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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Magnetoplasticity and diffusion in silicon single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The effect of static magnetic fields on the dynamics of surface dislocation segments, as well as the diffusion mobility of a dopant in silicon single crystals, has been analyzed. It has been experimentally found that the preliminary treatment of p-type silicon plates (the dopant is boron with a concentration of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) in the static magnetic field (B = 1 T, a treatment time of 30 min) leads to an increase in the mobility of surface dislocation segments. The characteristic times of observed changes (about 80 h) and the threshold dopant concentration (10{sub 15} cm{sup -3}) below which the magneto-optical effect in silicon is not fixed have been determined. It has been found that diffusion processes in dislocation-free silicon are magnetically sensitive: the phosphorus diffusion depth in p-type silicon that is preliminarily aged in the static magnetic field increases (by approximately 20%) compared to the reference samples.

Skvortsov, A. A., E-mail: SkvortsovAA2009@yandex.ru; Karizin, A. V. [Moscow State Technical University 'MAMI' (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ); Wu, Chung P. (Trenton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013  

SciTech Connect

Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

Ravi, T. S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Thin Single Crystal Silicon Solar Cells on Ceramic Substrates: November 2009 - November 2010  

SciTech Connect

In this program we have been developing a technology for fabricating thin (< 50 micrometres) single crystal silicon wafers on foreign substrates. We reverse the conventional approach of depositing or forming silicon on foreign substrates by depositing or forming thick (200 to 400 micrometres) ceramic materials on high quality single crystal silicon films ~ 50 micrometres thick. Our key innovation is the fabrication of thin, refractory, and self-adhering 'handling layers or substrates' on thin epitaxial silicon films in-situ, from powder precursors obtained from low cost raw materials. This 'handling layer' has sufficient strength for device and module processing and fabrication. Successful production of full sized (125 mm X 125 mm) silicon on ceramic wafers with 50 micrometre thick single crystal silicon has been achieved and device process flow developed for solar cell fabrication. Impurity transfer from the ceramic to the silicon during the elevated temperature consolidation process has resulted in very low minority carrier lifetimes and resulting low cell efficiencies. Detailed analysis of minority carrier lifetime, metals analysis and device characterization have been done. A full sized solar cell efficiency of 8% has been demonstrated.

Kumar, A.; Ravi, K. V.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Anisotropic dewetting in ultra-thin single-crystal silicon-on-insulator films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The single crystal silicon-on-insulator thin film materials system represents both an ideal model system for the study of anisotropic thin film dewetting as well as a technologically important system for the development ...

Danielson, David T. (David Thomas)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Plasma synthesis of single-crystal silicon nanoparticles for novel electronic device applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-crystal nanoparticles of silicon, several tens of nanometres in diameter, may be suitable as building blocks for single-nanoparticle electronic devices. Previous studies of nanoparticles produced in low-pressure plasmas have demonstrated the synthesis of nanocrystals 2–10?nm diameter but larger particles were amorphous or polycrystalline. This work reports the use of a constricted, filamentary capacitively coupled low-pressure plasma to produce single-crystal silicon nanoparticles with diameters between 20 and 80?nm. Particles are highly oriented with predominantly cubic shape. The particle size distribution is rather monodisperse. Electron microscopy studies confirm that the nanoparticles are highly oriented diamond-cubic silicon.

Ameya Bapat; Curtis Anderson; Christopher R Perrey; C Barry Carter; Stephen A Campbell; Uwe Kortshagen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Elasticity, strength, and toughness of single crystal silicon carbide, ultrananocrystalline diamond, and hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elasticity, strength, and toughness of single crystal silicon carbide, ultrananocrystalline diamond carbide 3C-SiC , ultrananocrystalline diamond, and hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous carbon

Espinosa, Horacio D.

8

Bendable single crystal silicon thin film transistors formed by printing on plastic substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bendable single crystal silicon thin film transistors formed by printing on plastic substrates E on plastic substrates using an efficient dry transfer printing technique. In these devices, free standing-Si is then transferred, to a specific location and with a controlled orientation, onto a thin plastic sheet

Rogers, John A.

9

Luminescent Study of Recombination Processes in the Single-Crystal Silicon and Silicon Structures Fabricated Using High-Efficiency Solar Cell Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some results of the author’s researches in the last decade of the luminescence in the region of the fundamental absorption edge (edge luminescence) of the single-crystal silicon (c-Si), including structures which...

A. M. Emel’yanov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Precision control of thermal transport in cryogenic single-crystal silicon devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path $\\ell$ is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than $\\ell$, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 5-10 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 $\\mu$m. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order $\\ell$, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of $\\pm$8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams tha...

Rostem, Karwan; Colazo, Felipe A; Crowe, Erik J; Denis, Kevin L; Lourie, Nathan P; Moseley, Samuel H; Stevenson, Thomas R; Wollack, Edward J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Advanced silicon photonic modulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various electrical and optical schemes used in Mach-Zehnder (MZ) silicon plasma dispersion effect modulators are explored. A rib waveguide reverse biased silicon diode modulator is designed, tested and found to operate at ...

Sorace, Cheryl M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery ... Yu, A.; Park, H. W.; Davies, A.; Higgins, D.; Chen, Z.; Xaio, X.Free-Standing Layer-by-Layer Hybrid Thin Film of Graphene-MnO2 Nanotube as Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries J. Phys. ...

Fathy M Hassan; Abdel Rahman Elsayed; Victor Chabot; Rasim Batmaz; Xingcheng Xiao; Zhongwei Chen

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Silicon Photonics for Modulation, Switching, and Tuning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal and electro-refractive silicon photonic modulators, switches, and tunable filters have been demonstrated with ultralow switching energies and high-speed operation. These...

Watts, Michael

14

SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.  

SciTech Connect

Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

KOETZLE,T.F.

2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

15

Edge photoluminescence of single-crystal silicon with a p-n junction: Structures produced by high-efficiency solar cell technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The systematic features and kinetics of edge photoluminescence of silicon structures produced by the high-efficiency solar cell technology is studied at different voltages applied to...p-n junction. It is shown t...

A. M. Emel’yanov

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

PHOTOCATALYTIC AND PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ON STRONTIUM TITANATE SINGLE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ON STRONTIUM TITANATE SINGLE CRYSTALS F.HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ON STRONTIUM TITANATE SINGLE CRYSTALS

Wagner, F.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals Mohan Srinivasarao* and Richard S:photon tunnellingmicroscopy;single crystals; polyethylene) INTRODUCTION The study of morphology of polymers is an area

Srinivasarao, Mohan

18

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals A. T. KWAN, M. YU. EFREMOV, E. A-film differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the melt- ing of isolated polyethylene single crystals of lamellar single crystals of polyethylene (PE). We obtain thickness, diffraction, and calorimetry data

Allen, Leslie H.

