Sample records for moisture barrier product

  1. Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies Presentation by John...

  2. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  3. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production -...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study This presentation summarizes the...

  4. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Semprius Confidential 1 Overcoming the Barriers to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study From concept to large-scale production, one manufacturer tells the story and...

  5. Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

    PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY DUST CONTROL FOAM TO MINIMIZE MOISTURE ADDITION TO COAL Frank Tenni ne Steve T. Jordan BETZ Laboratories, Trevose, PA Inc. ABSTRACT Foam is displacing wet suppression as the method of choice for controlling... fugitive emissions from coal. Coal treated by wet suppression consumes through moisture addition, a heat energy equivalent of 1 ton out of every 500 tons fired. The application of foam requires less than 10% of the moisture usually required for wet...

  6. Effectiveness of vertical moisture barriers in highway pavements on expansive soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayatilaka, Ranasinghege

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    finite element program, FLODEF, which couples moisture flow and elasticity was calibrated to reproduce the field observations of the suction in each of the locations. The program was then used to perform a study of the effects of climatic zone, degree...

  7. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  8. SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS I TECHNICAL NOTE CALIBRATION OF MOISTURE METERS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tanks, and boats, the kiln and allowed to cool. They were content (MC) of wood. However, the cor and electrical resis- cypress have been supplied by moisture handled or conditioned. One moisture tance

  9. barrier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhatY-12ZeroVariationsReal-Time Assessment of3barrier

  10. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup ?5} gm{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

  11. Potential Soil Moisture Products from the Aquarius Radiometer and Scatterometer Using an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yan [I.M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/EMC; Feng, Xia [George Mason University; Houser, Paul [George Mason University; Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Fan, Xingang [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green; De Lannoy, Gabrielle [Ghent University, Belgium; Zhan, Xiwu [NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research; Dabbiru, Lalitha [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz) and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz). We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i) a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii) a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii) a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv) an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs) of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

  12. Moisture Barrier - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'. WilliamEnergy Innovation PortalNEPTUNESolar

  13. Evaluation of ERS Scatterometer soil moisture products over a half-degree region in Southwestern France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Based on a high resolution soil moisture simulation (1km²) validated at the local scale, the ERS in the water and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. Several authors have shown027231 #12;Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sensors such as the AMSR-E radiometer (since 2002

  14. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  15. Moisture Metrics Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  16. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

  17. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  18. Stabilization of residual plutonium in L-9 hood in product removal room of PUREX with polymeric barrier system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiao, T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the application of Polymeric Barrier System to stabilize the remaining plutonium inside 1-9 Hood in PR Room, Purex for criticality safety.

  19. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  20. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following conclusions are drawn from the information presented in this report: (1) Joint efforts by industry and government focused on meeting RTC recommendations for reduction/removal of barriers have met with some success. The most notable of these are the changes in regulations related to CCB utilization by individual states. Regionally or nationally consistent state regulation of CCB utilization would further reduce regulatory barriers. (2) Technology changes will continue to be driven by the CAAA, and emission control technologies are expected to continue to impact the type and properties of CCBs generated. As a result, continued RD and D will be needed to learn how to utilize new and changing CCBs in environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically advantageous ways. Clean coal technology CCBs offer a new challenge because of the high volumes expected to be generated and the different characteristics of these CCBs compared to those of conventional CCBs. (3) Industry and government have developed the RD and D infrastructure to address the technical aspects of developing and testing new CCB utilization applications, but this work as well as constant quality control/quality assurance testing needs to be continued to address both industry wide issues and issues related to specific materials, regions, or users. (4) Concerns raised by environmental groups and the public will continue to provide environmental and technical challenges to the CCB industry. It is anticipated that the use of CCBs in mining applications, agriculture, structural fills, and other land applications will continue to be controversial and will require case-by-case technical and environmental information to be developed. The best use of this information will be in the development of generic regulations specifically addressing the use of CCBs in these different types of CCB applications. (5) The development of federal procurement guidelines under Executive Order 12873 titled ''Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention,'' in October 1993 was a positive step toward getting CCBs accepted in the marketplace. Industry needs to continue to work with EPA to develop additional procurement guidelines for products containing CCBs--and to take advantage of existing guidelines to encourage the use of CCBs in high-profile projects. (6) Accelerated progress toward increased utilization of CCBs can be made only if there is an increased financial commitment and technical effort by industry and government. The framework for this has been set by the successful cooperation of industry and government under DOE leadership. Cooperation should continue, with DOE fulfilling its lead role established in the RTC. It is clear that the RTC recommendations continue to have validity with respect to increasing CCB utilization and continue to provide guidance to industry and government agencies.

  1. Reaction dynamics of weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies: impact of incomplete fusion on the angular distribution of direct alpha-production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexis Diaz-Torres

    2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical trajectory model with stochastic breakup for nuclear collision dynamics of weakly-bound nuclei is further developed. It allows a quantitative study of the importance of incomplete fusion dynamics in the angular distribution of direct alpha-production. Model calculations indicate that the incomplete fusion contribution diminishes with decreasing energy towards the Coulomb barrier, notably separating in angles from the contribution of no-capture breakup events. This should facilitate the experimental disentanglement of these competing reaction processes.

  2. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  3. Ultra-thin moisture barrier coatings for passive components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Robert A. (Robert Allen), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer Multi-Layer (PML) capacitors have demonstrated excellent performance for numerous power electronics applications, particularly where high temperature stability is required. These capacitors are sensitive to high ...

  4. Moisture absorption in hybrid composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dan Laro

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Calculated Moisture Profile: 8/F1552/F1858' ' 95~ RH Calculated Moisture Profile: F1558/F1852/F1558. 49'C, 954 RH. Calculated Moisture Profile: F155, 8. 49 C, 95% RH. Calculated Moisture Profile: F18518. 49'C, 95% RH. Effect of F185 Coating on F155.... Calculated Moisture Profile F18518-. 49'C, 95% RH. 1. 4 1. 05 0 . 35 I I I / / / I F155 18 F 1 8 5 1/F 1 5 5 8/Fl 85 0 0 16 25 32. 5 48. 75 Time(Hours) Figure 28. Effect of F185 Coating on F155 Core: 49'C, 95o HEI. Us Ut 1. 4 1. 05 7 . 35 I...

  5. Soil Insulation For Barrier Layer Protection In Landfill Covers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory Smith Roy

    Landfill covers are designed to isolate waste from the environment by incorporating low-permeability barrier layers. The barrier layer minimizes and controls gas escaping from the waste and the amount of infiltrating moisture available for leachate generation. Barrier layers are typically designed and constructed of a thick layer of compacted fine-grain native soil material or a manufactured geosynthetic clay liner. The barrier layer must be protected from frost damage. Freezing of a compacted soil layer has been shown to cause quick and irreversible degradation. Large increases in permeability have been demonstrated in compacted clay barriers subjected to a minimum number of freezing and thawing cycles. Design methods to protect the barrier layer from frost damage have not been addressed in the research literature. A design procedure is addressed in this paper that determines the thickness of soil required to protect a barrier layer. The procedure is based on sitespecific temperature ...

  6. CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND RELEVANCE TO THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.; Langton, C.; Flach, G.; Kosson, D.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was initiated to reduce risk and uncertainties in the performance assessments that directly impact U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup and closure programs. The CBP is supported by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) and has been specifically addressing the following critical EM program needs: (i) the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities and (ii) increased understanding of contaminant transport behavior within cementitious barrier systems to support the development and deployment of adequate closure technologies. To accomplish this, the CBP has two initiatives: (1) an experimental initiative to increase understanding of changes in cementitious materials over long times (> 1000 years) over changing conditions and (2) a modeling initiative to enhance and integrate a set of computational tools validated by laboratory and field experimental data to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. In FY10, the CBP developed the initial phase of an integrated modeling tool that would serve as a screening tool which could help in making decisions concerning disposal and tank closure. The CBP experimental programs are underway to validate this tool and provide increased understanding of how CM changes over time and under changing conditions. These initial CBP products that will eventually be enhanced are anticipated to reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the DOE assessment process. These tools have application to low activity waste forms, high level waste tank closure, D&D and entombment of major nuclear facilities, landfill waste acceptance criteria, and in-situ grouting and immobilization of vadose zone contamination. This paper summarizes the recent work provided by the CBP to support DOE operations and regulatory compliance and the accomplishments over the past 2 years. Impacts of this work include: (1) a forum for DOE-NRC technical exchange, (2) material characterization to support PA predictions, (3) reducing uncertainty in PA predictions, (4) establishing base case performance to improve PA predictions, and (5) improving understanding and quantification of moisture and contaminant transport used in PAs. Additional CBP accomplishments include: sponsorship of a national test bed workshop to obtain collaboration in establishing the path forward in obtaining actual data to support future predictions on cementitious barrier performance evaluations, and participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Project on the use of cementitious barriers for low-level radioactive waste treatment and disposal.

  7. Applying SE Methods Achieves Project Success to Evaluate Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry R. Zirker; Christopher T. Wright, PhD; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying basic systems engineering (SE) tools to the mission analysis phases of a 2.5-million dollar biomass pre-processing project for the U.S. Department of Energy directly assisted the project principal investigator understand the complexity and identify the gaps of a moving-target project and capture the undefined technical/functional requirements and deliverables from the project team and industrial partners. A creative application of various SE tools by non-aerospace systems engineers developed an innovative “big picture” product that combined aspects of mission analysis with a project functional flow block diagram, providing immediate understanding of the depth and breath of the biomass preprocessing effort for all team members, customers, and industrial partners. The “big picture” diagram became the blue print to write the project test plan, and provided direction to bring the project back on track and achieve project success.

  8. Power consumption, discharge capacitance and light emission as measures for thrust production of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegseis, J. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Grundmann, S. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Tropea, C. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new procedure of determining the time resolved capacitance of a plasma actuator during operation is introduced, representing a simple diagnostic tool that provides insight into the phenomenological behavior of plasma actuators. The procedure is demonstrated by presenting example correlations between consumed electrical energy, size of the plasma region, and the operating voltage. It is shown that the capacitance of a plasma actuator is considerably increased by the presence of the plasma; hence a system that has previously been impedance matched can be considerably de-tuned when varying the operating voltage of the actuator. Such information is fundamental for any attempts to increase the energy efficiency of plasma-actuator systems. A combined analysis of the capacitance, light emission, size of the plasma region, force production, and power consumption is presented.

  9. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier.

  10. Prediction of tilted capillary barrier performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; McCord, J.T.; Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capillary barriers, consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers under unsaturated conditions, have been suggested as landfill covers to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. The Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code is an evaluation tool for landfill covers used by designers and regulators. HELP is a quasi-two-dimensional model that predicts moisture movement into and through the underground soil and waste layers. Processes modeled within HELP include precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, unsaturated vertical drainage, saturated lateral drainage, and leakage through liners. Unfortunately, multidimensional unsaturated flow phenomena that are necessary for evaluating tilted capillary barriers are not included in HELP. Differences between the predictions of the HELP and those from a multidimensional unsaturated flow code are presented to assess the two different approaches. Comparisons are presented for the landfill covers including capillary barrier configurations at the Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD) being conducted at Sandia.

  11. Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin film PV modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) deposited by PECVD on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have typically included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to actual barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface as well as enhancing adhesion of the SiOxNy barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp heat exposure. PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pre-treatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal new low molecular weight PET fragments are created which are volatile upon heating and water soluble. Failure analysis of the coupons determined that the moisture barrier is, in fact, transferred to the encapsulant side.

  12. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  13. The moisture budget in relation to convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Robert Wilson

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of the local rate-of-change of moisture in the layer from 900-750 mb . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . 23 Analyses of the local rate-of-change of moisture in the layer from 750-500 mb 24 Vertical profiles of the net vertical boundary flux... of moisture related to MDR 26 10 Analyses of the net vertical boundary flux of moisture in the layer from 900-750 mb 28 Analyses of the net vertical boundary flux of moisture in the layer from 750-500 mb 29 12 Analyses of the net vertical boundary flux...

  14. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan, Nachtigal; Berniard, Tracie; Murray, Bill; Roehrig, Mark; Schubert, Charlene; Spagnola, Joseph; Weigel, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster describes the 3M Ultra-Barrier Solar Film and its application; production scale-up and data; reliability and qualification testing; and improvements in the next generation.

  15. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  16. Moisture corrections in neutron coincidence counting of PuO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J.E.; Menlove, H.O.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive neutron coincidence counting is capable of 1% assay accuracy for pure, well-characterized PuO/sub 2/ samples that contain plutonium masses from a few tens of grams to several kilograms. Moisture in the sample can significantly bias the assay high by changing the (..cap alpha..,n) neutron production, the sample multiplication, and the detection efficiency. Monte Carlo calculations and an analytical model of coincidence counting have been used to quantify the individual and cumulative effects of moisture biases for two PuO/sub 2/ sample sizes and a range of moisture levels from 0 to 9 wt %. Results of the calculations suggest a simple correction procedure for moisture bias that is effective from 0 to 3 wt % H/sub 2/O. The procedure requires that the moisture level in the sample be known before the coincidence measurement.

  17. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, David R. (Bothel, WA); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Macdonald, John M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  18. Moisture Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMake Your NextHow EMMinutes: EMMissionof EnergyMoisture

  19. New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

  20. Moisture levels at which rice grains will not fissure from moisture adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamau, John Mugeto

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MOISTURE LEVELS AT WHICH RICE GRAINS WILL NOT FISSURE FROM MOISTURE ADSORPTION A Thesis JOHN MUGETO KAMAU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1985 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering MOISTURE LEVELS AT WHICH RICE GRAINS WILL NQT FISSURE FROM MOISTURE ADSORPTION A Thesis JOHN MUGETO KAMAU Approved as to style and content by: Otto R. Kunze (Chairman of Committee) Calvin B...

  1. PREDICTION OF MOISTURE CONTENT AND MOISTURE GRADIENT OF AN OVERLAID PARTICLEBOARD1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PREDICTION OF MOISTURE CONTENT AND MOISTURE GRADIENT OF AN OVERLAID PARTICLEBOARD1 Qinglin Wu and HPL backer. A model based on the diffusion theory was developed to predict MC and moisture distribution for a multi-ply wood composite panel. The model's prediction of the mean MC for a three-layer PB

  2. Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings J. L. Armstrong, M. J. Matthewson and C. R for measuring the diffusion coefficients of water vapor through optical fiber polymer coatings has been. Kurkjian #12;732 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1998 Moisture Penetration Through Optical

  3. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  4. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Abstract: Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) have...

  5. UNCORRECTEDPROOF One-dimensional soil moisture prole retrieval by assimilation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    moisture and surface temperature data into a soil moisture and heat transfer model. The direct insertion

  6. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  7. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

  8. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms` underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940`s. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination.

  9. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wowczuk, Andrew (Wheeling, WV); Vellenoweth, Thomas E. (Wheeling, WV)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  10. Hygrothermal performance of an engineered clay barrier during sustained heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selvadurai, A.P.S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Onofrei, C. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Bentonitic clay buffers, with a potential for swelling, form an integral part of the natural (geological formation)/engineered multi-barrier concepts being proposed for the disposal of heat-generating radioactive nuclear fuel wastes. The integrity of such barriers during thermal loadings is of primary interest to the assessment of their reliability. This paper discusses the results of a series of experiments performed to assess the performance of buffer material under sustained heating. These experiments were conducted in a large-scale granite block facility. The laboratory modeling approximately simulates the local environment that can be encountered in a disposal vault in a granitic rock mass. Experiments in which the power supply to an embedded heater was held constant are described. The temperature distributions within the buffer and the granite block together with the residual moisture content distributions are documented. Also discussed is the application of a computational model of coupled heat and moisture flows. Moisture and heat transfer in the buffer under coupled gradients is described by the Philip-de Vries-type model in which the hygrothermal parameters are determined separately.

  11. MoistureMap: A soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system for sustainable land and water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    9 MoistureMap: A soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system for sustainable land soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system (MoistureMap) for Australia uncertainty at 1km resolution, by assimilating (i) low-resolution passive microwave-derived surface soil

  12. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  13. Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product...

  14. Algebrization: A New Barrier in Complexity Theory Scott Aaronson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wigderson, Avi

    inverting one-way functions) that we wanted to prove were hard. 1.1 The Need for a New Barrier Yet for both for Advanced Study Abstract Any proof of P = NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural-protocol for the Inner Product function with O ( n log n) communication (essentially matching a lower bound of Klauck

  15. Measuring soil moisture with imaging radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, P.C.; Zyl, J. van [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Engman, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture content and surface Root Mean Square (RMS) height from remotely sensed radar data was developed using scatterometer data. The algorithm is optimized for bare surfaces and requires two copolarized channels at a frequency between 1.5 and 11 GHz. It gives best results for kh {le} 2.5, {mu}{sub {upsilon}}{le}35%, and {theta}{ge}30{degree}. Omitting the usually weaker hv-polarized returns makes the algorithm less sensitive to system cross-talk and system noise, simplify the calibration process and adds robustness to the algorithm in the presence of vegetation. However, inversion results indicate that significant amounts of vegetation (NDVI>0.4) cause the algorithm to underestimate soil moisture and overestimate RMS height. A simple criteria based on the {sigma}{sub hv}{sup 0}/{sigma}{sub vv}{sup 0} ratio is developed to select the areas where the inversion is not impaired by the vegetation. The inversion accuracy is assessed on the original scatterometer data sets but also on several SAR data sets by comparing the derived soil moisture values with in-situ measurements collected over a variety of scenes between 1991 and 1994. Both spaceborne (SIR-C) and airborne (AIRSAR) data are used in the test. Over this large sample of conditions, the RMS error in the soil moisture estimate is found to be less than 4.2% soil moisture.

  16. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  17. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shurter, Roger P. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  18. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  19. Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

  20. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  1. Method of installing subsurface barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  2. Advanced MR moisture sensor market feasibility analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper briefly documents activities, background information, and results of marketing studies on the Magnetic Resonance Advanced Moisture Sensor (AMS). The main goals of the study are to identify industrial uses to guide development efforts, to become familiar with the industrial and magnetic resonance research capabilities/resources at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and to develop a summary data sheet describing the AMS product for use with a broad mail survey of potential users. The studies are being performed through an alliance of Quantum Magnetics, US DOE, SwRI, The Townsend Agency, and PAI Partners. Efforts are being focused on NIR, Raman, and other optical spectroscopies as process measurement tools for onstream applications. Domestic and world markets for process analytical instrumentation, process moisture instrumentation, and nuclear magnetic resonance instrumentation are summarized. Three applications are identified as the most promising for magnetic resonance instrumentation: (1) polymer production, (2) pharmaceuticals preparation, and (3) prepared food processing. It is estimated that the process magnetic resonance market could reach $5 to $10 million annually by the end of this decade.

  3. Monitoring and controlling moisture during carpet and textile drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, J.W.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial dryer/moisture control is usually performed by feedback type systems, i.e., sensors indirectly measure moisture content (MC) of the product after it leaves the dryer, or exhaust temperature from the last zone is used as an indicator of the existing MC. Such a control system is inherently weak because of the {open_quotes}after-the-fact{close_quotes} nature of the MC data. A feedback system may be improved by adding feedforward loops to handle disturbances to the system, e.g., variations in entering MC and feed rate. Such additions to the control system are expensive and require higher expertise for operating and maintaining. If the MC of the product could be measured inside the dryer, a control system could be offered that would be superior to feedback/feedforward types. This has not been possible up to this time because no MC sensor was capable of withstanding the atmosphere inside dryers. Moreover, the sample size would not have been large enough to be representative.

  4. Influence of Moisture on Heating in Feeds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, L. R.; Halick, J. V.

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigation was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from ~uthwestern Sugar and Molasses Company, New York, through urtesy of A. I. Kaplan, president. ?e are indebted to E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, ngton, Del. through the courtesy of F. M. Jornlin..., standards for the moisture content of all in- gredients used in feeds should be reevaluated. The absence of heating in molasses feeds will not be insured by establishing a standard for the moisture content of molasses alone. Standardr for molasses...

  5. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  6. Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

  7. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  8. 1. Control moisture. 2. Clean regularly.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , water heaters, and fireplaces that burn fuel must vent to the outside. Stoves, ovens, and cook on the things we do to affect how healthy our home is. Step 1. Control Moisture Water and excessive humidity of pesticides. Food and water attract pests. Controlling food and water helps to minimize pests. Sealing

  9. Measurements of moisture suction in hot mix asphalt mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassem, Emad Abdel-Rahman

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    with different bond energies and exhibited different field performance in terms of resistance to moisture damage. The suction measurements in sand asphalt specimens were used to calculate the moisture diffusion coefficient. The results revealed that water...

  10. Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Narendra N.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil moisture in the shallow subsurface is a primary hydrologic state governing land-atmosphere interaction at various scales. The primary objectives of this study are to model soil moisture in the root zone in a distributed manner and determine...

  11. Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Brij D.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    as bond energy in order to predict moisture damage. Mixtures with the two types of bitumen and each aggregate with and without hydrated lime were evaluated. The hydrated lime substantially improved the resistance of the mixture to moisture damage....

  12. Effect of varying moisture levels on sorghum stand establishment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanyenji, Ben Machaki

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to germinate, emerge, and survive under low moisture situations. At the lowest moisture level (20% water holding capacity of the potted soil/media; 264 water on dry weight basis), germination was reduced by 50 percent. Hegari and CSM388 had the highest... germination performance at this moisture level. Seedling emergence was decreased by 60 percent from performance under optimum moisture (454 water holding capacity potted soil/media) and cultivers such as Segaolane and CSM388 had the highest emergence...

  13. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  14. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in the barrier, a chemical reaction occurs with the barrier material that results in adsorption, mineral precipitation, or degradation to a harmless compound. Reactive barriers...

