with the ensemble Kalman filter. Because satellite-based ...

O. Merlin; A. Chehbouni; G. Boulet; Y. Kerr

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle ...

Entekhabi, Dara

212

Influence of Soil Moisture on Urban Microclimate and Surface-Layer Meteorology in Oklahoma City  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of soil moisture on surface-layer atmosphere is examined in this paper by analyzing the outputs of model simulations for different initial soil moisture configurations with particular emphasis on urban microclimate. In addition to a ...

Syed Zahid Husain; Stéphane Bélair; Sylvie Leroyer

213

Effects of Soil Moisture on Temperatures, Winds, and Pollutant Concentrations in Los Angeles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the effects of soil moisture initialization in a coupled air quality–meteorological model on temperature profiles, wind speeds, and pollutant concentrations. Three simulations, each with different initial soil moisture fields, ...

Mark Z. Jacobson

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Conservation of Moisture in a Hybrid Kuo-Type Cumulus Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conservation of moisture requirement used in a hybrid Kuo-type cumulus parameterization scheme is generalized so that the source of moisture for the cumulus process originates from all layers below the level of condensation, including the ...

William H. Raymond; Robert M. Aune

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Measurements and modeling of moisture diffusion processes in transformer insulation using interdigital dielectrometry sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of moisture in a transformer deteriorates the transformer insulation by decreasing its electrical, mechanical, and thermal strength. Therefore, it is important to monitor the moisture condition in both liquid ...

Du, Yanqing, 1971-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A Comparison of Soil Moisture Models Using Soil Climate Analysis Network Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the lack of field measurements, models are often used to monitor soil moisture conditions. Therefore, it is important to find a model that can accurately simulate soil moisture under a variety of land surface conditions. In this paper, ...

Lei Meng; Steven M. Quiring

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Global Soil Moisture from Satellite Observations, Land Surface Models, and Ground Data: Implications for Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three independent surface soil moisture datasets for the period 1979–87 are compared: 1) global retrievals from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), 2) global soil moisture derived from observed meteorological forcing using the ...

Rolf H. Reichle; Randal D. Koster; Jiarui Dong; Aaron A. Berg

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

On the relationship of soil moisture and extreme temperatures in East China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture conditions affect energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes, resulting in a change in surface temperatures. In this study, relationship between antecedent soil moisture conditions (as indicated by the 6-month ...

Lei Meng; Yanjun Shen

219

Moisture degradation in FRP bonded concrete systems : an interface fracture approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) characterization, and kink criterion implementation, form a synergistic analysis of the mechanistic debonding behavior affected by moisture. Results have shown that moisture affected debonding is a highly complex ...

Au, Ching, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Icing Study of Moisture in Jet-A Fuel, Ambient to -40?C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Icing Study of Moisture in ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

Understanding the Impacts of Moisture and Thermal Ageing on Transformer's Insulation by Dielectric Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the Impacts of Moisture and Thermal Ageing on Transformer's Insulation by Dielectric of oil and paper in a transformer degrade primarily due to thermal ageing and moisture ingress insulation in a transformer. Index Terms -- Condition monitoring, gel permeation chromatography, moisture

Saha, Tapan Kumar

223

In-situ soil moisture sensing: Optimal sensor placement and field estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the problem of optimal sensor placement in the context of soil moisture sensing. We show that the soil moisture data possesses some unique features that can be used together with the commonly used Gaussian assumption to construct more scalable, ... Keywords: 2D/3D sensor placement, Gaussian process, Gaussian regression, Soil moisture, coarse-grained orderings

Xiaopei Wu; Mingyan Liu; Yue Wu

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells  

SciTech Connect

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1984-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

225

Simulated Attic Radiant Barrier Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent EPRI evaluation determined that attic radiant barriers installed under roof decks are increasingly effective in reducing cooling energy use as insolation increases and ceiling insulation thickness decreases. A savings worksheet included in this report allows rapid estimation of these energy cost impacts.

1991-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

226

Multilayer Nanoscale Thermal Barrier Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced high-efficiency gas turbines require thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal-cycling resistance. The multilayer TBC developed in this project has a thermal conductivity about half that of conventional TBCs and also rejects up to 70 percent of incoming radiant energy.

1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

227

In Situ Formation Of Reactive Barriers For Pollution Control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of treating soil contamination by forming one or more zones of oxidized material in the path of percolating groundwater is disclosed. The zone or barrier region is formed by delivering an oxidizing agent into the ground for reaction with an existing soil component. The oxidizing agent modifies the existing soil component creating the oxidized zone. Subsequently when soil contaminates migrate into the zone, the oxidized material is available to react with the contaminates and degrade them into benign products. The existing soil component can be an oxidizable mineral such as manganese, and the oxidizing agent can be ozone gas or hydrogen peroxide. Soil contaminates can be volatile organic compounds. Oxidized barriers can be used single or in combination with other barriers.

Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Riley, Robert G. (West Richland, WA)

2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

Moisture Retention Curves of Topopah Spring Tuff at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of unsaturated flow and transport in porous media is critical for understanding the movement of water and solute through the unsaturated zone. The suction potential of rock determines the imbibition of water and, therefore, the moisture retention in the matrix. That, in turn, affects the relative importance of matrix flow and fracture flow, and their interaction, because greater suction potential moves more water from fractures into the matrix and therefore retards fracture flow. The moisture content as a function of the suction potential is called a moisture retention curve or a characteristic curve. Moisture-retention data are important input for numerical models of water movement in unsaturated porous media. Also important are the effect of sample history on the moisture-retention curves and whether there is significant hysteresis between wetting and drying measurements. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the U.S. Department of Energy is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository horizon will be in the unsaturated zone of the Topopah Spring member (densely welded) of the Paintbrush Tuff unit at Yucca Mountain. This unit is highly fractured. Therefore, transport of water within the near field of the nuclear waste package in the repository is strongly influenced by the suction potential of the repository host rocks at elevated temperatures. In a high-level nuclear waste repository, the rock mass around the waste packages will become dry because of the thermal load of the waste but will then re-wet during the cool-down period as the thermal output of the waste packages declines. Much of this process will occur at temperatures above ambient temperature. The goal of our work is to determine the importance of temperature and the wetting-drying hysteresis on the measured moisture retention curves of the densely welded tuff. For Topopah Spring tuff the suction potential is assumed to be primary due to the matric potential.

Lin, W.; Roberts, J.; Carlberg, E.; Ruddle, D.; Pletcher, R.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Systematic study of projectile structure effect on fusion barrier distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quasielastic excitation function measurement has been carried out for the $^{4}$He + $^{232}$Th system at $\\theta_{lab}$=160$^\\circ$ with respect to the beam direction, to obtain a representation of the fusion barrier distribution. Using the present data along with previously measured barrier distribution results on $^{12}$C, $^{16}$O, and $^{19}$F + $^{232}$Th systems a systematic analysis has been carried out to investigate the role of target and/or projectile structures on fusion barrier distribution. It is observed that for $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C, and $^{16}$O + $^{232}$Th, reactions the couplings due to target states only are required in coupled channel fusion calculations to explain the experimental data, whereas for the $^{19}$F+ $^{232}$Th system along with the coupling of target states, inelastic states of $^{19}$F are also required to explain the experimental results on fusion-barrier distribution. The width of the barrier distribution shows interesting transition behavior when plotted with respect to the target-projectile charge product for the above systems.

Pratap Roy; A. Saxena; B. K. Nayak; E. T. Mirgule; B. John; Y. K. Gupta; L. S. Danu; R. P. Vind; Ashok Kumar; R. K. Choudhury

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

230

Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at...

231

Coastal Barrier Resources Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barrier Resources Act Barrier Resources Act Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Coastal Barrier Resources Act Year 1982 Url [[File:|160px|link=]] Description References Wikipedia[1] FWS Coastal Barrier Resources Act Webpage[2] The Coastal Barrier Resources Act of the United States was enacted October 18, 1982. The United States Congress passed this Act in order to address the many problems associated with coastal barrier development. CBRA designated various undeveloped coastal barriers, which were illustrated by a set of maps adopted by law, to be included in the John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). These designated areas were made ineligible for both direct and indirect Federal expenditures and financial assistance, which are believed to encourage development of fragile,

232

Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in different climate zones Title Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in different climate zones Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2009 Authors Krus, Martin, Thierry Stephane Nouidui, and Klaus Sedlbauer Conference Name 6th International Conference on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Conference Location Sisimiut, Groenland Abstract The application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in different climatic zones is demonstrated in this paper. The basics of the programs are presented together with a typical application for a problem specific for the chosen climatic zone. A 1-D calculation has been performed for tropical climate zone with the improvement of a flat roof in Bangkok as an example. For half timbered buildings, which are common in the temperate zone with the 2-D model an infill insulation and its benefits are demonstrated. Finally the combined appliance of the whole building model and the mould risk prognosis model is shown in detail as a special case for the cold climate zone: In heated buildings of cold climate zones the internal climate with its low relative humidity in wintertime often causes discomfort and health problems for the occupants. In case of using air humidifier the risk of mould growth increases. Instead of an uncontrolled humidifying of the dry air an innovativecontrol system using a thermal bridge, which switches the humidifier off when condensation occurs is presented. To quantify the improvement in the comfort while preventing the risk of mould growth for a typical building comparative calculations of the resulting inner climates and its consequences on comfort have been performed.

233

Scoping Study of Moisture Carryover in Boiling Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several BWRs have recently experienced higher than expected shutdown dose rates in steam-affected components/areas. The dose rate increases appear to be associated with increases in reactor water Co-60 activity and moisture carryover (MCO), particularly in the latter portions of the operating cycle. In addition to mechanical carryover, it has been suggested that volatile impurities such as hydrochloric acid may be transported with the BWR steam and concentrate in condensate on surfaces, such as the low p...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

234

Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

Naomi Jacobs; Martyn Amos

2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

235

State Barriers to CHP Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Every year, ACEEE collects data on regulatory policies in each state that theoretically serve to promote and discourage combined heat and power (CHP) development. In our annual State Energy Efficiency Scorecard (5), we assess the regulatory environment for CHP in each state and score states based on the favorability of their policies for CHP. As part of an effort to make this Scorecard more robust, ACEEE is conducting research to determine the practical realities of CHP development in each state from the perspective of CHP developers and technical assistance agencies. Preliminary research has shown that while certain regulations-and lack of regulations-can greatly influence the attractiveness or success of a project, there are market barriers outside the realm of policy that deserve a great deal of exploration and attention. Traditional regulatory barriers to CHP, such as interconnection procedures, air emissions regulations, and utility standby rates, do pose challenges for development in many states. However, discussions with CHP developers have revealed that many of these issues are overshadowed by economic and financial barriers, as well as other hidden market hurdles. Among these hurdles are the availability of natural gas at reasonable prices, the spark spread in a given region, the effectiveness of CHP developers, the presence of a devoted CHP champion at a host site, and the availability of financing mechanisms to mitigate the upfront capital burden on new projects. This paper will examine each region of the country and each state to determine specific barriers and outline a state-by-state market overview for CHP.

Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

237

Evaluation of Reanalysis Soil Moisture Simulations Using Updated Chinese Soil Moisture Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that no single product was obvi- ously superior in all climates, and that the mean annual cycle is generally Cabbage/beet 1981­99 12 Hulin 100 Silt clay Wheat-bean 1981­99 13 Wulanwusu 468 Sand Wheat 1981­99 14

Robock, Alan

238

T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers. Except for occasional times for TC and TD and planned dates for TYB, during FY10, the battery voltage at the TMS and instrument Nests in both T and TY tank farms remained above 12.0 V, denoting that the battery voltages were sufficient for the stations to remain functional. All the HDUs were functioning normally, but some pressure-head values were greater than the upper measurement limit. The values that exceeded the upper limit may indicate wet soil conditions and/or measurement error, but they do not imply a malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 through FY09, in FY10, the soil under natural conditions in the T Farm (Nest TA) was generally recharged during the winter period (October–March), and they discharged during the summer period (April–September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP, and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the TISB was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the TISB (Nests TC and TD), the CP-measured water content showed that ? at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water conditions beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) since the completion of the barrier decreased by 0.007 to 0.014 m3 m-3. The HDU-measured soil-water pressure at 1-m, 2-m, and 5-m depths decreased by 0.7 to 2.4 m, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the TISB (Nest TB), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than in Nests TC and TD; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes at Nest TB since the completion of the barrier were generally less than those at TC and TD, but more than those at TA. These results indicate that the TISB is performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil, and the soil is becoming drier gradually. The barrier also had some effects on the soil below the barrier edge, but at a reduced magnitude. There was no significant difference in soil-water regime between the two nests in the TY tank farm because the barrier at the TY Farm was just completed one month before the end of the FY.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

239

Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier system for a subsurface treatment area is described. The barrier system includes a first barrier formed around at least a portion of the subsurface treatment area. The first barrier is configured to inhibit fluid from exiting or entering the subsurface treatment area. A second barrier is formed around at least a portion of the first barrier. A separation space exists between the first barrier and the second barrier.