19

Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

Schlagel, Deborah

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous silicon modules Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

search results for: amorphous silicon modules Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Institute of Energy Conversion University of Delaware Summary: modules. Consulted for a research...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Technological development for commercialization of amorphous silicon based multijunction modules  

SciTech Connect

Some of the significant steps in technological development for large-scale commercialization of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based multijunction photovoltaic modules are presented. These developments are establishing a high quality baseline process for manufacturing large-area ({approximately}8 ft{sup 2}) a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem junction modules with improved stabilized conversion efficiency, throughput, yield, and reduced materials usage.

Yang, L.; Bennett, M.; Chen, L. [Solarex, Newtown, PA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Test-to-Failure of Crystalline Silicon Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated lifetime testing of five crystalline silicon module designs was carried out according to the Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-to-Failure Protocol. This protocol compares the reliability of various module constructions on a quantitative basis. The modules under test are subdivided into three accelerated lifetime testing paths: 85..deg..C/85% relative humidity with system bias, thermal cycling between ?40..deg..C and 85..deg..C, and a path that alternates between damp heat and thermal cycling. The most severe stressor is damp heat with system bias applied to simulate the voltages that modules experience when connected in an array. Positive 600 V applied to the active layer with respect to the grounded module frame accelerates corrosion of the silver grid fingers and degrades the silicon nitride antireflective coating on the cells. Dark I-V curve fitting indicates increased series resistance and saturation current around the maximum power point; however, an improvement in junction recombination characteristics is obtained. Shunt paths and cell-metallization interface failures are seen developing in the silicon cells as determined by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves in the case of negative 600 V bias applied to the active layer. Ability to withstand electrolytic corrosion, moisture ingress, and ion drift under system voltage bias are differentiated.

Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Trudell, D.; Bosco, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Development of single crystal filaments. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program just completed addresses a route to a more efficient longer-lasting electric light bulb filament. All current filaments for light bulbs are metallic in nature. They are subject to embrittlement with age (large grain growth) and relatively high vapor pressures which limits their operating temperature. There is evidence which suggests advantages to using high temperature refractory single crystal fibers as a filament for a light bulb. These refractory materials may include materials such as hafnium or tantalum carbide which have melting points about 500{degrees}C higher than tungsten. Another advantage is that single crystal fibers have a very high degree of crystalline perfection with very few voids and dislocations. Without these imperfections, the atomic mobility at high temperatures is highly restricted. Thus single crystal fibers are very stable at high temperature and will last longer. The efficiencies result from running these single crystal ceramic fiber filaments at higher temperatures and the higher emissivity of the carbide filaments compared to tungsten. The amount of visible light is proportional to the 4the power of the temperature thus a 500{degrees}C higher operating give about a 3-fold increase in radiation in the visible range. The program accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Single crystal fibers of JfC sufficient crystal quality for light bulb filament applications were made. (2) The HfC fiber furnace growth chamber, power control and data collection system was developed for the laboratory scale plant. (3) method for mounting and apparatuses for testing the single crystal fiber filaments were developed and built.

Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque-McConnell, M.M.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Improved amorphous silicon alloy solar cells for module fabrication  

SciTech Connect

An initial conversion efficiency of 13.5% has been obtained on a triple-junction triple-bandgap device fabricated in a large-area deposition reactor capable of producing one-square-foot modules. The intrinsic layer of the top cell is a wide bandgap amorphous silicon alloy. The middle and bottom cells employ high quality amorphous silicon-germanium alloy. The high efficiency of the triple-junction cell is attributed to the relative reduction of the optical loss in the top tunnel junction and the improvement in the quality of the middle and bottom component cells. Triple-junction devices with initial efficiency of 13.3% have shown saturation at 11.6% after light soaking. Modules of aperture area 909 cm{sup 2} have been fabricated using an assembly process similar to the one being currently used in their manufacturing line. The module design consists of one large-area, high-current monolithic multijunction device. The status of the small-area devices and modules is described.

Banerjee, A.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrate  

SciTech Connect

This report examines manufacturing monolithic amorphous silicon modules on a continuous polymer substrate. Module production costs can be reduced by increasing module performance, expanding production, and improving and modifying production processes. Material costs can be reduced by developing processes that use a 1-mil polyimide substrate and multilayers of low-cost material for the front encapsulant. Research to speed up a-Si and ZnO deposition rates is needed to improve throughputs. To keep throughput rates compatible with depositions, multibeam fiber optic delivery systems for laser scribing can be used. However, mechanical scribing systems promise even higher throughputs. Tandem cells and production experience can increase device efficiency and stability. Two alternative manufacturing processes are described: (1) wet etching and sheet handling and (2) wet etching and roll-to-roll fabrication.

Grimmer, D.P. (Iowa Thin Film Technologies, Inc., Ames, IA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

27

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

28

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

29

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

30

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

31

Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators  

SciTech Connect

Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

33

Copper diffusion in single-crystal ?-Zr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tracer diffusion of Cu64 in ?-Zr single crystals has been measured in the temperature range (615-860)°C. The temperature dependences of the Cu64 diffusion coefficients in directions parallel to and perpendicular to the c axis are given by D?=0.40e-1.54 eVkT and D?=0.25e-1.60 eVkT cm2/sec, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of an interstitial diffusion mechanism.

G. M. Hood and R. J. Schultz

1975-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Specific features of utilizing bismuth antimony chalcogenide single crystals in miniature coolers  

SciTech Connect

A procedure for growing perfect single crystals of bismuth antimony chalcogenide solid solutions by the Czochralski technique with melt feeding from a floating crucible was developed at the Baikov Institute of Metallurgy. Given that the single crystals in question readily split along the cleavage planes, the problem of acceptable yield of suitable products in the manufacture of thermoelements and cooling modules arises. To solve this problem, investigations were undertaken along two lines: (1) development of nondestructive, damage-free technologies; and (2) development of methods for making low-resistance antidiffusion contacts on the end faces of the thermoelements.

Semenyuk, V.A. [Odessa State Academy of Cold, (Ukraine); Ivanova, L.D.; Svechnikova, T.E. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Boron Carbide and Silicon Oxide Hetero-nanonecklaces via Temperature Modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boron Carbide and Silicon Oxide Hetero-nanonecklaces via Temperature Modulation Jifa Tian, Xingjun ReceiVed April 23, 2008 ABSTRACT: Boron carbide and silicon oxide (BCSiO) hetero-nanonecklaces have been-500 nm silicon oxide nanoballs onto 20-30 nm boron carbide nanowires. Synthetic analysis shows that a two

Gao, Hongjun

36

Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demsy and Sajeev John  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demésy and Sajeev by the American Institute of Physics. Related Articles Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon utilizing multiple carrier generation via singlet exciton fission Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 153507 (2012) Light

John, Sajeev

37

Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic Alexei Deinega and Sajeev John  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Alexei Deinega by the American Institute of Physics. Related Articles Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire multiple carrier generation via singlet exciton fission Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 153507 (2012) Light trapping

John, Sajeev

38

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Wednesday, 27 October 2010 00:00 When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

39

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research to improve the understanding of amorphous silicon alloys and other relevant non-semiconductor materials for use in high-efficiency, large-area multijunction modules. The research produced an average subcell initial efficiency of 8.8% over a 1-ft{sup 2} area using same-band-gap, dual-junction cells deposited over a ZnO/AlSi back reflector. An initial efficiency of 9.6% was achieved using a ZnO/Ag back reflector over smaller substrates. A sputtering machine will be built to deposit a ZnO/Ag back reflector over a 1-ft{sup 2} area so that a higher efficiency can also be obtained on larger substrates. Calculations have been performed to optimize the grid pattern, bus bars, and cell interconnects on modules. With our present state of technology, we expect a difference of about 6% between the aperture-area and active-area efficiencies of modules. Preliminary experiments show a difference of about 8%. We can now predict the performance of single-junction cells after long-term light exposure at 50{degree}C by exposing cells to short-term intense light at different temperatures. We find that single-junction cells deposited on a ZnO/Ag back reflector show the highest stabilized efficiency when the thickness of the intrinsic layers is about 2000 {angstrom}. 8 refs.