  15. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Steel in Road Barriers and Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, RL

    2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) and steel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead, steel and products created from these materials by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead and steel recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead and steel as a waste within the complex. This approach promotes the safe and cost-effective reuse of scrap metals in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological release limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and steel by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were originally selected from the American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled ''Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance'' (Health Physics Society, 1999) but were subsequently modified as a result of application-specific issues. Both the health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  16. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  17. Analysis of infiltration through a clay radon barrier at an UMTRA disposal cell. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infiltration study was initiated in January 1988 to assess the percent saturation in, and infiltration through, clay radon barriers of typical Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. Predicting infiltration through the radon barrier is necessary to evaluate whether the disposal cell will comply with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards (40 CFR 192). The groundwater standards require demonstrating that tailings seepage will not cause background concentrations or maximum concentration limits (MCLs) to be exceeded at the downgradient edge of the disposal facility (the point of compliance, or POC). This demonstration generally consists of incorporating the predicted seepage flux and the concentration of the specific hazardous constituents into a contaminant transport model, and predicting the resultant concentrations at the POC. The infiltration study consisted of a field investigation to evaluate moisture conditions in the radon barrier of the completed Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project disposal cell and previously completed UMTRA Project disposal cells at Clive, Utah, and Burrell, Pennsylvania. Coring was conducted to measure percent saturation profiles in the radon barriers at these disposal cells. In addition, a detailed investigation of the Shiprock radon barrier was conducted to establish the effects of meteorological stresses on moisture conditions in the filter layer and radon barrier. The Shiprock infiltration study was also intended to characterize hydraulic gradients and operational unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in the radon barrier.

  18. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  19. Barrier breaching device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honodel, C.A.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  20. Barrier breaching device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honodel, Charles A. (Tracy, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  1. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Experiment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Experimental and Modeling Investigations International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Experimental and...

  2. Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND DTechnologies | Department of Energy

  3. Techno-Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the cost of the production of hydrogen from three candidate biomass feedstocks and identify the barriers

  4. Stability of barrier buckets with zero RF-barrier separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier bucket with very small separation between the rf barriers (relative to the barrier widths) or even zero separation has its synchrotron tune decreasing rather slowly from a large value towards the boundary of the bucket. As a result, large area at the bucket edges can become unstable under the modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. In addition, chaotic regions may form near the bucket center and extend outward under increasing modulation. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in the process of momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.

  5. Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin-film PV (photovoltaic) modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface and enhancing adhesion of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp-heat exposure. (EVA is ethylene vinyl acetate and TPE is Tedlar{reg_sign}-PET-EVA). PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pretreatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal that new low molecular weight PET fragments were created at the PET surface. These fragments are responsible for barrier/PET interfacial failure and barrier transfer to the EVA encapsulant side following damp heat exposure.

  6. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  7. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  8. Moisture and temperature effects in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Gwo-Ping

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Y. Weitsman Th1s thesis concerns env1ronmental effects in graphite/epoxy composites, with emphas1s on environmentally induced damage. The thesis consists of two major parts. The first part presents an experimental 1... weight gain (in %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate during exposure to 346'K, 95% R. H. environment. Data (i) and predictions of Flck's law (solid line) Moisture content (ln %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite...

  9. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  10. Electrical characteristics and interface structure of magnetic tunnel junctions with hafnium oxyfluoride barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Char, K. [Center for Strongly Correlated Materials Research and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effects of fluorine inclusion on the electrical transport characteristics and interface structure of the hafnium oxide barrier in a magnetic tunnel junction. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and resistance-area (RA) as a function of oxidation time show that the TMR ratio of the hafnium oxyfluoride barrier is higher (8.3%) than that of the hafnium oxide barrier (5.7%) at their optimum conditions, and the oxyfluoride barrier junctions maintain a high TMR ratio even when the RA product increases by three orders of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the fluorine atoms in the oxyfluoride barrier play an important role in the formation of a barrier with uniform composition. We believe that the initial fluoride layer is causing the subsequent oxygen diffusion to slow down, resulting in the formation of a defect-free hafnium oxide layer. These results are consistent with what we have found for aluminum oxyfluoride barriers.

  11. Soil Moisture and the Drought in Texas Todd Caldwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Neutron scatter 50 2 2010 AmeriFlux Dielectric 215 1 2005 NEON ?? 20 1 ~2011 West Texas Mesonet: 79 sitesSoil Moisture and the Drought in Texas Todd Caldwell Bridget Scanlon Michael Young Di Long Water;Soil Moisture and the Drought in Texas I. How is drought linked to water resources? II. Where does soil

  12. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  13. Soil Moisture Measurement in Heterogeneous Terrain Merlin, O.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    , uncertainty assessment, soil moisture patterns. EXTENDED ABSTRACT Reliable soil moisture measurement over such data, portable electronic sensors offer a practical alternative to gravimetric measurements % v/v in clay. On the other hand, the real component of the measured relative DC is found to be more

  14. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  15. Measurements of moisture suction in hot mix asphalt mixes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassem, Emad Abdel-Rahman

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of moisture in hot mix asphalt (HMA) causes loss of strength and durability of the mix, which is referred to as moisture damage. This study deals with the development of experimental methods for measuring total suction in HMA, which can...

  16. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  17. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  18. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier -- 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Link, Steven O.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring is an essential component of engineered barrier system design and operation. A composite capacitive cover, including a capillary break and an evapotranspiration (ET) barrier at the Hanford Site, is generating data that can be used to help resolve these issues. The prototype Hanford barrier was constructed over the 216-B-57 Crib in 1994 to evaluate surface-barrier constructability, construction costs, and physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. The barrier has been routinely monitored between November 1994 and September 1998 as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) treatability test of barrier performance for the 200 BP 1 Operable Unit. Since FY 1998, monitoring has focused on a more limited set of key water balance, stability, and biotic parameters. In FY 2009, data collection was focused on: (1) water-balance monitoring, consisting of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture storage, and drainage measurements with evapotranspiration calculated by difference; (2) stability monitoring, consisting of asphalt-layer-settlement, basalt-side-slope-stability, and surface-elevation measurements; (3) vegetation dynamics; and (4) animal use. September 2009 marked 15 years since the start of monitoring and the collection of performance data. This report describes the results of monitoring activities during the period October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, and summarizes the 15 years of performance data collected from September 1994 through September 2009.

  19. The moisture budget in relation to convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Robert Wilson

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : x10-6g cm-2s-1) 30 (, 'j I" '~, ". :, ', :, ':: P, ' r 0 (a) 0600 GMT, 24 April 1975 . . . ~t' . '. a--'-, . ' ' P) D (b) 0600 GiXT, 25 April 1975 Analyses of the net vertacal boundary flux of moisture in the layer from 500-350 mb... 120 4 060 , J 16O I 2 1" , 090 ~ J 120 32+ r I 24~ 190 12 10 (b) 700 mb Fig. 3. Synoptic charts for 0600 GMT on 24 April 1975. 16 86. 16 04 08 I 12 I I f 08 I 08 I L 08 12 16 (a) Surface 20 - 8 A 4X 4 0 ) O2O ~~(~ -2 J--4...

  20. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  1. In-situ formation of multiphase air plasma sprayed barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base, planar-grained thermal barrier layer (28) applied by air plasma spraying on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide overlay material (32') covers the bottom thermal barrier coating (28), and the overlay material is the reaction product of the precursor ceramic oxide overlay material (32) and the base thermal barrier coating material (28).

  2. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D...

  3. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  4. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  5. Relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Leo, Stefano; Leonardi, Vinicius [Department of Applied Mathematics, State University of Campinas, SP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an analytical study of relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers. We obtain a closed formula for the phase time. This formula is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations and corrects the standard formula obtained by the stationary phase method. An important result is found when the upper limit of the incoming energy distribution coincides with the upper limit of the tunneling zone. In this case, the phase time is proportional to the barrier width.

  6. Moisture burst structure in satellite water vapor imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulsh, David Joel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The moisture burst is a tropical synoptic-scale weather event that typically originates along the ITCZ and has been defined previously in window-channel infrared imagery. This research uses 6. 7-micrometer water vapor absorption band imagery to composite 35... moisture burst events during the North Pacific cool season of 1983-1984. Composite maps are constructed at four times, each 24 h apart, during the life cycle of the moisture burst. A comparative baseline is provided by an additional composite of 35 dates...

  7. Algebrization: A New Barrier in Complexity Theory Scott Aaronson #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wigderson, Avi

    for some of the very same problems (like inverting one­way functions) that we wanted to prove were hard. 1 for Advanced Study Abstract Any proof of P #= NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural an MA­protocol for the Inner Product function with O ( # n log n) communication (essentially matching

  8. Algebrization: A New Barrier in Complexity Theory Scott Aaronson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wigderson, Avi

    problems (like inverting one-way functions) that we wanted to prove were hard. 1.1 The Need for a New for Advanced Study Abstract Any proof of P = NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural-protocol for the Inner Product function with O ( n log n) communication (essentially matching a lower bound of Klauck

  9. ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called electrostatically enhanced barrier filter collection (EBFC). This concept combines electrostatic precipitation (ESP) with candle filters in a single unit. Similar technology has been recently proven on a commercial scale for atmospheric applications, but needed to be tested at high temperatures and pressures. The synergy obtained by combining the two control technologies into a single system should actually reduce filter system capital and operating costs and make the system more reliable. More specifically, the ESP is expected to significantly reduce candle filter load and also to limit ash reintrainment, allowing for full recovery of baseline pressure drop during backpulsing of the filters.

  10. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

  11. Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, G. W.

    The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy...

  12. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  13. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile ? Moisture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2. House-as-a-System Solutions 2.1 New Homes with Whole-House Packages Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing Research by Building...

  14. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  15. Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, G. W.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy...

  16. Moisture Diffusion in Asphalt Binders and Fine Aggregate Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    cost in highway maintenance and vehicle operations. One key mechanism of how moisture reaches the asphalt-aggregate interface is by its permeation or diffusion through the asphalt binder or mastic. Different techniques are available for diffusion...

  17. Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility of Warm Mix Asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Cucalon, Maria Lorena

    2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    . To evaluate WMA moisture susceptibility during this critical period, standard laboratory tests were used for three field projects each with an HMA control mixtures and multiple WMA mixtures. Different specimen types were also evaluated to capture differences...

  18. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  19. The spatial and temporal organization of soil moisture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gregor Klaus

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION OF SOIL MOISTURE A Thesis by GREGOR KLAUS VOGEL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1995 Major Subject: Water Resources Engineering THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION OF SOIL MOISTURE A Thesis by GREGOR KLAUS VOGEL Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  20. Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Brij D.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    with load cycles. The analysis demonstrates the need to consider mixture compliance as well as bond energy in order to predict moisture damage. Mixtures with the two types of bitumen and each aggregate with and without hydrated lime were... evaluated. The hydrated lime substantially improved the resistance of the mixture to moisture damage. iv To my parents. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend my sincere thanks to everyone who helped...

  1. In Situ Formation Of Reactive Barriers For Pollution Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Riley, Robert G. (West Richland, WA)

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of treating soil contamination by forming one or more zones of oxidized material in the path of percolating groundwater is disclosed. The zone or barrier region is formed by delivering an oxidizing agent into the ground for reaction with an existing soil component. The oxidizing agent modifies the existing soil component creating the oxidized zone. Subsequently when soil contaminates migrate into the zone, the oxidized material is available to react with the contaminates and degrade them into benign products. The existing soil component can be an oxidizable mineral such as manganese, and the oxidizing agent can be ozone gas or hydrogen peroxide. Soil contaminates can be volatile organic compounds. Oxidized barriers can be used single or in combination with other barriers.

  2. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Alberta, CA); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  3. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  4. Systematic study of projectile structure effect on fusion barrier distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratap Roy; A. Saxena; B. K. Nayak; E. T. Mirgule; B. John; Y. K. Gupta; L. S. Danu; R. P. Vind; Ashok Kumar; R. K. Choudhury

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Quasielastic excitation function measurement has been carried out for the $^{4}$He + $^{232}$Th system at $\\theta_{lab}$=160$^\\circ$ with respect to the beam direction, to obtain a representation of the fusion barrier distribution. Using the present data along with previously measured barrier distribution results on $^{12}$C, $^{16}$O, and $^{19}$F + $^{232}$Th systems a systematic analysis has been carried out to investigate the role of target and/or projectile structures on fusion barrier distribution. It is observed that for $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C, and $^{16}$O + $^{232}$Th, reactions the couplings due to target states only are required in coupled channel fusion calculations to explain the experimental data, whereas for the $^{19}$F+ $^{232}$Th system along with the coupling of target states, inelastic states of $^{19}$F are also required to explain the experimental results on fusion-barrier distribution. The width of the barrier distribution shows interesting transition behavior when plotted with respect to the target-projectile charge product for the above systems.

  5. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1984-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  6. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, Charlene

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This slideshow presents work intended to: Scale-up the Generation -1 UBT to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance, longer lifetime and lower cost; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line in 2014; and Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime. 3M has scaled up UBT for production at 1.2 meter width. 3M is conducting extensive lifetime studies including: –Evaluation of customer processing and installation conditions; –Indoor accelerated testing of UBT film and full CIGS modules; –Outdoor testing of UBT film and CIGS modules. Results have been used to improve ultra barrier film performance for flex module applications.

  7. Numerical Valuation of Discrete Barrier Options with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Hao-hua

    Numerical Valuation of Discrete Barrier Options with the Adaptive Mesh Model and Other Competing for discrete barrier options such that many methods have been suggested and declared to price discrete barrier options fast and accurately but no one can tell exactly that what method is the best. We also make

  8. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  9. The Influence of Moisture and Temperature on Cotton Root Rot.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Dana, B. F. (Bliss F.)

    1928-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . BAYLES, B. S., Superintendent J. PAUL LUSK, S. M., Plant Patholog Teachers in the School of Arnicultnre Carryine Coo~erative Projects on the Statit -- . G W ADRIANCE M S ~srociate~~rofessor of Horticulture S ' W 'BI~SING ~h D 'kro&sor of Entomology V... of the season. This initial moisture supply, together mith the additions during the growing season, permitted the continued development of root rot throughout the entire season. ,It the INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE ON COTTON ROOT ROT 9 end...

  10. Moisture Sensor for Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)-filled Circuit Breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauers, I.

    2001-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements at ORNL were made on the Kahn moisture sensor which Doble Engineering wants to evaluate for use in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers. Test conducted at ORNL indicate that vacuum conditions, as might be found in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers prior to filling with SF{sub 6}, could lead to significant changes in calibration, resulting in erroneous readings of moisture content. Similar effects might also be observed in cases where SF{sub 6} byproducts are present, due the reactivity of some of these byproducts with water.

  11. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  12. Investigation of moisture content variations in highway subgrades and bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Edward Donald

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , temperature gradient, hydraulic gradient, and textural radient, Frost action is caused. by a freezing temperature which forms ice crystals and draws moisnure from the soil pores. This creates a hvdraulic gradient for tI e movement of moisture in the liq... and the remedies are fairly well-known and used. in highway construction. There are three conditions required for detrimental frost action to occur: (1) a frost susceptible soil; (2) a freezing temperature; and ($) a water source. The movement 10 of moisture...

  13. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Charles Lindsey

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REMOTE MONITORING OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AIRBORNE MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS A Thesis by CHARLES LINDSEY J(ROLL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A)M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1973 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering REMOTE MONITORING OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AIRBORNE MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS A Thesis by CHARLES LINDSEY KROLL Approved as to style and content by: man o Co mrtt Hca o D artmc c Ill l c r Mem e Member...

  14. Stresses in adhesive joints due to moisture sorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jen, Ming-Hwa Robert

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the Case of 2 Moisture Absorpt1on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 The Non-Dimensional Peel Stress p and the Interlaminar Shear Stresses T and T vs. the Non-Dimensional D1stance x for the Case of Moi stfre Absorption . . . . . . . . . 54 The Non...-Dimensional Displacement W2 of the Outer-Adherends vs. the Non-Dimens1onal Distance x for the Case of Moisture Desorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 The Non-Dimensional Peel Stress p and the Interlaminar Shear Stresses T and T2 vs. the Non-D1mens1onal...

  15. Predicting farm machinery operation time with a soil moisture mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordovsky, James Paul

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -1972 . 76 Figure Page 24. Measured and computed plant available soil moisture in the top 30 cm of the soil profile on watershed Y-8 at Riesel, Texas during 1969, 1970, and 1972 79-81 25. Measured and computed plant available soil moisture in the top... for September, October, and November, 1977 97-99 32. Observed and calculated trafficability data at Corpus Christi, Texas for July, September, October, and November, 1977 . . 101-104 A-1 . The value of PM when S = O. l and S = 0. 25 and aM is the independ...

  16. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  17. Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E.; Long, E.L.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.

  18. Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, Billy John [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Cowan, Kenneth Michael [Sugar land, TX; Deeg, Wolfgang Friedrich Johann [Houston, TX; Wong, Sau-Wai [Rijswijk, NL

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier system for a subsurface treatment area is described. The barrier system includes a first barrier formed around at least a portion of the subsurface treatment area. The first barrier is configured to inhibit fluid from exiting or entering the subsurface treatment area. A second barrier is formed around at least a portion of the first barrier. A separation space exists between the first barrier and the second barrier.

  19. Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementa...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    discusses overcoming internal barriers to funding andor implementing energy efficiency projects. Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation...

  20. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers. Except for occasional times for TC and TD and planned dates for TYB, during FY10, the battery voltage at the TMS and instrument Nests in both T and TY tank farms remained above 12.0 V, denoting that the battery voltages were sufficient for the stations to remain functional. All the HDUs were functioning normally, but some pressure-head values were greater than the upper measurement limit. The values that exceeded the upper limit may indicate wet soil conditions and/or measurement error, but they do not imply a malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 through FY09, in FY10, the soil under natural conditions in the T Farm (Nest TA) was generally recharged during the winter period (October–March), and they discharged during the summer period (April–September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP, and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the TISB was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the TISB (Nests TC and TD), the CP-measured water content showed that ? at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water conditions beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) since the completion of the barrier decreased by 0.007 to 0.014 m3 m-3. The HDU-measured soil-water pressure at 1-m, 2-m, and 5-m depths decreased by 0.7 to 2.4 m, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the TISB (Nest TB), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than in Nests TC and TD; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes at Nest TB since the completion of the barrier were generally less than those at TC and TD, but more than those at TA. These results indicate that the TISB is performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil, and the soil is becoming drier gradually. The barrier also had some effects on the soil below the barrier edge, but at a reduced magnitude. There was no significant difference in soil-water regime between the two nests in the TY tank farm because the barrier at the TY Farm was just completed one month before the end of the FY.

  1. Derivation of Soil Moisture Retention Characteristics from Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h, and evapotranspiration. The soil factors include soil matric potential and water content relationship, saturated content of soil. The relation between matric potential and volumetric water content in a soil is termed

  2. SOIL MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS IN UPPER PART OF HINDON RIVER CATCHMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    of the contribution of various parts of a watershed to the ground water storage. Convenient and reliable techniques for the water demand of the vegetation, as well as for the recharge of the ground water storage. A fair into ground water aquifers. For analytical studies on soil moisture regime, critical review and accurate

  3. Integrating soil moisture and groundwater into climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    dNm dt =m Nm1- Nm -h Nh min1, Nm State transition to oscillatory solutions with efficient hunting: same initial and boundary conditions, but soil moisture set to seasonal climatology from DYNA experiments: Irrigation Simulate equilibrium climate with a mixed- layer ocean, year-2000 or 2050 (A1B

  4. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  5. Preliminary non-destructive assessment of moisture content, hydration and dielectric properties of Portland cement concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avelar Lezama, Ivan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Moisture availability is a focal point in the structural development of young concrete. Under low humidity and hot weather conditions, concrete loses moisture rapidly as it hardens, and it is very difficult, if not impossible, ...

  6. Moisture degradation in FRP bonded concrete systems : an interface fracture approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Au, Ching, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) characterization, and kink criterion implementation, form a synergistic analysis of the mechanistic debonding behavior affected by moisture. Results have shown that moisture affected debonding is a highly complex ...

  7. A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro Spinel, Silvia

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture damage, is defined...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID TEST TO DETERMINE MOISTURE SENSTIVITY OF HMA (SUPERPAVE) MIXTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiwakoti, Harihar

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Exiting test methods to determine moisture sensitivity in hot mix asphalt are time consuming and inconsistent. This research focused on wheel tracking devices to develop a rapid test method to evaluate moisture sensitivity. The Asphalt Pavement...

  9. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission and Opportunities for Applications Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Molly E.

    Water in the soil—both its amount (soil moisture) and its state (freeze/thaw)—plays a key role in water and energy cycles, in weather and climate, and in the carbon cycle. Additionally, soil moisture touches upon human ...

  10. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle ...

  11. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier. Each instrument nest is composed of a capacitance probe (CP) with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units (HDUs), and a neutron probe (NP) access tube. The monitoring results in FY09 are summarized below. The solar panels functioned normally and could provide sufficient power to the instruments. The CP in Nest C after September 20, 2009, was not functional. The CP sensors in Nest B after July 13 and the 0.9-m CP sensor in Nest D before June 10 gave noisy data. Other CPs were functional normally. All the HDUs were functional normally but some pressure-head values measured by HDUs were greater than the upper measurement-limit. The higher-than-upper-limit values might be due to the very wet soil condition and/or measurement error but do not imply the malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 and FY08, in FY09, the soil under natural conditions (Nest A) was generally recharged during the winter period (October-March) and discharged during the summer period (April-September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the surface barrier was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the surface barrier (Nests C and D), the CP measurements showed that water content at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was very stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water condition beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage seemed occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) in FY09. The HDU-measured water pressure decreased consistently in the soil above 5-m depth, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the surface barrier (Nest B), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year except at the 0.9-m depth; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than those in Nests C and D; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes in FY09 in Nest B were less than those for C and D but more than those for A. The soil-water-pressure head was more sensitive to soil water regime changes under dry conditions. In the soil beneath the barrier, the theoretical steady-state values of pressure head is equal to the negative of the distance to groundwater table. Hence, it is expected that, in the future, while the water content become stable, the pressure head will keep decreasing for a long time (e.g., many years). These results indicate that the T Tank Farm surface barrier was performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil and the soil was becoming drier gradually. The barrier also has some effects on the soil below the barrier edge but at a reduced magnitude.