McKinzie, Billy John [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Cowan, Kenneth Michael [Sugar land, TX; Deeg, Wolfgang Friedrich Johann [Houston, TX; Wong, Sau-Wai [Rijswijk, NL

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

240

Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report  

SciTech Connect

DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier. Each instrument nest is composed of a capacitance probe (CP) with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units (HDUs), and a neutron probe (NP) access tube. The monitoring results in FY09 are summarized below. The solar panels functioned normally and could provide sufficient power to the instruments. The CP in Nest C after September 20, 2009, was not functional. The CP sensors in Nest B after July 13 and the 0.9-m CP sensor in Nest D before June 10 gave noisy data. Other CPs were functional normally. All the HDUs were functional normally but some pressure-head values measured by HDUs were greater than the upper measurement-limit. The higher-than-upper-limit values might be due to the very wet soil condition and/or measurement error but do not imply the malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 and FY08, in FY09, the soil under natural conditions (Nest A) was generally recharged during the winter period (October-March) and discharged during the summer period (April-September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the surface barrier was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the surface barrier (Nests C and D), the CP measurements showed that water content at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was very stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water condition beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage seemed occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) in FY09. The HDU-measured water pressure decreased consistently in the soil above 5-m depth, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the surface barrier (Nest B), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year except at the 0.9-m depth; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than those in Nests C and D; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes in FY09 in Nest B were less than those for C and D but more than those for A. The soil-water-pressure head was more sensitive to soil water regime changes under dry conditions. In the soil beneath the barrier, the theoretical steady-state values of pressure head is equal to the negative of the distance to groundwater table. Hence, it is expected that, in the future, while the water content become stable, the pressure head will keep decreasing for a long time (e.g., many years). These results indicate that the T Tank Farm surface barrier was performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil and the soil was becoming drier gradually. The barrier also has some effects on the soil below the barrier edge but at a reduced magnitude.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Moisture-induced embrittlement of iron aluminides. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

FeAl alloys {ge}24 at. %Al are H embrittled by both H2 gas and water vapor. This examines effect of H embrittlement by H2 gas and moisture-bearing air on tensile properties and fatigue crack growth resistance of two ordered FeAl intermetallic alloys (28, 36 at. % Al) and one disordered Fe-Al alloy (16 at. % Al). Susceptibility to embrittlement varies with both Al content and ordered state. Tensile ductility of disordered low Al alloy is not affected by moisture-bearing air, and fatigue crack growth resistance is affected only slightly by moisture. However, the higher Al alloys are severely embrittled by moisture-bearing air. Oxidation of Al with concurrent release of H2 is responsible for embrittlement of Fe3Al alloys. It is likely that the smaller amount of Al available for the oxidation reaction in the 16at. % alloy precludes such embrittling reactions. In contrast, H2 is found to be embrittling to all alloys in both cyclic and monotonic tests. Fractography shows that H2 preferentially attacks cleavage planes in these alloys. Inherent fatigue crack growth resistance in an inert environment of the low Al disordered alloy is found to be much lower than that for the high Al alloys. Fatigue crack growth rate in an embrittling environment can be expressed as superposed mechanical fatigue and corrosion-fatigue components. Fatigue crack growth tests in inert and embrittling environments are used to isolate corrosion fatigue of the crack growth rate in Fe-28at. %Al. The corrosion-fatigue component displays a frequency dependence: At lower frequencies, more time is available for penetration of H ahead of the crack tip. H transport in the Fe-Al alloys occurs primarily by dislocation-assisted transport, which allows for penetration depths of 10-100x the distance that can be achieved by bulk diffusion. An equation is developed for the corrosion-fatigue component of crack growth rate which includes stress intensity range and frequency dependence.

Castagna, A.; Stoloff, N.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Heating energy measurements of single-family houses with attics containing radiant barriers in combustion with R-11 and R-30 ceiling insulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the heating energy performance of two levels of fiberglass-batt attic insulation (R-11 and R-30) in combination with truss and horizontally installed radiant barriers. The tests, a continuation of work started in the summer of 1985, were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, during the winter of 1986-87. The measured results of the heating tests showed that a horizontal radiant barrier used with R-11 attic insulation reduced the house heating load by 9.3% compared with R-11 with no radiant barrier, while a truss barrier showed essentially no change in the heating load. Horizontal and truss barriers each reduced the heating load by 3.5% when added to R-30 attic insulation. Moisture condensed on the bottom of the horizontal barrier during cold early morning weather but usually dissipated in the warmer afternoon hours at Karns and left no accumulation in the insulation. Depending on the level of attic insulation, an annual heating and cooling HVAC savings ranging from $5 to $65 is estimated to be attainable when a radiant barrier is installed in the attic at Karns. 8 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Moisture monitoring of ferrocyanide tanks: An evaluation of methods and tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews the strengths and limitations of moisture monitoring technologies that could be used for determining moisture concentration in Hanford Site single-shell ferrocyanide waste tanks. Two technologies (neutron diffusion and near-infrared spectroscopy) are being pursued as part of the ferrocyanide program. A third technology, Raman spectroscopy, is in development as a speciation tool at the Westinghouse Hanford Company 222-S Laboratory. The potential application of Raman spectroscopy to moisture monitoring is discussed.

Meacham, J.E.; Babad, H.; Toffer, H.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Modeling and application of soil moisture at varying spatial scales with parameter scaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dissertation focuses on characterization of subpixel variability within a satellite-based remotely sensed coarse-scale soil moisture footprint. The underlying heterogeneity of coarse-scale soil moisture footprint is masked by the area-integrated properties within the sensor footprint. Therefore, the soil moisture values derived from these measurements are an area average. The variability in soil moisture within the footprint is introduced by inherent spatial variability present in rainfall, and geophysical parameters (vegetation, topography, and soil). The geophysical parameters/variables typically interact in a complex fashion to make soil moisture evolution and dependent processes highly variable, and also, introduce nonlinearity across spatio-temporal scales. To study the variability and scaling characteristics of soil moisture, a quasi-distributed Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) modeling framework is developed to simulate the hydrological dynamics, i.e., the fluxes and the state variables within the satellite-based soil moisture footprint. The modeling framework is successfully tested and implemented in different hydroclimatic regions during the research. New multiscale data assimilation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques in conjunction with the SVAT modeling framework are developed to quantify subpixel variability and assess multiscale soil moisture fields within the coarse-scale satellite footprint. Reasonable results demonstrate the potential to use these techniques to validate multiscale soil moisture data from future satellite mission e.g., Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission of NASA. The results also highlight the physical controls of geophysical parameters on the soil moisture fields for various hydroclimatic regions. New algorithm that uses SVAT modeling framework is also proposed and its application demonstrated, to derive the stochastic soil hydraulic properties (i.e., saturated hydraulic conductivity) and surface features (i.e., surface roughness and volume scattering) related to radar remote sensing of soil moisture.

Das, Narendra Narayan

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Expensive Moisture/Insulation System Problems at Several Central Florida and South Texas Nursing Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These nursing homes were designed and built in the 80's and 90's. They experienced similar design and construction deficiencies and expensive repairs. Some of the issues to be discussed in this paper are the interactions of architectural and HVAC shortcomings that result in a synergistic increase in mold, mildew, corrosion and rot. ASHRAE 62 requires 24 hour per day toilet exhaust and fresh air. What do you do to control humidity when the A/C duty cycles when the thermostat is satisfied? There needs to be humidity control designed into the HVAC system. Architects and contractors frequently take a "head in the sand" approach to wall and attic vapor barriers. This needs to be looked at realistically. We have seen several nursing homes whose moisture/sheet rock damage was severe due to design defects that allowed free interchange of hot humid air between the attic and the space inside interior partitions. Allowing air interchange between the attic and outdoors: can cause overheating of water in pipes in attics where temperaturs reach 150° F. increases condensation due to inadequate details in mechanical insulation on ducts and pipes Vinyl wall covering is well known to be a disaster in this climate but interior decorators continue to specify it on various walls. HVAC balance needs to be considered. Frequently the kitchen exhaust design is not coordinated with the HVAC engineer. There needs to be a reasonable balance between air in and air out of the building. When air is allowed to flow through the insulation system R value is reduced to near 0. In order to prevent mold and mildew and expensive failures, along with even more expensive lawsuits, the HVAC system design and the insulation system design must be integrated.

Lotz, W. A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Investigation of moisture effects on interfacial properties of an epoxy matrix composite by dynamic mechanical analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interfacial properties of polymer matrix composites are critical to the retention of the mechanical properties of the composites in a wet environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of moisture on the interfacial properties of glass bead-epoxy composites by measuring mechanical properties obtained through dynamic mechanical testing. The viscoelastic material properties of glass bead-composites, including glassy and rubbery moduli and the loss tangent (tanb) were measured. In order to characterize the relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and interfacial structure, composites with different interfacial structures were tested and the results were compared. The different interfacial structures are created by treating or not treating the glass beads with a silane coupling agent before the production of the composites. The plain epoxy matrix was also tested. The sorption behavior of the specimens was monitored by recording the percent weight gain of the water uptake periodically. In general, the measured properties reflect the effect of moisture on the properties of matrix, composites, and interphase. For the plain matrix, moisture reduces Tg, by about 15,,C, and reduces tans at Tg. These are all characteristic of plasticization of the matrix. The effects of water on composites strongly depend on the interfacial structure of the composites. The interphase with silane coupling agent provides better interfacial adhesion, thus improving stress transfer between matrix and reinforcement. The silane also reduces the mobility of the epoxy network near the glass surface. This hypothesis was supported by the greater E', higher Ea. and smaller tans at Tg for silane-treated composite compared to corresponding properties for the untreated composite. Water seems to weaken the interfacial strength of composites since water reduces the rubbery modulus of the composites but not of the plain matrix. Water reduces the interfacial bond strength less for silane-treated composites than for untreated composites. In addition, composites with poorer interfacial bond strength showed larger "additional" tan8 peaks next to the (X-transition. If we assume that poor interfacial bond strength leads to more interfacial cracks or voids, then the tans spectrum may be useful for characterizing the extent of cracking.

Wang, Jo-Yu

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Microsoft Word - Flue Gas Moisture.Final Report.Abstract.Summary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The...

249

Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavement Moisture-Damage Test. ” Transportation Researchgreater than five years. 6. Test sections may be necessaryand Parker, F. (1998). “Test for Plastic Fines in Aggregates

Harvey, John T; Lu, Qing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

P2.7 Effect of Moisture in Ammonia on LED Device Performance and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incorporation of oxygen into nitride layers from water vapor (moisture) in the ammonia not ... Characterization of the Absorbance Bleaching in Alinas/Algainas

251

Broadband Dieletric Properties of Impregnated Transformer Paper Insulation at Various Moisture Contents.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The actual life of a transformer is determined by ageing of the cellulosic insulation such as transformer paper. The presence of moisture in the… (more)

Cheng, Jialu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Experimental GOES Sounder Products for the Assessment of Downburst Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several experimental products derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounder retrievals (vertical profiles of temperature and moisture) have been developed to assist weather forecasters in assessing the potential ...

Gary P. Ellrod; James P. Nelson III; Michael R. Witiw; Lynda Bottos; William P. Roeder

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

254

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barriers to Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Preparedbuilding standards were proposed (which have since been implemented). Neighborhood planning and solar heating

York, C.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Testing for the technology barrier: Applets - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 24, 1998 ... Testing for the technology barrier: Applets. The first stage was to support the creation of a set of focussed resources by a model teacher.

256

SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lowering Barriers DOE is working to improve solar market conditions in order to create green jobs and increase the availability of clean, renewable energy for Americans. Efforts to...

257

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and tax incentives to promote solar energy; state and localstate government can promote energy conservation and surmount institutional barriers through utilities regulation, land use control, tax incentives,

York, C.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

In-situ formation of multiphase electron beam physical vapor deposited barrier coatings for turbine components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base columnar thermal barrier coating (20) on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide sheath material (32' or 34') covers the columns (28), and the sheath material is the reaction product of a precursor ceramic oxide sheath material and the base thermal barrier coating material.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Mapping in-field cotton fiber quality and relating it to soil moisture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The overarching goal of this dissertation project was to address several fundamental aspects of applying site-specific crop management for fiber quality in cotton production. A two-year (2005 and 2006) field study was conducted at the IMPACT Center, a portion of the Texas A&M Research farm near College Station, Texas, to explore the spatial variability of cotton fiber quality and quantify its relationship with in-season soil moisture content. Cotton samples and in-situ soil moisture measurements were taken from the sampling locations in both irrigated and dry areas. It was found that generally low variability (CV wireless- and GPS-based system was fabricated and developed for automated module-level fiber quality mapping. The system is composed of several subsystems distributed among harvest vehicles, and the main components of the system include a GPS receiver, wireless transceivers, and microcontrollers. Software was developed in C language to achieve GPS signal receiving, wireless communication, and other auxiliary functions. The system was capable of delineating the geographic boundary of each harvested basket and tracking it from the harvester basket to the boll buggy and the module builder. When fiber quality data are available at gins or classing offices, they can be associated with those geographic boundaries to realize fiber quality mapping. Field tests indicated that the prototype system performed as designed. The resultant fiber quality maps can be used to readily differentiate some HVI fiber parameters (micronaire, color, and loan value) at the module level, indicating the competence of the system for fiber quality mapping and its potential for site-specific fiber quality management. Future improvements needed to make system suitable for a full-scale farming operation are suggested.

Ge, Yufeng

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

262

Retrieving the Root-Zone Soil Moisture from Surface Soil Moisture or Temperature Estimates: A Feasibility Study Based on Field Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bulk soil water content must be estimated accurately for short- and medium-term meteorological modeling. A method is proposed to retrieve the total soil moisture content as well as the field capacity from observed surface parameters such as ...

J-C. Calvet; J. Noilhan; P. Bessemoulin

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electrical imagining of engineered hydraulic barriers  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to image the full-scale test emplacement of a thin-wall grout barrier installed by high-pressure jetting and a thick-wall polymer barrier installed by low-pressure permeation injection. Both case studies compared images of electrical resistivity before and after barrier installation. Barrier materials were imaged as anomalies which were more electrically conducting than the native sandy soils at the test sites. Although the spatial resolution of the ERT was insufficient to resolve flaws smaller than a reconstruction voxel (50 cm on a side), the images did show the spatial extent of the barrier materials and therefore the general shape of the structures. To verify barrier performance, ERT was also used to monitor a flood test of a thin-wall grout barrier. Electrical resistivity changes were imaged as a saltwater tracer moved through the barrier at locations which were later found to be defects in a wall or the joining of two walls.

Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating  

SciTech Connect

Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

NERSC's Hopper Breaks Petaflops Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calif.-The Department of Energy's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), already one of the world's leading centers for scientific productivity, is now home...