Guha, S. (United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research on semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials to enhance the performance of multi-band-gap, multijunction panel with an area greater than 900 cm[sup 2] by 1992. Double-junction and triple-junction cells are mode on a Ag/ZnO back reflector deposited on stainless steel substrates. An a-SiGe alloy is used for the i-layer in the bottom and the middle cells; the top cell uses an amorphous silicon alloy. After the evaporation of an antireflection coating, silver grids and bus bars are put on the top surface and the panel is encapsulated in an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/Tefzel structure to make a 1-ft[sup 2] monolithic module.

Guha, S. (United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Nuclear magnetic resonance in a thallium single crystal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nuclear magnetic resonance studies in single crystals of thallium have been performed for the first time. The resonance frequency, line width and second moment were… (more)

Schratter, Jacob Jack

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The integration of photonics with electronics has emerged as a leading platform for microprocessor technology and the continuation of Moore's Law. As electronic device dimensions shrink, electronic signals encounter crippling ...

McComber, Kevin A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A WDM Silicon Photonic Transmitter based on Carrier-Injection Microring Modulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A WDM Silicon Photonic Transmitter based on Carrier- Injection Microring Modulators Chin-Hui Chen1 photonic transmitter based on carrier-injection type microring modulators. Resonant wavelengths can be adjusted by both thermal heaters and bias tuning. OCIS codes: (200.4650) Optical interconnects; (250

Palermo, Sam

44

Constitutive modeling of creep of single crystal superalloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a constitutive theory is developed, within the context of continuum mechanics, to describe the creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The con- stitutive model that is developed here is based on the fact that as bodies deform...

Prasad, Sharat Chand

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Transverse acoustic actuation of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two methods for the transverse acoustic actuation of {110}-cut Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals are discussed. In this actuation mode, crystals are used that have the {110}- type twinning planes parallel to the base of the crystal. ...

Simon, Jesse Matthew

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Ge-Au eutectic bonding of Ge {100} single crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present preliminary results on the eutectic bonding between two {100} Ge single crystal surfaces using thin films of ... Au sample show epitaxial growth of Ge. In sections of the bond, lattice continuity...

W. B. Knowlton; K. M. Itoh; J. W. Beeman; J. H. Emes…

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Study of photomodulated reflectance in 6H-SiC single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ultraviolet irradiation of the surface of silicon-carbide (6H-SiC) single crystals on their optical reflectivity in the visible and violet spectral regions is studied. It is shown that the photoreflection-signal intensity is maximal, if the light beam is incident at the Brewster angle and polarized parallel to the plane of incidence. The relative change induced in the refractive index of the surface layers of a crystal (10{sup -3}) upon exposure to nitrogen laser radiation, caused by the generation of nonequilibrium free charge carriers in the conduction band of the material, is established.

Gruzintsev, A. N., E-mail: gran@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Ultra-High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

OPTIMIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS IN THE RHIC SINGLE CRYSTAL HEAVY ION COLLIMATION.  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the project to design and test a collimation system prototype using bent channeling crystal for cleaning of the RHIC heavy ion beam halo, we have studied the optimal length and bending angle of a silicon (110) single crystal proposed to be a primary element situated upstream of the traditional heavy amorphous collimator. Besides the matters of the channeling and collimation efficiency, we also looked into the impact the crystal may have on the non-channeled particles that go on circulating in the ring, so as to reduce the momentum offset of the particles scattered of the crystal.

BIRYUKOV,V.M.; CHESNOKOV,Y.A.; KOTOV,V.I.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; STEVENS,A.

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

49

Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel  

SciTech Connect

GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

Shreve, Andrew John [Ames Laboratory

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

50

14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells& Modules: Materials and Processes; Summary of Discussion Sessions  

SciTech Connect

The 14th Workshop discussion sessions addressed funding needs for Si research and for R&D to enhance U.S. PV manufacturing. The wrap-up session specifically addressed topics for the new university silicon program. The theme of the workshop, Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Leapfrogging the Barriers, was selected to reflect the astounding progress in Si PV technology during last three decades, despite a host of barriers and bottlenecks. A combination of oral, poster, and discussion sessions addressed recent advances in crystal growth technology, new cell structures and doping methods, silicon feedstock issues, hydrogen passivation and fire through metallization, and module issues/reliability. The following oral/discussion sessions were conducted: (1) Technology Update; (2) Defects and Impurities in Si/Discussion; (3) Rump Session; (4) Module Issues and Reliability/Discussion; (5) Silicon Feedstock/Discussion; (6) Novel Doping, Cells, and Hetero-Structure Designs/Discussion; (7) Metallization/Silicon Nitride Processing/Discussion; (8) Hydrogen Passivation/Discussion; (9) Characterization/Discussion; and (10) Wrap-Up. This year's workshop lasted three and a half days and, for the first time, included a session on Si modules. A rump session was held on the evening of August 8, which addressed efficiency expectations and challenges of c Si solar cells/modules. Richard King of DOE and Daren Dance of Wright Williams& Kelly (formerly of Sematech) spoke at two of the luncheon sessions. Eleven students received Graduate Student Awards from funds contributed by the PV industry.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Sinton, R.; Swanson, D.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A hybrid life-cycle inventory for multi-crystalline silicon PV module manufacturing in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

China is the world's largest manufacturer of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (mc-Si PV) modules, which is a key enabling technology in the global transition to renewable electric power systems. This study presents a hybrid life-cycle inventory (LCI) of Chinese mc-Si PV modules, which fills a critical knowledge gap on the environmental implications of mc-Si PV module manufacturing in China. The hybrid LCI approach combines process-based LCI data for module and poly-silicon manufacturing plants with a 2007 China IO-LCI model for production of raw material and fuel inputs to estimate 'cradle to gate' primary energy use, water consumption, and major air pollutant emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen oxides). Results suggest that mc-Si PV modules from China may come with higher environmental burdens that one might estimate if one were using LCI results for mc-Si PV modules manufactured elsewhere. These higher burdens can be reasonably explained by the efficiency differences in China's poly-silicon manufacturing processes, the country's dependence on highly polluting coal-fired electricity, and the expanded system boundaries associated with the hybrid LCI modeling framework. The results should be useful for establishing more conservative ranges on the potential 'cradle to gate' impacts of mc-Si PV module manufacturing for more robust LCAs of PV deployment scenarios.