  12. Policy, institutional and market barriers to the implementation of clean development mechanisms (CDM) in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, L.; Yan, J.Y. [Lulea University of Technology, Lulea (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics & Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews current Chinese policies and administrative and institutional settings for CDM cooperation, and discusses existing policy, institutional and other barriers in the energy market by drawing on observations and experience from previous initiatives such as Cleaner Production and energy efficiency. Some options to remove these barriers are addressed. In order to make CDM projects feasible, China's government needs to promote awareness, streamline administrative systems, and be more active in budding a competitive edge in the world carbon market.

  13. In-situ formation of multiphase electron beam physical vapor deposited barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base columnar thermal barrier coating (20) on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide sheath material (32' or 34') covers the columns (28), and the sheath material is the reaction product of a precursor ceramic oxide sheath material and the base thermal barrier coating material.

  14. The Impact of Above-Sheathing Ventilation on the Thermal and Moisture Performance of Steep-Slope Residential Roofs and Attics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, W.; Karagiozis, A.; Wilson, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IMPACT OF ABOVE-SHEATHING VENTILATION ON THE THERMAL AND MOISTURE PERFORMANCE OF STEEP-SLOPE RESIDENTIAL ROOFS AND ATTICS William (Bill) Miller Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Joe Wilson Product... Manager Metro Roof Products Oceanside, California Achilles Karagiozis Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT Field studies were conducted on several attic assemblies having stone-coated metal shake roofs...

  15. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, C.M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Institutional Barriers to Energy Conservation C. M. York, C.P.R. , 1973. "Energy Conservation in Buildings: ItsS. (eds. ), 1973. Energy Conservation: Implica­ tions for

  17. Einstein-Hessian barriers on convex cones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Einstein-Hessian barriers on convex cones. Roland Hildebrand ?. May 21, 2012. Abstract. On the interior of a regular convex cone K ? Rn there exist two ...

  18. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  19. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

  20. Induction barrier RF and applications in Main Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, W.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab; Takagi, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two induction barrier rf systems have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab and installed in the Main Injector. They use the nanocrystal magnetic alloy called Finemet for the cavities and high voltage fast MOSFET switches for the modulators. Each system delivers {+-}10 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. They have been used for adiabatic beam stacking (beam compression), machine acceptance measurement and gap cleaning in the injection area for magnet protection, and will be tested for fast beam stacking for doubling the proton flux on the NuMI production target. The systems work reliably and cost much less than a resistive barrier rf system. Comparison with a similar system built at KEK reveals many similarities and also some important differences. This work is partially funded by the US-Japan collaborative agreement.

  1. Evolution of moisture convergence in a mesoscale convective complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bercherer, John Phillip

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Committee: Dr. Keuneth C. Brundidge Two separate Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) were investigated to determine if a characteristic surface moisture convergence (MC) signature existed on the mesoscale during their lifecycle. The first storm (Case 1... convergence, a bandpass filtering technique was utilized. It was found that MC could identify the general area of initial thunderstorm activity 2 h prior to its development for both cases. During the initial development stage of Case 1, advection...

  2. [DELTA T dryer/moisture control system]. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying Technology, Inc. was awarded a grant for the purpose of extending DELTA T dryer/moisture control technology into additional industries. Ultimate purpose of the grant was to save energy and improve efficiency in the process industries. Results indicate that these objectives have been met and will continue as this new technology is duplicated in the present industries and also is extended into other industries as well.

  3. The structure of a late-spring moisture burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockton, Jay Richard

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    masses from tropical air masses. McGuirk et ol. (1983) developed a moisture burst climatology for the months of November through Apnl, utilizing Geostationary Operational Environmental Satelhte-West (GOES-W) IR imagery taken every six hours. Four... in the area. c) Point comparisons outside of the active burst regions show systematic overpredictions of mean relative humidity and underpredictions of temporal variability by ECMWF analyses with respect to observations. d) Satellite channel radiance data...

  4. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  5. Removed Barriers: 3.32 Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    Students Average Values from Entry and Exit Surveys for Participants in 2006 Workshops ENTRY 1 BarriersResults EXIT 2 Removed Barriers: 3.32 Knowledge 3.67 GIS 3.46 Data Access 3.68 Software Use 3

  6. BUILDING CODES: BARRIERS TO GREEN INNOVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BUILDING CODES: BARRIERS TO GREEN INNOVATION JENNIFER GARMAN DR. JIM BOWYER DR. STEVE BRATKOVICH/18/2011 DOVETAIL PARTNERS, INC. www.dovetailinc.org Building Codes: Barriers to Green Innovation Introduction Many architects and contractors want to pursue green building design, technologies and construction. Green

  7. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Peter C.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

  8. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  9. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  10. DOE Issues Request for Information on Biological Hydrogen Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (RFI) seeking feedback from interested stakeholders regarding biological hydrogen production research and development (R&D) pathways, barriers, issues, and opportunities for...

  11. Geomembrane barriers using integral fiber optics to monitor barrier integrity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a geomembrane or geotextile with embedded optical sensors that are used to monitor the status of containment site barriers. Fiber optic strands are used to form the sensors that can detect and monitor conditions at the sites such as breaches, slope creep, subsidence, leachate levels, fires, and types of materials present or leaking from the site. The strands are integral to the membrane or textile materials. The geosynthetic membrane is deployed at the site in a fashion similar to carpet laying. Edges of the membrane or textile are joined to form a liner and the ends of the membrane or textile become the connection zones for obtaining signals from the sensors. A connection interface with a control system to generate Optical Time Delay Response or other light signals for transmission to the optic fiber strands or sensors and also to receive reflected signals from the sensors is included in the system. Software to interpret the sensor signals can be used in the geosynthetic monitoring system. 6 figs.

  12. Geomembrane barriers using integral fiber optics to monitor barrier integrity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staller, George E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wemple, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a geomembrane or geotextile with embedded optical sensors that are used to monitor the status of containment site barriers. Fiber optic strands are used to form the sensors that can detect and monitor conditions at the sites such as breaches, slope creep, subsidence, leachate levels, fires, and types of materials present or leaking from the site. The strands are integral to the membrane or textile materials. The geosythetic membrane is deployed at the site in a fashion similar to carpet laying. Edges of the membrane or textile are joined to form a liner and the ends of the membrane or textile become the connection zones for obtaining signals from the sensors. A connection interface with a control system to generate Optical Time Delay Response or other light signals for transmission to the optic fiber strands or sensors and also to receive reflected signals from the sensors is included in the system. Software to interpret the sensor signals can be used in the geosythetic monitoring system.

  13. Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodagholian, Sevana

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in Proton Bridgedand J.A. Gerlt, “The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in EnzymaticShow That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not Offer a

  14. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  15. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  16. Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 This report...

  17. Removing Barriers to Innovations: Related Codes and Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Removing Barriers to Innovations: Related Codes and Standards CSI Team Removing Barriers to Innovations: Related Codes and Standards CSI Team This presentation was delivered at the...

  18. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies...

  19. Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove Dissolved Uranium From Groundwater-001 November 2000 FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMOVE DISSOLVED URANIUM FROM

  20. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  1. Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  2. New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive...

  3. Using electrical resistance probes for moisture determination in switchgrass windrows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesser Jr., G. D.; Davis, J. D.; Purswell, J. L.; Lemus, R.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining moisture levels in windrowed biomass is important for both forage producers and researchers. Energy crops such as switchgrass have been troublesome when using the standard methods set for electrical resistance meters. The objectives of this study were to i) develop the methodologies needed to measure MC in switchgrass using electrical resistance meters, ii) to determine the effects of pressure and probe orientation on MC measurement and iii) to generate MC calibration equations for electrical resistance meters using switchgrass in the senescence growth stage. Two meters (Meter 1, Farmex HT-PRO; Meter 2, Delmhorst F-2000) were selected based on commercial availability. A forage compression apparatus was designed and constructed with on-farm materials and methods to provide a simple system of applying pressure achievable by any forage producer or researcher in the field. Two trials were performed to test four levels of moisture contents (10, 20, 30, and 40%), five pressures (0, 1.68, 3.11, 4.55, 6.22 kN/m 2; 0, 35, 65, 95, 130 lb/ft 2), and two probe orientations (axial and transverse) in a 4x5x2 factorial design. Results indicated that meter accuracy increased as pressure increased. Regression models accounted for 91% and 81% of the variation for Meter 1 and Meter 2 at a pressure of 4.55 kN/m 2 (95 lb/ft 2) and a transverse probe orientation. Calibration equations were developed for both meters to improve moisture measurement accuracy for farmers and researchers in the field.

  4. Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water heating systems built during the past ten years represent the beginning of a strong North American Solar Industry. The opportunities provided through Government assistance programs have enabled the Industry to develop products, standards...

  5. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  6. Transport Properties for Triangular Barriers in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically study the electronic transport properties of Dirac fermions through one and double triangular barriers in graphene. Using the transfer matrix method, we determine the transmission, conductance and Fano factor. They are obtained to be various parameters dependent such as well width, barrier height and barrier width. Therefore, different discussions are given and comparison with the previous significant works is done. In particular, it is shown that at Dirac point the Dirac fermions always own a minimum conductance associated with a maximum Fano factor and change their behaviors in an oscillatory way (irregularly periodical tunneling peaks) when the potential of applied voltage is increased.

  7. A soil moisture availability model for crop stress prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gay, Roger Franklin

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wet so11 profile [Ritch1e et al. , 1972] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Relationships between the ratio of actual evaporation (Ea) to pan evaporat1on (E an) as a function of the available soil water in Rule and Bragg soybean [Burch et al. , 1978...] F1gure Interact1ons between soil-moisture status and other components of a general crop yield model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure Root densit1es for ra1nfed Ruse and Bragg soybean, 98 days after planting [Burch et al. , 1978...

  8. Transient Analysis for Thermal and Moisture Behavior of Building Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, X.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (,0)mx m= (10) 3.SOLVING METHOD Applying the Laplace transformation to Eqs.(3), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8) with respect to t , they become 2 00 dTLSTTSm dx ??=?? + m (11) 2 00 dmDSmmST dx T? ?=?? + (12) 11 11 1 11 (,) [(,) ] (1... diffusivity approaches unity. So far, there have been many studies[3,8]concerned with the interactive effect between temperature and moisture, experimentally or analytically. However, for the convenience of analysis, most of the analytical investigations...

  9. Determination of moisture in solids using high frequency methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Melven Boyd

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~, An induction-Ccpacit Oscillator of Unusual Fre uenc Stabi lit-, Proc ~ I. -". ". , larch, 1948 ~ (14) Glass':one, Samuel, Textbook of Physical Chemistry? D. Tan Nostrand Companv, Ino. , New York, 1947 pp 417 (15) Ibid, pp, 333 ... and low melting solids ~ . '. :eascrement of a change in a physical consL'ant ro deucrcc ne moisture content is incorporated in many methods' The chango in dielectric constant has been used with some success (0, 7 ' 8), 'cut s. "a' n it has boon more...

  10. A study of the troxler nuclear soil density and moisture gauges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedenwald, Robert Lane

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Be 60 source was used in moisture determinations and a Co source in density measurements. Average deviations of 0. 8 pounds of water per cubic foot of soil were reported for moisture measurements. Density measurements varied by 3 pounds per cubic... foot. It was found that moisture readings may be affected by chemically bound water but for mineral soils, soil type generally has little effect on the calibration of these instruments. Goldberg et al (15) in 1955 constructed a sensitive, r liable...

  11. The Impact of Above-Sheathing Ventilation on the Thermal and Moisture Performance of Steep-Slope Residential Roofs and Attics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, W.; Karagiozis, A.; Wilson, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IMPACT OF ABOVE-SHEATHING VENTILATION ON THE THERMAL AND MOISTURE PERFORMANCE OF STEEP-SLOPE RESIDENTIAL ROOFS AND ATTICS William (Bill) Miller Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Joe Wilson Product... with and without infrared blocking color pigments (IrBCPs) and with and without above-sheathing ventilation. The combination of increased solar reflectance and above-sheathing ventilation reduced the heat flow penetrating the attic floor by 70% as compared...

  12. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  13. Photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic devices with quantum barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wernsman, Bernard R. (Jefferson Hills, PA)

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic or thermophotovoltaic device includes a diode formed by p-type material and n-type material joined at a p-n junction and including a depletion region adjacent to said p-n junction, and a quantum barrier disposed near or in the depletion region of the p-n junction so as to decrease device reverse saturation current density while maintaining device short circuit current density. In one embodiment, the quantum barrier is disposed on the n-type material side of the p-n junction and decreases the reverse saturation current density due to electrons while in another, the barrier is disposed on the p-type material side of the p-n junction and decreases the reverse saturation current density due to holes. In another embodiment, both types of quantum barriers are used.

  14. Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkes, K. E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a summary of the efforts at ORNL in modeling residential attics with radiant barriers. Analytical models based on a system of macroscopic heat balances have been developed. Separate models have been developed for horizontal radiant...

  15. Temperature and moisture dependence of dielectric constant for silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.H., LLNL

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric constants of silica aerogels are among the lowest measured for any solid material. The silica aerogels also exhibit low thermal expansion and are thermally stable to temperatures exceeding 500{degrees}C. However, due to the open porosity and large surface areas for aerogels, their dielectric constants are strongly affected by moisture and temperature. This paper presents data for the dielectric constants of silica aerogels as a function of moisture content at 25{degrees}C, and as a function of temperature, for temperatures in the range from 25{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C. Dielectric constant data are also given for silica aerogels that are heat treated in dry nitrogen at 500{degrees}C, then cooled to 25{degrees}C for measurements in dry air. All measurements are made on bulk aerogel spheres at 22GHz microwave frequency, using a cavity perturbation method. The results of the dependence found here for bulk materials can be inferred to apply also to thin films of silica aerogels having similar nano-structures and densities.

  16. Surface barriers: Problems, solutions, and future needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of designing a surface barrier for a remediation project can be an enormously challenging task. There is a widely held misconception that surface barrier technology is well developed and works as expected. In fact, the technology is largely unproved and experimental, particularly in terms of long-term performance. The most difficult problem with surface barriers is to provide a long-term barrier to infiltration of water. The materials that have traditionally been considered for the hydraulic barrier within surface barrier systems are low-permeability compacted soil, geomembranes, and the geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). Data are presented to suggest that low-permeability compacted soil is often a poor choice of materials. Unless the compacted soil liner is buried under a very thick layer of protective soil or covered by a geomembrane, the low-permeability, clay-rich, compacted soil is likely to desiccate and lose its low hydraulic conductivity. Differential settlement of a compacted soil liner from uneven compression of underlying waste or other causes is almost certain to produce cracks within the soil liner. Geomembranes do not suffer as much from these problems, but their design life is, at best, a few centuries, The GCL, which contains a thin layer of bentonite, is much better able to resist damage from freezing/thawing, desiccation, and differential settlement than compacted soil liners. The technology of the GCL, which is particularly well suited for arid sites, is reviewed in some detail in this paper because of its technical attributes in surface-barrier applications. Published case histories of the performance of surface barriers are summarized.

  17. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

  18. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  19. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier Annual Monitoring Report for Fiscal Years 2005 Through 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Link, Steven O.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype Hanford barrier was deployed over the 216-B-57 Crib at the Hanford Site in 1994 to prevent percolation through the underlying waste and to minimize spreading of buried contaminants. This barrier is being monitored to evaluate physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. This report summarizes data collected during the period FY 2005 through FY 2007. In FY 2007, monitoring of the prototype Hanford barrier focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, evidence of plant and animal intrusion, and the main components of the water balance, including precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and deep percolation. Owing to a hiatus in funding in FY 2005 through 2006, data collected were limited to automated measurements of the water-balance components. For the reporting period (October 2004 through September 2007) precipitation amount and distribution were close to normal. The cumulative amount of water received from October 1994 through September 2007 was 3043.45 mm on the northern half of the barrier, which is the formerly irrigated treatment, and 2370.58 mm on the southern, non-irrigated treatments. Water storage continued to show a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and declining in the spring and summer to a lower limit of around 100 mm in response to evapotranspiration. The 600-mm design storage has never been exceeded. For the reporting period, the total drainage from the soil-covered plots ranged from near zero amounts under the soil-covered plots to almost 20 mm under the side slopes. Over the 13-yr monitoring period, side slope drainage accounted for about 20 percent of total precipitation while the soil-covered plots account for only 0.12 mm total. Above-asphalt and below-asphalt moisture measurements show no evidence of deep percolation of water. Topographic surveys show the barrier and protective side slopes to be stable. Plant surveys show a relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation in 1994 although species diversity on the soil cover continues to decrease, from 35 in 1997 to 12 in 2007. The formerly irrigated treatments continue to show greater cover of grasses and litter than the non-irrigated treatments. On the formerly irrigated treatments, the mean cover class was 25 to 50 percent for both grasses and shrubs. On the non-irrigated treatments, the mean cover class was 5 to 25 percent from grasses and 25 to 50 percent for shrubs. The western and northern side slopes of the barrier show less plant cover than the soil surface, but show higher species diversity. This may be due to the influence of windblown soil and seeds from adjacent land, or the lack of shrubs competing for resources. Insects and small mammals continue to use the barrier surface and several holes and mounds were observed during the last year. This suggests that the restored barrier surface is beginning to function like a recovering ecosystem. Small-mammal burrowing on the top and sides of the barrier is most prevalent on the finer-grained and disturbed soils while active ant mounds were observed on the northern and western slopes.

  20. Use of element model to evaluate transmissibility reduction due to barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svanes, T.; South, D.; Dronen, O.M. [Statoil, Bergen (Norway)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water breakthrough has been observed a year earlier than expected in the productive Oseberg Formation in the Veslefrikk Field. Production data revealed extensive water override, whereas the opposite situation was expected based on a homogeneous and coarse flow simulation model. A new model was developed to include geological heterogeneities using a simple upscaling method. The Oseberg Fm. consists of an upper homogeneous unit (zone 2) and a lower unit containing thin barriers of shale and calcite cemented sandstone (zone 1). The barrier content varies laterally. When barriers are distributed in a complex 3D pattern, they reduce the upscaled horizontal transmissibility more than what is obtained by multiplying the sand permeability by the net-to-gross ratio (N/G). However, the transmissibility reduction strongly depends on the spatial distribution of barriers and their geometry. Therefore, a fine scale element model was used to derive the average transmissibility reduction as a function of N/G for alternative geological descriptions of the barriers. A geo-statistical method called General Marked Point Process was used to generate the fine scale descriptions. This work has resulted in a simple upscaling routine for horizontal transmissibility, which represents an effective bridge between geological evaluation of uncertainties and fluid flow simulation. The method combines geo-statistical and deterministic modelling in an elegant manner, recognising that most often these methods complement one another.

  1. A Fourier-based Valuation Method for Bermudan and Barrier Options under Heston's Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oosterlee, Cornelis W. "Kees"

    A Fourier-based Valuation Method for Bermudan and Barrier Options under Heston's Model Fang Fang dependency. Monte Carlo simulation methods are often used for the valuation of such products in practice and Cornelis W. Oosterlee May 4, 2010 Abstract We develop an efficient Fourier-based numerical method

  2. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quality problems. Traditionally residential ventilation wasquality problems such as moisture. Residential ventilationventilation air is only one way of tackling the R H problem

  3. Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

    system costs and improving thermal outputs to the point that solar energy is cost effective. Petro-Sun International recognized, several years ago, the need for lowering costs and has subsequently dedicated its Research and Development program... the beginning of a strong North American Solar Industry. The opportunities provided through Government assistance programs have enabled the Industry to develop products, standards and the research capability to the edge of commercially realisable solar...

  4. Peel and Shear Fracture Characterization of Debonding in FRP Plated Concrete Affected by Moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    polymer CFRP plated concrete systems by mechanically testing accelerated moisture conditioned mesoscalePeel and Shear Fracture Characterization of Debonding in FRP Plated Concrete Affected by Moisture fracture toughness as the quantification parameter of the CFRP-epoxy-concrete trilayer system, which

  5. Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuligowski, Bob

    Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model Christopher. In general, dry soil or stressed vegetation heats up more rapidly than wet soil or unstressed vegetation, using one dual polarized channel (either Cband or Xband) for the retrieval of soil moisture

  6. Using moisture transport properties of rice seed components for identifying fissure resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Audrey Elizabeth

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , LaGrue, Lemont, and Cypress. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) tests exposed 200 grams of brown rice to identify how the four varieties compare in their ability to hold moisture at a specific condition. Cypress, Lemont, and LaGrue tended to hold...

  7. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE -II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    aquifers. For analytical studies on soil moisture regime, critical review and accurate assessment among soil moisture characteristic curves are attributed primarily to the differences in pore size structures. In addition, the curves generally show hysteresis according to the wetting or drying of soils

  8. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussell, J.H., WHC

    1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

  9. SOIL MOISTURE CHARACTERIZATION USING MULTI-ANGULAR POLARIMETRIC RADARSAT-2 DATASETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SOIL MOISTURE CHARACTERIZATION USING MULTI-ANGULAR POLARIMETRIC RADARSAT-2 DATASETS Hongquan Wang to be a solution to improve the effectiveness of bare soil char- acterization. However, the potential single and multiple incidence angle acquisitions is investigated against in situ soil moisture

  10. Dynamic Effects on Moisture Transport in Asphalt Concrete M. Emin Kutay1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Dynamic Effects on Moisture Transport in Asphalt Concrete M. Emin Kutay1 and Ahmet H. Aydilek2 2007 133:7 406 CE Database subject headings: Moisture; Asphalt concrete; Dynamics; Hydraulic and Magdalena 2002 ; however, limited research has been conducted in modeling dynamic flow in porous geomedia

  11. Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions moisture transport, snow accumulation and melting, and soil freezing and thawing are investigated transport, snow cover, and soil freezing. 1. Introduction Prediction of ground temperature is an important

  12. Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture Stefano Accepted 26 September 2013 Available online 9 October 2013 Keywords: Optimization Photosynthesis Soil moisture Stomatal conductance Transpiration a b s t r a c t Optimization theories explain a variety

  13. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  14. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

  15. Methods for fabricating a micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for fabricating a highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  16. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  17. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Beller, John Michael; Geesey, Gill Gregroy; Glenn, David Frankie; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Martian, Pete; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Porro, Indrek; Southworth, Finis Hio; Steffler, Eric Darwin; Stormberg, Angelica Isabel; Stormberg, Gregory John; Versteeg, Roelof Jan; White, Gregory J

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R&D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo- transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Moisture Transport Through Walls and Associated Cooling Loads in the Hot/Humid Climate of Florianopolis, Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials. and the influence of solar radiation...