266

Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barrier Field Projects Durango, Colorado DOE installed a PRB in October 1995 to treat ground water from a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Durango, Colorado Read more Cañon City, Colorado ESL personnel conduct tests and help evaluate performance at other PRB sites, such as Cotter Corporation's Cañon City site in Colorado. Read more Monticello, Utah Installation of a PRB hydraulically downgradient of the Monticello, Utah, millsite was completed June 30, 1999, as an Interim Remedial Action. Read more A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is a zone of reactive material placed underground to intercept and react with a contaminant plume in ground water. Typically, PRBs are emplaced by replacing soils with reactive

267

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with incumbents earlier on in market entry process ! Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite / stainless steel hardware Acidic membrane Platinum based electrodes Cost barriers deeply embedded in core tech materials BOM-based cost barriers - 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum $500/Oz - $2,500/Oz The possibility of an OH - ion conducting membrane 4 Non-acidic membrane CellEra Took Advantage of this Opportunity A new type of membrane component with potential for strong fuel cell cost cuts was revealed in 2006, but was accompanied by general industry skepticism

268

Multi-layer waste containment barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

February 1992 R. H. Johnson 353 Heat and Moisture Sources and Sinks of Asian Monsoon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

February 1992 R. H. Johnson 353 Heat and Moisture Sources and Sinks of Asian Monsoon Precipitating The structure and properties of ,heat and moisture sources and sinks of the Asian monsoon are reviewed. Results by the Asian monsoon, with the detailed structure of this distribution determined in large part by a wide

Johnson, Richard H.

270

Original article A mathematical model to describe the change in moisture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article A mathematical model to describe the change in moisture distribution in maize distribution were observed during the treatment and modelled through a phenomenological model based injection of saturated steam at a fixed pressure into a vessel containing starch at residual moisture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Increase of Steam Moisture in the BWR-Facility KKP 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Main steam moisture in a BWR facility is determined by steam quality at core outlet and efficiency of steam separators and steam dryers. Transport of water with steam is accompanied by transport of radionuclides out of RPV resulting in enhanced radiation level in the main steam system. A remarkable increase of main steam moisture started at KKP 1 in 1997. In the following years increase of steam outlet moisture started at lower and lower core mass flow rates. Dose rate in main steam system increased simultaneously. Core mass flow rate and thus thermal power had to be reduced during stretch out operation to keep the main steam moisture below the specified boundary of 0.2 %. This boundary also guarantees, that radiological exposure remains far below approved values. The increase of main steam moisture corresponds with the application of low leakage core loading. Low leakage core loading results in enhanced steam generation in the center and in reduced steam generation in the outer zones of the core. It can be shown, that the uneven steam generation in the core became stronger over the years. Therefore, steam quality at inlet of the outer steam separators was getting lower. This resulted in higher carry over of water in this steam separators and steam dryers, thus explaining the increasing main steam moisture. KKP 1 started in 2000 with spectral shift operation. As one should expect, this resulted in reduced steam moisture. It remains the question of steam moisture in case of stretch out operation. Countermeasures are briefly discussed. (authors)

Noack, Volker [EnBW Kraftwerke AG (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system  

SciTech Connect

The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

Bussell, J.H., WHC

1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

273

TTUS FP&C Design & Building Standards Division 7 Thermal & Moisture Protection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TTUS FP&C Design & Building Standards Division 7 ­ Thermal & Moisture Protection Division for this project. Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) are not allowed without permission from the TTUS & Building Standards Division 7 ­ Thermal & Moisture Protection Bituminous Waterproofing Surfaces

Gelfond, Michael

274

Geomembrane barriers using integral fiber optics to monitor barrier integrity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a geomembrane or geotextile with embedded optical sensors that are used to monitor the status of containment site barriers. Fiber optic strands are used to form the sensors that can detect and monitor conditions at the sites such as breaches, slope creep, subsidence, leachate levels, fires, and types of materials present or leaking from the site. The strands are integral to the membrane or textile materials. The geosythetic membrane is deployed at the site in a fashion similar to carpet laying. Edges of the membrane or textile are joined to form a liner and the ends of the membrane or textile become the connection zones for obtaining signals from the sensors. A connection interface with a control system to generate Optical Time Delay Response or other light signals for transmission to the optic fiber strands or sensors and also to receive reflected signals from the sensors is included in the system. Software to interpret the sensor signals can be used in the geosythetic monitoring system.

Staller, George E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wemple, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Geomembrane barriers using integral fiber optics to monitor barrier integrity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a geomembrane or geotextile with embedded optical sensors that are used to monitor the status of containment site barriers. Fiber optic strands are used to form the sensors that can detect and monitor conditions at the sites such as breaches, slope creep, subsidence, leachate levels, fires, and types of materials present or leaking from the site. The strands are integral to the membrane or textile materials. The geosynthetic membrane is deployed at the site in a fashion similar to carpet laying. Edges of the membrane or textile are joined to form a liner and the ends of the membrane or textile become the connection zones for obtaining signals from the sensors. A connection interface with a control system to generate Optical Time Delay Response or other light signals for transmission to the optic fiber strands or sensors and also to receive reflected signals from the sensors is included in the system. Software to interpret the sensor signals can be used in the geosynthetic monitoring system. 6 figs.

Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

276

Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in Proton Bridgedand J.A. Gerlt, “The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in EnzymaticShow That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not Offer a

Khodagholian, Sevana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Market barriers to energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such market barriers'' suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

Howarth, R.B. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Andersson, B. (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Market barriers to energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such ``market barriers`` suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

Howarth, R.B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TVA has conducted a study to determine the effects of radiant barriers (RBI (i.e., material with a low emissivity surface facing an air space), when used with fiberglass, on attic heat transfer during summer and winter. This study employed five small test cells exposed to ambient conditions and having attics with gable and soffit vents. Three different RB configurations were tested and compared to the non-RR configuration. Heat flux transducers determined the heat transfer between the attic and conditioned space. The results showed that all RB con figurations significantly reduced heat gain through the ceiling during the summer. Reductions in heat gain during daylight and peak electric load hours were especially attractive. Roof temperatures for the RB configurations were only slightly higher than for the non-RB case. Heat transfer reductions for the RB configurations in the winter were smaller than those for the summer but were still significant in many, but not all, situations. Savings during night and peak electric load hours were especially attractive.

Hall, J. A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval and Mapping Using High-Frequency Microwave Satellite Observations in the Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies have shown the advantages of low-frequency (<5 GHz) microwave sensors for soil moisture estimation. Although higher frequencies have limited soil moisture retrieval capabilities, there is a vast quantity of systematic global high-...

Thomas J. Jackson; Ann Y. Hsu; Peggy E. O'Neill

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Effect of Atmospheric Water Vapor on Neutron Count in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cosmic-ray method for measuring soil moisture, used in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), relies on the exceptional ability of hydrogen to moderate fast neutrons. Sources of hydrogen near the ground, other than soil ...

R. Rosolem; W. J. Shuttleworth; M. Zreda; T. E. Franz; X. Zeng; S. A. Kurc

282

An algorithm to estimate soil moisture over vegetated areas based on in situ and remote sensing information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is proposed for estimating soil moisture over vegetated areas. The algorithm uses in situ and remote sensing information and statistical tools to estimate soil moisture at 1 km spatial resolution and at 20 cm ...

N. D. Ramírez-Beltran, C. Calderón-Arteaga, E. Harmsen, R. Vasquez, J. Gonzalez

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A Change Detection Algorithm for Retrieving High-Resolution Soil Moisture From SMAP Radar and Radiometer Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A change detection algorithm has been developed in order to obtain high-resolution soil moisture estimates from future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) L-band radar and radiometer observations. The approach combines ...

Piles, Maria

284

Springtime Soil Moisture, Natural Climatic Variability, and North American Drought as Simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous results concerning the role that summertime soil moisture reductions can play in amplifying or maintaining North American droughts are extended to include the role of springtime soil moisture reductions and the role that natural climatic ...

Robert J. Oglesby

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Development of the Soil Moisture Index to Quantify Agricultural Drought and Its “User Friendliness” in Severity-Area-Duration Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the role of soil moisture in quantifying drought through the development of a drought index using observed and modeled soil moisture. In Nebraska, rainfall is received primarily during the crop-growing season and the supply of ...

Venkataramana Sridhar; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Jinsheng You; Eric D. Hunt

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Impact of Vegetation Feedback on the Response of Precipitation to Antecedent Soil Moisture Anomalies over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies support a positive soil moisture–precipitation feedback over a major fraction of North America; that is, initial soil moisture anomalies lead to precipitation anomalies of the same sign. To investigate how vegetation feedback ...

Yeonjoo Kim; Guiling Wang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Impact of Root Weighting on the Response of Transpiration to Moisture Stress in Land Surface Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface schemes (LSSs) for large-scale climate models use a variety of different methods to represent the influence of soil moisture on transpiration. One area in which they differ is in the treatment of vertical soil moisture distribution. ...

Carl E. Desborough

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evaluation of AMSR-E-Derived Soil Moisture Retrievals Using Ground-Based and PSR Airborne Data during SMEX02  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Land Surface Microwave Emission Model (LSMEM) is used to derive soil moisture estimates over Iowa during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) field campaign, using brightness temperature data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding ...

M. F. McCabe; H. Gao; E. F. Wood

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Retrieval of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Water Content Using SSM/I Data over a Corn and Soybean Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for soil moisture and vegetation water content retrieval using Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature over a corn and soybean field region was analyzed and assessed using datasets from the Soil Moisture ...

Jun Wen; Thomas J. Jackson; Rajat Bindlish; Ann Y. Hsu; Z. Bob Su

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Characterizing Soil Physical Properties for Soil Moisture Monitoring with the North Carolina Environment and Climate Observing Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture has important implications for meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. This has led to growing interest in development of in situ soil moisture monitoring networks. Measurement interpretation is severely limited without ...

Weinan Pan; R. P. Boyles; J. G. White; J. L. Heitman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Effect of Atmospheric Water Vapor on Neutron Count in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cosmic-ray method for measuring soil moisture, used in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), relies on the exceptional ability of hydrogen to moderate fast neutrons. Sources of hydrogen near the ground, other than soil ...

R. Rosolem; W. J. Shuttleworth; M. Zreda; T. E. Franz; X. Zeng; S. A. Kurc

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Using TRMM/TMI to Retrieve Surface Soil Moisture over the Southern United States from 1998 to 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave remote sensing has been recognized as a potential method for measuring soil moisture. Combined with field observations and hydrological modeling brightness temperatures can be used to infer soil moisture states and fluxes in ...

H. Gao; E. F. Wood; T. J. Jackson; M. Drusch; R. Bindlish

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Increase in Near-Surface Atmospheric Moisture Content due to Land Use Changes: Evidence from the Observed Dewpoint Temperature Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land use change can significantly affect root zone soil moisture, surface energy balance, and near-surface atmospheric temperature and moisture content. During the second half of the twentieth century, portions of the North American Great Plains ...

Rezaul Mahmood; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Ronnie D. Leeper; Stuart A. Foster

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Role of Conservation of Mass in the Satellite-Derived Poleward Moisture Transport over the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poleward meridional moisture transport across the Southern Ocean during 1988 is investigated by applying conservation of mass to the wind derivation approach of Slonaker and Van Woert. The moisture field is from the Television and Infrared ...

Cheng-Zhi Zou; Michael L. Van Woert

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

Wing, N.R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Building America Case Study Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All PERFORMANCE DATA Insulation Ratio The R-value ratio of exterior to interior insulation (e.g., R-15 exterior insulation on R-11 cavity insulation has a ratio of 0.58). This variable controls sheathing temperature. Vapor Permeable Insulation An insulation with vapor permeance greater than five U.S. perms (e.g., rigid mineral fiber insulations). This variable controls water vapor flow and sheathing temperatures. Water Resisting Barrier A membrane that resists liquid water transfer. Permeable WRBs allow water

298

Transport Properties for Triangular Barriers in Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically study the electronic transport properties of Dirac fermions through one and double triangular barriers in graphene. Using the transfer matrix method, we determine the transmission, conductance and Fano factor. They are obtained to be various parameters dependent such as well width, barrier height and barrier width. Therefore, different discussions are given and comparison with the previous significant works is done. In particular, it is shown that at Dirac point the Dirac fermions always own a minimum conductance associated with a maximum Fano factor and change their behaviors in an oscillatory way (irregularly periodical tunneling peaks) when the potential of applied voltage is increased.

Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

299

Disposal barriers that release contaminants only by molecular diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineered barriers can slow the movement of pollutants out of land disposal facilities in several ways. If the advective velocity is low, release will be primarily by molecular diffusion. Attenuation processes also work to slow the transport of many contaminants. Barriers that cause pollutants to be released almost entirely by molecular diffusion represent the best barriers achievable. Use of thick barrier materials will maximize the breakthrough time of contaminants that diffuse through the barrier. Thin barriers with exceedingly low permeabilities will not necessarily outperform thicker, more permeable liners. In fact, if diffusion is the dominant mechanism of release, the thicker, more permeable barrier may actually outperform the thinner barrier with lower permeability.

Daniel, D.E.; Shackelford, C.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update More Documents & Publications Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Process for preparing schottky diode contacts with predetermined barrier heights  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for producing a Schottky diode having a preselected barrier height .phi..sub.Bn. The substrate is preferably n-GaAs, the metallic contact is derived from a starting alloy of the Formula [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ](Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x) wherein: .SIGMA.M is a moiety which consists of at least one M, and when more than one M is present, each M is different, M is a Group VIII metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, indium and platinum, .delta. is a stoichiometric coefficient whose total value in any given .SIGMA.M moiety is 1, and x is a positive number between 0 and 1 (that is, x ranges from greater than 0 to less than 1). Also, the starting alloy is capable of forming with the substrate a two phase equilibrium reciprocal system of the binary alloy mixture [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Ga-[.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Al-AlAs-GaAs. When members of an alloy subclass within this Formula are each preliminarily correlated with the barrier height .phi..sub.Bn of a contact producable therewith, then Schottky diodes of predetermined barrier heights are producable by sputtering and annealing. Further provided are the product Schottky diodes that are produced according to this process.