Yuan Yao; Yuan Chang; Eric Masanet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Helium irradiation effects in polycrystalline Si, silica, and single crystal Si  

SciTech Connect

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to investigate the effects of room temperature 6 keV helium ion irradiation of a thin ({approx_equal}55 nm thick) tri-layer consisting of polycrystalline Si, silica, and single-crystal Si. The ion irradiation was carried out in situ within the TEM under conditions where approximately 24% of the incident ions came to rest in the specimen. This paper reports on the comparative development of irradiation-induced defects (primarily helium bubbles) in the polycrystalline Si and single-crystal Si under ion irradiation and provides direct measurement of a radiation-induced increase in the width of the polycrystalline layer and shrinkage of the silica layer. Analysis using TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy has led to the hypothesis that these result from helium-bubble-induced swelling of the silicon and radiation-induced viscoelastic flow processes in the silica under the influence of stresses applied by the swollen Si layers. The silicon and silica layers are sputtered as a result of the helium ion irradiation; however, this is estimated to be a relatively minor effect with swelling and stress-related viscoelastic flow being the dominant mechanisms of dimensional change.

Abrams, K. J.; Greaves, G.; Berg, J. A. van den [Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford (United Kingdom); Hinks, J. A.; Donnelly, S. E. [School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Pawley, C. J. [Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford (United Kingdom); School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Eyidi, D. [Institut Pprime, Universite de Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Ward, M. B. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

TOPAZ: the Single Crystal Diffractometer at SNS | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TOPAZ-Single-Crystal Diffractometer TOPAZ-Single-Crystal Diffractometer TOPAZ instrument scientist Christina Hoffmann and scientific associate Matt Frost at TOPAZ. TOPAZ instrument scientist Christina Hoffmann and scientific associate Matt Frost at TOPAZ. TOPAZ is an elastic scattering instrument that allows for probing of material structures and responses under controlled environmental conditions. It enables neutron measurement of the same single-crystal samples that is possible with x-ray diffraction. Data are collected on samples of 0.1 mm3 or less. Resolution is such that an average unit cell size of [50 × 50 × 50] Å3 for compounds of moderate complexity can be easily accommodated. This includes inorganic large and porous framework and guest-host materials, metal (in-)organic cluster and

54

Elastic constants of single crystal Hastelloy X at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

An acoustic time of flight technique is described in detail for measuring the elastic constants of cubic single crystals that allows for the constants to be determined at elevated temperature. Although the overall technique is not new, various aspects of the present work may prove extremely useful to others interested in finding these values, especially for aerospace materials applications. Elastic constants were determined for the nickel based alloy, Hastelloy X from room temperature to 1,000 C. Accurate elastic constants were needed as part of an effort to predict both polycrystal mechanical properties and the nature of grain induced heterogeneous mechanical response. The increased accuracy of the acoustically determined constants resulted in up to a 15% change in the predicted stresses in individual grains. These results indicate that the use of elastic single crystal constants of pure nickel as an approximation for the constants of gas turbine single crystal alloys, which is often done today, is inaccurate.

Canistraro, H.A. [Univ. of Hartford, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Audio Engineering Technology; Jordan, E.H.; Shi Shixiang [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Favrow, L.H.; Reed, F.A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

SINGLE CRYSTAL NIOBIUM TUBES FOR PARTICLE COLLIDERS ACCELERATOR CAVITIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred ?C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 ?C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 ?C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was increased 0.18 mm and eventually to 0.21 mm. Again, with these larger tubes, single crystal tubes were usually produced by the crystallization process. The power supply was generally operated at full output during these tests, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In a few tests, the traverse rate was increased to 10 cm per hour, and at the faster traverse rate, single crystal growth was not achieved. In these tests with a faster traverse rate, it was thought that the tube was not heated to a high enough temperature to achieve single crystal growth. In the next series of tests, the tube OD was unchanged at 3.8 cm and the wall thickness was increased to 0.30 mm. The increased wall thickness made it difficult to reach an operating temperature above 2,000 ?C, and although the single crystal process caused a large increase in the crystal grains, no single crystal tubes were produced. It was assumed that the operating temperature in these tests was not high enough to achieve single crystal growth. In FY 2012, a larger power supply was purchased and installed. With the new power supply, temperatures above the melting point of Nb were easily obtained regardless of the tube thickness. A series of crystallization tests was initiated to determine if indeed the operating temperature of the previous tests was too low to achieve single crystal growth. For these tests, the Nb tube OD remained at 3.8 cm and the wall thickness was 0.30 mm. The first test had an operating temperature of 2,000 ?C. and the operating temperature was increased by 50 ?C increments for each successive test. The final test was very near the Nb melting temperature, and indeed, the Nb tube eventually melted in the center of the tube. These tests showed that higher temperatures did yield larger grain sizes if the traverse rate was held constant at 5 cm per hour, but no single crystal tubes were produced even at the highest operating temperature. In addition, slowing the traverse rate to as low as 1 cm per hour did not yield a single crystal tube regardless of operating temperature. At this time, it

MURPHY, JAMES E [University of Nevada, Reno] [University of Nevada, Reno

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

56

ATLAS ID Upgrade R&D Plan: Development of a Short-Strip Silicon Detector Module  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATLAS ID Upgrade R&D Plan: Development of a Short-Strip Silicon Detector Module and a Frontend of the optimum technology and layout of the tracking detectors for the upgraded ATLAS ID. The goal for the intermediate tracking region in the upgraded ATLAS ID. We anticipate that much of the work would then also

California at Santa Cruz, University of

57

Radiation-assisted Frenkel-Poole transport in single-crystal diamond  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of the density of occupied states as a function of the applied electric field, performed on single-crystal chemical vapour deposition diamond by x-ray modulated photocurrent technique, is reported. Two regimes of non-linear charge transport were observed: a classical Frenkel-Poole (FP) process at high electric fields (>6800 V/cm), and a radiation-assisted transport mechanism at intermediate electric fields (2000 to 6800 V/cm), consisting of a double-step process in which the direct re-emission into the extended band occurs following multiple photo-induced FP-like hopping transitions.

Girolami, M.; Bellucci, A.; Calvani, P.; Flammini, R.; Trucchi, D. M. [CNR-IMIP, Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy)] [CNR-IMIP, Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy)

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

58

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this three-year program is to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Two specific objectives of this program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Amoco/Enron Solar, Frederick, MD (United States)] [Amoco/Enron Solar, Frederick, MD (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Economical Patterning of Series Connected a-Silicon Modules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different patterning methods are used for manufacturing series connected stripe like cells in a-Si modules whith thin film technologie. These line patterns cause a loss of active cell area, defined by the edge...