  19. Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Pei; W. Nazarewicz; J. A. Sheikh; A. K. Kerman

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The relationship between isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. Calculations have been carried out for $^{264}$Fm, $^{272}$Ds, $^{278}$112, $^{292}$114, and $^{312}$124. For nuclei around $^{278}$112 produced in "cold fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy as compared to the nuclei around $^{292}$114 synthesized in "hot fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and saddle-point temperatures. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied.

  20. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max

    2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives for this workshop were to bring together those with different viewpoints on the implementation of energy efficient ventilation in homes to share their perspectives. The primary benefit of the workshop is to allow the participants to get a broader understanding of the issues involved and thereby make themselves more able to achieve their own goals in this area. In order to achieve this objective each participant was asked to address four objectives from their point of view: (1) Drivers for energy efficient residential ventilation: Why is this an important issue? Who cares about it? Where is the demand: occupants, utilities, regulation, programs, etc? What does sustainability mean in this context? (2) Markets & Technologies: What products, services and systems are out there? What kinds of things are in the pipeline? What is being installed now? Are there regional or other trends? What are the technology interactions with other equipment and the envelope? (3) Barriers to Implementation: What is stopping decision makers from implementing energy-efficient residential ventilation systems? What kind of barriers are there: technological, cost, informational, structural, etc. What is the critical path? (4) Solutions: What can be done to overcome the barriers and how can/should we do it? What is the role of public vs. private institutions? Where can investments be made to save energy while improving the indoor environment? Ten participants prepared presentations for the workshop. Those presentations are included in sections at the end of this workshop report. These presentations provided the principal context for the discussions that happened during the workshop. Critical path issues were raised and potential solutions discussed during the workshop. As a secondary objective they have listed key issues and some potential consensus items which resulted from the discussions.

  2. Time-dependent potential barriers and superarrivals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Karami; S. V. Mousavi

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of a Gaussian wavepacket from rectangular potential barriers with increasing widths or heights is studied numerically. It is seen that during a certain time interval the time-evolving transmission probability increases compared to the corresponding unperturbed cases. In the literature this effect is known as superarrival in transmission probability. We present a trajectory-based explanation for this effect by using the concept of quantum potential energy and computing a selection of Bohmian trajectories. Relevant parameters in superarrivals are determined for the case that the barrier width increases linearly during the dispersion of the wavepacket. Nonlinear in time perturbation is also considered.

  3. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  4. Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ," ORNLICON-200, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 8. Levins W.P. and Kamitz M.A., and Knight D. K., 1986, "Cooling Energy Measurements of Unoccupied Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers." Proceedings, Third Annual... with R-ll and R-30 Ceiling Insulation. "ORNLICON-226, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 10. Levins W.P. and Kamitz M.A., 1987, "Energy Measurements of Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers." Presented at the ASHRAE...

  5. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  6. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    74 ii Soil Moisture Sensors: Decagon ECH2O Capacitance133 A.10 Soil types corresponding to each75 Soil Moisture and Temperature Probe

  7. Caribbean and Pacific moisture sources on the Isthmus of Panama revealed from stalagmite and surface water d18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asmerom, Yemane

    Caribbean and Pacific moisture sources on the Isthmus of Panama revealed from stalagmite values from Panama and Costa Rica. The d18 O values decrease with distance from the Caribbean Sea a contribution of both Caribbean and Pacific sourced moisture to the isthmus. We estimated the Pacific moisture

  8. Recent Advances in Profile Soil Moisture Retrieval Jeffrey P. Walker, Garry R. Willgoose and Jetse D. Kalma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    and agriculture. The significance of soil moisture is its role in the partitioning of energy at the ground surface for hydrologic, climatic and agricultural studies, such observations of surface soil moisture must be related to accept remote sensing data as input to track soil moisture status in time. As surface observations

  9. Field study of gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions: Protective Barrier Program Status Reprt - FY 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.; Thiede, M.E.; Kemp, C.J.; Cadwell, L.L. Link, S.O.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) are collaborating on a field study of the effects of gravel admixtures on plant growth and soil water storage in protective barriers. Protective barriers are engineered earthern covers designed to prevent water, plants, and animals from contacting buried waste and transporting contaminants to groundwater or the land surface. Some of the proposed designs include gravel admixtures or gravel mulches on the barrier surface to control soil loss by wind and runoff. The purpose of this study is to measure, in a field setting, the influence of surface gravel additions on soil water storage and plant cover. The study plots are located northwest of the Yakima Gate in the McGee Ranch old field. Here we report the status of work completed in FY 1989 on the creation of a data management system, a test of water application uniformity, field calibration of neutron moisture gages, and an analysis of the response of plants to various combinations of gravel admixtures and increased rainfall. 23 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  11. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  12. Multi-barrier borehole canister designs for a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, D.E.; Skaggs, R.L.; Mohansingh, S.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial dimensions are presented for proposed multi-barrier spent fuel borehole canisters using coated shells combined with sacrificial anodes and alkaline, oxide barriers to adjust potential and pH of the exterior shell into thermodynamically passive or immune regions of the Pourbaix diagram. Configuration of the 3 PWR canister is similar to the 1983 Site Characterization Project (SCP) borehole design. Canister dimensions were determined by using material performance data to calculate wall thickness, criticality, and sacrificial anode life. For the 3-PWR canister. Incoloy 825 is the preferred exterior canister shell material; copper-nickel alloy CDA 715 is the preferred interior canister shell material. High-lime concrete or alumina is preferred for the alkaline filler. Magnesium alloy is the preferred sacrificial anode material. Coating the canister exterior would be necessary to reduce corrosion current density to the point where a 10,000 year design life is possible. A 1 PWR canister has lower mass, thinner walls and lower criticality than the 3 PWR design. Equilibrium calculations for the historical average composition of J-13 water using the aquatic chemical speciation program WQ4F show positive saturation indices for several minerals, indicating potential for deposition on the canister exterior over long time periods. Uniform deposition could reduce corrosion rate by hindering transport of corrosion products from the canister surface. If deposition is non-uniform, local corrosion could increase through development of differential oxygen concentration cells.

  13. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  14. IDENTIFYING AND OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case Studies A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center and for policy-makers. To fulfill these goals, an in-depth study of five California case studies in the San, but still very limited activities in the case studies. Institutional and attitudinal barriers dominate

  15. Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-2294E Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response F. Rubinstein, G. Ghatikar, J Ann Piette of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC and Environment's (CIEE) Demand Response Emerging Technologies Development (DRETD) Program, under Work for Others

  16. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  17. RealReal heterojunctionsheterojunctions Schottky barrier current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    -EFFICIENCY CDTE AND CIGS THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: HIGHLIGHTS AND CHALLENGES. National Renewable Energy Laboratory1 RealReal heterojunctionsheterojunctions LECTURE 9 · Schottky barrier current · CdS/CIGS · Energy is the forward-bias current? #12;33 HeterostructureHeterostructure, thin film, cells: a lower, thin film, cells

  18. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  19. THERMOELECTRIC EFFECTS IN SUBMICRON HETEROSTRUCTURE BARRIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is paid to the energy balance in thermionic emission, and the Joule heating in the barrier region. By introducing an energy relaxation length , an equation for the tem perature distribution inside the dev ice material systems for TE cooling applications. Almost all of the current commercial room-temperature TE

  20. Moisture in Molasses as a Factor in the Heating of Feeds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halick, John V.; Richardson, L. R.

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sugars after inversion, moisture, Brix and ash. Moist.ure was determined by the vacuum oven drying method and ranged from 19 to over 31 percent. Over 71.0 percent of the samples contained 26 percent or more of lwater. If 10 percent of molasses... in a feed contain a normal amount of water, the extra water added in the molasses might raise the moisture content to an unsafe level. Different values for solids were obtained by the Brix and the vacuum oven drying methods, Brix is an unreliable...

  1. Measurements of Backsheet Moisture Permeation and Encapsulant-Substrate Adhesion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Barber, G.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Measurements of backsheet moisture permeation and encapsulant-substrate adhesion. At the March 2001 NCPV workshop on ''Moisture Ingress and High-Voltage Isolation'', industry participants identified several properties associated with PV module durability that are critical for commercial success. These include interface conductivity, adhesion of encapsulants to substrate materials as a function of in-service exposure conditions, and moisture permeation through backsheet materials as a function of temperature. Electrical data is discussed in a companion paper; adhesion and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) measurements are presented herein.

  2. Experimental Study of Multi-type Macromolecule Porosity Moisture-Conditioned Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, X.; Fan, Y.; Di, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL DEVICES 4.1 The Experimental Materials (1) Porous materials: Concrete blocks, weight for 550Kg/m3, pore rate of 73%, saturated humidity rate of 45%, dimensions of 300?600?80mm. (2) Combined with the moisture conditioned... on buildings or wallpaper to adjust humidity. 2) Concrete blocks: 300?600?80mm. (3) Combined with the moisture conditioned plate and porous materials 1) Moisture conditioned plate: Absorbent resin adsorption salt solution, forms a Gel, mixed the Gel...

  3. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  4. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations, indicating some loss of reductive capacity within the aquifer. The Technical Assistance Team (TAT) was requested to perform the following activities: (1) evaluate the most probable condition(s) that has led to the presence of Cr(VI) in 12 different barrier wells (i.e. premature loss of reductive capacity), (2) recommend methods for determining the cause of the problem, (3) recommend methods for evaluating the magnitude of the problem, (4) recommend practicable method(s) for mending the barrier that involves a long-term solution, and (5) recommend methods for extending the barrier to the northeast (e.g., changing injection procedure, changing or augmenting the injected material). Since the March 2004 workshop, a decision has been made to place a hold on the barrier extension until more is known about the cause of the problem. However, the report complies with the original request for information on all of the above activities, but focuses on determining the cause of the problem and mending of the existing barrier.

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  6. Modeling Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds and Solution Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theel, Kelly

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling low-barrier hydrogen bonds . . . . . 1.3 ModelingTypical hydrogen-bond 1-D potential energy surface . LBHB 1-representation of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond . . . . . . .

  7. Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, You-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    and impermeable nanoparticles show improved barrier, but particle aggregation limits their practical utility for applications requiring high barrier and transparency. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies allow polymers and nanoparticles to be mixed with high particle...

  8. Compaction Effects on Uniformity, Moisture Diffusion, and Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassem, Emad Abdel-Rahman Ahmed

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    in gyratory specimens were related to the mixture mechanical properties measured using the Overlay and Hamburg tests. The second part of this study focused on studying the relationship between air void distribution and moisture diffusion. A laboratory test...

  9. TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES by Mei Li A thesis graduate students in the composite materials group for their help and kindness. Finally, thanks to my dear

  10. Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Qing

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Asphalt Concrete-Physical Testing. ” Final Report, #930-of Asphalt Concrete: Chemical Testing. ” Alabama Highwayconcrete mixes, it is preferred to use a mix that would have good moisture resistance under laboratory testing

  11. Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, John T; Lu, Qing

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Asphalt Concrete-Physical Testing. ” Final Report no.of Asphalt Concrete: Chemical Testing. ” Alabama Highwayconcrete mixes, it is preferable to use a mix that would have good moisture resistance under laboratory testing

  12. Estimation of soil moisture in paddy field using Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arif, Chusnul; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Doi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In paddy field, monitoring soil moisture is required for irrigation scheduling and water resource allocation, management and planning. The current study proposes an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model to estimate soil moisture in paddy field with limited meteorological data. Dynamic of ANN model was adopted to estimate soil moisture with the inputs of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and precipitation. ETo was firstly estimated using the maximum, average and minimum values of air temperature as the inputs of model. The models were performed under different weather conditions between the two paddy cultivation periods. Training process of model was carried out using the observation data in the first period, while validation process was conducted based on the observation data in the second period. Dynamic of ANN model estimated soil moisture with R2 values of 0.80 and 0.73 for training and validation processes, respectively, indicated that tight linear correlations between observed and estimated values of s...

  13. OVERSTORY-IMPOSED HETEROGENEITY IN SOLAR RADIATION AND SOIL MOISTURE IN A SEMIARID WOODLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breshears, David D.; Rich, Paul M.; Barnes, Fairley J.; Katherine, Campbell

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plants and the intercanopy patches that separate them, yielding an overstory with intermediate closure. Field measurements of microclimate at the scale of canopy patches, particularly for near-ground solar radiation and soil moisture, are largely lacking...

  14. The effects of aggregate gradation on moisture diffusivity in a cementious based material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szecsy, Richard

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravel), and the presence of fly ash (10% by cement weight or none). Also developed, is an experimental laboratory procedure which measures the moisture diffusivity of a cementious material. The method and procedure for measuring diffusivity developed...

  15. PATTERNS OF LEAF WETTABILITY ALONG AN EXTREME MOISTURE GRADIENT IN WESTERN PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Carol

    PATTERNS OF LEAF WETTABILITY ALONG AN EXTREME MOISTURE GRADIENT IN WESTERN PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA Patagonia, Argentina. Morphological and structural characteristics of leaves significantly affected leaf surfaces. Keywords: leaf wetness, morphology, water droplet, Patagonia, gradient. Introduction A large

  16. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  17. The effects of soil moisture on pecan weevil emergence and predicting drought delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schraer, Stephen Martin

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    soils. Drought conditions, induced on soil plots, as well as natural soil conditions were used to assess the effects of soil particle size distribution and soil moisture on soil hardness. Soil hardness can be determined by the following: 572...

  18. Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

  19. Measurement of moisture and total reducing sugars using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industrial applications. In this project, the accuracy and feasibility of measuring moisture and total reducing sugar content in a vegetable medium using a Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique was investigated as an alternative to slow and tedious classical...

  20. The Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Physical Properties of Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymer Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ya-Jen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams...

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD the barrier to linearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takeshi

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD 3 above the barrier to linearity BY JENNIFER L. GOTTFRIED, transitions of HC 3 above the barrier to linearity have been observed. A highly sensitive near-infrared-adiabatic and radiative corrections is revealed. Keywords: HD 3 ; near-infrared spectroscopy; barrier to linearity 1

  2. Finding and Mending Barrier Gaps in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Benyuan

    Finding and Mending Barrier Gaps in Wireless Sensor Networks Anwar Saipulla Benyuan Liu Jie Wang--Constructing sensing barriers using wireless sensor networks has important applications in military operations results show that our algorithms can effectively improve the barrier coverage of a wireless sensor network

  3. MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE: IMPACT OF CAPLUG REMOVAL ON FIBERBOARD MOISTURE LEVEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two 9975 shipping packages were removed from KAC and provided to SRNL for test purposes, after both packages were found to exceed the 1 inch maximum criterion for the axial gap at the top of the package. Package 9975-01818 was found with an axial gap of 1.437 inch, and an estimated 2.5 liters of excess moisture in the lower fiberboard layers. Package 9975-02287 was found with an axial gap of 1.008 inch, and only slightly elevated moisture levels relative to typical packages. Prior data from the 9975 Surveillance Program has shown that the 9975 drum provides a degree of isolation, and will tend to preserve fiberboard moisture levels for an extended period of time. Both packages were provided to SRNL to identify whether removal of the 4 caplugs in each package would allow moisture to escape the package. Following testing with the caplugs removed for approximately 1 year, this report documents the findings from this effort. Two 9975 shipping packages removed from service in K-Area Complex (KAC) due to an excessive axial gap have been tested in SRNL to determine if caplug removal would facilitate the reduction of excess fiberboard moisture. An additional question to be answered through this testing was whether the resulting moisture loss would reduce the axial gap, reversing the effect seen during storage with excess moisture present. These packages have completed approximately 1 year in test, during which time the weight of each package has steadily decreased as a result of moisture migration out of the package. However, elevated moisture levels still remain in the packages. During this test period, the bottom fiberboard layers of package 9975-01818 (which contained the greater amount of excess moisture) experienced further compaction, and the axial gap of both packages has increased. This effort has shown that removal of the caplugs may not be a sufficient measure to rehabilitate packages with excess moisture or excess axial gaps in a timely manner. However, this measure might make a meaningful contribution in combination with other actions (to be determined). It is recommended that the caplug removal tests in SRNL be discontinued at this time.

  4. The influence of particle-size distribution and moisture levels on the formation of soil hardpans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Herman John

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Soil Physics THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Approved as to style and content...

  5. The influence of particle-size distribution and moisture levels on the formation of soil hardpans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Herman John

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Soil Physics THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Approved as to style and content...

  6. Elemental Analyses of Hanford Surface Neutron Moisture Measurement Calibration Standard Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, W.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental analyses have been performed on twenty samples taken from the moisture standards prepared to use in performing experimental calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement system. These standards consisted of mixtures of sand, hydrated alumina, and boron carbide. Elemental analyses were performed primarily to discover the quantities of any strong thermal neutron absorbers that may have been present in the mixture in unknown trace quantities.

  7. Effect of external stress on moisture diffusion in an epoxy resin and its composite material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henson, Michael Chamberlain

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF EXTERNAL STRESS ON MOISTURE DIFFUSION IN AN EPOXY RESIN AND ITS C(MPOSITE MATERIAL A Thesis by MICHAEL CHAMBERLAIN HENSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EFFECT OF EXTERNAL STRESS ON MOISTURE DIFFUSION IN AN EPOXY RESIN AND ITS CCNPOSITE MATERIAL A Thesis by MICHAEL CHAMBERLAIN HENSON Approved as to style and content by: (Y...

  8. The effects of grain moisture content and grain temperature on the penetration of hydrogen cyanide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunz, Sidney E

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS QF CRAIN MOISTURE CONTENT AND GRAIN TEMiPERATURE ON THE &NETRATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE A Thesis SIDNEY EDMUND KUNZ Submitted to the Graduate School of ths Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (Mionth) 1262 (Year) Mayor Subject ghtdlggllQJLK THE EFFECTS OF GRAIN MOISTURE CONTENT JBD GRAIN TEMPERATURE ON THE PENETRATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE A Thesis SIDNEY EDNUND KUNZ Approved as to style...

  9. Distribution of soil and leaf water potentials of mature grapefruit trees under three soil moisture regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prathapar, Sanmugam Ahembaranathan

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL AND LEAF WATER POTENTIALS OF MATURE GRAPEFRUIT TREES UNDER THREE SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES A Thesis by SANMUGAM AHEMBARANATHAN PRATHAPAP, Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject; Agricultural Engineering DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL AND LEAF WATER POTENTIALS OF MATURE GRAPEFRUIT TREES UNDER THREE SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES A Thesis by SANMUGAM AHEMBARANATHAN PRATHAPAR...

  10. Dual frequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture for bare and vegetated rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Siu Lim

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A(M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF' SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Approved as to style and content by: (C rman...

  11. Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  13. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  14. The Effects of Moisture and Organic Matter Lability on Carbon Dioxide and Methane Production in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    amounts of carbon in the form of peat and other undecomposed plant matter. Global climate change al. 2003). The carbon stored in wetlands is in the form of undecayed plant matter, or peat. Peat carbon are very useful for agricultural purposes. Their peat and preserved timber has been mined

  15. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

  16. Fission barriers and half-lives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review the development of theoretical models for the calculation of fission barriers and half-lives. We focus on how results of actual calculations in a unified macroscopic-microscopic approach provide an interpretation of the mechanisms behind some of the large number of phenomena observed in fission. As instructive examples we choose studies of the rapidly varying fission properties of elements at the end of the periodic system. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  18. Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    to Asses Effects of Dust Accumulation, Attic Ventilation, and Other Key Variables." TVA Report No. TVA/OP/EDT--88/25, Tennessee Valley Authority, Office of Power, Division of Energy Demonstrations and Technology. 5. Joy F.A., 1958, "Improving Attic...," ORNLICON-200, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 8. Levins W.P. and Kamitz M.A., and Knight D. K., 1986, "Cooling Energy Measurements of Unoccupied Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers." Proceedings, Third Annual...

  19. Performing a global barrier operation in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Executing computing tasks on a parallel computer that includes compute nodes coupled for data communications, where each compute node executes tasks, with one task on each compute node designated as a master task, including: for each task on each compute node until all master tasks have joined a global barrier: determining whether the task is a master task; if the task is not a master task, joining a single local barrier; if the task is a master task, joining the global barrier and the single local barrier only after all other tasks on the compute node have joined the single local barrier.

  20. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  1. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  2. Alternative barrier layers for surface covers in dry climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface covers are one of the most widespread remediation and waste management options in all climates. Barrier layers to limit percolation through cover systems are principal features of engineered, multi-component cover designs. Conventional barrier layer components developed for humid climates have limitations in dry climates. One alternative barrier layer is a capillary barrier, which consists of a fine-over-coarse soil arrangement. The capacity of capillary barrier to laterally divert downward moving water is the key to their success. Another alternative is a dry barrier, in which atmospheric air is circulated through a coarse layer within the cover to remove water vapor. Incorporating a coarse layer which stores water for subsequent removal by air flow reduces the requirements for the air flow velocity and increases the applicability of the dry barrier.