Chang, Y. Austin (Middleton, WI); Jan, Chia-Hong (Portland, OR); Chen, Chia-Ping (Madison, WI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier Annual Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In FY 2004, monitoring of the prototype Hanford barrier focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, evidence of plant and animal intrusion, and the main components of the water balance. Monitored water-balance components included precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and deep percolation. Precipitation in FY 2004 was 26 percent less than in FY 2003 but was still higher than normal. The seasonal distribution in precipitation was also different from the previous year with a 43 percent reduction in spring precipitation and a 46 percent increase in summer precipitation. The cumulative amount of water received from October 1994, through September 2004, was 2,559.58 mm on the northern half of the barrier, which is the formerly irrigated treatment, and 1,886.71 mm on the southern non-irrigated treatments. Water storage continued to show a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and declining in the spring and summer to a lower limit of about 100 mm in response to evapotranspiration. The 600-mm design storage has never been exceeded. Total drainage from the soil-covered plots range from 2.9E-4 mm to 0.22 mm or 0.003 6 0.004 percent of precipitation. Side-slope drainage was much higher at 20.9 6 2.3 percent of precipitation from the gravel and 18.6 6 5.1 percent from the riprap. There was no runoff from the barrier, but runoff from the BY tank farm following a thunderstorm in May eroded a 45-inch-deep channel into the structural fill at the toe of the riprap slope. Above-asphalt and below-asphalt moisture measurements show no evidence of deep percolation of water. Topographic surveys were conducted on the barrier surface, including the two settlement gauges and 12 creep gauges on the riprap slope using aerial photogrammetry (AP) and a global positioning system (GPS). Comparing the aerial photogrammetry (AP) and global positioning system (GPS) surveys with the traditional survey shows the barrier and side slopes to be stable. Both AP and GPS show potential for considerable cost savings without any loss in accuracy. A relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation in 1994. The formerly irrigated treatments continue to show greater cover of grasses and litter than the non-irrigated treatments. On the formerly irrigated treatments, the mean cover class was 25 to 50 percent for both grasses and shrubs. On the non-irrigated treatments, the mean cover class was 5 to 25 percent from grasses and 25 to 50 percent for shrubs. Species diversity of the vegetative community appears to have stabilized over the past several years. In addition to 12 of 17 species present in 2003 being present in 2004, two additional species were encountered. Sagebrush continues to flourish with shrubs along the perimeter showing higher biomass yield than the interior shrubs. There is evidence of sagebrush seedlings recruitment but not of rabbitbrush; the presence of gray rabbitbrush appears is declining as the barrier surface continues to stabilize. Use of the barrier surface by insects and small mammals is also evident. Small mammal burrowing on the barrier surface has become more prevalent in recent years, suggesting that the restored barrier surface is beginning to function as a recovering ecosystem. Small-mammal burrowing on the top and sides of the barrier is most prevalent on the finer-grained and disturbed soils while active ant mounds were observed on the northern and western slopes.

Ward, Andy L.; Linville, Jenifer K.; Keller, Jason M.; Seedahmed, Gamal H.

2005-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

304

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neighborhood planning and solar heating and cooling in DavisLegal Barriers to Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings.the interaction of solar energy heating/cooling/hot water

York, C.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Surprising attractive potential barriers and repulsive wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamental fact is revealed that in the old good quantum mechanics there is possible such unexpected inversion: potential barriers can drag in wave-particles and wells can push them off.

B. N. Zakhariev

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

306

Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic ...

Sheikh, J. A.

308

Photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic devices with quantum barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic or thermophotovoltaic device includes a diode formed by p-type material and n-type material joined at a p-n junction and including a depletion region adjacent to said p-n junction, and a quantum barrier disposed near or in the depletion region of the p-n junction so as to decrease device reverse saturation current density while maintaining device short circuit current density. In one embodiment, the quantum barrier is disposed on the n-type material side of the p-n junction and decreases the reverse saturation current density due to electrons while in another, the barrier is disposed on the p-type material side of the p-n junction and decreases the reverse saturation current density due to holes. In another embodiment, both types of quantum barriers are used.

Wernsman, Bernard R. (Jefferson Hills, PA)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

309

Increasing Use of Secondary Materials in Production Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are several barriers to increased use of secondary materials, particularly in metal systems, that can be addressed through innovative production ...

310

Liquid junction schottky barrier solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixture of ceric ions (Ce.sup.+4) and cerous ions (Ce.sup.+3) in an aqueous electrolyte solution forms a Schottky barrier at the interface between an active region of silicon and the electrolyte solution. The barrier height obtained for hydrogenated amorphous silicon using the Ce.sup.+4 /Ce.sup.+3 redox couple is about 1.7 eV.

Williams, Richard (Princeton, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Thermodynamic analysis on heavy metals partitioning impacted by moisture during the MSW incineration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partitioning of HMs affected by moisture was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in moisture and in temperature was opposite impact on HMs contribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extent of temperature decreased by increase in moisture determines the impact. - Abstract: A thermodynamic calculation was carried out to predict the behavior and speciation of heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration with the different moisture levels. The calculation was based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the multi-components and multi-phases closed system reaching chemical equilibrium. The calculation also indicated the reaction directions and tendencies of HMs components. The impacts of chlorine additives (No PVC, 1%PVC, and 5%PVC) and moisture on the behavior of HMs were investigated at different temperature levels in the system (750 Degree-Sign C, 950 Degree-Sign C, and 1150 Degree-Sign C). Furthermore, because the incineration temperature falls down with the increase in moisture in waste, the co-influence of moisture and temperature in combusting MSW on the HMs was also studied with the given chlorine (as 1%PVC + 0.5%NaCl). The results showed that in the non-chlorine system, the impact of the moisture on Pb, Zn, and Cu was not significant, and the ratio of compound transformation was less than 10%, except the Cd compounds at 950 Degree-Sign C and 1150 Degree-Sign C. In the system with low chlorine (as 1%PVC) at constant temperature, the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferred to oxides, and when the content of chlorine rose up (as 5%PVC), the ratio of the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferring to oxides fell down noticeably. When the moisture varied together with the temperature, the Zn and Cu compounds transferred from chlorides to oxides with increase in moisture as well as decrease in temperature. At the temperature of 700-1000 Degree-Sign C, the impact of temperature on Pb and Cd was little and the moisture was the main factor; while at the temperature of 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C, the impact of increase in moisture and decrease in temperature on Pb and Cd was almost equal and reversed.

Zhang Yanguo; Li Qinghai; Jia Jinyan [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Meng Aihong, E-mail: mengah@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ground-Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer from Buildings; Part 2: Application (Preprint)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper the effects of moisture on the heat transfer from two basic types of building foundations, a slab-on-grade and a basement, are examined. A two-dimensional finite element heat and moisture transfer program is used to show the effects of precipitation, soil type, foundation insulation, water table depth, and freezing on the heat transfer from the building foundation. Comparisons are made with a simple heat conduction model to illustrate the dependency of the soil thermal conductivity on moisture content.

Deru, M.P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Kirkpatrick, A.T. (Colorado State University)

2001-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

313

Validation and Use of GOES Sounder Moisture Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounders have provided quality hourly radiances and derived products over the continental United States and adjacent oceans for more than five years. The products derived from the ...

Timothy J. Schmit; Wayne F. Feltz; W. Paul Menzel; James Jung; Andrew P. Noel; James N. Heil; James P. Nelson III; Gary S. Wade

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERFACE AND FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy Evaluation Criteria. Organizational Barriers to MSW Ener.gy Organizational Barriers to Wind Energy

Schladale, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar water heating systems built during the past ten years represent the beginning of a strong North American Solar Industry. The opportunities provided through Government assistance programs have enabled the Industry to develop products, standards and the research capability to the edge of commercially realisable solar water heating systems for residential, commercial and industrial applications. With continued Government support and access to creative financing programs, the Solar Industry is a short step away from creating large demands from large sectors of the economy.

Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The Effect of Heterogeneous Soil Moisture on a Summer Baroclinic Circulation in the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermally induced circulations, similar to sea breezes, may be established in the presence of horizontal gradients in soil moisture, soil type, vegetation, or snow cover. The expense of extensive observational networks and the relatively small-...

Jerome D. Fast; Michael D. McCorcle

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Estimating Watershed Evapotranspiration with PASS. Part I: Inferring Root-Zone Moisture Conditions Using Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model framework for parameterized subgrid-scale surface fluxes (PASS) has been modified and applied as PASS1 to use satellite data, models, and limited surface observations to infer root-zone available moisture (RAM) content with high spatial ...

J. Song; M. L. Wesely; R. L. Coulter; E. A. Brandes

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Assessing the Influence of Soil Moisture on Seasonal Climate Variability with AGCMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ensembles of boreal summer atmospheric simulations, spanning a 15-yr period (1979–93), are performed with the Action de Recherche Petite Echelle Grande Echelle (ARPEGE) climate model to investigate the possible influence of soil moisture (SM) on ...

H. Douville

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Relationships between Gulf of California Moisture Surges and Precipitation in the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships between Gulf of California moisture surges and precipitation in the southwestern United States are examined. Standard surface observations are used to identify gulf surge events at Yuma, Arizona, for a multiyear (July–August of 1977–...

R. W. Higgins; W. Shi; C. Hain

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Reconciling Simulated Moisture Fluxes Resulting from Alternate Hydrologic Model Time Steps and Energy Budget Closure Assumptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrological model predictions are sensitive to model forcings, input parameters, and the parameterizations of physical processes. Analyses performed for the Variable Infiltration Capacity model show that the resulting moisture fluxes are ...

Ingjerd Haddeland; Dennis P. Lettenmaier; Thomas Skaugen

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Determining Soil Moisture from Geosynchronous Satellite Infrared Data: A Feasibility Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the absence of a current capability for global routine daily soil moisture observation, an infrared technique using existing instrumentation is sought. Numerical modeling results are reported from a pilot study, the purpose of which was to ...

Peter J. Wetzel; David Atlas; Robert H. Woodward

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Soil Moisture Initialization Error and Subgrid Variability of Precipitation in Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Offline simulations over the conterminous United States (CONUS) with a land surface model are used to address two issues relevant to the forecasting of large-scale seasonal streamflow: (i) the extent to which errors in soil moisture initialization ...

Randal D. Koster; Gregory K. Walker; Sarith P. P. Mahanama; Rolf H. Reichle

323

Using a Soil Hydrology Model to Obtain Regionally Averaged Soil Moisture Values  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Soil Hydrology Model (SHM) was modified, and daily simulations of soil volumetric water content were made at 38 Oklahoma Mesonet sites for July 1997. These model results were compared with soil moisture observations made at the mesonet sites ...

Todd M. Crawford; David J. Stensrud; Toby N. Carlson; William J. Capehart

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Midlatitude Eddies, Storm-Track Diffusivity, and Poleward Moisture Transport in Warm Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work using both simplified and comprehensive GCMs has shown that poleward moisture transport across midlatitudes follows Clausius–Clapeyron scaling at temperatures close to modern, but that it reaches a maximum at sufficiently elevated ...

Rodrigo Caballero; John Hanley

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Ohio River Valley Winter Moisture Conditions Associated with the Pacific–North American Teleconnection Pattern  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern and Ohio River Valley (ORV) winter precipitation and hydrology is described. The PNA is significantly linked to moisture variability in an area extending from ...

Jill S. M. Coleman; Jeffrey C. Rogers

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Retrieval of Clear Sky Moisture Profiles using the 183 GHz Water Vapor Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for retrieving vertical moisture profiles from downlooking radiometric measurements of atmospheric radiation near the 183 GHz water vapor line is described. A simulation experiment utilizing this retrieval technique and temperature ...

Ramesh K. Kakar

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Data Assimilation in the Presence of Forecast Bias: The GEOS Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe the application of the unbiased sequential analysis algorithm developed by Dee and da Silva to the Goddard Earth Observing System moisture analysis. The algorithm estimates the slowly varying, systematic component of model ...

Dick P. Dee; Ricardo Todling

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Generation of Moist Potential Vorticity in Extratropical Cyclones. Part II: Sensitivity to Moisture Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of different moisture distributions on the generation of moist potential vorticity (MPV) in extratropical cyclones are examined by numerical simulations. These sensitivity experiments show that low-level negative MPV generation ...

Han-Ru Cho; Zuohao Cao

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Sensitivity of the Great Plains Severe-Storm Environment to Soil-Moisture Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the influence of differences in ground moisture over the southern Great Plairs and the Mexican plateau on the formation and evolution of the dryline, the elevated mixed layer, and the local planetary boundary layer. These ...

John M. Lanicci; Toby N. Carlson; Thomas T. Warner

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Sensitivity of Forecast Rainfall in a Texas Convective System to Soil Moisture and Convective Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of soil moisture on the forecast of a small-scale convective system, and sensitivity of results to the convective parameterization used, are investigated through Eta Model simulations (run in an operational-like setting) of a ...

William A. Gallus Jr.; Moti Segal

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Satellite Estimation of the Surface Energy Balance, Moisture Availability and Thermal Inertia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for inferring the distribution of surface heat and evaporative fluxes and the ground moisture availability and thermal inertia (ground conductive capacity) is used to analyze two urbanized areas, Los Angeles and St. Louis. The technique ...

Toby N. Carlson; Joseph K. Dodd; Stanley G. Benjamin; James N. Cooper

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Intraseasonal Variability of Moisture and Rainfall over the South American Altiplano  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation over the South American Altiplano (about 4000 m above sea level) is mostly concentrated during the austral summer (December–January–February) when mean easterly flow in the middle and upper troposphere favors the moisture transport ...

RenéD. Garreaud

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Heat and Moisture Budgets and Circulation Characteristics of a Frontal Squall Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat and moisture budgets and mesoscale circulation features for the developing, mature, and dissipating stages of an intense frontal squall line that occurred in the central United States are investigated. The slow propagating behavior of the ...

Xin Lin; Richard H. Johnson

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Comparison of the annual cycles of moisture supply over southwest and southeast China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variation in regional precipitation over Southeast and Southwest China depends strongly on externally imported moisture rather than local evaporation. Associated with the different climate over the two regions, great discrepancies appear in ...

Xiuzhen Li; Wen Zhou; Chongyin Li; Jie Song

335

The Effect of Moisture on Layer Thicknesses Used to Monitor Global Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mean layer virtual temperature estimates, based on geopotential height measurements, form the basis for one approach being used to monitor changes in upper-air temperature. However, virtual temperature is a function of atmospheric moisture ...