W. Juergens; R. Plättner; H. Kausche…

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS BY ALEX TAN KWAN B.S., Stanford) device, the nanocalorimeter, it was possible to investigate the melting of isolated polyethylene (PE, a simple Ni-foil calorimeter, to measure the heat capacity of a thin polyethylene film to verify

Allen, Leslie H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Low temperature magnetic transitions of single crystal HoBi  

SciTech Connect

We present resistivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements in high quality single crystals of HoBi, with a residual resistivity ratio of 126. We find, from the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization, an antiferromagnetic transition at 5.7 K, which evolves, under magnetic fields, into a series of up to five metamagnetic phases.

Fente, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Suderow, H. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Vieira, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Nemes, N. M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid; Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid; Budko, Sergei L. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

62

Photo- and Semi-conductance in Molecular Single Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... (1) Photo-conductance1 in molecular single crystals of the anthracene type is not an effect due primarily ... anthracene type is not an effect due primarily to impurity centres, since the dependence of photo-conductance on wave-length reproduces all inflexions of the ultra-violet absorption curve of the ...

D. J. CARSWELL; J. FERGUSON; L. E. LYONS

1954-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

63

Single crystal to single crystal transition in (10, 3)-d framework with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligand: Synthesis, structures and magnetism  

SciTech Connect

Assembling of pyrazine-2-carboxylate (Pzc) acid with nickel chlorine under solvothermal condition with MeOH as solvent gave a porous complex 1 {l_brace}[Ni(Pzc)ClH{sub 2}O]{center_dot}MeOH{r_brace}{sub n} with 1D channels. In 1 the ligands and metal ions are connected by three of each other and a rare (10,3)-d topology net is gained. The MeOH molecules filled in the 1D channels as guests. It is interesting that 1 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another complex 2 when the guest MeOH molecules in the channels are exchanged by water molecules. Magnetic study indicates anti-ferromagnetic couplings exist in the two complexes and the guest exchange in the complex has little influence on the magnetism. - Graphical abstract: A porous complex 1 with rare (10,3)-d net was gained, and 1 underwent a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another phase 2. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New (10,3)-d net was obtained with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligands as a triangular node. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex 1 has a 1D channel filled with methanol molecules as guests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1 could undergo SCSC structural transition to 2 after guests exchanged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antiferromagnetic interactions were found in 1 and 2.

Yang, Qian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China) [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Lab on Metal and Molecule-based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Jiong-Peng, E-mail: horryzhao@yahoo.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Liu, Zhong-Yi [College of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous silicon oxynitride Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

poly-silicon... and Insulators SiO2 Si3N4 Conductors Poly-Silicon (doped and undoped) Tungsten Copper 12;HarvardFabrication2... Single Crystal Silicon SiO2 deposition...

65

A two-port polarization-insensitive coupler module between single-mode fiber and silicon-wire waveguide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and C. Tsai, “A two-port single- mode fiber– silicon wireA two-port polarization-insensitive coupler module betweenAbstract: A two-port polarization-insensitive single-mode

Shiraishi, Kazuo; Yoda, Hidehiko; Tsai, Chen S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Formation and post-deposition compression of smooth and processable silicon thin films from nanoparticle suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanoparticle suspensions Noah T. Jafferisa) and James C. Sturm Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton and processable silicon thin-films from single-crystal silicon-nanoparticle suspensions. Single-crystal Si-nanoparticles on printing silicon from nanoparticles has shown much promise.3,4 Ha¨rting et al.4 report screen-printed films

67

Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L. [Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

69

Ultrafast dynamics of excitons in tetracene single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafast exciton dynamics in free standing 200 nm thin tetracene single crystals were studied at room temperature by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. The complex spectrally overlapping transient absorption traces of single crystals were systematically deconvoluted. From this, the ultrafast dynamics of the ground, excited, and transition states were identified including singlet exciton fission into two triplet excitons. Fission is generated through both, direct fission of higher singlet states S{sub n} on a sub-picosecond timescale, and thermally activated fission of the singlet exciton S{sub 1} on a 40 ps timescale. The high energy Davydov component of the S{sub 1} exciton is proposed to undergo fission on a sub-picoseconds timescale. At high density of triplet excitons their mutual annihilation (triplet-triplet annihilation) occurs on a <10 ps timescale.

Birech, Zephania; Schwoerer, Heinrich, E-mail: heso@sun.ac.za [Laser Research Institute, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)] [Laser Research Institute, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); Schwoerer, Markus [Department of Physics, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany)] [Department of Physics, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Schmeiler, Teresa; Pflaum, Jens [Experimental Physics VI, University of Würzburg and Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Würzburg (Germany)] [Experimental Physics VI, University of Würzburg and Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Würzburg (Germany)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

70

Photoacoustic investigation of transport in semiconductors: Theoretical and experimental study of a Ge single crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photoacoustic (PA) heat-transmission measurements were used to study transport in a nearly intrinsic Ge single crystal. A theoretical model was developed which quantitatively describes excess carrier and thermal-wave space distributions, within the semiconductor under monochromatic cw modulated excitation. The PA heat-transmission, reflection, and photothermal-beam-deflection signals can be calculated using this model. It is shown that the frequency characteristic of the measurement system can be eliminated using measurements on different thicknesses of the same sample. It is also shown that both the normalized phase and amplitude spectra, as a function of the modulation frequency, can be used to determine the values of the thermal diffusivity, the excess-carrier lifetime, and the surface recombination velocity.

M. D. Drami?anin; P. M. Nikoli?; Z. D. Ristovski; D. G. Vasiljevi?; D. M. Todorovi?

1995-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Growth and characterization of lithium yttrium borate single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of 0.1% Ce doped Li{sub 6}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} have been grown using the Czochralski technique. The photoluminescence study of these crystals shows a broad emission at ? 420 nm corresponding to Ce{sub 3+} emission from 5d?4f energy levels. The decay profile of this emission shows a fast response of ? 28 ns which is highly desirable for detector applications.

Singh, A. K.; Singh, S. G.; Tyagi, M.; Desai, D. G.; Sen, Shashwati [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai- 400085 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

72

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual subcontract report, January 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this three-year program is to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Two specific objectives of this program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. To achieve these objectives, Solarex is working in the following technical areas: casting, wire saws, cell process, module assembly, frameless module development, and automated cell handling. Accomplishments reported include: Cast first successful larger ingot producing 73% larger volume of usable Si; Increased the size of the ingot even further and cast an ingot yielding nine 11.4 {times} 11.4 cm bricks, representing a 125% increase in usable Si from a single casting; Operated the wire-saw in a semi-operational mode, producing 459,000 wafers at 94.1% overall yield; Reduced the cost of wire-saw consumables, spare parts, and waste disposal; Developed a cost-effective back surface field process that increases cell efficiency by 5% and began production trials; Developed a plan for increasing the capacity in the module assembly area; Completed qualification testing of modules built using Spire`s automated tabbing and stringing machine; Selected, tested, and qualified a low-cost electrical termination system; Completed long-term UV testing of experimental back sheets; Qualified the structure and adhesive-tape system for mounting frameless modules; and ARRI completed a study of the fracture properties of cast polycrystalline Si wafers and provided the information necessary to calculate the maximum stresses allowable during wafer handling.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of Fermi level enables electro-optical modulation, optical-optical switching, and other optoelectronics applications. However, achieving a high modulation depth remains a challenge because of the modest graphene-light interaction in the graphene-silicon devices, typically, utilizing only a monolayer or few layers of graphene. Here, we comprehensively study the interaction between graphene and a microring resonator, and its influence on the optical modulation depth. We demonstrate graphene-silicon microring devices showing a high modulation depth of 12.5 dB with a relatively low bias voltage of 8.8 V. On-off electro-optical switching with an extinction ratio of 3.8 dB is successfully demonstrated by applying a square-waveform with a 4 V peak-to-peak voltage.