  3. FINAL REPORT FOR MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Compaction of lower layers in the fiberboard assembly has been observed in 9975 packages that contain elevated moisture. Lab testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the lower fiberboard assembly, and the behavior of the fiberboard during transport. In laboratory tests of cane fiberboard, higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction, greater rate of compaction, and continued compaction over a longer period of time. In addition, laboratory tests have shown that the application of a dynamic load results in higher fiberboard compaction compared to a static load. The test conditions and sample geometric/loading configurations were chosen to simulate the regulatory requirements for 9975 package input dynamic loading. Dynamic testing was conducted to acquire immediate and cumulative changes in geometric data for various moisture levels. Two sample sets have undergone a complete dynamic test regimen, one set for 27 weeks, and the second set for 47 weeks. The dynamic input, data acquisition, test effects on sample dynamic parameters, and results from this test program are summarized and compared to regulatory specifications for dynamic loading. Compaction of the bottom fiberboard layers due to the accumulation of moisture is one possible cause of an increase in the axial gap at the top of the package. The net compaction of the bottom layers will directly add to the axial gap. The moisture which caused this compaction migrated from the middle region of the fiberboard assembly (which is typically the hottest). This will cause the middle region to shrink axially, which will also contribute directly to the axial gap. Measurement of the axial gap provides a screening tool for identifying significant change in the fiberboard condition. The data in this report provide a basis to evaluate the impact of moisture and fiberboard compaction on 9975 package performance during storage at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  4. Using Whole-House Field Tests to Empirically Derive Moisture Buffering Model Inputs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Hancock, E.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building energy simulations can be used to predict a building's interior conditions, along with the energy use associated with keeping these conditions comfortable. These models simulate the loads on the building (e.g., internal gains, envelope heat transfer), determine the operation of the space conditioning equipment, and then calculate the building's temperature and humidity throughout the year. The indoor temperature and humidity are affected not only by the loads and the space conditioning equipment, but also by the capacitance of the building materials, which buffer changes in temperature and humidity. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for use with a more accurate moisture capacitance model (the effective moisture penetration depth model). The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative humidity profile, measure all of the moisture transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air conditioner condensate) and calculate the only unmeasured term: the moisture absorption into the materials. After validating the method with laboratory measurements, we performed the tests in a field house. A least-squares fit of an analytical solution to the measured moisture absorption curves was used to determine the three independent model parameters representing the moisture buffering potential of this house and its furnishings. Follow on tests with realistic latent and sensible loads showed good agreement with the derived parameters, especially compared to the commonly-used effective capacitance approach. These results show that the EMPD model, once the inputs are known, is an accurate moisture buffering model.

  5. EPA/ITRC-RTDF permeable reactive barrier short course. Permeable reactive barriers: Application and deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on the following: Permeable Reactive Barriers: Application and Deployment; Introduction to Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for Remediating and Managing Contaminated Groundwater in Situ; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 1: Site Characterization for PRBs; Reactive Materials: Zero-Valent Iron; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 2: Laboratory and Pilot Scale Tests; Design Calculations; Compliance Monitoring, Performance Monitoring and Long-Term Maintenance for PRBs; PRB Emplacement Techniques; PRB Permitting and Implementation; Treatment of Metals; Non-Metallic Reactive Materials; Economic Considerations for PRB Deployment; and Bibliography.

  6. EPA/ITRC-RTDF permeable reactive barrier short course. Permeable reactive barriers: Application and deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on the following: Permeable Reactive Barriers: Application and Deployment; Introduction to Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for Remediating and Managing Contaminated Groundwater in Situ; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 1: Site Characterization for PRBs; Reactive Materials: Zero-Valent Iron; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 2: Laboratory and Pilot Scale Tests; Design Calculations; Compliance Monitoring, Performance Monitoring and Long-Term Maintenance for PRBs; PRB Emplacement Techniques; PRB Permitting and Implementation; Treatment of Metals; Non-Metallic Reactive Materials; Economic Considerations for PRB Deployment; and Bibliography.

  7. Electronmagnetic induction probe calibration for electrical conductivity measurements and moisture content determination of Hanford high level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Logic of converting EMI measured electrical conductivity to moisture with expected uncertainty. Estimates from present knowledge, assumptions, and measured data. Archie`s Law has been used since the 1940`s to relate electrical conductivity in porous media to liquid volume fraction. Measured electrical conductivity to moisture content uses: Porosity, Interstitial liquid electrical conductivity, Solid particle density,Interstitial liquid density, and interstitial liquid water content. The uncertainty of assumed values is calculated to determine the final moisture wt.% result uncertainty.

  8. Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Spatial Resolution Dependence of Precipitation Extremes in Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the resolution dependency of precipitation extremes in an aqua-planet framework. Strong resolution dependency of precipitation extremes is seen over both tropics and extra-tropics, and the magnitude of this dependency also varies with dynamical cores. Moisture budget analyses based on aqua-planet simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) and High Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) dynamical cores but the same physics parameterizations suggest that during precipitation extremes moisture supply for surface precipitation is mainly derived from advective moisture convergence. The resolution dependency of precipitation extremes mainly originates from advective moisture transport in the vertical direction. At most vertical levels over the tropics and in the lower atmosphere over the subtropics, the vertical eddy transport of mean moisture field dominates the contribution to precipitation extremes and its resolution dependency. Over the subtropics, the source of moisture, its associated energy, and the resolution dependency during extremes are dominated by eddy transport of eddies moisture at the mid- and upper-troposphere. With both MPAS and HOMME dynamical cores, the resolution dependency of the vertical advective moisture convergence is mainly explained by dynamical changes (related to vertical velocity or omega), although the vertical gradients of moisture act like averaging kernels to determine the sensitivity of the overall resolution dependency to the changes in omega at different vertical levels. The natural reduction of variability with coarser resolution, represented by areal data averaging (aggregation) effect, largely explains the resolution dependency in omega. The thermodynamic changes, which likely result from non-linear feedback in response to the large dynamical changes, are small compared to the overall changes in dynamics (omega). However, after excluding the data aggregation effect in omega, thermodynamic changes become relatively significant in offsetting the effect of dynamics leading to reduce differences between the simulated and aggregated results. Compared to MPAS, the simulated stronger vertical motion with HOMME also results in larger resolution dependency. Compared to the simulation at fine resolution, the vertical motion during extremes is insufficiently resolved/parameterized at the coarser resolution even after accounting for the natural reduction in variability with coarser resolution, and this is more distinct in the simulation with HOMME. To reduce uncertainties in simulated precipitation extremes, future development in cloud parameterizations must address their sensitivity to spatial resolution as well as dynamical cores.

  9. STATUS REPORT FOR MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Compaction of lower layers in the fiberboard overpack has been observed in 9975 packages that contain elevated moisture. Lab testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the lower fiberboard assembly, and the behavior of the fiberboard during transport. In laboratory tests, higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction of fiberboard material, greater rate of compaction, and continued compaction over a longer period of time. In addition, laboratory tests have shown that the application of a dynamic load results in higher fiberboard compaction. The test conditions and sample geometric/loading configurations were chosen to simulate the regulatory requirements for 9975 package input dynamic loading. Dynamic testing was conducted over a period of six months to acquire immediate and cumulative changes in geometric data for various moisture levels. Currently, one sample set has undergone a complete dynamic test regimen, while testing of another set is still in-progress. The dynamic input, data acquisition, test effects on sample dynamic parameters, and interim results from this test program are summarized and compared to regulatory specifications for dynamic loading. This will provide a basis from which to evaluate the impact of moisture and fiberboard compaction on the safety basis for transportation (Safety Analysis Report for Packaging) and storage (facility Documented Safety Analysis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  10. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  11. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

  12. Highway noise reduction by barrier walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Murray F

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's Variables 3. Noise Reduction and Noise Reduction Factor 4. Relationship Between Noise Attenuation and d 5. Rettinger's Variables 6. Relationship of Sound-Level Reduction and v 7. Basic Principles in Sound-Transmission Loss 8. The Mass Law Relationship... that the barrier wall is acoustically opaque (i. e. , impermeable to sound waves). Purcell (8) found that the noise transmission loss of a wall was a measure of the ratio of the acoustical energy transmitted through the wall to the acoustical energy incident...

  13. Sandia Energy - Siting and Barrier Mitigation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution GridDocumentsInstitute ofSiting and Barrier Mitigation Home

  14. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St. Clair, S.B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon andamount and timing, N availability, and plant communityparticularly as water availability was increased. These

  15. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

  16. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 17 figs.

  17. Effects of Alloy Disorder on Schottky-Barrier Heights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MYLES, CW; REN, SF; Allen, Roland E.; REN, SY.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 35, NUMBER 18 15 JUNE 1987-II Effects of alloy disorder on Schottky-barrier heights Charles W. Myles Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 Shang-Fen Ren* and Roland E...~ The effects of alloy disorder on the Schottky barriers at semiconductor-alloy ?metal interfaces are investigated within the defect model of Schottky-barrier formation. The deep levels and the associ- ated wave functions for surface antisite defects, which...

  18. Quantum calculation of Coulomb reorientation and near-barrier fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cédric Simenel; Michael Bender; Philippe Chomaz; Thomas Duguet; Gilles De France

    2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the role of deformation on the fusion probability around the barrier using the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock theory with a full Skyrme force. We obtain a distribution of fusion probabilities around the nominal barrier due to the different contributions of the various orientations of the deformed nucleus at the touching point. It is also shown that the long range Coulomb reorientation reduces the fusion probability around the barrier.

  19. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  20. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

  1. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (20) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating (20) consists essentially of a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula consisting essentially of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements selected from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof; where B is selected from the group of elements selected from Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof; n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  3. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

  4. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

  5. Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

  6. Moisture Control in Insulated Raised Floor Systems in Southern Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    polyisocyanurate foam, open-cell sprayed polyurethane foams of vary- ing vapor permeance, closed-cell sprayed polyurethane foam, and kraft-faced fiberglass batt insulation. Expected Outcomes This research will result Association Southern Forest Products Association Contact Information Samuel V. Glass USDA Forest Service

  7. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and remedial time required by the electrician and end user. (3) Minimize ongoing perceived overhead costs and inconvenience to the end user, or in other words, systems should be simple to understand and use. In addition, we believe that no lighting controls solution is effective or acceptable unless it contributes to, or does not compromise, the following goals: (1) Productivity--Planning, installation, commissioning, maintenance, and use of controls should not decrease business productivity; (2) Energy savings--Lighting controls should save significant amounts of energy and money in relation to the expense involved in using them (acceptable payback period); and/or (3) Reduced power demand--Society as a whole should benefit from the lowered demand for expensive power and for more natural resources. Discussions of technology barriers and developments are insufficient by themselves to achieve higher penetration of lighting controls in the market place. Technology transfer efforts must play a key role in gaining market acceptance. The LRC developed a technology transfer model to better understand what actions are required and by whom to move any technology toward full market acceptance.

  8. Impact of sample preparation on mineralogical analysis of zero-valent iron reactive barrier materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Debra Helen [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Roh, Yul [ORNL

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) of zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) are increasingly being used to remediate contaminated ground water. Corrosion of Fe{sup 0} filings and the formation of precipitates can occur when the PRB material comes in contact with ground water and may reduce the lifespan and effectiveness of the barrier. At present, there are no routine procedures for preparing and analyzing the mineral precipitates from Fe{sup 0} PRB material. These procedures are needed because mineralogical composition of corrosion products used to interpret the barrier processes can change with iron oxidation and sample preparation. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate a method of preparing Fe{sup 0} reactive barrier material for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and (ii) to identify Fe mineral phases and rates of transformations induced by different mineralogical preparation techniques. Materials from an in situ Fe{sup 0} PRB were collected by undisturbed coring and processed for XRD analysis after different times since sampling for three size fractions and by various drying treatments. We found that whole-sample preparation for analysis was necessary because mineral precipitates occurred within the PRB material in different size fractions of the samples. Green rusts quickly disappeared from acetone-dried samples and were not present in air-dried and oven-dried samples. Maghemite/magnetite content increased over time and in oven-dried samples, especially after heating to 105 C. We conclude that care must be taken during sample preparation of Fe{sup 0} PRB material, especially for detection of green rusts, to ensure accurate identification of minerals present within the barrier system.

  9. REVIEW OF MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS METHODS FOR PREDICTING CEMENTITIOUS BARRIER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Kosson, D.

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Cementitious barriers for nuclear applications are one of the primary controls for preventing or limiting radionuclide release into the environment. At the present time, performance and risk assessments do not fully incorporate the effectiveness of engineered barriers because the processes that influence performance are coupled and complicated. Better understanding the behavior of cementitious barriers is necessary to evaluate and improve the design of materials and structures used for radioactive waste containment, life extension of current nuclear facilities, and design of future nuclear facilities, including those needed for nuclear fuel storage and processing, nuclear power production and waste management. The focus of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) literature review is to document the current level of knowledge with respect to: (1) mechanisms and processes that directly influence the performance of cementitious materials (2) methodologies for modeling the performance of these mechanisms and processes and (3) approaches to addressing and quantifying uncertainties associated with performance predictions. This will serve as an important reference document for the professional community responsible for the design and performance assessment of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This review also provides a multi-disciplinary foundation for identification, research, development and demonstration of improvements in conceptual understanding, measurements and performance modeling that would be lead to significant reductions in the uncertainties and improved confidence in the estimating the long-term performance of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This report identifies: (1) technology gaps that may be filled by the CBP project and also (2) information and computational methods that are in currently being applied in related fields but have not yet been incorporated into performance assessments of cementitious barriers. The various chapters contain both a description of the mechanism or and a discussion of the current approaches to modeling the phenomena.

  10. advanced diffusion barriers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distances. O. A. Dvoretskaya; P. S. Kondratenko 2011-10-26 5 Anomalous transport in fractal media with randomly inhomogeneous diffusion barrier Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary:...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: barrier to widespread fuel cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    barrier to widespread fuel cell use ECIS and Compass Metals: Platinum Nanostructures for Enhanced Catalysis On March 29, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Capabilities,...

  12. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency- Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these...

  13. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency- Report to Congress, June 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome...

  14. advanced thermal barrier: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of both globular fluorite Wadley, Haydn 122 Delamination of multilayer thermal barrier coatings Sung Ryul Choi a Engineering Websites Summary: .G. Evans b a Department of...

  15. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  16. Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    To solve issues stemming from language barriers, Energize Phoenix utilizes Spanish-speaking outreach staff and created Spanish-language marketing collateral and program...

  17. Neurophenomenological Constraints and Pushing Back the Subjectivity Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Bruce

    Neurophenomenological Constraints and Pushing Back the Subjectivity Barrier Extended commentary inversions), without appealing to weak arguments based on basic color categories; that is, I suggest

  18. Options for Energy Efficiency in India and Barriers to Their...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Their Adoption: A Scoping Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Options for Energy Efficiency in India and Barriers to Their Adoption: A Scoping Study AgencyCompany...

  19. Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementa...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronics Environmentally- Friendly Bus Aluminum Bottles Easy Open Cans Energy Efficiency Program for Alcoa What are the Barriers ? Sponsorship from the highest level on...

  20. alveolar epithelial barrier: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lake 3Transmission through a Quantum Dynamical Delta Barrier T. Brandes1 ? and J. Robinson Department Levi, Anthony F. J. 199 Nitrate Removal in NITREXTM Permeable Reactive...

  1. Moving North Texas Forward by Addressing Alternative Fuel Barriers...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Spent: 23% Timeline Budget Barriers Addressed * Dallas County Schools * National Biodiesel Board * North Texas Commission * The Sales NetWork * West Virginia University...

  2. Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel Wendy Clark & Bob McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado August 23, 2005 What is...

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE AXIAL GAP VS FIBERBOARD MOISTURE CONTENT IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The fiberboard assembly within a 9975 shipping package contains a modest amount of moisture, which can migrate to the cooler regions of the package when an internal heat load is present. Typically, this leads to increased moisture levels in the bottom fiberboard layers, along with elevated chloride levels which can leach from the fiberboard. Concerns have been raised that this condition could lead to corrosion of the stainless steel drum. It has been postulated that checking the axial gap at the top of the package against the current 1 inch maximum criterion provides a sufficient indication regarding the integrity of the fiberboard and drum. This report estimates the increase in axial gap that might be expected for a given moisture increase in the bottom fiberboard layers, and the likelihood that the increase will create a nonconforming condition that will lead to identification of the moisture increase. Using data relating the fiberboard moisture content with the degree of compaction under load, the present analysis indicates that the axial gap will increase by 0.282 inch as the bottom fiberboard layers approach the saturation point. This increase will cause approximately 58% of packages with otherwise nominal package component dimensions to fail the axial gap criterion, based on a survey of axial gap values recorded in K-Area surveillance activities. As the moisture content increases above saturation, the predicted increase in axial gap jumps to 0.405 inch, which would result in 92% or more of all packages failing the axial gap criterion. The data and analysis described in this report are specific to cane fiberboard. While it is expected that softwood fiberboard will behave similarly, such behavior has not yet been demonstrated.

  4. This document is a preprint version of the final paper: M. Soshinskaya, W. H. J. Graus, J. M. Guerrero, and J. C. Vasquez, "Microgrids: experiences, barriers and success factors," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014 Elsevier.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ; Renewable Energy; Islanding; Distributed Generation; Energy Storage; Barriers Acronyms greenhouse gas (GHG); distributed generation (DG); distributed energy resources (DER); distributed storage (DS); Distribution System production. This has led to increased implementation of distributed generation (DG) technologies, which

  5. Tropical synoptic scale moisture fields observed from the Nimbus-7 SMMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Jeffrey David

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TROPICAL SYNOPTIC SCALE MOISTURE FIELDS OBSERVED FROM THE NIMBUS ? 7 SMMR A Thesis by JEFFREY DAVID FINK Submitted to the OfFice of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... ( iliember) AIarshnll J. 1VIcVnrlnnd ( (tlemb er ) James Il. Scoggins (Read of Departnrent) i%lay 1989 ns ABSTRACT Tropical Synoptic Scale Moisture Fields Observed from the NIMBUS ? 7 SMMR. (May 1989) Jefl'rey David Fink, B. S. , Texas A...

  6. Study of the moisture-fertility requirements of cotton in the Brazos River Valley, 1957

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keese, Carroll Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the moisture level imposed, and that water was not used efficiently from the two to five-foot zone. Hamilton and Stanberry (2) investigated the effects of varying rates of nitrogen fertilizer on the need of cotton for irrigation at Yuma, Arizona...LIBRARY II a III COLLEI:. e& 7EXAs STUDY OF THE MOISTURE-FERTILITY REQUIREMENTS OF COTTON IN THE BRAZOS RIVER VALLEY - 1957 A Thesis by CARROLL VIAYNE KEESE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College...

  7. The effects of soil moisture on the phytotoxicity of a microwave field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whatley, Thomas Lamar

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THF. FFFECTS OF SOIL MOISTURE ON THE PHYTOTOXICITY OF A MICROWAVE FIELD A Thesis THOMAS LAMAR WHATLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1974 Ma5or Sub)ect: Agronomy THE EFFECTS OF SOIL MOISTURE ON THE PHYTOTOXICITY OF A MICROHAVE FIELD A Thesis by THOMAS LAMAR VHATLEY Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) Member) ( t) August...

  8. A climatology of tropical moisture bursts in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Neil Ray

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CLIil'IATOLOGY OF TROFICAL MOISTURE BURSTS IN THF. EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN A Theseus NEIL R A Y SMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas AKIil University in partial fulfil)nient of the requirements I'o. the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 M;i;iir Subject: Meteorology A CLIMATOLOGY OF TROPICAL MOISTURE BURSTS IN THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN A Thesis NEIL RAY SMITH Approved as to style and content by: James P. McE uirk (Co-Chairman) ylmer H, Thompson (Co...

  9. advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production: Topics by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facilities the cost of the production of hydrogen from three candidate biomass feedstocks and identify the barriers First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13...

  10. Active barrier films of PET for solar cell application: Processing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary investigation was carried out on the possibility to improve the protective action offered by the standard multilayer structures used to encapsulate photovoltaic devices. With this aim, a commercial active barrier PET-based material, able to absorb oxygen when activated by liquid water, was used to produce flexible and transparent active barrier films, by means of a lab-scale film production plant. The obtained film, tested in terms of thermal, optical and oxygen absorption properties, shows a slow oxygen absorption kinetics, an acceptable transparency and an easy roll-to-roll processability, so proving itself as a good candidate for the development of protective coating for solar cells against the atmospheric degradation agents like the rain.

  11. Numerical evaluation of the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranville, Frédéric; Lucas, Franck; Johan, Seriacaroupin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers. Using dynamic simulations of a mathematical model of a whole test cell including a radiant barrier installed between the roof top and the ceiling, the thermal performance of the roof is calculated. The mean method is more particularly used to assess the thermal resistance of the building component and lead to a value which is compared to the one obtained for a mass insulation product such as polyurethane foam. On a further stage, the thermal mathematical model is replaced by a thermo-aeraulic model which is used to evaluate the thermal resistance of the roof as a function of the airflow rate. The results shows a better performance of the roof in this new configuration, which is widely used in practice. Finally, the mathematical relation between the thermal resistance and the airflow rate is proposed.

  12. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulati, P., E-mail: pgulati1512@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Vyas, V. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308?nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  13. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities in Assessing the Degradation of Cementitious Barriers - 13487

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.P.; Burns, H.H.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands)] [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands)] [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada)] [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States)] [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.W.; Fuhrmann, M.J.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in K{sub d}/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software tools. Modification of the existing tools can provide many opportunities to bring defense in depth in prediction of the performance of cementitious barriers over time. (authors)

  14. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities In Assessing The Degradation Of Cementitious Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. G. III [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, K. G. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, D. S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Garrabrants, A. C. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); van der Sloot, H. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy (The Netherlands); Meeussen, J. C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (The Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc. , 1400, boul. du Parc - Technologique , Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D. W. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Fuhrmann, M. J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Philip, J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software tools. Modification of the existing tools can provide many opportunities to bring defense in depth in prediction of the performance of cementitious barriers over time.

  15. Examining the Relationship between Antecedent Soil Moisture and Summer Precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Lei

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................. 67 5.2 Spatial variations in the soil moisture-precipitation relationship............ 67 5.3 Temporal variations in the soil moisture-precipitation relationship ....... 71 5.4 Persistence of spatial patterns in SM anomalies... ..................................... 74 5.5 Temporal variations in the relationship between GP summer precipitation and Ni?o SSTs ................................................................... 75 5.6 SST persistence versus SM persistence...