W. P. Elliott; D. J. Gaffen; J. K. Angell; J. D. W. Kahl

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Thermodynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To identify the main thermodynamic processes that sustain the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an eddy available potential energy budget analysis is performed on a regional model simulation with moisture constrained by observations. The model ...

Samson Hagos; L. Ruby Leung; Jimy Dudhia

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

A Lagrangian Climatology of Tropical Moisture Exports to the Northern Hemispheric Extratropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Case studies have shown that heavy precipitation events and rapid cyclogenesis in the extratropics can be fueled by moist and warm tropical air masses. Often the tropical moisture export (TME) occurs through a longitudinally confined region in ...

Peter Knippertz; Heini Wernli

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Deriving soil moisture with the combined L-band radar and radiometer measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we develop a combined active/passive technique to estimate surface soil moisture with the focus on the short vegetated surfaces. We first simulated a database for both active and passive signals under SMAP's ...

Shi, Jiancheng

339

Influence of the Background Wind on the Local Soil Moisture-Precipitation Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of soil moisture anomalies on airmass convection over semi-arid regions has been recognized in several studies. The underlying mechanisms remain partly unclear. An open question is why wetter soils can result in either an increase ...

Paul Froidevaux; Linda Schlemmer; Juerg Schmidli; Wolfgang Langhans; Christoph Schär

340

Implications of Parameter Uncertainty on Soil Moisture Drought Analysis in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated soil moisture is increasingly used to characterize agricultural droughts but its parametric uncertainty, which essentially affects all hydrological fluxes and state variables, is rarely considered for identifying major drought events. In ...

Luis Samaniego; Rohini Kumar; Matthias Zink

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Estimation of soil moisture in paddy field using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In paddy field, monitoring soil moisture is required for irrigation scheduling and water resource allocation, management and planning. The current study proposes an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model to estimate soil moisture in paddy field with limited meteorological data. Dynamic of ANN model was adopted to estimate soil moisture with the inputs of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and precipitation. ETo was firstly estimated using the maximum, average and minimum values of air temperature as the inputs of model. The models were performed under different weather conditions between the two paddy cultivation periods. Training process of model was carried out using the observation data in the first period, while validation process was conducted based on the observation data in the second period. Dynamic of ANN model estimated soil moisture with R2 values of 0.80 and 0.73 for training and validation processes, respectively, indicated that tight linear correlations between observed and estimated values of s...

Arif, Chusnul; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Doi, Ryoichi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

How Does Soil Moisture Influence the Early Stages of the South American Monsoon?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article discusses the feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation during the early stages of the South American monsoon. The system achieves maximum precipitation over the southern Amazon basin and the Brazilian highlands during the ...

Estela A. Collini; Ernesto H. Berbery; Vicente R. Barros; Matthew E. Pyle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Numerical Simulations of Effects of Soil Moisture and Modification by Mountains over New Zealand in Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically most soil moisture–land surface impact studies have focused on continents because of the important forecasting and climate implications involved. For a relatively small isolated mountainous landmass in the ocean such as New Zealand, ...

Yang Yang; Michael Uddstrom; Mike Revell; Phil Andrews; Hilary Oliver; Richard Turner; Trevor Carey-Smith

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The Effect of Satellite Rainfall Error Modeling on Soil Moisture Prediction Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of satellite rainfall error structure on soil moisture simulations with the NASA Catchment land surface model. Specifically, the study contrasts a complex satellite rainfall error model (SREM2D) with the standard ...

Viviana Maggioni; Rolf H. Reichle; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Using a Microwave Emission Model to Estimate Soil Moisture from ESTAR Observations during SGP99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1999 Southern Great Plains Hydrology Experiment (SGP99) provides comprehensive datasets for evaluating microwave remote sensing of soil moisture algorithms that involve complex physical properties of soils and vegetation. The Land Surface ...

Huilin Gao; Eric F. Wood; Matthias Drusch; Wade Crow; Thomas J. Jackson

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A Revised Framework for Analyzing Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Data: Derivation and Interpretation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A revised framework for the analysis of soil moisture memory characteristics of climate models and observational data is derived from the approach proposed by Koster and Suarez. The resulting equation allows the expression of the month-to-month ...

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Randal D. Koster

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Effects of Soil Moisture on the Responses of Soil Temperatures to Climate Change in Cold Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At high latitudes, changes in soil moisture could alter soil temperatures independently of air temperature changes by interacting with the snow thermal rectifier. The authors investigated this mechanism with model experiments in the Community Land ...

Zachary M. Subin; Charles D. Koven; William J. Riley; Margaret S. Torn; David M. Lawrence; Sean C. Swenson

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Energy Balance Partitioning and Net Radiation Controls on Soil Moisture–Precipitation Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of model runs using the University of Oklahoma’s Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) were conducted to investigate the relative impacts of energy balance partitioning and net radiation on soil moisture–precipitation feedbacks in ...

Aubrey R. Jones; Nathaniel A. Brunsell

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Soil Moisture Feedbacks on Convection Triggers: The Role of Soil–Plant Hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linkages between soil moisture dynamics and convection triggers, defined here as the first crossing between the boundary layer height (hBL) and lifting condensation level (hLCL), are complicated by a large number of interacting processes ...

Mario Siqueira; Gabriel Katul; Amilcare Porporato

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Paleoclimatic Analogs to Twentieth-Century Moisture Regimes Across the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumental Palmer Drought Severity Indexes (PDSI) averaged over the western United States and Great Plains document three major decadal moisture regimes during the twentieth century: the early twentieth-century pluvial, the Dust Bowl drought, ...

Falko K. Fye; David W. Stahle; Edward R. Cook

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Relations between Soil Moisture and Satellite Vegetation Indices in the U.S. Corn Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-derived vegetation indices extracted over locations representative of midwestern U.S. cropland and forest for the period 1990–94 are analyzed to determine the sensitivity of the indices to neutron probe soil moisture measurements of the ...

Jimmy O. Adegoke; Andrew M. Carleton

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE) is critical for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles along with land surface temperature from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounder radiances; it is also critical to assimilating IR ...

Zhigang Yao; Jun Li; Jinlong Li; Hong Zhang

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Local Advection of Momentum, Heat, and Moisture during the Melt of Patchy Snow Covers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical atmospheric boundary layer model, based on higher-order turbulence closure assumptions, is developed and used to simulate the local advection of momentum, heat, and moisture during the melt of patchy snow covers over a 10-km ...

Glen E. Liston

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Transport of Atmospheric Moisture during Three Extreme Rainfall Events over the Mackenzie River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagrangian trajectories were computed for three extreme summer rainfall events (with rainfall exceeding 100 mm) over the southern Mackenzie River basin to test the hypothesis that the low-level moisture feeding these rainstorms can be traced back ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Soil Moisture Estimation Using Thermal Inertia: Potential and Sensitivity to Data Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal inertia retrieval using a thermal infrared remote sensing technique has been examined as a possible method for estimating soil moisture. This method is an application of the theory that thermal inertia highly correlates with soil water ...

Dai Matsushima; Reiji Kimura; Masato Shinoda

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Stochastic Models for the Kinematics of Moisture Transport and Condensation in Homogeneous Turbulent Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of a condensing passive scalar is studied as a prototype model for the kinematics of moisture transport on isentropic surfaces. Condensation occurs whenever the scalar concentration exceeds a specified local saturation value. Since ...

Paul A. O’Gorman; Tapio Schneider

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Impact of ASCAT soil moisture assimilation on regional precipitation forecasts: A case study for Austria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, remotely sensed soil moisture data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on the meteorological operational (METOP) satellite are assimilated in the regional forecasting model ALADIN-AUSTRIA using a simplified Extended Kalman ...

Stefan Schneider; Yong Wang; Wolfgang Wagner; Jean-Francois Mahfouf

358

Ability to Forecast Regional Soil Moisture with a Distributed Hydrological Model Using ECMWF Rainfall Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study mimics an online forecast system to provide nine day-ahead forecasts of regional soil moisture. It uses modified ensemble rainfall forecasts from the numerical weather prediction model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather ...

J. M. Schuurmans; M. F. P. Bierkens

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A Study of Satellite-derived Moisture with Emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) moisture retrievals are compared to the National Meteorological Center Regional Analysis and Forecast System (RAFS) 12-h forecast and to 1200 UTC rawinsondes over the United ...

Anthony J. Schreiner; Christopher M. Hayden; Cecil A. Paris

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Where Does the Iberian Peninsula Moisture Come From? An Answer Based on a Lagrangian Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the main sources of moisture in the atmosphere over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) at annual and seasonal scales using FLEXPART, a powerful new 3D Lagrangian diagnosis method that identifies the humidity contributions to the ...

Luis Gimeno; Raquel Nieto; Ricardo M. Trigo; Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano; Juan Ignacio López-Moreno

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Partitioning Mass, Heat, and Moisture Budgets of Explicitly Simulated Cumulus Ensembles into Convective and Stratiform Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated data from the UCLA Cumulus Ensemble Model (CEM) are analyzed to partition mass, heat, and moisture budgets of cumulus ensembles into convective and stratiform components. A method based primarily on the horizontal distribution of ...

Kuan-Man Xu

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Soil Moisture, Snow, and Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface model experiments are used to quantify, for a number of U.S. river basins, the contributions (isolated and combined) of soil moisture and snowpack initialization to the skill of seasonal streamflow forecasts at multiple leads and for ...

Sarith Mahanama; Ben Livneh; Randal Koster; Dennis Lettenmaier; Rolf Reichle

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Analysis of Soil Moisture from Near-Surface Parameters: A Feasibility Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to estimate soil moisture from the evolution of atmospheric parameters near the surface (temperature and relative humidity) if a realistic surface transfer model is available. ...

Jean-François Mahfouf

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The Impacts of Convective Parameterization and Moisture Triggering on AGCM-Simulated Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the impacts of convective parameterization and moisture convective trigger on convectively coupled equatorial waves simulated by the Seoul National University (SNU) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Three different ...

Jia-Lin Lin; Myong-In Lee; Daehyun Kim; In-Sik Kang; Dargan M. W. Frierson

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Potential Predictability of U.S. Summer Climate with “Perfect” Soil Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential predictability of surface-air temperature and precipitation over the United States was assessed for a GCM forced by observed sea surface temperatures and an estimate of observed soil-moisture content. The latter was obtained by ...

Fanglin Yang; Arun Kumar; K-M. Lau

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Evaluation of Soil Moisture in the NCEP–NCAR and NCEP–DOE Global Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares soil moisture analyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) global reanalysis (R-1) and the later NCEP– Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Model ...

Cheng-Hsuan Lu; Masao Kanamitsu; John O. Roads; Wesley Ebisuzaki; Kenneth E. Mitchell; Dag Lohmann

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed Soil Moisture Observing Networks: Design, Instrumentation, and Preliminary Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program has deployed soil moisture observing networks in the watersheds of the Russian River and the North Fork (NF) of the American River in northern California, and the San Pedro River in southeastern ...

Robert J. Zamora; F. Martin Ralph; Edward Clark; Timothy Schneider

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Influence of Soil Moisture on the Asian and African Monsoons. Part II: Interannual Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relevance of soil moisture (SM) for simulating the interannual climate variability has not been much investigated until recently. Much more attention has been paid on SST anomalies, especially in the Tropics where the El Niño–Southern ...

H. Douville

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Evaluation of the Optimum Interpolation and Nudging Techniques for Soil Moisture Analysis Using FIFE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initialization of land surface prognostic variables is a crucial issue for short- and medium-range forecasting as well as at seasonal timescales. In this study, two sequential soil moisture analysis schemes are tested, both based on the ...

Hervé Douville; Pedro Viterbo; Jean-François Mahfouf; Anton C. M. Beljaars

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The Effects of Cumulus Moisture Transports on the Simulation of Climate with a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid cumulus parameterization was developed to study the effects of cumulus heat and moisture transports on climate simulations. This parameterization consists of a cumulus mass flux representation of the convective fluxes of heat and ...

Bruce A. Albrecht; V. Ramanathan; Byron A. Boville

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Large-Scale Heat and Moisture Budgets over the ASTEX Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rawinsonde data collected from the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) were used to investigate the mean and temporal characteristics of large-scale heat and moisture budgets for a 2-week period in June 1992. During this period a ...

Paul E. Ciesielski; Wayne H. Schubert; Richard H. Johnson

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Comparing Aerosol and Low-Level Moisture Influences on Supercell Tornadogenesis: Three-Dimensional Idealized Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four three-dimensional, nested-grid numerical simulations were performed using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to compare the effects of aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to those of low-level moisture [and thus ...

David G. Lerach; William R. Cotton

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A Preliminary Study of Severe Wind-Producing MCSs in Environments of Limited Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An examination of severe wind-producing mesoscale convective systems that occur in environments of very limited moisture is presented. Such systems, herein referred to as low-dewpoint derechos (LDDs), are difficult to forecast as they form in ...

Stephen F. Corfidi; Sarah J. Corfidi; David A. Imy; Allen L. Logan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Influence of MODIS-derived dynamic vegetation on VIC-simulated soil moisture in Oklahoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture-vegetation interactions are an important component of land-atmosphere coupling, especially in semi-arid regions such as the North American Great Plains. However, many land surface models parameterize vegetation using an interannually-...

Trent W. Ford; Steven M. Quiring

376

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support January 2004 Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

377

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update More Documents & Publications Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

378

Continuous wave acoustic method for determination of moisture content in agricultural soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work deals with the problem of measuring moisture content in agricultural soil by means of an on-site, easy to use and real-time acoustic wave system. The method is based on the propagation of an acoustic continuous wave (CW) with frequencies below ... Keywords: Continuous wave, Irrigation monitoring and control, Soil moisture measurement, Sound propagation in soil, Speed of sound, Texture of soil, Transit time

R. K. Sharma; A. K. Gupta

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Analysis of organic carbon and moisture in Hanford single-shell tank waste  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a revised analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory involving the organic carbon laboratory measurement data for Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) obtained from a review of the laboratory analytical data. This activity has as its objective to provide a best-estimate, including confidence levels, of total organic carbon (TOC) and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford. The TOC and moisture information presented in this report is useful as part of the criteria to identify SSTs for additional measurements, or monitoring for the Organic Safety Program. In April 1994, an initial study of the organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tanks was completed at PNL. That study reflected the estimates of TOC based on tank characterizations datasets that were available at the time. Also in that study, estimation of dry basis TOC was based on generalized assumptions pertaining to the moisture of the tank wastes. The new information pertaining to tank moisture and TOC data that has become available from the current study influences the best estimates of TOC in each of the SSTs. This investigation of tank TOC and moisture has resulted in improved estimates based on waste phase: saltcake, sludge, or liquid. This report details the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the estimates of TOC and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford.