Ding, Yunhong; Xiao, Sanshui; Hu, Hao; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Mortensen, N Asger; Yvind, Kresten

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Miniaturized Low-power Electro-optic Modulator Based on Silicon Integrated Nanophotonics and Organic Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We design and demonstrate a compact, low-power, low-dispersion and broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic (EO) polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The EO polymer is engineered for large EO activity and near-infrared transparency. The half-wave switching-voltage is measured to be V{\\pi}=0.97V over optical spectrum range of 8nm, corresponding to a record-high effective in-device r33 of 1190pm/V and V{\\pi} L of 0.291Vmm in a push-pull configuration. Excluding the slow-light effect, we estimate the EO polymer is poled with an ultra-high efficiency of 89pm/V in the slot. In addition, to achieve high-speed modulation, silicon PCW is selectively doped to reduce RC time delay. The 3-dB RF bandwidth of the modulator is measured to be 11GHz, and a modulation response up to 40GHz is observed.

Zhang, Xingyu; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chen, Ray T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

Gopalan, Venkatraman (State College, PA); Mitchell, Terrence E. (Los Alamos, NM); Kitamura, Kenji (Tsukuba, JP); Furukawa, Yasunori (Tsukuba, JP)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Cleavage crack-tip deformation in single-crystal zinc  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dislocation distribution ahead of a cleavage crack tip in single crystal Zn is observed by using the etch pit technique. The results show that the distribution has the feature predicted by the DFZ models, and both X1, the distance from the crack tip to the first dislocation and N0, the total number of dislocations ahead of the crack tip, agree with Majumdar and Burns's DFZ theory. The problems of dislocation emission from the crack tip and dislocation shielding effects on the crack tip are also discussed based on the experimental results.

Fu Ran; Q Y Long; T Y Zhang; C W Lung

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

78

Industrial high performance crystalline silicon solar cells and modules based on rear surface passivation technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Stimulated by the extreme market conditions, the increase in performance and the reduction of manufacturing costs of standard crystalline silicon solar cells and modules have been quite significant in the last years. This progress was achieved mainly by process and material improvements avoiding additional process complexity. As todays cells are predominantly limited by optical and recombination losses at the rear surface, dielectric rear surface passivation represents an obvious approach to overcome the limitations. In recent years several concepts have been developed to implement dielectric rear side passivation into industrial-scale mass production. In this paper a short review is given about the evolution of dielectric rear side passivation technologies as well as on state-of-the-art cell and module results. Simple and cost effective cell and module designs utilizing standard as well as innovative manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore, it is shown that for all major steps multiple process options are available to further reduce the manufacturing costs. Using an optimized emitter and screen-printed metallization on commercially available 156 mm×156 mm p-type Czochralski-grown crystalline silicon wafers best cell efficiencies of 19.9% without dielectric rear surface passivation and 21.0% with dielectric rear surface passivation are demonstrated. Replacing the screen-printed front contacts by electroplated nickel–copper contacts record efficiencies of up to 21.3% are reached. By optimizing the module design and materials to reduce the resistive and optical losses, a peak module power of up to 306 W and 19.5% aperture area efficiency are achieved.

Axel Metz; Dennis Adler; Stefan Bagus; Henry Blanke; Michael Bothar; Eva Brouwer; Stefan Dauwe; Katharina Dressler; Raimund Droessler; Tobias Droste; Markus Fiedler; Yvonne Gassenbauer; Thorsten Grahl; Norman Hermert; Wojtek Kuzminski; Agata Lachowicz; Thomas Lauinger; Norbert Lenck; Mihail Manole; Marcel Martini; Rudi Messmer; Christine Meyer; Jens Moschner; Klaus Ramspeck; Peter Roth; Ruben Schönfelder; Berthold Schum; Jörg Sticksel; Knut Vaas; Michael Volk; Klaus Wangemann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

NETL: Gasification - Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Center for Photonics Technology Project Number: DE-FC26-99FT40685 Project Description Phase I - The Photonics Laboratory at Virginia Tech has successfully developed a novel temperature sensor capable of operating at temperatures up to 1600 °C and in harsh conditions. The sensor uses single-crystal sapphire to make an optically-based measurement and will fulfill the need for the real-time monitoring of high temperatures created in gasification processes. Phase II - Based on a successful Phase I laboratory demonstration of a Broadband Polarimetric Differential Interferometric (BPDI) temperature sensor, Virginia Tech's Phase II development objective is to further the development of the sensor for industrial use in slagging coal gasifiers. This will include ruggedizing the design of the sensor and creation of a suitable protective housing such that it can be placed into existing ports of coal gasifiers. The potential industrial use of the sensor will be determined through full-scale testing and development. The sensor design and fabrication has been completed and is undergoing testing. Overall performance and survivability of the sensor will be determined.

80

Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

87% of world PV cell market sales in 2011. Crystalline silicon PV cells have laboratory energy conversion efficiencies as high as 25% for single-crystal cells and 20.4% for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: A Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction May 30, 2008 Chemistry Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN This meeting focuses on the scientific resources of four ORNL user facilities funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Who Should Attend Synopsis Goals Scheduled Agenda Workshop Materials Confirmed Speakers Important Dates Registration - now open Location - Directions and Map Sponsors Organizing and Local Committee Contacts Relevant Literature, References, Websites Local Information Bruker - UT Workshop Who Should Attend? The Workshop is directed to the newcomer as well as the experienced user of a Bruker Apex / Apex-II system and SHELX software. It will concentrate on hard to solve and/or refine problem structures. We envision it to be

82

Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride single crystals.  

SciTech Connect

S hock compression exper iments in the few hundred GPa (multi - Mabr) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals . This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17 - 32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between ~200 - 600 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot - the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves - as well as pressure and density of re - shock states up to ~900 GPa . The experimental measurements are compared with recent density functional theory calculations as well as a new tabular equation of state developed at Los Alamos National Labs.

Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Lemke, Raymond W.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Oxidation of magnesium single crystals and evaporated films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation of (001) and (100) faces of pure magnesium single crystals at 2.5 mm Hg oxygen pressure was measured at 400°C and 440°C by means of an all-quartz, high vacuum microbalance. In a first approximation a parabolic oxidation law is observed. The oxidation rate on the basal plane is initially higher than on the prismatic plane. Electron diffraction patterns and photomicrographs indicate that the oxide has a preferred orientation on the basal plane, even for a thickness of about 1000 Å. The oxidation of evaporated magnesium films at room temperature was also investigated. After an induction period a logarithmic oxidation law is observed, where the limiting thickness is dependent on the oxygen pressure.