  16. Effect of grid size on runoff and soil moisture for a variable-source-area hydrology model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    landscapes are dependent on the distribution and pattern of soil moisture and water transport. In this paper for efficient manage- ment of water quality [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1994, 1995, 1996Effect of grid size on runoff and soil moisture for a variable-source-area hydrology model Wen

  17. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  18. Thermal barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Bethesda, MD); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine component, such as a turbine blade having a metal substrate (22) is coated with a metal MCrAlY alloy layer (24) and then a thermal barrier layer (20) selected from LaAlO.sub.3, NdAlO.sub.3, La.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7, Dy.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12, HO.sub.3 Al.sub.3 O.sub.12, ErAlO.sub.3, GdAlO.sub.3, Yb.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 O.sub.7, LaYbO.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7 or Y.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12.

  19. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  20. Ground rubber: Reactive permeable barrier sorption media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to examine the feasibility of using ground tire rubber as a sorbent media in reactive permeable barrier systems. Previous research by the current authors has demonstrated that tire rubber can sorb significant quantities of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and O-xylene from aqueous solutions. The current research was run to examine the usage rate of ground rubber in a packed bed reactor under specific contact times. In addition, desorption and repetitive sorption tests were run to determine the reversibility of the sorption process for ground tire rubber. These tests were run to determine the regeneration capacity of ground tire rubber. Results of the study show that the usage rates are greater than 50% with an empty bed contact times of 37 minutes, and minimal amounts of energy are needed to regenerate the tire rubber after use.

  1. Fragmentation Barriers of Toroidal and Bubble Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, HM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Wong, C. Y.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phase-space models [21?23]. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE un- der Grant No. DE-FG05-86ER40256 and Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400 managed by Martin Marietta En- ergy Systems, Inc, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation. [1] J. A... values of barrier heights, E~, ~ 600 MeV for the soft EOS, and E&,& 750 MeV for the stifF EOS, (or E&,&/A?, 4 MeV per nucleon for both equations of state), are obtained. They occur at times t = 120?130 fm/c for the soft EOS and at t = 80?100 fm...

  2. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  3. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  4. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CdTe SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE UNIVERSITY June 21, 2007 WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE DISSERTATION PREPARED UNDER OUR SUPERVISION BY JUN PAN Department Head #12;iii ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION Impact of Lifetime Variations and Secondary Barriers on Cd

  5. Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferdous, Md Rubiat

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    on the findings obtained from crash tests performed on flat terrain. For barriers placed on roadside and median slopes, vehicle impact height varies depending on the trajectory of the vehicle along the ditch section and lateral offset of the barrier. Thus...

  6. The Influence of Dust on the Absorptivity of Radiant Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noboa, Homero L.

    The purpose of this project was to model and quantify the increase of the absorptivity of radiant barriers caused by the accumulation of dust on the surface of radiant barriers. This research was the continuation of a previous work by the author...

  7. Tunneling of Graphene Massive Dirac Fermions through a Double Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hocine Bahlouli; El Bouazzaoui Choubabi; Ahmed Jellal; Miloud Mekkaoui

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the tunneling of Dirac fermions in graphene through a double barrier potential allowing the carriers to have an effective mass inside the barrier as generated by a lattice miss-match with the boron nitride substrate. The consequences of this gap opening on the transmission are investigated. The realization of resonant tunneling conditions is also analyzed.

  8. Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    page 1 Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design Michelle Hankinson, Amanda Breytenbach michelleh@dut.ac.za or abreytenbach@uj.ac.za Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture University of sustainable design and barriers that influence their sustainable design practices. The paper reflects

  9. Performance characteristics of a self-sealing/self-healing barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, R.G. [Water Technology International Corp., Burlington, Ontario (Canada); [Canadian Clean Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Stegemann, J.A. [Canadian Clean Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environment Canada and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation are co-developers of a patented Self-Sealing/Self-Healing (SS/SH) Barrier system for containment of wastes which is licensed to Water Technology International Corporation. The SS/SH Barrier is intended for use as either a liner or cover for landfills, contaminated sites, secondary containment areas, etc., in the industrial, chemical, mining and municipal sectors, and also as a barrier to hydraulic flow for the transportation and construction industry. The SS/SH Barrier`s most significant feature is its capability for self-repair in the event of a breach. By contrast, conventional barrier systems, such as clay, geomembrane, or geosynthetic clay liners can not be repaired without laborious excavation and reconstruction. Laboratory investigations have shown that the SS/SH Barrier concept will function with a variety of reactive materials. Self-Sealing/Self-Healing Barriers are cost competitive and consistently exhibit hydraulic conductivities ranging from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -13} m/s, which decrease with time. These measurements meet or exceed the recommended hydraulic conductivity required by EPA for clay liners (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) used in landfills and hazardous waste sites. Results of mineralogical examination of the seal, diffusion testing, hydraulic conductivity measurement, and durability testing, including wet/dry, freeze/thaw cycling and leachate compatibility are also presented.

  10. Electronic quantum effects mapped onto non-Born-Oppenheimer nuclear paths: Nonclassical surmounting over potential barriers and trapping above the transition states due to nonadiabatic path-branching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Kentaro, E-mail: kyamamoto@mns2.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takatsuka, Kazuo, E-mail: kaztak@mns2.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Basic Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Basic Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop the path-branching representation for nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics [T. Yonehara and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244102 (2010)] so as to treat dynamics in an energy range comparable to the barrier height of adiabatic potential energy curves. With this representation two characteristic chemical reaction dynamics are studied, in which an incident nuclear wavepacket encounters a potential barrier, on top of which lies another nonadiabatically coupled adiabatic potential curve: (1) Dynamics of initial paths coming into the nonadiabatic interaction region with energy lower than the barrier height. They branch into two pieces (and repeat branching subsequently), the upper counterparts of which can penetrate into a classically inaccessible high energy region and eventually branch back to the product region on the ground state curve. This is so to say surmounting the potential barrier via nonadiabatically coupled excited state, and phenomenologically looks like the so-called deep tunneling. (2) Dynamics of classical paths whose initial energies are a little higher than the barrier but may be lower than the bottom of the excited state. They can undergo branching and some of those components are trapped on top of the potential barrier, being followed by the population decay down to the lower state flowing both to product and reactant sites. Such expectations arising from the path-branching representation are numerically confirmed with full quantum mechanical wavepacket dynamics. This phenomenon may be experimentally observed as time-delayed pulses of wavepacket trains.

  11. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA IN SELECTED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h and water content relationship, hydraulic conductivity and water content relationship of the soil, saturated conductivity is affected markedly by the volumetric water content of soil. The relation between matric

  12. MOISTURE EFFECT ON DURABILITY OF AXIALLY LOADED CONCRETE-FILLED TUBULAR FRP PILES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MOISTURE EFFECT ON DURABILITY OF AXIALLY LOADED CONCRETE-FILLED TUBULAR FRP PILES Miguel Pando, Ph_rizkalla@ncsu.edu ABSTRACT Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite piles are a possible foundation alternative for projects located in harsh marine environments. Problems associated with traditional pile materials used in harsh

  13. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20746 (United States); Paul, R. [Chemical Sciences Division, NIST, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  14. A Satellite Study of Tropical Moist Convection and Environmental Variability: A Moisture and Thermal Budget Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masunaga, Hirohiko

    radiometer and scatterometer aboard different platforms. Satellite measurements of atmospheric parameters of moisture and dry static energy and their vertical flux at cloud base from satellite observations alone convergence for highly organized systems; 2) FT diabatic heating is largely offset on an instantaneous basis

  15. Passive microwave soil moisture downscaling using evaporative fraction Olivier Merlin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stations (METFLUX) and six flights of the L-band Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR). For each PBMR fraction (EF), which is the ratio of the evapotranspiration to the total energy available at the surface, especially for high soil moisture values. Those results illustrate the potential use of high

  16. Soil moisture variability of root zone profiles within SMEX02 remote sensing footprints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the par- titioning of incoming solar radiation and long wave radia- tion into outgoing long wave radiation.e., various active and passive microwave sensors), which provide mean sur- face soil moisture (0­5 cm) values footprints can provide a blueprint to design ground-based experiments and net- works and to efficiently use

  17. Characterization of fracture patterns and hygric properties for moisture flow modelling in cracked concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of building materials is far from complete. The pore structure of the material itself may change over time assessment, not only of building and building components, but of any built structure in general structures, as well as on the health and comfort of their occupants. Any analysis of moisture transfer

  18. The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

  19. ASSESSMENT OF BISCUIT MOISTURE AND BISCUIT BROWNING Jens Michael Carstensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    weight moisture measurements. The data set includes biscuits from different lines and both hot and cooled. The imaging system, VideometerLab (www.videometer.com) captures 18 high resolution spectral images representations may be estimated in both the biscuit center region and in the edge/corner region. CIELAB

  20. Uncertainties in Estimating Moisture Fluxes over the Intra-Americas Sea ALBERTO M. MESTAS-NUEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by these uncertainties. Therefore, NCEP­ NCAR reanalysis, with its global coverage and long-term record, can be used-third of all the summer moisture that enters the continental United States is transported by the GPLLJ (Helfand United States. Future re- search aimed at understanding summer precipitation must therefore deal

  1. Monitoring ET, Soil Moisture Saves Farmers Water, Energy, Time and Money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Monitoring ET, Soil Moisture Saves Farmers Water, Energy, Time and Money By Sandi Alswager Karstens irrigation," said Gary Zoubek, extension educator in York County. "Using these tools not only saves energy that these two tools used together can save two to three inches of irrigation water per season, he said

  2. Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide mastication (mechanical forest thinning) and fire convert biomass to black carbon is essential moisture and its role in dictating both the quantity and quality of the carbon produced in masticated fuel

  3. Evapotranspiration and regional probabilities of soil moisture stress in rainfed crops, southern India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggs, Trent

    India Trent W. Biggs a, *, Prasanta K. Mishra b , Hugh Turral c a Department of Geography, San Diego 0902; fax: +1 619 594 4938. E-mail addresses: tbiggs@mail.sdsu.edu (T.W. Biggs), pkmbellary in press as: Biggs, T.W. et al., Evapotranspiration and regional probabilities of soil moisture stress

  4. The effects of moisture and particle size of feedlot biomass on co-firing burner performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chen-Jung

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increased from 350 ppm to 650 ppm while CO decreased from 46,000 ppm to 18,000 ppm (data measured at the first probe, 6" from the burner). The external water injection used to simulate high moisture FB decreased the pollutant emissions (NO[]) from 570 ppm...

  5. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  6. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Towards deterministic downscaling of SMOS soil moisture using MODIS derived soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of environmental applications including meteor- 33 ology, hydrology, water resource management and climatology. 34UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Towards deterministic downscaling of SMOS soil moisture using MODIS derived soil Kerr b 4 a Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia 5 b Centre d

  7. Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and Global Energy Flows in Reanalyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasullo, John

    Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and Global Energy Flows in Reanalyses KEVIN E energy and hydrological cycles from eight current atmospheric reanalyses and their depiction of changes over time. A brief evaluation of the water and energy cycles in the latest version of the NCAR climate

  8. Hillslope-scale soil moisture estimation with a physically-based ecohydrology model and L-band microwave remote sensing observations from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro Nicolas

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil moisture is a critical hydrosphere state variable that links the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. Knowledge of soil moisture at scales of individual hillslopes (10's to 100's of meters) is critical to advancing ...

  9. Diagenetic control on permeability baffles and barriers, Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit, Black Warrior basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugler, R.L. (Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mississippian (Chesterian) Carter sandstone is the most productive oil reservoir in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. In North Blowhorn Creek oil unit, very fine- to medium-grained quartzarenite and sublitharenite occur in an elongate, isolated northwest-southeast trending body, surrounded by shale. The sandstone was deposited in a beach-barrier environment. Most production is from ripple-laminated and horizontal- to low-angle-planar laminated shoreface and foreshore deposits in the central part of the reservoir body. Uneven distribution of diagenetic features creates permeability baffles and barriers at several scales within the reservoir, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic, and increases tortuosity of fluid flow. Early authigenic calcite and ferroan calcite occur only in shell lags deposited in channels within the reservoir body. These originally porous and permeable layers are completely cemented by calcite, ferroan calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Carbonate-cemented shell lags form discontinuous permeability barriers that may be laterally continuous between adjacent wells. Ferroan dolomite is the most abundant cement in Carter sandstone and occludes all pores near the margins of the reservoir body. The pore system within the high-quality portion of the reservoir consists of modified primary and secondary intergranular porosity and microporosity within patches of kaolinite. Porosity and permeability relationships are controlled by the distribution of quartz overgrowths, kaolinite, deformed mudstones fragments, intergranular pressure solution, and stylolite seams. The lateral extent of baffles and barriers created by these diagenetic features is related to depositional texture and ranges from micrometers to meters.

  10. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the Kansas City barrier and the East Helena barrier. As these sites are also used for our field monitoring efforts, this allowed for a comparison between field and laboratory. In column studies with high concentrations of calcium and carbonate/bicarbonate, we observed that the increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of polarization magnitude is significant and is mainly controlled by the precipitation of calcium carbonates. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages These results suggest that normalized IP appears promising as a measure of barrier age.

  11. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [UNC Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  12. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  13. Coins, Quantum Measurements, and Turing's Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian S. Calude; Boris Pavlov

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Is there any hope for quantum computing to challenge the Turing barrier, i.e. to solve an undecidable problem, to compute an uncomputable function? According to Feynman's '82 argument, the answer is {\\it negative}. This paper re-opens the case: we will discuss solutions to a few simple problems which suggest that {\\it quantum computing is {\\it theoretically} capable of computing uncomputable functions}. In this paper a mathematical quantum "device" (with sensitivity $\\epsilon$) is constructed to solve the Halting Problem. The "device" works on a randomly chosen test-vector for $T$ units of time. If the "device" produces a click, then the program halts. If it does not produce a click, then either the program does not halt or the test-vector has been chosen from an {\\it undistinguishable set of vectors} ${\\IF}_{\\epsilon, T}$. The last case is not dangerous as our main result proves: {\\it the Wiener measure of} ${\\IF}_{\\epsilon, T}$ {\\it constructively tends to zero when} $T$ {\\it tends to infinity}. The "device", working in time $T$, appropriately computed, will determine with a pre-established precision whether an arbitrary program halts or not. {\\it Building the "halting machine" is mathematically possible.}

  14. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  15. Sub-barrier Fusion Cross Sections with Energy Density Formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Muhammad Zamrun; K. Hagino; N. Takigawa

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the applicability of the energy density formalism (EDF) for heavy-ion fusion reactions at sub-barrier energies. For this purpose, we calculate the fusion excitation function and the fusion barrier distribution for the reactions of $^{16}$O with $^{154,}$$^{144}$Sm,$^{186}$W and $^{208}$Pb with the coupled-channels method. We also discuss the effect of saturation property on the fusion cross section for the reaction between two $^{64}$Ni nuclei, in connection to the so called steep fall-off phenomenon of fusion cross sections at deep sub-barrier energies.

  16. Sub-barrier Fusion Cross Sections with Energy Density Formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamrun, Muhammad; Hagino, F. K.; Takigawa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, 980-8578 (Japan)

    2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the applicability of the energy density formalism (EDF) for heavy-ion fusion reactions at sub-barrier energies. For this purpose, we calculate the fusion excitation function and the fusion barrier distribution for the reactions of 16O with 154,144Sm, 186W and 208Pb with the coupled-channels method. We also discuss the effect of saturation property on the fusion cross section for the reaction between two 64Ni nuclei, in connection to the so called steep fall-off phenomenon of fusion cross sections at deep sub-barrier energies.

  17. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Workshop: Manufacturing Progress and Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    elsewhere) Cooling System · Radiator (standard) · Coolant Pump (standard) · Sensors (standard) ControlDOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Workshop: Manufacturing Progress and Barriers Low Temperature system pressure design · Reduction in size and weight · Reduction in number of components · Reduction

  18. Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, You-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films with the ability to impart oxygen and other types of gas barrier are crucial to commercial packaging applications. Commodity polymers, such as polyethylene (PE), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), have insufficient...

  19. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  20. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  1. Microsoft Word - Barriers to Achieving the Modern Grid_Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    our 21 st Century Economy V1.0 Barriers to Achieving the Modern Grid A declining infusion of new thought is occurring. The technical experience base of utilities is graying....

  2. Transportation barriers to health care: assessing the Texas Medicaid program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borders, Stephen Boyce

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation is frequently cited as a barrier to health care, but rarely have researchers analyzed the problems in depth. The purpose of this study was to assess the role transportation plays in the utilization of preventive health care services...

  3. Fusion dynamics of symmetric systems near barrier energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao-Qing Feng; Gen-Ming Jin

    2009-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross sections was explained as the lowering of the dynamical fusion barriers within the framework of the improved isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model. The numbers of nucleon transfer in the neck region are appreciably dependent on the incident energies, but strongly on the reaction systems. A comparison of the neck dynamics is performed for the symmetric reactions $^{58}$Ni+$^{58}$Ni and $^{64}$Ni+$^{64}$Ni at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. An increase of the ratios of neutron to proton in the neck region at initial collision stage is observed and obvious for neutron-rich systems, which can reduce the interaction potential of two colliding nuclei. The distribution of the dynamical fusion barriers and the fusion excitation functions are calculated and compared them with the available experimental data.

  4. Double Barriers and Magnetic Field in Bilayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilham Redouani; Ahmed Jellal; Hocine Bahlouli

    2015-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the transmission probability in an AB-stacked bilayer graphene of Dirac fermions scattered by a double barrier structure in the presence of a magnetic field. We take into account the full four bands of the energy spectrum and use the boundary conditions to determine the transmission probability. Our numerical results show that for energies higher than the interlayer coupling, four ways for transmission probabilities are possible while for energies less than the height of the barrier, Dirac fermions exhibits transmission resonances and only one transmission channel is available. We show that, for AB-stacked bilayer graphene, there is no Klein tunneling at normal incident. We find that the transmission displays sharp peaks inside the transmission gap around the Dirac point within the barrier regions while they are absent around the Dirac point in the well region. The effect of the magnetic field, interlayer electrostatic potential and various barrier geometry parameters on the transmission probabilities are also discussed.

  5. approaches cementitious barriers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. R. m. Vetter; A. Haibel; G. Nimtz 2001-01-01 75 Interest Rate Barrier Options Pricing Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Preliminaries 2.1...

  6. Scientists propose a solution to a critical barrier to producing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists propose a solution to a critical barrier to producing fusion By John Greenwald April 23, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook From left: physicists Luis...

  7. Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past six years, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has conducted extensive experimental research on radiant barrier systems (RBS). This paper presents recent research on the development of mathematical attic models. Two levels...

  8. altered glomerular barrier: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Schoofs, Frank; Fix, Thomas; Vickers, Mary E; Zhang, Wenrui; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Blamire, Mark G 2014-04-17 284 Neutron pair transfer in sub-barrier capture process Nuclear...

  9. In situ formation of phosphate barriers in soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive barriers and methods for making reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil ontaminants including actinides and heavy metals. The barrier includes phosphate, and techniques are disclosed for forming specifically apatite barriers. The method includes injecting dilute reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source such as a waste drum to achieve complete or partial encapsulation of the waste. Controlled temperature and pH facilitates rapid formation of apatite, for example, where dilute aqueous calcium chloride and dilute aqueous sodium phosphate are the selected reagents. Mixing of reagents to form precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  10. Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past six years, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has conducted extensive experimental research on radiant barrier systems (RBS). This paper presents recent research on the development of mathematical attic models. Two levels...

  11. Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on in market entry process ! #12;Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite batteries and diesel generators #12;PFM vs. PEM stack- Cost Analysis per kW at 10^3 unit volumes 6 PFM

  12. Substrate Moisture Content Effects on Growth and Shelf Life of Angelonia angustifolia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bingham, Alison

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    [Impatiens walleriana (Hook.)], petunia, salvia [Salvia splendens Sellow (ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes)] and vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.] for an extended period of time despite varying plant sizes with little to no runoff and wastage of water... moisture sensors and solenoid valves interfaced to an irrigation controller. When ? dropped below the set point, the controller opened solenoid valves and the impatiens, petunias, salvia, and vinca were irrigated and substrate water content was returned...

  13. Biochemical changes in the proteins of sorghum grain during moisture reconstitution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billings, Toby Jackson

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MICROORGANISM INHABITING SORGHUM GRAIN AFTER RECONSTITUTION Medium Growth Acid Gas MR VP Nitrate Reduction Mannose yes yes no Glucose yes yes no Sucrose yes no no Gal actos e yes yes no Mannitol Starch Maltose yes yes yes no no yes...BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE PROTEINS OF SORGHUM GRAIN DURING MOISTURE RECONSTITUTION A Thesis by TOBY JACKSON BILLINGS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  14. Energy Balance Partitioning and Net Radiation Controls on Soil Moisture – Precipitation Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Aubrey R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    in determining regional weather and climate. Although this idea has been widely accepted, an under- standing of the physical processes and the scales over which these interactions occur remains somewhat limited. Improving the current understanding... of these relationships has important implications for increasing predictability of local weather and climate. According to Barros and Hwu (Barros and Hwu 2002), the basis of studies on land–atmosphere interactions is the idea that moisture and energy gradients across a...

  15. Effect of external stress on moisture diffusion in an epoxy resin and its composite material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henson, Michael Chamberlain

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Michael Chamberlain Henson, B. S. , Texas A&N University Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Y. Weitsman The effects of stress on moisture diffusion in a graphite epoxy composrte material have been studied experimentally by examining the correspondrng... diffusion at all stress levels while the graphite epoxy generated results indicative of Non-Fickean, . concentration dependent diffusion at different levels of stress. The external stress affected both materials in a similar manner, causing...

  16. Effect of an external stress on moisture diffusion in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porth, Edward John

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . 49 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Cure Cycle for Hexcel F155 Graphite/Epoxy. . Cure Cycle for Narmco M329-7 Adhesive. Final Configuration of the Graphite/Epoxy and Stainless Steel Tensile Coupons. Load Frame Used to Stress Tensile Coupons During...-ply laminates absorbed more moisture than unidirectional laminates. However, it was also noted that cross-ply laminates are less compact than unidirectional laminates. Gillat and Broutman [5] subjected bidirectional graphite/epoxy laminates to external loads...