Toth, J.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Lerchen, M.E.; Hill, J.G.; Whitney, P.D.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R&D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo- transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Beller, John Michael; Geesey, Gill Gregroy; Glenn, David Frankie; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Martian, Pete; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Porro, Indrek; Southworth, Finis Hio; Steffler, Eric Darwin; Stormberg, Angelica Isabel; Stormberg, Gregory John; Versteeg, Roelof Jan; White, Gregory J

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

383

Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal and Regulatory Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2006/1236 2006/1236 June 23, 2006 International Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal Barriers Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

384

Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The relationship between isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. Calculations have been carried out for $^{264}$Fm, $^{272}$Ds, $^{278}$112, $^{292}$114, and $^{312}$124. For nuclei around $^{278}$112 produced in "cold fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy as compared to the nuclei around $^{292}$114 synthesized in "hot fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and saddle-point temperatures. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied.

J. C. Pei; W. Nazarewicz; J. A. Sheikh; A. K. Kerman

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

385

Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, D.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Barriers for Residential and Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings Diana Hun, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory dehun@ornl.gov 865-574-5139 April 4, 2013 BTO Program Peer Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement & Project Focus - Air leakage is a significant contributor to HVAC loads - ~50% in residential buildings (Sherman and Matson 1997) - ~33% of heating loads in office buildings (Emmerich et al. 2005) - Airtightness of buildings listed in BTO prioritization tool

388

Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Barriers for Residential and Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings Diana Hun, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory dehun@ornl.gov 865-574-5139 April 4, 2013 BTO Program Peer Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement & Project Focus - Air leakage is a significant contributor to HVAC loads - ~50% in residential buildings (Sherman and Matson 1997) - ~33% of heating loads in office buildings (Emmerich et al. 2005) - Airtightness of buildings listed in BTO prioritization tool

389

Transmission line including support means with barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

Carver, D.W.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

391

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture damage, is defined as the progressive loss of structural integrity of the mixture that is primarily caused by the presence of moisture in liquid or vapor state. Moisture damage is associated with the development of different physical, mechanical, and chemical processes occurring within the microstructure of the mixture at different intensities and rates. Although there have been important advancements in identifying and characterizing this phenomenon, there is still a lack of understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring at the microscopic level. This situation has motivated the research work reported in this dissertation. The main objective of this dissertation is to formulate and apply a numerical micromechanical model of moisture-induced damage in asphalt mixtures. The model focuses on coupling the effects of moisture diffusion—one of the three main modes of moisture transport within asphalt mixtures—with the mechanical performance of the microstructure. Specifically, the model aims to account for the effect of moisture diffusion on the degradation of the viscoelastic bulk matrix of the mixture (i.e., cohesive degradation) and on the gradual deterioration of the adhesive bonds between the aggregates and the asphalt matrix (i.e., adhesive degradation). The micromechanical model was applied to study the role of some physical and mechanical properties of the constitutive phases of the mixtures on the susceptibility of the mixture to moisture damage. The results from this analysis suggest that the diffusion coefficients of the asphalt matrix and aggregates, as well as the bond strength of the aggregate-matrix interface, have the most influence on the moisture susceptibility of the mixtures. The micromechanical model was further used to investigate the influence of the void phase of asphalt mixtures on the generation of moisture-related deterioration processes. Two different probabilistic-based approaches were used to accomplish this objective. In the first approach, a volumetric distribution of air voids sizes measured using X-Ray Computed Tomography in a dense-graded asphalt mixture was used to generate probable void structures in a microstructure of an asphalt mixture. In the second approach, a stochastic modeling technique based on random field theory was used to generate probable air voids distributions of the mixture. In this second approach, the influence of the air voids was accounted for by making the physical and mechanical properties of the asphalt matrix dependent on probable voids distributions. Although both approaches take into consideration the characteristics of the air void phase on the mechanical response of the mixtures subjected to moist environments, the former explicitly introduces the air phase within the microstructure while the latter indirectly includes its effects by modifying the material properties of the bulk matrix. The results from these simulations demonstrated that the amount, variability and location of air voids are decisive in determining the moisture-dependent performance of asphalt mixtures. The results from this dissertation provide new information on the kinetics of moisture damage mechanisms in asphalt mixtures. In particular, the results obtained from applying the micromechanical model permitted identification of the relative influence of the characteristics of the constitutive phases of a mixture on its moisture-related mechanical performance. This information can be used as part of design methodologies of asphalt mixtures, and/or as an input in life-cycle analysis models and maintenance programs of road infrastructure.

Caro Spinel, Silvia

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Elastic scattering of {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb at energies around the Coulomb barrier  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the dynamical effects of the halo structure of {sup 11}Li on the scattering on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. This experiment was performed at ISAC-II at TRIUMF with a world record in production of the post-accelerated {sup 11}Li beam. As part of this study we report here on the first measurement of the elastic cross section of the core nucleus, i.e. {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb, at energies around the Coulomb barrier. A preliminary optical model analysis has been performed in order to extract a global optical potential to describe the measured angular distributions.

Cubero, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); CICANUM, Universidad de Costa Rica, Apdo. 2060, San Jose (Costa Rica); Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison, E-41092, Sevilla (Spain); Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Buchmann, L.; Shotter, A.; Walden, P. [TRIUMF, V6T2A3 Vancouver B.C. (Canada); Diget, D. G.; Fulton, B. [Department of Physics, University of York, YO10 5DD Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Fynbo, H. O. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University ofAarhus, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Galaviz, D. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Gomez-Camacho, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison, E-41092, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mukha, I. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidadde Valencia (Spain)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Field study of gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions: Protective Barrier Program Status Reprt - FY 1989  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) are collaborating on a field study of the effects of gravel admixtures on plant growth and soil water storage in protective barriers. Protective barriers are engineered earthern covers designed to prevent water, plants, and animals from contacting buried waste and transporting contaminants to groundwater or the land surface. Some of the proposed designs include gravel admixtures or gravel mulches on the barrier surface to control soil loss by wind and runoff. The purpose of this study is to measure, in a field setting, the influence of surface gravel additions on soil water storage and plant cover. The study plots are located northwest of the Yakima Gate in the McGee Ranch old field. Here we report the status of work completed in FY 1989 on the creation of a data management system, a test of water application uniformity, field calibration of neutron moisture gages, and an analysis of the response of plants to various combinations of gravel admixtures and increased rainfall. 23 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

Waugh, W.J.; Thiede, M.E.; Kemp, C.J.; Cadwell, L.L. Link, S.O.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

1963-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duct leakage was a key factor in moisture Duct leakage was a key factor in moisture damage in manufactured homes in humid climates. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 2. House-as-a-System Solutions 2.1 New Homes with Whole-House Packages Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing Research by Building America diagnosed the causes and prescribed a cure that dramatically reduced moisture problems in manufactured housing in Florida. In the late 1990s, Building America researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) worked with manufactured home builders to diagnose moisture problems in homes in Florida. Moisture issues were so severe that in some homes researchers could push their fingers through the saturated drywall. Using a

397

Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

P. Dixon

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

399

Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc.). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

Banovic, S.W.; Chan, H.M.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER  

SciTech Connect

In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations, indicating some loss of reductive capacity within the aquifer. The Technical Assistance Team (TAT) was requested to perform the following activities: (1) evaluate the most probable condition(s) that has led to the presence of Cr(VI) in 12 different barrier wells (i.e. premature loss of reductive capacity), (2) recommend methods for determining the cause of the problem, (3) recommend methods for evaluating the magnitude of the problem, (4) recommend practicable method(s) for mending the barrier that involves a long-term solution, and (5) recommend methods for extending the barrier to the northeast (e.g., changing injection procedure, changing or augmenting the injected material). Since the March 2004 workshop, a decision has been made to place a hold on the barrier extension until more is known about the cause of the problem. However, the report complies with the original request for information on all of the above activities, but focuses on determining the cause of the problem and mending of the existing barrier.

PETERSEN, S.W.

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Crack model for toughness of green parts with moisture or a fluid binder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is presented to predict the toughness, KIC, of green ceramics based on the binding forces of meniscuses formed between particles near the tip of the critical flaw. The model considers capillary pressure, surface tension and the viscous flow of binder. Calculations were determined for moisture only but the model can also be applied to binder meniscuses. Capillary pressure is highest at low moisture content. By using well established force distance relationships for the meniscus between single particles, toughness was determined as a function of moisture content. For non-agglomerated particles, KIC increases with moisture content and decreases with contact angle and no particle size dependence was found. On the other hand, if particles are agglomerated and the meniscus is between agglomerates, the toughness is particles size dependent and the toughness reaches a maximum at low moisture content. This model assumes that the capillary pressure is transmitted throughout the green part. The calculated values of KIC agree approximately with the measured toughness values of binderless green parts having two different specific surface areas.

W. Roger Cannon; Paul A. Lessing; Larry D. Zuck

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell with thin doped region adjacent metal Schottky barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a thin highly doped p-type region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon disposed between a Schottky barrier high work function metal and the intrinsic region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon wherein said high work function metal and said thin highly doped p-type region forms a surface barrier junction with the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer. The thickness and concentration of p-type dopants in said p-type region are selected so that said p-type region is fully ionized by the Schottky barrier high work function metal. The thin highly doped p-type region has been found to increase the open circuit voltage and current of the photovoltaic device.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Wronski, Christopher R. (Princeton, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon andamount and timing, N availability, and plant communityparticularly as water availability was increased. These

St. Clair, S.B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

The Transmission of Rossby Waves through Basin Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of a basin with a topographic barrier to spatially localized and time periodic forcing is considered. The barrier, which almost completely divides the full basin into two adjacent subbasins, is offered as a model of either a ...

Joseph Pedlosky

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sensitivity of Global Mixing and Fluxes to Isolated Transport Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of isolated transport barriers on the global mixing and fluxes of a tracer are investigated, where a barrier is defined as a local minimum in effective diffusivity. An idealized 1D model with a prescribed diffusivity profile, with or ...

Noboru Nakamura

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

A Climatology of Wintertime Barrier Winds off Southeast Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climatology of barrier winds along the southeastern coast of Greenland is presented based on 20 yr of winter months (1989–2008) from the ECMWF Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim). Barrier wind events occur predominantly at two locations: Denmark ...

B. E. Harden; I. A. Renfrew; G. N. Petersen

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

408

New Peak Moisture Design Data in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 26 of the 1997 edition of the Handbook of Fundamentals published by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) contains climatic design data that has been completely revised, recalculated and expanded. Designers of air conditioning systems for hot and humid climates will be pleased to note that, for the first time, the chapter contains values for peak moisture conditions. This is in sharp contrast to older editions, which contained only the average moisture during periods of peak dry bulb temperatures. The new data show that using earlier, temperature-based data for humidity design underestimates the true peak moisture loads by 30 to 50% depending on the humidity control level in the space. This paper explains the new data elements and suggests some of its potential implications for engineers designing air conditioning systems for hot and humid climates.

Harriman, L.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to identify the main thermodynamic processes that sustain the Madden Julian Oscillation, an eddy available potential energy budget analysis is performed on a WRF simulation with moisture constrained by observations. The model realistically simulates the two MJO episodes observed during the winter of 2007-2008. The analysis shows that instabilities and damping associated with variations in diabatic heating and energy transport work in concert to provide the MJO with its observed characteristics. The results are used to construct a simplified paradigm of MJO thermodynamics. Furthermore, the effect of moisture nudging on the simulation is analyzed to understand the limitations of the model cumulus parameterization. Without moisture nudging, the parameterization fails to provide adequate low-level (upper-level) moistening during the early (late) stage of the MJO active phase. The moistening plays a critical role in providing stratiform heating variability that is an important source of eddy available potential energy for the model MJO.

Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Induction of enhanced methane oxidation in compost: Temperature and moisture response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Landfilling is one of the most common ways of municipal solid waste disposal. Degradation of organic waste produces CH{sub 4} and other landfill gases that significantly contribute to global warming. However, before entering the atmosphere, part of the produced CH{sub 4} can be oxidised while passing through the landfill cover. In the present study, the oxidation rate of CH{sub 4} was studied with various types of compost as possible landfill cover. The influence of incubation time, moisture content and temperature on the CH{sub 4} oxidation capacity of different types of compost was examined. It was observed that the influence of moisture content and temperature on methane oxidation is time-dependent. Maximum oxidation rates were observed at moisture contents ranging from 45% to 110% (dry weight basis), while the optimum temperature ranged from 15 to 30 deg. C.

Mor, Suman [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India) and Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: sumanmor@yahoo.com; Visscher, Alex de [Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ravindra, Khaiwal [Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Dahiya, R.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Chandra, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Cleemput, Oswald van [Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine ...  

Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National ...

413

Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings ...  

... Energy Innovation Portal on Google; Bookmark Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings - Energy Innovation Portal on Delicious ...

414

ANALYSIS OF THE AXIAL GAP VS FIBERBOARD MOISTURE CONTENT IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The fiberboard assembly within a 9975 shipping package contains a modest amount of moisture, which can migrate to the cooler regions of the package when an internal heat load is present. Typically, this leads to increased moisture levels in the bottom fiberboard layers, along with elevated chloride levels which can leach from the fiberboard. Concerns have been raised that this condition could lead to corrosion of the stainless steel drum. It has been postulated that checking the axial gap at the top of the package against the current 1 inch maximum criterion provides a sufficient indication regarding the integrity of the fiberboard and drum. This report estimates the increase in axial gap that might be expected for a given moisture increase in the bottom fiberboard layers, and the likelihood that the increase will create a nonconforming condition that will lead to identification of the moisture increase. Using data relating the fiberboard moisture content with the degree of compaction under load, the present analysis indicates that the axial gap will increase by 0.282 inch as the bottom fiberboard layers approach the saturation point. This increase will cause approximately 58% of packages with otherwise nominal package component dimensions to fail the axial gap criterion, based on a survey of axial gap values recorded in K-Area surveillance activities. As the moisture content increases above saturation, the predicted increase in axial gap jumps to 0.405 inch, which would result in 92% or more of all packages failing the axial gap criterion. The data and analysis described in this report are specific to cane fiberboard. While it is expected that softwood fiberboard will behave similarly, such behavior has not yet been demonstrated.