R.R Addiss Jr.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Modelling of Heat Transfer in Single Crystal Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An attempt is made to review the heat transfer and the related problems encountered in the simulation of single crystal growth. The peculiarities of conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer in the different melt, solution, and vapour growth methods are discussed. The importance of the adequate description of the optical crystal properties (semitransparency, specular reflecting surfaces) and their effect on the heat transfer is stresses. Treatment of the unknown phase boundary fluid/crystal as well as problems related to the assessment of the quality of the grown crystals (composition, thermal stresses, point defects, disclocations etc.) and their coupling to the heat transfer/fluid flow problems is considered. Differences between the crystal growth simulation codes intended for the research and for the industrial applications are indicated. The problems of the code verification and validation are discussed; a brief review of the experimental techniques for the study of heat transfer and flow structu...

Zhmakin, Alexander I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Superconductivity in SrNi2P2 single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, and resistivity of SrNi{sub 2}P{sub 2} single crystals are presented, illustrating the structural transition at 325 K, and bulk superconductivity at 1.4 K. The magnitude of {Tc}, fits to the heat capacity data, the small upper critical field H{sub c2} = 390 Oe, and {kappa} = 2.1 suggests a conventional fully gapped superconductor. With applied pressure we find that superconductivity persists into the so-called 'collapsed tetragonal' phase, although the transition temperature is monotonically suppressed with increasing pressure. This argues that reduced dimensionality can be a mechanism for increasing the transition temperatures of layered NiP, as well as layered FeAs and NiAs, superconductors.

Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Tuscon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Anisotropy of Laser-Induced Bulk Damage of Single Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The regularities of laser-induced damage of anisotropic materials, such as LiNbO3 and KDP dielectric single crystals, are experimentally studied. It is revealed that the shape of laser-induced damage in the dielectric crystals depends on the elastic symmetry of crystal and the propagation direction of the laser beam. When the beam propagates along the optic axis of crystals, the figures of the laser damage are six-path stars for LiNbO3 and four-path ones for KDP crystals. For the direction parallel to X and Y axes in KDP crystal, the damage has initially cross-like configuration, with further splitting of Z-oriented crack into two cracks in the process of damage evolution, leading to transformation of orthogonal-type damage to a hexagonal-type one.

Krupych, O; Smaga, I; Vlokh, R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

Fisher, E.S.

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

88

Acoustic studies of single?crystal high?temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The acoustic properties of single crystals of the high?temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 have been measured at temperatures between 0.1 and 300 K for frequencies near 103 and 109 Hz. In the GHz regime longitudinal modes have been studied for propagation directions parallel and perpendicular to the c axis. At Tc there is a discontinuity in the soundvelocities and their temperature derivatives from which the anisotropic strain dependences of Tc are obtained. In the kHz regime resonant excitation of flexural modes in thin reeds of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 crystals has permitted precise measurement of acoustic damping and dispersion. The temperature?dependent damping is characterized by at least five features associated with the relaxation of defects. At temperatures below 1 K the velocity of sound is consistent with the presence of a broad “glasslike” distribution of tunneling modes.

Brage Golding; W. H. Haemmerle; L. F. Schneemeyer

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Performance of Large grain and Single Crystal Niobium Cavities  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated and tested several single and one multi-cell cavity made from large grain niobium of four different ingots. Two cavities at a frequency of ~ 2.2 GHz were made from single crystal sheets. Large grain material was used for four single cell cavities of the HG â and OC shapes, a 7-cell cavity of the HG â shape â all resonating at 1500 MHz â and an ILC_LL single cell cavity at 1300 MHz. We began to explore also different chemical polishing baths such as a 1:1:1 and a 1:1:2 buffered solution and explored the change of cavity performance as a function of material removal. The results from these preliminary investigations are reported in this contribution.

Kneisel, Peter; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Sekutowicz, Jacek

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Inelastic neutron scattering from single crystal Zn under high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments have been performed for single crystals of Zn under pressures up to 8.8 GPa at 300 K. The phonon modes q/qmax=?=0.075 and ?=0.10 were measured in the transverse acoustic branch ?3, where q=0 corresponds with the elastic constant C44. The phonon energy showed a substantial hardening with increasing pressure. The experimental data below 6.8 GPa for ?=0.075 yield a constant Grüneisen mode ?i=-ln?i/lnV of 2.25 in good agreement with a previous calculation [H. Ledbetter, Phys. Status Solidi B 181, 81 (1994)]. Above 6.8 GPa, there is a very rapid increase of ?i which is indicative of the presence of a giant Kohn anomaly. This rapid divergence at high pressure indicates that a phonon softening may occur at pressures higher than 8.8 GPa caused by the collapse of the giant Kohn anomaly via an electronic topological transition (ETT). In an earlier Mössbauer Zn study at 4 K [W. Potzel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1139 (1994)], a drastic drop of the Lamb-Mössbauer factor was observed at 6.6 GPa, which was interpreted as being due to phonon softening, indicating this ETT had occurred. This paper also compares the compressibility data for single crystal Zn and Zn powder using neutron scattering. The results were found to be similar to an earlier x-ray Zn powder experiment [O. Schulte et al., High Pressure Res. 6, 169 (1991)]. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

J. G. Morgan; R. B. Von Dreele; P. Wochner; S. M. Shapiro

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Ductility and chemical reactions at the interface between nickel and magnesium oxide single crystals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An investigation was conducted on the interaction between nickel metal and single crystals of magnesium oxide. The nickel was cleaned with purified hydrogen gas at… (more)

Hasselman, Didericus Petrus Hermannus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid single crystals Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Chemistry single crystal X-ray diffraction. Consequently, the crystal structure... and methanol, followed by slow evaporation at room temperature ... Source: de Gispert, Adri...

93

Apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

1986-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

94

SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION  

SciTech Connect

Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a wide range of industrial processes. Appropriate techniques and instrumentation are needed depending on the temperature measurement requirements in different industrial processes and working environments. Harsh environments are common in many industrial applications. These harsh environments may involve extreme physical conditions, such as high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive agents, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. Due to these severe environmental conditions, conventional temperature sensors are often difficult to apply. This situation has opened a new but challenging opportunity for the sensor society to provide robust, high-performance, and cost-effective temperature sensors capable of operating in those harsh environments. The focus of this research program has been to develop a temperature measurement system for temperature measurements in the primary and secondary stages of slagging gasifiers. For this application the temperature measurement system must be able to withstand the extremely harsh environment posed by the high temperatures and corrosive agents present in these systems. Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperature for the coal gasification process is important to realize the full economic potential of these gasification systems. Long life and stability of operation in the high temperature environment is essential for the temperature measurement system to ensure the continuous running of the coal gasification system over the long term. In this high temperature and chemically corrosive environment, rather limited high temperature measurement techniques such as high temperature thermocouples and optical/acoustic pyrometers are available, each with their own limitations. In this research program, five different temperature sensing schemes based on the single crystal sapphire material were thoroughly investigated to determine an optimal approach for on-line, real-time, reliable, long-term monitoring of temperatures inside the coal gasification environment. Among these were a sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor; an intensity-measurement based polarimetric sapphire sensor and a broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sapphire sensor. Based on the current evaluation and analysis of the experimental results, the broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sensor system was chosen for further prototype instrumentation development because of it's superior performance compared to the other systems. This approach is based on the self-calibrating measurement of the optical path length differences in a single-crystal sapphire disk, which is a function of both the temperature dependent birefringence and the temperature dependent dimensional changes.