  17. Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

  18. Preliminary non-destructive assessment of moisture content, hydration and dielectric properties of Portland cement concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avelar Lezama, Ivan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    PRELIMINARY NON-DESTRUCTIVE ASSESSMENT OF MOISTURE CONTENT, HYDRATION AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE A Thesis by IVAN AVELAR LEZAMA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE A Thesis by IVAN AVELAR LEZAMA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  19. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Co.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

  20. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  1. Band Tunneling through Double Barrier in Bilayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan A. Alshehab; Hocine Bahlouli; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    By taking into account the full four band energy spectrum, we calculate the transmission probability and conductance of electrons across symmetric and asymmetric double potential barrier with a confined interlayer potential difference in bilayer graphene. For energies less than the interlayer coupling \\gamma_{1}, E \\gamma_{1}, we obtain four possible ways for transmission resulting from the two propagating modes. We compute the associated transmission probabilities as well as their contribution to the conductance, study the effect of the double barrier geometry.

  2. Structural and safety characteristics and warrants for highway traffic barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohutek, Terry Lee

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ross Highway traffic barriers are highway appurtenances that provide vehicle occupants with a relative degree of protection from roadside hazards and from errant vehicles encroaching across a median. The six basic types of traffic barr1ers are roads... are decision criteria that 1dentify sites along highways that need traff1c barrier installations. Structural and safety character- istics of the barr1ers refer to the impact performance, the structural integrity, and the safety of the vehicle occupants upon...

  3. One-way Ponderomotive Barrier in a Uniform Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of an asymmetric ponderomotive barrier in a nonuniform dc magnetic field by high-frequency radiation near the cyclotron resonance for selected plasma species was contemplated in Physics of Plasmas 11 (November 2004) 5046-5064. Here we show that a similar one-way barrier, which reflects particles incident from one side while transmitting those incident from the opposite side, can be produced also in a uniform magnetic field, entirely due to inhomogeneity of high-frequency drive.

  4. Tunneling through high energy barriers in simulated quantum annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Crosson; Mingkai Deng

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the performance of simulated quantum annealing (SQA) on an optimization problem for which simulated classical annealing (SA) is provably inefficient because of a high energy barrier. We present evidence that SQA can pass through this barrier to find the global minimum efficiently. This demonstrates the potential for SQA to inherit some of the advantages of quantum annealing (QA), since this problem has been previously shown to be efficiently solvable by quantum adiabatic optimization.

  5. Structural and safety characteristics and warrants for highway traffic barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohutek, Terry Lee

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ross Highway traffic barriers are highway appurtenances that provide vehicle occupants with a relative degree of protection from roadside hazards and from errant vehicles encroaching across a median. The six basic types of traffic barr1ers are roads... are decision criteria that 1dentify sites along highways that need traff1c barrier installations. Structural and safety character- istics of the barr1ers refer to the impact performance, the structural integrity, and the safety of the vehicle occupants upon...

  6. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  7. Llandoverian to Ludlovian barrier reef complex in southeast Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rovey, C.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface exploration in the Michigan basin established that a carbonate bank and barrier reef complex prograded basinward during the late Wenlockian to early Ludlovian, but the corresponding Niagaran Series is generally undifferentiated. In southeast Wisconsin the series is well exposed; thus, a better record of depositional history is available. Until now, reefs in the Racine formation of southeast Wisconsin (upper Wenlockian through lower Ludlovian) were interpreted as patch reefs built landward of the barrier complex. However, the following criteria are consistent with an extension of Michigan's northern barrier complex beneath Lake Michigan to southeast Wisconsin: (1) Ubiquitous presence of reef facies along a southwest to northeast trend. This trend is coincident with thickening and a facies change indicative of a deep to shallow water transition, (2) similarity in depositional sequence of the overlying Salina Group in Wisconsin and Michigan. The Salina sediments surround, but are absent over, structures interpreted as pinnacle reefs and form a feather edge against the thicker belt interpreted as a barrier complex. Hence, the Racine reefs are reinterpreted as a barrier complex. Hence, the Racine reefs are reinterpreted as a barrier and pinnacle reef complex. Similar facies changes are also present in older formations. Intraformational truncation surfaces in the underlying Waukesha Dolomite (upper Llandoverian to lower Wenlockian) clearly indicate the presence of a nearby carbonate slope. Therefore, the carbonate buildup originated prior to the Wenlockian and migrated further basinward than previously believed.

  8. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

  10. Dynamic Analysis of Moisture Transport Through Walls and Associated Cooling Loads in the Hot/Humid Climate of Florianopolis, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the use of a dynamic model of combined heat and mass transfer to analyze the effects on cooling loads of transient moisture storage and transport through walls with porous building materials, under varying boundary conditions...

  11. A wireless soil moisture smart sensor web using physics-based optimal control: Concept and initial demonstrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moghaddam, Mahta

    This paper introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective of the technology, supported by the ...

  12. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  13. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  14. Moisture and temperature effects on curvature of anti-symmetric cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Randall Stephen

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Approved as to style and content...

  15. IMPACTS OF SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY ON CONVECTIVE PRECIPITATION IN THE CENTRAL PLAINS THROUGH LAND-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Aubrey R.

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    of cummulative precipitation for a) FC b) 50FC c) WP ............ 31 Figure 4. Precipitation summed over the domain for the 12 day period for each model run............................................................................................................................ 66 Figure 17. Scatter plots of soil moisture versus Bowen ratio (top) a) FC b) 50FC c) WP and soil moisture versus net radiation (bottom) d) FC e) 50FC f) WP for the 4 km runs...

  16. Economics of biomass fuels for electricity production: a case study with crop residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maung, Thein Aye

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Barriers.......................................................17 2.5.2 Overcoming Institutional Barriers ..........................................................19 2.6 Economics of Demand and Supply for Biomass Feedstocks............................21... Annual Real Fossil Fuel Prices, 1965 to 2006 .................................10 Figure 2.2 The Effect of an Externality on the Demand for Electricity...........................11 Figure 2.3 Biomass Feedstock Production Process...

  17. Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

  18. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they pertain to this report; the current procedures are addressed in Section 2. This revision also addresses updates to the technical basis in supporting analysis and model reports and corroborative documentation, as presented in Sections 4 and 6 of this report. Finally, Sections 4, 5, and 6 of this report provide additional information pertaining to the relevant FEPs-related Acceptance Criteria presented in ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (YMRP) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274], Sections 2.2.1.2.1.3 and 2.2.1.3.3.3).

  19. IN DRIFT CORROSION PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Jolley

    1999-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.

  20. 1366 Direct Wafer: Demolishing the Cost Barrier for Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Adam [1366 Technologies] [1366 Technologies

    2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of 1366 Direct Wafer™ is to drastically reduce the cost of silicon-based PV by eliminating the cost barrier imposed by sawn wafers. The key characteristics of Direct Wafer are 1) kerf-free, 156-mm standard silicon wafers 2) high throughput for very low CAPEX and rapid scale up. Together, these characteristics will allow Direct Wafer™ to become the new standard for silicon PV wafers and will enable terawatt-scale PV – a prospect that may not be possible with sawn wafers. Our single, high-throughput step will replace the expensive and rate-limiting process steps of ingot casting and sawing, thereby enabling drastically lower wafer cost. This High-Impact PV Supply Chain project addressed the challenges of scaling Direct Wafer technology for cost-effective, high-throughput production of commercially viable 156 mm wafers. The Direct Wafer process is inherently simple and offers the potential for very low production cost, but to realize this, it is necessary to demonstrate production of wafers at high-throughput that meet customer specifications. At the start of the program, 1366 had demonstrated (with ARPA-E funding) increases in solar cell efficiency from 10% to 15.9% on small area (20cm2), scaling wafer size up to the industry standard 156mm, and demonstrated initial cell efficiency on larger wafers of 13.5%. During this program, the throughput of the Direct Wafer furnace was increased by more than 10X, simultaneous with quality improvements to meet early customer specifications. Dedicated equipment for laser trimming of wafers and measurement methods were developed to feedback key quality metrics to improve the process and equipment. Subsequent operations served both to determine key operating metrics affecting cost, as well as generating sample product that was used for developing downstream processing including texture and interaction with standard cell processing. Dramatic price drops for silicon wafers raised the bar significantly, but the developments made under this program have increased 1366 confidence that Direct Wafers can be produced for ~$0.10/W, still nearly 50% lower than current industry best practice. Wafer quality also steadily improved throughout the program, both in electrical performance and geometry. The improvements to electrical performance were achieved through a combination of optimized heat transfer during growth, reduction of metallic impurities to below 10 ppbw total metals, and lowering oxygen content to below 2e17 atoms/cc. Wafer average thickness has been reduced below 200µm with standard deviation less than 20µm. Measurement of spatially varying thickness shortly after wafer growth is being used to continually improve uniformity by adjusting thermal conditions. At the conclusion of the program, 1366 has developed strong relationships with four leading Tier1 cell manufactures and several have demonstrated 17% cell efficiency on Direct Wafer. Sample volumes were limited, with the largest trial consisting of 300 Direct Wafers, and there remains strong pull for larger quantities necessary for qualification before sales contracts can be signed. This will be the focus of our pilot manufacturing scale up in 2014.

  1. Moisture effects in low-slope roofs: Drying rates after water addition with various vapor retarders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, C.R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Petrie, T.W. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Childs, P.W.; Wilkes, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests have been conducted in the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS) of the US. Building Envelope Research Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to investigate downward drying rates of various unvented, low-slope roof systems. A secondary objective was to study heat flow patterns so as to understand how to control latent heat effects on impermeable heat flux transducers. Nine test sections were tested simultaneously. The sections had a p deck above fibrous-glass insulation and were examples of cold-deck systems. These five sections had various vapor retarder systems on a gypsum board ceiling below the insulation. The other four sections had a lightweight insulating concrete deck below expanded polystyrene insulation and the same vapor retarder systems, and were examples of warm-deck systems. The cold-deck systems had materials that were relatively permeable to water vapor, while the materials in the warm-deck systems were less permeable. All test sections were topped by an impermeable roofing membrane. The test sections were instrumented with thermocouples between all layers and with small heat flux transducers at the bottom and top of the fibrous-glass insulation and in the middle of the expanded polystyrene insulation. Two different kinds of moisture probes were used to qualitatively monitor the movement of the moisture. The heat flux measurements showed that heat conduction dominates the system using impermeable insulation materials, with only a slight increase due to increased thermal conductivity of wet expanded polystyrene. There was significant transfer of latent heat in the test sections with permeable insulation, causing the peak heat fluxes to increase by as much as a factor of two. With temperatures imposed that are typical of summer days, latent heat transfer associated with condensation and evaporation of moisture in the test sections was measured to be as important as the heat transfer by conduction.

  2. Photon induced tunneling of electron through a graphene electrostatic barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, R. [Department of Physics, P.K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721401 (India)] [Department of Physics, P.K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721401 (India); Sinha, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)] [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of an external intense laser field on the tunneling transport (ballistic) of the Dirac fermions through a monolayer graphene electrostatic barrier is studied in the framework of the Floquet approach for a continuous wave, linearly polarized, monochromatic laser. The Klein tunneling is shown to be suppressed by the irradiation of a strong laser field, arising due to breaking of chiral symmetry. The symmetric nature of the field free angular transmission spectrum around the normal to the well-barrier interface is destroyed due to the additional coupling between the pseudo-spin and the time dependent vector potential. The energy distribution of the tunneling spectrum displays Fano resonance which is absent for a laser assisted conventional electrostatic barrier but similar to the case of quantum well structures, providing an optical tool to identify field free quasi bound states inside the graphene nanostructures.

  3. Transport Properties through Double Barrier Structure in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed Jellal; El Bouazzaoui Choubabi; Hocine Bahlouli; Abdullah Aljaafari

    2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The mode-dependent transmission of relativistic ballistic massless Dirac fermion through a graphene based double barrier structure is being investigated for various barrier parameters. We compare our results with already published work and point out the relevance of these findings to a systematic study of the transport properties in double barrier structures. An interesting situation arises when we set the potential in the leads to zero, then our 2D problem reduces effectively to a 1D massive Dirac equation with an effective mass proportional to the quantized wave number along the transverse direction. Furthermore we have shown that the minimal conductivity and maximal Fano factor remain insensitive to the ratio between the two potentials V_2/V_1=\\alpha.

  4. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30-ton batches of different feedstock varieties and moistures. This test will focus on identifying the performance parameters of the grinding system specific to the feed, fractionation, and screen separation components and their affect on machine capacity and efficiency.

  5. International H2O Project (IHOP) 2002: Datasets Related to Atmospheric Moisture and Rainfall Prediction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schanot, Allen [IHOP 2002 PI; Friesen, Dick [IHOP 2002 PI

    IHOP 2002 was a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains of the United States from 13 May to 25 June 2002. The chief aim of IHOP_2002 was improved characterization of the four-dimensional (4-D) distribution of water vapor and its application to improving the understanding and prediction of convection. The region was an optimal location due to existing experimental and operational facilities, strong variability in moisture, and active convection [copied from http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/ihop/]. The project's master list of data identifies 146 publicly accessible datasets.

  6. Cavitation controlled acoustic probe for fabric spot cleaning and moisture monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a fabric. An acoustic probe generates acoustic waves relative to the fabric. An acoustic sensor, such as an accelerometer is coupled to the acoustic probe for generating a signal representative of cavitation activity in the fabric. The generated cavitation activity representative signal is processed to indicate moisture content of the fabric. A feature of the invention is a feedback control signal is generated responsive to the generated cavitation activity representative signal. The feedback control signal can be used to control the energy level of the generated acoustic waves and to control the application of a cleaning solution to the fabric.

  7. The effect of soil moisture levels on evapotranspiration from cotton and grain sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Arland David

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measured value of soil t moisture. Substituting these values into Equations (I), (2) and (3) gave the following three equations: SM =be ct t SM =bK t t SM = d ? b log (t+c ) t (5) (6) The next logical step would have been to evaluate... as several atmospheres pressure which is sufficient tc move water to the leaves of even the tallest trees. The flew cf water can be governed by either the rate at which it is extracted from the soil or the rate at which it moves through the plants...

  8. Responses of bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) to 2, 4-D in relation to soil moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sultemeier, George Wayne

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aoistme for shoat three weehs battee syrayfsg with 2, ~ oa iTass 7. Taboos clay lhsdaD clay Ososa clay Valesa clog Valera else' shallow yhase Irioa alar Ceyrsssed 16. 3 1702 2$og sSoae ylents ia this sell asterisk sai yro4aee4 seek... and herbicidal aotion at time of spraying on ths several clay soil types. Mater is universally a component of soils, although ths amounts present may wary from hygrosopio to a quantity sufficient to saturate the soil. FLaM moisture samples msy be oompared...

  9. Surface soil moisture estimation with the electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theis, Sidney Wayne

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that is important in determining the ability of a plant to uptake water and that determines the state of saturation of a soil. Matric potential is very important for crop modeling and runoff prediction. Roe et al. (1971) observed that the emissivity of a mooth... that were approximately 15 to 20 cm high. For an area covered with thick turfted grass to a height of 20 cm, Barton (1978) obtained a poor relationship between soil moisture and emissivity for both the ESHR and a 2. 65-cm radiometer. The ESHR response...

  10. Phase relationship equation for moisture induced shrink and swell of soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Stacey Bruemmer

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the w moisture content prior to swell, a = air void coefficient equal to the ratio of air volume change (AV?) to the initial air volume (V?), n(1-S) = ratio of VA to the initial total volume (Vr). The shrinkage form of PREMISS (1. 2), also derived... in Chapter VI, is: AV hw = Sn ? (t + a, ?j r where a? = the air void constant equal to the ratio of dV? to the change in water volume (dV~). The parameters S, n and w are readily obtained from soil samples. Means of obtaining the change im water...

  11. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  12. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winslow, C D

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  13. DIII-D Quiescent Double Barrier Regime Experiments and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.; DeBoo, J.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Gohil, P.; Greenfield, C.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Kaiser, T.B .; Kinsey, J.E.; Lasnier, C.J.; Lao, L.L.; Makowski, M.A.; McKee, G.R.; Moyer, R.A.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rudakov, D.L.; Staebler, G.M.; West, W.P.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discharges characteristic of the quiescent double barrier (QDB) regime [1] are attractive for development of advanced tokamak (AT) scenarios relevant to fusion reactors [2] and they offer near term advantages for exploring and developing control techniques. We continue to explore the QDB regime in DIII-D to improve understanding of formation and control of these discharges and to explore scaling to steady-state reactors. The formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB) provides a naturally peaked core pressure profile. This peaking in density in combination with the H-mode-like edge barrier and pedestal provide a path to high performance. We have achieved {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89P} {approx} 7 for several energy confinement times ({le} 25 {tau}{sub E}). We discuss here a combination of modeling and experiments using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) to demonstrate steady state, current-driven equilibria and control of the current distribution, safety factor q, and density profile. Experimental conditions leading to formation of the QDB discharge require establishing two distinct and separated barrier regions, a core region near {rho} {approx} 0.5 and an edge barrier outside {rho} > 0.95, {rho} is the square root of toroidal flux (radial coordinate). A region of higher transport due to a change in polarity of the E x B shearing rate [1] separates the core barrier from the H-mode edge. It is this separation in barriers that so far has required use of counter-NBI to establish QDB conditions. Balanced NBI should also allow this separation of barriers. The edge corresponds to the quiescent H-mode (QH) conditions [3]. In this quiescent edge region, the normally observed transient loss associated with edge-localized-mode (ELM) activity is replaced with a steady particle loss driven by a coherent oscillation residing outside the pedestal region. This edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) [2] typically exhibits 2 or 3 harmonics of a fundamental frequency near 10 kHz. We find this combination of a core ITB and the QH-mode edge to be extremely robust and to produce slowly varying, high performance discharge parameters, Fig. 1, for long durations {approx} 3 s. These conditions are generally limited by the duration of the NBI system and a slow evolution to lower q values as the Ohmic current moves inward on the resistive time scale for diffusion.

  14. Development of a low-profile portable concrete barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidry, Todd Randall

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-profile portable concrete barrier (PCB) has been developed for use in low-speed (approximately 45 mph [73 km/h] or less) work zones. The purpose of the low-profile barrier is to shield the work zone and redirect errant vehicles while.... SEQUENTIAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF CRASH TESTS APPENDIX D. ACCELEROMETER TRACES AND PLOTS OF ROLL, PITCH AND YAW RATES APPENDIX E. TEST VEHICLE PROPERTIES VITA Page 6 8 8 10 10 13 13 17 18 19 20 24 29 29 41 50 52 53 63 68 73 82 85 LIST...

  15. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, James L.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  16. Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)] [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method based on the “zero-length voltage” extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the “zero-length voltage” gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

  17. Development of a low-profile portable concrete barrier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidry, Todd Randall

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-profile portable concrete barrier (PCB) has been developed for use in low-speed (approximately 45 mph [73 km/h] or less) work zones. The purpose of the low-profile barrier is to shield the work zone and redirect errant vehicles while.... SEQUENTIAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF CRASH TESTS APPENDIX D. ACCELEROMETER TRACES AND PLOTS OF ROLL, PITCH AND YAW RATES APPENDIX E. TEST VEHICLE PROPERTIES VITA Page 6 8 8 10 10 13 13 17 18 19 20 24 29 29 41 50 52 53 63 68 73 82 85 LIST...

  18. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  19. Building America Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies: Part II, New Construction- August 13, 2014- Moisture Monitoring Results in an R-40 Wall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, Moisture Monitoring Results in an R-40 Wall, was presented at the Building America webinar, High Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part II, on August 13, 2014.

  20. Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, In-taek (Yongin, KR); Kim, Jong-min (Seongnam, KR)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

  1. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Radius of influence for a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe : theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desilets, Darin

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lateral footprint of a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe was determined using diffusion theory and neutron transport simulations. The footprint is radial and can be described by a single parameter, an e-folding length that is closely related to the slowing down length in air. In our work the slowing down length is defined as the crow-flight distance traveled by a neutron from nuclear emission as a fast neutron to detection at a lower energy threshold defined by the detector. Here the footprint is defined as the area encompassed by two e-fold distances, i.e. the area from which 86% of the recorded neutrons originate. The slowing down length is approximately 150 m at sea level for neutrons detected over a wide range of energies - from 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 5} eV. Both theory and simulations indicate that the slowing down length is inversely proportional to air density and linearly proportional to the height of the sensor above the ground for heights up to 100 m. Simulations suggest that the radius of influence for neutrons >1 eV is only slightly influenced by soil moisture content, and depends weakly on the energy sensitivity of the neutron detector. Good agreement between the theoretical slowing down length in air and the simulated slowing down length near the air/ground interface support the conclusion that the footprint is determined mainly by the neutron scattering properties of air.

  3. Investigation of factors influencing infrared roof moisture surveys using a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.; Courville, G.E.; Childs, P.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low sloped roofing systems using porous insulation, the presence of water can significantly degrade thermal performance. Because of the different thermal characteristics of wet and dry insulation, there is often a surface temperature differential between areas of wet and dry insulation. Under the right circumstances, the areas of wet insulation can be detected by means of infrared sensing techniques. To better define the conditions under which infrared techniques can distinguish between areas of wet and dry insulation, a mathematical model was developed. This model is a one-dimensional, transient heat transfer model of a roofing system. The model considers conduction through the roof, insolation, radiant exchange between roof and sky, convective heat transfer between the roof and air, and the influence of moisture trapped in insulation. For one particular roof system, a parametric study was undertaken using this model to determine the influence of moisture content, outside air temperature, wind speed, insolation, sky temperature, and other factors on the roof surface temperature. Preliminary recommendations for employing thermal sensing techniques to locate wet insulation are developed.

  4. Investigation of factors influencing infrared roof moisture surveys using a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.; Courville, G.E.; Childs, P.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low sloped roofing systems using porous insulation, the presence of water can significantly degrade thermal performance. Because of the different thermal characteristics of wet and dry insulation, there is often a surface temperature differential between areas of wet and dry insulation. Under the right circumstances, the areas of wet insulation can be detected by means of infrared sensing techniques. To better define the conditions under which infrared techniques can distinguish between areas of wet and dry insulation, a mathematical model was developed. This model is a one-dimensional, transient heat transfer model of a roofing system. The model considers conduction through the roof, insulation, radiant exchange between roof and sky, convective heat transfer between the roof and air, and the influence of moisture trapped in insulation. For one particular roof system, a parametric study was undertaken using this model to determine the influence of moisture content, outside air temperature, wind speed, insulation, sky temperature, and other factors on the roof surface temperature. Preliminary recommendations for employing thermal sensing techniques to locate wet insulation are developed. 11 references, 12 figures.