Daugherty, W.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Controlling Deformation in Elastic and Viscoelastic Beams Due to Temperature and Moisture Changes Using Piezoelectric Actuator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyzes the implementation of surface bonded piezoelectric actuators to control or minimize the deformation in elastic or viscoelastic cantilever beams due to simultaneous heat and moisture diffusion. The problem is addressed in the context of linearized elasticity and linearized viscoelasticity. The constitutive equations are derived from the balance laws for mass, linear and angular momenta, energy, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. The constitutive equations for linearized elasticity are then obtained as a consequence of small deformation assumption. The temperature and moisture induced deformation is introduced through the coefficient of thermal expansion CTE and coefficient of moisture expansion CME. The constitutive equations for linearized viscoelasticity are obtained by correspondence principle. The coupled temperature and moisture diffusion equations are obtained as a consequence of Clausius-Duhem inequality. The extent of coupling between heat conduction and moisture diffusion phenomena is studied by varying the ratio of their diffusivities and a non-dimensional coupling parameter. The effect of coupled unsteady heat conduction and moisture diffusion phenomena on the short and long term response characteristics of the beam such as displacement, stress and strain fields is studied. Based on these response characteristics, the magnitude of external actuating voltage required to minimize deformation is predicted. This is followed by a comparative study of the field variables in cases of actuated and unactuated beams. Four materials are chosen for this study; aluminium, epoxy, carbon fiber reinforced polymer with fiber volume fraction of 60 percent, and an epoxy-like viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic material is assumed to be thermorheologically simple. The shift factor is assumed to be a linear function of temperature and moisture fields. To address this problem numerically, a finite difference formulation is presented for the field equations and boundary conditions. This numerical scheme is validated by solving the problem of uniformly loaded cantilever beam and comparing the results with the analytical solution known a priori. The results obtained numerically are validated by comparison with experimental results. It is observed that the under the effect of external actuation, the stress and displacement fields are largely minimized in all four cases chosen for study. The bending in the unactuated viscoelastic beam is more pronounced than bending in the unactuated elastic beam. This is due to the softening of the material with time due to evolving temperature and moisture fields. However, relatively lesser external actuating voltage is necessary to minimize bending in the former case compared to the latter. The magnitude of actuating electric field required in the piezoelectric layer suggests a need to address the problem with in a non-linear framework, no such attempt is made in this study.

Kuravi, Ramachandra Srinivasa Chaitanya

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The efficacy of wearing barrier cream under gloves in health care oroviders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

regulations has resulted in increased hand skin problems in health care providers (HCPs).2@6 Hand skin problems related to wearing gloves include red, chapped skin; non-specific irritant dermatitis; and allergic reactions to rubber products, cornstarch powder, or production chemicals (inhibitors, accelerators, crosslinkers) in gloves. This experimental longitudinal study examined the effects of an intervention (applying barrier cream before donning gloves) to reduce hand skin problems in glove-wearing HCPS. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) HCPs who wear barrier cream under their gloves will experience a decrease in hand skin problems and (2) HCPs who wear barrier cream under their gloves will report an improvement in perceived skin condition. Using self-report questionnaires, data were collected on demographic information, glove usage, and hand condition. Information on incidence and severity of hand skin problems, perceived hand skin condition, gloving practices, and hand care routines, including use of the barrier cream in the intervention group, was requested every three weeks after enrollment, until the subject had been in the study for a total of twelve weeks. Both the control group (n=34) and intervention group (n=40) showed a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of hand skin problems; however, there were no significant differences between groups. Intervention subjects who completed 12 weeks of the study showed a statistically significant improvement in their perceived hand skin condition, but the improvement in perceived hand skin condition was not statistically significant in the 6 week subjects.

Lambden, Jennifer Lyn

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Biological barrier composition and method of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes a composition for use as barrier to the growth of biological organisms such as roots, insects and small burrowing animals. It comprises a mixture of an effective amount of a chemical substance that thwarts the movement of the biological organisms, the substance diffused in a sufficient quality of a medium so that the physical and chemical characteristics of the medium rather than adjacent soil determine the rate of diffusion of the chemical substance. In one embodiment, trifluralin, a root growth inhibitor, is mixed with bentonite clay to provide a water-impermeable, root growth inhibiting barrier for a disposal site. The amount of clay and trifluralin is determined independent of the physical characteristics of the soil of the site thus avoiding the need for engineering the trifluralin for each set of soil characteristics.

Corey, J.C.; Murphy, C.E.

1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

418

Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

419

Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

420

Natural Gas Vehicles: Status, Barriers, and Opportunities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ESD/10-4 ESD/10-4 Natural Gas Vehicles: Status, Barriers, and Opportunities Energy Systems Division About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. For information about Argonne and its pioneering science and technology programs, see www.anl.gov.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Pratt and Whitney thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will be used to achieve the objectives of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program. They are used in aircraft engines and have accumulated millions upon millions of reliable hours. Differences in the duty cycles of the aircraft and industrial gas turbines are recognized as is the marked differences in environmental operational envelope. At the completion of this program the TBCs best suited to meet the needs of the ATS program will have been identified, tested, and confirmed.

Bornstein, N. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Marcin, J. [Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford, CT (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

1981-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Fission barriers and half-lives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We briefly review the development of theoretical models for the calculation of fission barriers and half-lives. We focus on how results of actual calculations in a unified macroscopic-microscopic approach provide an interpretation of the mechanisms behind some of the large number of phenomena observed in fission. As instructive examples we choose studies of the rapidly varying fission properties of elements at the end of the periodic system. 31 refs., 10 figs.

Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Plasma measurements with surface barrier detectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A surface barrier detector system for measuring the loss rate of protons from a hydrogen plasma and their energy spectrum is described. A full width at half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 1.4 keV for 15-keV hydrogen atoms was obtained using a selected detector having a sensitive area of 3 mm/sup 2/ and a depletion depth of 700 microns.

Futch, A.H. Jr.; Bradley, A.E.

1969-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

425

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

NONE

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response Title Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-2294e Year of Publication 2009 Authors Rubinstein, Francis M., Girish Ghatikar, Jessica Granderson, Paul Haugen, Carlos Romero, and David S. Watson Keywords technologies Abstract Various wireless technologies were field-tested in a six-story laboratory building to identify wireless technologies that can scale for future DR applications through very low node density power consumption, and unit cost. Data analysis included analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), packet loss, and link quality at varying power levels and node densities. The narrowband technologies performed well, penetrating the floors of the building with little loss and exhibiting better range than the wideband technology. 900 MHz provided full coverage at 1 watt and substantially complete coverage at 500 mW at the test site. 900 MHz was able to provide full coverage at 100 mW with only one additional relay transmitter, and was the highest-performing technology in the study. 2.4 GHz could not provide full coverage with only a single transmitter at the highest power level tested (63 mW). However, substantially complete coverage was provided at 2.4 GHz at 63 mW with the addition of one repeater node.

427

Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

G.H. Nieder-Westermann

2005-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

429

Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys  

SciTech Connect

In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

430

Determining the Energy Barrier for Decay out of Superdeformed Bands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An asymptotically exact quantum mechanical calculation of the matrix elements for tunneling through an asymmetric barrier is combined with the two-state statistical model for decay out of superdeformed bands to determine the energy barrier (as a function of spin) separating the superdeformed and normal-deformed wells for several nuclei in the 190 and 150 mass regions. The spin-dependence of the barrier leading to sudden decay out is shown to be consistent with the decrease of a centrifugal barrier with decreasing angular momentum. Values of the barrier frequency in the two mass regions are predicted.

B. R. Barrett; J. Bürki; D. M. Cardamone; C. A. Stafford; D. L. Stein

2008-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

431

Application of PSO-RBFNN to the Prediction of Moisture Content in Crude Oil of Wellheat Metering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crude oil moisture content is a significant data of surface flow rate, and is also an indispensable parameter of measuring the development prospects of oilfield. During logging mining the oil field and the transportation, high precision measurement data ... Keywords: moisture content, crude oil, PSO-RBF neural network, prediction model

Lulu Zhang; Cuiling Liu

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods.

Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M. [Ebasco Environmental, Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Phillips, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Steam Turbine Efficiency and Corrosion: Effects of Surface Finish, Deposits, and Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The causes of steam turbine losses have been recognized for over 50 years. In practice, deposits and surface finish account for major losses during turbine blade path audits. This report presents new experimental information on the effects of surface finish, moisture removal, and deposits.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Boundary Layer Evolution within a Canyonland Basin. Part I: Mass, Heat, and Moisture Budgets from Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual terms of the mass, heat, and moisture budget equations are evaluated for an atmospheric control volume in Colorado's Sinbad Basin using tethered balloon and surface energy budget data obtained during a 16.5-h period on 15?16 July 1988. ...

C. David Whiteman; Thomas B. McKee; J. C. Doran

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Representation of Boundary Layer Moisture Transport in Cloud-Resolving Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the important roles of the PBL is to transport moisture from the surface to the cloud layer. However, how this transport process can be accounted for in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) is not sufficiently clear and has rarely been examined. A ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng; Akio Arakawa

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Influence of leaf area index prescriptions on simulations of heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Leaf-area index (LAI), the total one-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area, is a key component of land surface models. We investigate the influence of differing, plausible LAI prescriptions on heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes ...

Jatin Kala; Mark Decker; Jean-François Exbrayat; Andy J. Pitman; Claire Carouge; Jason P. Evans; Gab Abramowitz; David Mocko

437

Impacts of Shallow Convection on MJO Simulation: A Moist Static Energy and Moisture Budget Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of shallow convection in Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined in terms of the moist static energy (MSE) and moisture budgets. Two experiments are carried out using the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.0 (CAM3.0)...

Qiongqiong Cai; Guang J. Zhang; Tianjun Zhou

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

A Growing-Season Hydroclimatology, Focusing on Soil Moisture Deficits, for the Ohio Valley Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hydroclimatology, or description of long-term means and interannual variation, that focuses on soil moisture deficits was constructed for the period of 1895–1998 for a six-state region composing the Ohio Valley. The term “deficit” is considered ...

Andrew J. Grundstein; Mace L. Bentley

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Climate control for southeastern China moisture and precipitation: Indian or East Asian monsoon?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate control for southeastern China moisture and precipitation: Indian or East Asian monsoon content over SECN is regulated primarily by both the Indian and East Asian monsoons. Further analysis indicated that the variability of the East Asian summer monsoon is substantially regulated by the western

440

Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability: artefact or reality ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability: artefact or reality ? H. DOUVILLE, S of moist static energy. Particularly intriguing is the observed relationship between summer monsoon influence of SST and SM boundary conditions on the West African monsoon predictability over the 1986

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Value of Coarse-Scale Soil Moisture Observations for Regional Surface Energy Balance Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using high-resolution (1 km) hydrologic modeling of the 575 000-km2 Red–Arkansas River basin, the impact of spatially aggregating soil moisture imagery up to the footprint scale (32–64 km) of spaceborne microwave radiometers on regional-scale ...

Wade T. Crow; Eric F. Wood

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effects of Material Moisture Adsorption and Desorption on Building Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moisture adsorption and desorption (MAD) by internal building materials and furnishings can be significant in buildings. For many building cooling strategies, MAD may have overriding effects on building cooling loads. For example, natural ventilation of buildings in hot, humid climates has been shown to induce higher latent loads and higher room relative humidities during periods following the ventilation.

Fairey, P.; Kosar, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Tropical Precipitation Rates during SOP-1, FGGE, Estimated from Heat and Moisture Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents global estimates of precipitation rates from 30°N to 30°S, derived from the “apparent” heat source (Q1) and “apparent” moisture sink (Q2) budgets using the NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres Level III-b analyses collected ...

Catherine B. Pedigo; Dayton G. Vincent

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Twentieth-Century Trends in Runoff, Evapotranspiration, and Soil Moisture in the Western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physically based hydrology model is used to produce time series for the period 1916–2003 of evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, and soil moisture (SM) over the western United States from which long-term trends are evaluated. The results show that ...

Alan F. Hamlet; Philip W. Mote; Martyn P. Clark; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Mesoscale Moisture Transport by the Low-Level Jet during the IHOP Field Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies of the low-level jet (LLJ) over the central Great Plains of the United States have been unable to determine the role that mesoscale and smaller circulations play in the transport of moisture. To address this issue, two aircraft ...

Edward I. Tollerud; Fernando Caracena; Steven E. Koch; Brian D. Jamison; R. Michael Hardesty; Brandi J. McCarty; Christoph Kiemle; Randall S. Collander; Diana L. Bartels; Steven Albers; Brent Shaw; Daniel L. Birkenheuer; W. Alan Brewer

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A Numerical Study to Investigate the Relationship between Moisture Convergence Patterns and Orography in Central Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines small-scale orographic effects on atmospheric moisture convergence at the ridge–valley scale in the Grande de Santiago River basin in central Mexico during a major monsoon storm on 13–14 August 1999. The simulation was ...

S. Bhushan; A. P. Barros

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Evaluation of the Global Atmospheric Moisture Budget as Seen from Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the period 1987 to 1993, quantities central to the global moisture budget from the global analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC), and NASA/Goddard have been ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; Christian J. Guillemot

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

The Usage of Screen-Level Parameters and Microwave Brightness Temperature for Soil Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on testing two different soil moisture analysis systems based on screen-level parameters (2-m temperature T2m, 2-m relative humidity RH2m) and 1.4-GHz passive microwave brightness temperatures TB. First, a simplified extended ...

G. Seuffert; H. Wilker; P. Viterbo; M. Drusch; J-F. Mahfouf

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Delamination in Thermohyperelastic Plastic IC Packaging Material Due to Thermal Load and Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lamination failure as “popcorn” form of plastic electronic packages under thermal stress induced by heat mismatch and vapor pressure induced by the moisture during the solder-reflow process is studied. When plastic electronic packages are ... Keywords: popcorn failure, thermohyperelastic material, vapor pressure

Zhigang Li; Xuexia Yang; Xuefeng Shu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Measurements and modeling of the effect of convective clouds on the upper tropospheric moisture budget  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to determine the upper tropospheric moisture budget associated with convective events, and in particular to extend process models to higher altitudes than have been achieved previously. Although upper tropospheric moisture concentrations are several orders of magnitude lower than those near the surface, upper tropospheric moisture exerts an important influence on climate. On a per-molecule basis, greenhouse absorption due to water vapor is about one hundred times more effective at high altitudes than at low altitudes. Several one-dimensional radiative convective models have been used to demonstrate the importance of upper tropospheric moisture on climate. These models show that for a given fractional increase in water vapor at a given altitude the response or change in surface temperature is qualitatively the same. At present, considerable controversy exists over the nature of the vertical redistribution of water vapor in a changing climate, and particularly the distribution of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Lacking suitable data, this controversy is also reflected in the cumulus parameterization schemes that are currently used in models. Understanding upper tropospheric moistening processes are therefore of prime importance in addressing the water vapor feedback question.

Bisson, S.E.; Goldsmith, J.E.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Del Genio, A.D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Mesoscale Budgets of Heat and Moisture in a Convective System over the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect midlatitude organized onvection on its environment is diagnosed through the calculation of mesoscale heat and moisture budgets over a region during the 10–11 April 1979 AYE-SESAME case. The noise level or error at individual points is ...

Ying-Hwa Kuo; Richard A. Anthes

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Investigating the Role of Moisture in Concrete Tie Rail Seat Deterioration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigating the Role of Moisture in Concrete Tie Rail Seat Deterioration Proceedings of the 2009 ABSTRACT Rail seat deterioration (RSD) is the most critical problem with concrete tie performance on North American freight railroads. Currently, the causes and mechanics of RSD are not sufficiently understood

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

453

Impact of Spring Soil Moisture on Surface Energy Balance and Summer Monsoon Circulation over East Asia and Precipitation in East China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted on the impact of soil moisture on the climate, but few studies have attempted to diagnose the linkage between soil moisture and climate variability using observational data. Here, using both observed and ...

Renhe Zhang; Zhiyan Zuo

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Global Trends and Variability in Soil Moisture and Drought Characteristics, 1950–2000, from Observation-Driven Simulations of the Terrestrial Hydrologic Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global and regional trends in drought for 1950–2000 are analyzed using a soil moisture–based drought index over global terrestrial areas, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The soil moisture fields are derived from a simulation of the ...

Justin Sheffield; Eric F. Wood

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Hillslope-scale soil moisture estimation with a physically-based ecohydrology model and L-band microwave remote sensing observations from space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture is a critical hydrosphere state variable that links the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. Knowledge of soil moisture at scales of individual hillslopes (10's to 100's of meters) is critical to advancing ...

Flores, Alejandro Nicolas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Does Evaporation over the Arabian Sea Play a Crucial Role in Moisture Transport across the West Coast of India during an Active Monsoon Period?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study interannual variability of the contributions of evaporation and moisture flux from the Southern Hemisphere towards the moisture transport across the west coast of India is examined. The mean rates of evaporation and ...

Y. Sadhuram; M. R. Ramesh Kumar

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Assessment of Trends and Possible Climate Change Impacts on Summer Moisture Availability in Western Canada based on Metrics of the Palmer Drought Severity Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares three existing Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) formulations for simulating summer moisture variability in western Canada and a preliminary analysis of climate change impacts on summer moisture anomalies. The three models ...

A. K. Gobena; T. Y. Gan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Wind energy: legal issues and institutional barriers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Before the potential of wind energy can be realized, large-scale commercialization will have to occur. Standing in the way of commercial development are various institutional and legal barriers. These include (1) possible conflicts with existing zoning and other land-use planning schemes, (2) the question of guaranteeing access to the wind, (3) possible tort and environmental law issues raised by WECS operation, and (4) the critical problem of creating financial incentives. The implications of each of these issues and solutions where practicable are presented.

Coit, L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Pricing and hedging a barrier option  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barrier options are options where the payoff depends on whether the underlying asset's price reaches a certain level during a certain period of time. This path-dependency makes these options difficult to manage in practice. In this work, general methods of pricing and hedging are proposed. General properties of the Black - Scholes model are studied. Three methods of pricing are discussed and compared. Hedging issues are analyzed. Finally an improvement of the Black - Scholes model for the stock's price is proposed to take into account the stochastic aspect of the stock price volatility.

Bogossian, Alan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "moisture barrier product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

A transient heat and mass transfer model of residential attics used to simulate radiant barrier retrofits. Part 1: Development  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a transient heat and mass transfer model of residential attics. The model is used to predict hourly ceiling heat gain/loss in residences with the purpose of estimating reductions in cooling and heating loads produced by radiant barriers. The model accounts for transient conduction, convection, and radiation and incorporates moisture and air transport across the attic. Environmental variables, such as solar loads on outer attic surfaces and sky temperatures, are also estimated. The model is driven by hourly weather data which include: outdoor dry bulb air temperature, horizontal solar and sky radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (or dew point), and cloud cover data. The output of the model includes ceiling heat fluxes, inner and outer heat fluxes from all surfaces, inner and outer surface temperatures, and attic dry bulb air temperatures. The calculated fluxes have been compared to experimental data of side-by-side testing of attics retrofit with radiant barriers. The model predicts ceiling heat flows with an error of less than 10% for most cases.

Medina, M.A. [Texas A and M Univ., Kingsville, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; O`Neal, D.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Turner, W.D. [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States). Energy Systems Lab.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

The effects of moisture and particle size of feedlot biomass on co-firing burner performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass (conventional and non-conventional) fuels co-fired with coal for power and steam generation are being tested and evaluated at several generation stations in the United States. The co-firing technology is expected to reduce landfill requirements for biomass wastes, and to provide a renewable, low pollution and zero net carbon dioxide fuel. The choice of the biomass depends upon local availability and cost of the transportation. The renewable biomass fuels range from agro to animal waste based fuels. For coal fired power plants located around feedlots where cattle are raised, the renewable biomass is the cattle manure, called feedlot biomass (FB). Thus coal could be mixed with feedlot biomass and then fired in existing boiler burners. A 30 KW (100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner facility was built at Texas A&M University Boiler Burner Laboratory and the burner was fired with coal or coal-FB blends. Most of the previous data concerned with coal performance results from co-firing of low moisture FB (25%); so feeding at low flow rate becomes a problem. In order to test the effects of moisture on burner performance, the reactor was modified with external water injection through an atomizer in order to simulate higher moisture. The atomizer uses an airblast to atomize the water into finer droplets. At fixed equivalence ratio and swirl number for the secondary inlet air stream, the test variables selected were simulated moisture contents and particle sizes of feedlot biomass. Measurements of NO[], O?, CO and CO? along the furnace are reported. The summaries of results are as follows. With the atomized air only (i.e. without external water injection), the NO[] concentrations increased from 350 ppm to 650 ppm while CO decreased from 46,000 ppm to 18,000 ppm (data measured at the first probe, 6" from the burner). The external water injection used to simulate high moisture FB decreased the pollutant emissions (NO[]) from 570 ppm (zero external water with atomizing air injection) to 300 ppm (40% water in FB) but increased CO from 2,500 ppm (zero external water with atomizing air injection) to 10,500 ppm (40% water in FB) (data of moisture effect measured at the last probe, 36" from the burner) due to more incomplete burning. The small particles FB produced less NO[] but more CO than those from other sizes.

Chen, Chen-Jung

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

CHANGES IN MOISTURE, CARBON, NITROGEN, SULPHUR, VOLATILES, AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF MISCANTHUS DURING TORREFACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Torrefaction tests were carried out on miscanthus samples in order to understand the changes in chemical composition at temperatures of 250–350°C and residence times of 30–120 minutes. The raw material chemical composition was moisture content 7.97%, moisture-free carbon (C) 47.73%, hydrogen (H) 5.85%, nitrogen (N) 0.28%, sulphur (S) 0.02%, volatiles (V) 83.29% for volatiles, and moisture and ash-free (MAF) calorific value (CV) 8423 BTU/lb (19.59 MJ/kg). Torrefaction at temperatures of 250°C and residence time of 30 minutes resulted in a significant decrease in moisture by about 82.68%, but the other components, C, H, N, S, and V changed only marginally. Increasing the torrefaction temperature to 350°C and residence time to 120 minutes further reduced the moisture to a final value of 0.54% (a 93.2% reduction compared to original) and also resulted in a significant decrease in the other components, H, N, and V by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. The carbon content at 350°C and 120 minutes increased by about 4% and sulfur values were below detection limits. The calorific values increased by about 5.59% at 250°C and 30 minutes, whereas at 350°C and 120 minutes, the increase was much greater (about 75.61%) and resulted in a maximum degree of carbonization of 1.60. The H/C ratio decreased with an increase in torrefaction temperature, where a minimum value of 0.6 was observed at 350°C and 120 minutes. The regression equations developed with respect to torrefaction temperature and times have adequately described the changes in chemical composition. The surface plots developed based on the regression equations indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 300–350°C and residence times of 30–120 minutes residence time can help to increase carbon content, calorific value, and degree of carbonization to > 49.4%, >11,990 BTU/lb (27 MJ/kg), and 1.4, and reduce moisture, nitrogen, volatile, and the H/C ratio to 0.525–0.725, 2.9–3.9, 0.225–0.235, and <1.4.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard Boardman; Christopher Wright; John Heintzelman

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

466

DOE Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers DOE Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers March 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis EM Deputy Assistant Secretary for Acquisition and Project Management Jack Surash speaks during the session on barriers small businesses face competing for prime contracts. EM Deputy Assistant Secretary for Acquisition and Project Management Jack Surash speaks during the session on barriers small businesses face competing for prime contracts. Pictured at the session on barriers in small business contracting, left to right, are Jim Fiore of Fiore Consulting; John Coffman of DeNuke Contracting Services, Inc.; John Hale III of the DOE Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization; Jack Surash of EM; and Matt Moeller of Dade Moeller.

467

Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

1994-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

469

Quantum calculation of Coulomb reorientation and near-barrier fusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the role of deformation on the fusion probability around the barrier using the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock theory with a full Skyrme force. We obtain a distribution of fusion probabilities around the nominal barrier due to the different contributions of the various orientations of the deformed nucleus at the touching point. It is also shown that the long range Coulomb reorientation reduces the fusion probability around the barrier.

Cédric Simenel; Michael Bender; Philippe Chomaz; Thomas Duguet; Gilles De France

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

470

Damage Evolution in Thermal Barrier Coatings with Thermal Cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermal barrier coatings typically fail on cooling after prolonged thermal cycling by the growth of sub-critical interface separations. Observations ...

471

Research utilisation in nursing practice : Barriers and facilitators.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research utilisation in nursing practice - barriers and facilitators To improve and develop nursing practice it is important that research findings are utilised by the… (more)

Nilsson Kajermo, Kerstin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

TEST DEVICE FOR MEASURING PERMEABILITY OF A BARRIER ...  

A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed ...

473

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation-The Ohio State University Background When coal derived synthesis gas (syngas) is used in place of natural...

474

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Resistance Against Attack by Molten ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermal Barrier Coatings for Resistance Against Attack by Molten Silicate Deposits from CMAS Sand, Volcanic Ash, or Coal Fly Ash Ingested ...

475

Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market (Webinar) Focus Area: Solar Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.leonardo-energy.orgwebinar-drivers-and-barriers-current-csp-marke...

476

Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in Lycopersicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study employs Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii as model systems to study the interspecific reproductive barriers unilateral incongruity (UI), hybrid breakdown and interspecific aberrant ratio syndrome (IARS).

Mutschler, M.A. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); McCormick, S. (Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA (United States). Plant Gene Expression Center)

1993-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

477

Indicator strip and portable instrument technologies for determining nitroesters or moisture in combustible cartridge cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sometimes large round-to-round variability observed in accelerated environmental testing, plus difficulties in quantifying the environmental histories of a given round suggest the need for nondestructive rapid tests of munitions to supplement lifetime prediction models in quality assurance of munitions. Technologies are being developed for reagent strips which can be affixed to rounds and which will visually indicate the presence and extent of nitroester migration by a visible color change. A solid state adaptation of a modified Griess reagent develops a red-purple color in the presence of nitroesters. Performance of current designs tested in the laboratory suggest a short-term (ca. one month) single usage. Dielectric capacitance is a promising means for rapid, nondestructive moisture determinations using a portable battery-powered instrument. Laboratory studies with a modified, inexpensive, commercial device have demonstrated fast (a few seconds) detection of case wall moisture content.

Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Bates, B.E.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Transport of radioactive droplet moisture from a source in a nuclear power plant spray pond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In addition to a change in the microclimate in the region surrounding a nuclear power plant resulting from the emission of vapor form a cooling tower, evaporation of water from the water surface of a cooling pond or a spray pond, in the latter case direct radioactive contamination of the underlying surface around the nuclear power plant can also occur due to discharge of process water (radioactive) into the pond and its transport in the air over a certain distance in the form of droplet moisture. A typical example may be the situation at the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in 1986 when accidental discharge of process water into the cooling pond occurred. Below we present a solution for the problem of transport of droplet moisture taking into account its evaporation, which may be used to estimate the scale of radioactive contamination of the locality.

Elokhin, A.P.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Testing and Evaluation of a Moisture Separator Drain Demineralizer at Davis-Besse Nuclear Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Davis-Besse plant data show that by polishing 15-20 percent of the moisture separator drains, the entire flow from the drains can be pumped forward, increasing plant power output significantly. In addition, this process extended the useful lifetime of condensate polishers by a factor of about 6, reducing resin replacement costs by approximately $450,000/yr. Information obtained can be applied to all once-through steam generator PWRs.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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