  5. In situ electrokinetic control of moisture and nutrients in unsaturated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many DOE facilities have unsaturated soils contaminated with metals and organic solvents. Because of the large volumes, in situ remediation is often the most economically attractive remediation technique. The success of many in situ treatment technologies depends critically on the degree to which the movement of water and desired ions can be engineered in the vadose zone. Bioremediation efforts in the vadose zone are limited by the ability to provide moisture and nutrients to contaminant-metabolizing microorganisms. An in situ electrokinetic remediation process has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for use in unsaturated soils, and is presently undergoing field demonstration. The electrokinetic process is not limited by low soil permeabilities and, therefore, provides a level of control not achievable by hydraulic means. Moisture is added to the subsurface in a controlled fashion such that the field capacity is never exceeded, preventing the unwanted mobilization of dissolved contaminants by saturated wetting fronts. The Sandia electrokinetic process can potentially transport both water and nutrients for bioremediation efforts and is compatible with vapor phase in situ techniques such as bioventing. The approach should as bioventing. The approach should lend itself to the directed transport of biodegradable chelating agents and complexed metals from contaminated soils.

  6. Development of permeable reactive barriers to prevent radionuclide migration from the nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharova, E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, S.; Batuk, O. [Chemistry department of Lomonosov Moscow, State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazakovskaya, T.; Shapovalov, V. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Haire, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is focused on three possible materials for permeable reactive barriers (PRB): 1) depleted uranium oxide that is accumulated as a residual product of the natural uranium enrichment process, 2) zero-valent iron and, 3) the composite material based on montmorillonite clay modified with different anion exchangers. The main aim of permeable reactive barriers is to prevent release of radionuclides emerging from a repository waste package containing spent nuclear fuel to outside the control area of the nuclear waste repository sites. The most experimentally developed material is depleted uranium oxide. It can be used both as a component of radiation shielding and as an absorbent for migrating long-lived radionuclides (especially {sup 237}Np and {sup 99}Tc). Experiments demonstrate the high sorption properties of depleted uranium oxide towards Np and Tc both from deionized water and from solution that simulates Yucca Mountain. Zero-valent iron, and the composite based on montmorillonite clay, also seem to be very promising to use in a PRB. Nano-particles of zero-valent iron with high surface will reduce high valency Np and Tc to the tetravalent state and thus immobilize them due to the extremely low solubility of corresponding hydroxides. The composite based on montmorillonite clay modified with different anion exchangers will possess high sorption affinity towards anionic and cationic species. (authors)

  7. Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European and Barrier Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European and Barrier Options Belal E. Baaquie RMI are financial derivatives that can be analyzed in the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum finance. Forward-2963 Fax: (65) 6777-6126 Email: phybeb@nus.edu.sg #12;Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European

  8. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  9. PET radiotracers: crossing the bloodbrain barrier and surviving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    PET radiotracers: crossing the blood­brain barrier and surviving metabolism Victor W. Pike in the living human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) are increasingly useful in clinical research or undesirable metabolism. These issues are reviewed. Emerging PET radiotracers for measuring efflux transporter

  10. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  11. EasyVoice: Breaking barriers for people with voice disabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condado, Paulo

    disabilities. With the advances in computing power, new applications have been developed for helping peopleEasyVoice: Breaking barriers for people with voice disabilities Paulo A. Condado and Fernando G,flobo}@ualg.pt Abstract. Text-to-speech technology has been broadly used to help people with voice disabilities

  12. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-1335E Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California A.T. Mc of Global Energy Partners. This work described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Demand Response in California. PIER Industrial/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency Program. CEC

  13. Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier Neophytos Neophytou}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Large efforts in improving thermoelectric energy conversion are devoted to energy filtering design, ~40% improvement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved if the following conditions

  14. Peierls-Nabarro Barrier and Protein Loop Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam K. Sieradzan; Antti Niemi; Xubiao Peng

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    When a self-localized quasiparticle excitation propagates along a discrete one dimensional lattice, it becomes subject to a dissipation that converts the kinetic energy into lattice vibrations. Eventually the kinetic energy does no longer enable the excitation to cross over the minimum energy barrier between neighboring sites, and the excitation becomes localized within a lattice cell. In the case of a protein, the lattice structure consists of the C-alpha backbone. The self-localized quasiparticle excitation is the elemental building block of loops. It can be modeled by a kink which solves a variant of the discrete non-linear Schroedinger equation (DNLS). We study the propagation of such a kink in the case of protein G related albumin-binding domain, using the UNRES coarse-grained molecular dynamics force field. We estimate the height of the energy barriers the kink needs to cross over, in order to propagate along the backbone lattice. We analyse how these barriers gives rise to both stresses and reliefs which control the kink movement. For this, we deform a natively folded protein structure by parallel translating the kink along the backbone away from its native position. We release the transposed kink, and we follow how it propagates along the backbone towards the native location. We observe that the dissipative forces which are exerted on the kink by the various energy barriers, have a pivotal role in determining how a protein folds towards its native state.

  15. Fusion at near-barrier energies within quantum diffusion approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear deformation and neutron-transfer process have been identified as playing a major role in the magnitude of the sub-barrier fusion (capture) cross sections. There are a several experimental evidences which confirm the importance of nuclear deformation on the fusion. The influence of nuclear deformation is straightforward. If the target nucleus is prolate in the ground state, the Coulomb field on its tips is lower than on its sides, that then increases the capture or fusion probability at energies below the barrier corresponding to the spherical nuclei. The role of neutron transfer reactions is less clear. The importance of neutron transfer with positive Q-values on nuclear fusion (capture) originates from the fact that neutrons are insensitive to the Coulomb barrier and therefore they can start being transferred at larger separations before the projectile is captured by target-nucleus. Therefore, it is generally thought that the sub-barrier fusion cross section will increase because of the neutron transfer. The fusion (capture) dynamics induced by loosely bound radioactive ion beams is currently being extensively studied. However, the long-standing question whether fusion (capture) is enhanced or suppressed with these beams has not yet been answered unambiguously. The study of the fusion reactions involving nuclei at the drip-lines has led to contradictory results.

  16. Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, D.E.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kennedy, C.E.

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualities for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}--COOH which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces. 8 figs.

  17. Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualifies for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH.sub.2).sub.11 --COOH Which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces.

  18. Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a, , Carlos G. Levi b is enhanced by incorporation of through-thickness pores within the coating. However, molten calcium­magnesium­alumino­silicate in dissolution of the coat- ing in the silicate melt, precipitation of new phases, and the elimination

  19. Temperature-Dependent Fission Barriers of Superheavy Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, J C; Sheikh-Javid, A; Kerman, A K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. We study the temperature-dependent fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The equivalence of isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied. Calculations have been carried out for $^{264}$Fm, $^{272}$Ds, $^{278}$112, $^{292}$114, and $^{312}$124. For nuclei around $^{278}$112 produced in "cold fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with temperature as compared to the nuclei around $^{292}$114 synthesized in "hot fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and fission-barrier temperatures. Our calculations are consistent with the long survival probabilities of the superheavy elements produced in Dubna with th...

  20. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  1. Nanoscale mapping of the W/Si(001) Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durcan, Chris A.; Balsano, Robert; LaBella, Vincent P., E-mail: vlabella@albany.edu [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The W/Si(001) Schottky barrier was spatially mapped with nanoscale resolution using ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM) using n-type and p-type silicon substrates. The formation of an interfacial tungsten silicide is observed utilizing transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The BEEM and BHEM spectra are fit utilizing a linearization method based on the power law BEEM model using the Prietsch Ludeke fitting exponent. The aggregate of the Schottky barrier heights from n-type (0.71?eV) and p-type (0.47?eV) silicon agrees with the silicon band gap at 80?K. Spatially resolved maps of the Schottky barrier are generated from grids of 7225 spectra taken over a 1??m?×?1??m area and provide insight into its homogeneity. Histograms of the barrier heights have a Gaussian component consistent with an interface dipole model and show deviations that are localized in the spatial maps and are attributed to compositional fluctuations, nanoscale defects, and foreign materials.

  2. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  3. Improved HEPA Filter Technology for Flexible and Rigid Containment Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinson, Paul Arthur

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety and reliability in glovebox operations can be significantly improved and waste packaging efficiencies can be increased by inserting flexible, lightweight, high capacity HEPA filters into the walls of plastic sheet barriers. This HEPA filter/barrier technology can be adapted to a wide variety of applications: disposable waste bags, protective environmental barriers for electronic equipment, single or multiple use glovebag assemblies, flexible glovebox wall elements, and room partitions. These reliable and inexpensive filtered barriers have many uses in fields such as radioactive waste processing, HVAC filter changeout, vapor or grit blasting, asbestos cleanup, pharmaceutical, medical, biological, and electronic equipment containment. The applications can result in significant cost savings, improved operational reliability and safety, and total waste volume reduction. This technology was developed at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in 1993 and has been used at ANL-W since then at the TRU Waste Characterization Chamber Gloveboxes. Another 1998 AGS Conference paper titled "TRU Waste Characterization Gloveboxes", presented by Mr. David Duncan of ANL-W, describes these boxes.

  4. Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Financial Incentives And Barriers; And

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at levels sufficient to contribute a significant renewable energy resource to the State of HawaiHawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Financial Incentives And Barriers; And Other Funding Sources Prepared for: Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute University of Hawai`i at Manoa 1680 East West Road, POST 109

  5. Experimental investigation of a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hae-Jin

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments is conducted in a two-dimensional glass-walled wave tank to confirm numerical solutions based on two-dimensional linear hydro-elastic theory for a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier. The model test is performed by a...

  6. Mobility barrier for disabled people DEJOUX, Virginie; ARMOOGUM, Jimmy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mobility barrier for disabled people DEJOUX, Virginie; ARMOOGUM, Jimmy 12 th WCTR, July 11-15, 2010 92 55 88 virginie.dejoux@inrets.fr ARMOOGUM Jimmy INRETS - DEST Site de Marne-la-Vallée. "Le Descartes 2" 2 rue de la Butte Verte 93166 Noisy le grand cedex Telephone: 33 1 45 92 55 79 jimmy

  7. Interdiffusion between Zr Diffusion Barrier and U-Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Huang; Y. Park; Y. H. Sohn

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment uranium fuels under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. Significant reactions have been observed between U-Mo fuels and Al or Al alloy matrix. Refractory metal Zr has been proposed as barrier material to reduce the interactions. In order to investigate the compatibility and barrier effects between U-Mo alloy and Zr, solid-to-solid U-10wt.%Mo vs. Zr diffusion couples were assembled and annealed at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C for various times. The microstructures and concentration profiles due to interdiffusion and reactions were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. Intermetallic phase Mo2Zr was found at the interface and its population increased when annealing temperature decreased. Diffusion paths were also plotted on the U-Mo-Zr ternary phase diagrams with good consistency. The growth rate of interdiffusion zone between U-10wt.%Mo and Zr was also calculated under the assumption of parabolic diffusion, and was determined to be about 103 times lower than the growth rate of diffusional interaction layer found in diffusion couples U-10wt.%Mo vs. Al or Al-Si alloy. Other desirable physical properties of Zr as barrier material, such as neutron adsorption rate, melting point and thermal conductivity are presented as supplementary information to demonstrate the great potential of Zr as the diffusion barrier for U-Mo fuel systems in RERTR.

  8. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  9. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

  10. The effect of desiccation on UMTRA Project radon barrier materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards (40 CFR 192) require that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project remedial action designs meet low numerical limits for contaminants contained in water or vapors exiting the disposal cell embankments. To meet the standards, a cover of compacted, fine-grained soil is placed over UMTRA Project embankments. One of the functions of this cover is to limit infiltration into the disposal cell . The hydraulic conductivity of this infiltration barrier must be low in order to reduce the resultant seepage from the base of the cell to the extent necessary to comply with the proposed EPA groundwater standards. Another function of this cover is to limit the emission of radon gas. The air permeability of the cover must be low in order to reduce radon emissions to comply with EPA standards. Fine-grained soils exposed to evaporation will dry. Continued exposure will cause shrinking that, if allowed to continue, will eventually result in the development of cracks. The results of the cracking could be an increase in the hydraulic conductivity and an increase in the air permeability. This could then allow additional infiltration and increased radon emissions. Cracking of the radon barrier has been noted at one UMTRA Project location. The potential for cracking of the radon barrier during construction has been addressed by requiring moistening of previously compacted surfaces prior to placing additional lifts. The efficacy of these treatments has not been verified. The potential for cracking after construction of the cover is completed has also not been examined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for cracking of the radon barrier both during construction and after completion of the cover. The effect of shrinkage cracking on the performance of the radon barrier will also be examined.

  11. A soil moisture budget analysis of Texas using basic climatic data while assuming a possible warming trend across the state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjornson, Brian Matthew

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the slope (dashed lines) of the regression line of precipitation on mean temperature for the Lower Valley. 35. Isopleths of MTRANGE (in 'F) for Texas during August. 71 36. Percentage of monthly soil moisture (SM) for the High Plains for a O'F (control... are significant at the 95% confidence interval. 74 37. Percentage of monthly soil moisture (SM) for the High Plains for a O'F (control), I' F, 2'F, 3'F, and 4'F increase in the mean annual temperature of Texas. Mean monthly temperatures increase non...

  12. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  13. Reconstitution of sorghum grain: effects of time, temperature and moisture upon total gas production in an in vitro system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilfong, Charlie Birch

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    advantage in feed efficien y over dry grain for reconstituted sorghum grain fed to bulls for a 102 day firishing period Gains were hicher for bulls fed dr) crain due to increased feed consump+. 'on. Riggs and Nal lace (1962) also reported. reduced intake...:. Sor storace ano: )he risk '. . valved in leavirg or: . r ". crain in th ~ S'eld to dry as well as 'he adv nt ~f air t. :g&. t =- ore. e reviv. d in=wrest in hiah moissure grain. Rigg et a) ?!195' ) and Rigc s !1962; reported success irhsrvesting...

  14. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the Mammalian and Vegetative Communities of the Barrier Islands of Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggin, Annaliese K.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The barrier islands of the gulf coast of the U.S. have been shaped and changed by hurricanes for centuries. These storms can alter the vegetation of the barrier islands by redistributing sediments, scouring off vegetation, physical damage...

  15. Layer-by-layer Assembly of Nanobrick Wall Ultrathin Transparent Gas Barrier Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priolo, Morgan Alexander

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin layers with high barrier to oxygen and other gases are a key component to many packaging applications, such as flexible electronics, food, and pharmaceuticals. Vapor deposited thin films provide significant gas barrier, but are prone...

  16. The language and culture barrier between English-speaking medical personnel and Spanish-speaking patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barras, Brian James

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of the Spanish-speaking population in Texas can cause barriers between many English-speaking medical personnel and Spanish-speaking patients. This research study will determine if a language barrier, considered in the context of two...

  17. Beyond parallax barriers: applying formal optimization methods to multilayer automultiscopic displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanman, Douglas

    This paper focuses on resolving long-standing limitations of parallax barriers by applying formal optimization methods. We consider two generalizations of conventional parallax barriers. First, we consider general two-layer ...

  18. From blood to the brain: can systemically transplanted mesenchymal stem cells cross the blood-brain barrier?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Linan; Eckert, Mark A; Riazifar, Hamidreza; Kang, Dong-Ku; Agalliu, Dritan; Zhao, Weian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and function of the blood-brain barrier,” Neurobiology ofV. Zlokovic, “The blood-brain barrier in health and chroniccell biology of the blood- brain barrier,” Annual Review of

  19. Breaking the Diffraction Barrier in Fluorescence Microscopy by Optical Shelving Stefan Bretschneider, Christian Eggeling, and Stefan W. Hell*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Breaking the Diffraction Barrier in Fluorescence Microscopy by Optical Shelving Stefan the breaking of the diffraction resolution barrier in far-field fluorescence microscopy by transiently shelving barrier by shelving the fluorophore in a metastable dark state, thereby effectively depleting

  20. Method in the production of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzen, B. G.; Herrmann, W.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method in the production of hydrogen peroxide by the anthraquinone process is described, in which method anthraquinone derivatives dissolved in a working solution are subjected alternatingly to hydrogenation and oxidation. To reduce the relative moisture in the working solution to a suitable level of 20-98%, preferably 40-85%, the working solution is dried prior to hydrogenation by contacting it with a gas or a gaseous mixture, the water vapor pressure of which is below that of the working solution. Suitable gases or gas mixtures are air or exhaust gases from the oxidation stage of the anthraquinone process.

  1. Between Two Worlds: Hmong Youth, Culture, and Socio-Structural Barriers to Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Bao

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural Barriers to Integration by Bao Lo Ethnic Studiesimmigrants achieve integration. These studies acknowledgedebates on immigrant integration, segmented assimilation

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric dielectric barrier Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Force Measurement Techniques and Preliminary Results Summary: Results Using Aerogels and Ferroelectrics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuators Ryan Durscher......

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERFACE AND FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladale, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organizational Barriers to Cogeneration • • • OrganizationTechnologies Cogeneration. • MSW . Wind. ResidentialPage Industrial Cogeneration. • Residential Photovoltaics. •

  4. Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter: physiological roles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    1 Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter-binding cassette) transporter family expressed in many tissue barriers (e.g. gut, lung, blood-brain barrier of many drugs to the brain and has been the subject of intensive research in the last 10 years

  5. Effect of neutron transfer in the fusion process near and below the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachkov, V. A.; Adel, A.; Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Zagrebaev, V. I. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation) and International University 'Dubna', Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-barrier and sub-barrier fusion of weakly bound neutron-rich isotopes of lithium is explored within the empirical channel coupling model. Several combinations of colliding nuclei are proposed, for which strong enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion is predicted owing to coupling with neutron transfer channels.

  6. Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

  7. Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George Island, Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    of the barrier island are analyzed, along with the short-term post-storm recovery of secondary dunes. ResultsMorphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George September 2009 Keywords: Dune recovery LiDAR Overwash Hurricane Dennis Barrier island During the summer

  8. In vivo transcranial cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced bloodbrain barrier opening in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    In vivo transcranial cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced blood­brain barrier cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced blood­brain barrier opening in mice Yao-Sheng Tung1 cavitation response associated with blood­brain barrier (BBB) opening as induced by transcranial focused

  9. Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system X dependence of the thermal stability factor, the width of the thermal energy barrier distribution- ropy energy distribution and the interaction and the thermal energy barrier distribution determined

  10. Simulation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration in a soil profile during the 1999 MAP-Riviera Campaign Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 903919 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Riviera Campaign 903 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 903919 (2003) © EGU Simulation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration scheme in hydrological models. This study presents the validation of soil moisture soil plot at the edge of a corn field. The hydrological model PREVAH was driven using three

  11. An integral-balance nonlinear model to simulate changes in soil moisture, groundwater and surface runoff dynamics at the hillslope scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    An integral-balance nonlinear model to simulate changes in soil moisture, groundwater and surface-state integral-balance model for soil moisture and groundwater dynamics. Development of the model was motivated. Ă? 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Recent studies on the modeling

  12. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Frye, G.C.; Schneider, T.W.

    1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO{sub 2}. In another embodiment, the SiO{sub 2} is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system. 8 figs.

  13. Hygric Redistribution in Insulated Assemblies: Retrofitting Residential Envelopes Without Creating Moisture Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Building America program has recognized that most of the current housing stock is in need of energy related retrofits. One of the best ways of reducing the space conditioning energy consumption is to improve the thermal performance of the enclosure by adding exterior board foam insulation. This report quantifies the amount of water that can become trapped in the drainage cavity of typical wall systems, and measures the effect of water trapped in the drainage cavity on the moisture content of the sheathing. This study also attempts to explain the discrepancy between hygrothermal simulations and field performance of low permeance, low R-value exterior insulation (e.g. 3/4-in. foil faced polyisocyanurate) in cold climates.

  14. Test Plan to Evaluate the Relationship Among IAQ, Comfort, Moisture, and Ventilation in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Martin, Eric

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental plan describes research being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in coordinatation with Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Florida HERO, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to evaluate the impact of ventilation rate on interior moisture levels, temperature distributions, and indoor air contaminant concentrations. Specifically, the research team will measure concentrations of indoor air contaminants, ventilation system flow rates, energy consumption, and temperature and relative humidity in ten homes in Gainesville, FL to characterize indoor pollutant levels and energy consumption associated with the observed ventilation rates. PNNL and FSEC have collaboratively prepared this experimental test plan, which describes background and context for the proposed study; the experimental design; specific monitoring points, including monitoring equipment, and sampling frequency; key research questions and the associated data analysis approach; experimental logistics, including schedule, milestones, and team member contact information; and clearly identifies the roles and responsibilities of each team in support of project objectives.

  15. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  16. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  17. Exterior Insulation Finish System (EIFS) Walls ORNL provides the tools to enable industry to engineer durable, moisture-tolerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Exterior Insulation Finish System (EIFS) Walls ORNL provides the tools to enable industry the insulating value of walls and the energy efficiency of buildings. The EIFS concept came to America from in both moisture control and insulating value. EIFS's are inherently superior on thermal performance

  18. Evaluation of SMOS Retrievals of Soil Moisture over the Central United States with Currently Available In-situ Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    SMOS retrievals by comparing them to in-situ soil moisture observations4 for the top 5 cm at several.01% of the total water on the planet [Prigent et al.,20 2005]. But soil water content is important for many reasons, such as agriculture. Soil water21 content also has an important influence on climate, as it determines

  19. Wall Design Redundancy for Improving the Moisture Performance of Building Cladding Systems in Hot-Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, C. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of approximately 4,000 buildings in the hot-humid climate locations of the United States where the potential for decay of hygroscopic building materials or corrosion of metals is moderate-to-severe found that redundant moisture...

  20. INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    102 INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Background Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred between the lake and the atmosphere. During winter, ice and snow can decrease the amount of light available below the ice surface for photosynthesis. In the absence of an ice