A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

95

SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION  

SciTech Connect

Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a wide range of industrial processes. Appropriate techniques and instrumentation are needed depending on the temperature measurement requirements in different industrial processes and working environments. Harsh environments are common in many industrial applications. These harsh environments may involve extreme physical conditions, such as high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive agents, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. Due to these severe environmental conditions, conventional temperature sensors are often difficult to apply. This situation has opened a new but challenging opportunity for the sensor society to provide robust, high-performance, and cost-effective temperature sensors capable of operating in those harsh environments. The focus of this research program has been to develop a temperature measurement system for temperature measurements in the primary and secondary stages of slagging gasifiers. For this application the temperature measurement system must be able to withstand the extremely harsh environment posed by the high temperatures and corrosive agents present in these systems. Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperature for the coal gasification process is important to realize the full economic potential of these gasification systems. Long life and stability of operation in the high temperature environment is essential for the temperature measurement system to ensure the continuous running of the coal gasification system over the long term. In this high temperature and chemically corrosive environment, rather limited high temperature measurement techniques such as high temperature thermocouples and optical/acoustic pyrometers are available, each with their own limitations. In this research program, five different temperature sensing schemes based on the single crystal sapphire material were thoroughly investigated to determine an optimal approach for on-line, real-time, reliable, long-term monitoring of temperatures inside the coal gasification environment. Among these were a sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor; an intensity-measurement based polarimetric sapphire sensor and a broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sapphire sensor. Based on the current evaluation and analysis of the experimental results, the BPDI sensor system was chosen for further prototype instrumentation development because of it's superior performance compared to the other systems. This approach is based on the self-calibrating measurement of the optical path length differences in a single-crystal sapphire disk, which is a function of both the temperature dependent birefringence and the temperature dependent dimensional changes.

A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

2002-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

Microhardness of Czochralski-grown single crystals of VB{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of congruent melting hexagonal VB{sub 2} were grown used a triarc furnace applying the Czochralski technique. Orientation dependent microhardness measurements on a single crystal reveal quasi similar hardness in the crystallographic directions <00.1> and <10.0>, whereas the <10.1> shows slightly lower values.

Bulfon, C.; Sassik, H. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Wien (Austria)] [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Wien (Austria); Leithe-Jasper, A.; Rogl, P. [Universitaet Wien (Austria)] [Universitaet Wien (Austria)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

Boyer, Edmond

98

Growth and electrochromic properties of single-crystal V2O5 nanorod arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growth and electrochromic properties of single-crystal V2O5 nanorod arrays Katsunori Takahashi reports a study on the template-based growth and electrochromic properties of single-crystal vanadium demonstrated significantly enhanced electrochromic properties; both the larger change of transmittance

Cao, Guozhong

99

Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals X June 2006 Editor: P. Deines Abstract Oxygen diffusion in natural and synthetic single-crystal titanite was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions. For the dry experiments, pre-polished titanite

Watson, E. Bruce

100

Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout  

SciTech Connect

Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (

Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U. [Hasylab, Deutsches Elektronen Synchroton, Hamburg (Germany); Morse, J.; Salome, M. [Instrumentation Services and Development Division, European Synchroton Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Comparative studies of mercury cadmium telluride single crystal and epitaxial  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have carried out a systematic study of mercurycadmium telluride (MCT) bulk single crystal and epilayers using electrolyte electroreflectance (EER). Our results and others discussed here suggest that much of the unusual properties of this material are due to structural microdomains. Under mechanical stresses or chemical attack the walls of these domains tend to move via the generation and propagation of defects associated with cationic diffusion. A typical consequence is the creation of n?type zones within a p?type matrix. We have calibrated our etch rate so as to be able to apply EER to the study of the profiles of epilayers with a depth resolution of 200 Å. The technique was applied to more than 100 samples of all origins. The results are summarized here in qualitative terms such as typical profile features as well as in quantitative terms such as compositional variations and defect densities. EER results are integrated within the conceptual framework introduced above and compared to SIMS and microprobe results.

Paul M. Raccah; U. Lee

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL TURBINE BLADES  

SciTech Connect

Turbine blades in coal derived syngas systems are subject to oxidation and corrosion due to high steam temperature and pressure. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are developed to address these problems. The emphasis is on prime-reliant design and a better coating architecture, having high temperature and corrosion resistance properties for turbine blades. In Phase I, UES Inc. proposed to develop, characterize and optimize a prime reliant TBC system, having smooth and defect-free NiCoCrAlY bond layer and a defect free oxide sublayer, using a filtered arc technology. Phase I work demonstrated the deposition of highly dense, smooth and defect free NiCoCrAlY bond coat on a single crystal CMSX-4 substrate and the deposition of alpha-alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sublayer on top of the bond coat. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation test and pre- and post-characterization of these layers, in Phase I work, (with and without top TBC layer of commercial EB PVD YSZ) revealed significant performance enhancement.

Amarendra K. Rai

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

103

Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride  

SciTech Connect

For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5 pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.

David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Diffusion in single crystals of melilite: I. Oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion profiles of {sup 18}O tracer in single crystals of gehlenite and akermanite following annealing at 1,000{degree}-1,300{degree}C have been determined by a depth-profiling technique using secondary ion mass spectrometry. From the {sup 18}O depth profiling the lattice diffusion coefficients for oxygen along the crystallographic axes in gehlenite and akermanite, D{sup 1}{sub geh}//c, D{sup 1}{sub ak}//{alpha} and D{sup 1}{sub ak}//c, respectively, are given by three different equations. Present results are two to four orders of magnitude lower than those previously reported for melilite solid solutions. These high diffusion rates in melilite solid solutions and the heterogeneous distribution of O isotopes in the Allende Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) have been examined considering the contribution of fast diffusion along dislocations and possible changes in diffusion rate with gehlenite-akermanite ratios in melilite. For this purpose, diffusion coefficients of O along dislocations were calculated by analyzing tailing of the O-diffusion profiles. From the effective diffusion rate in melilite solid solution obtained by lattice and dislocation diffusion rates, it is unlikely that the O-isotope differences in the Allende CAI minerals are the result of diffusion processes during a postcrystallization thermal event.

Yurimoto, Hisayoshi (Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Morioka, Masana (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Nagasawa, Hiroshi (Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals  

SciTech Connect

An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

106

Floating-zone growth and characterization of single crystals of cobalt orthosilicate, Co2SiO4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Good quality single crystals of high purity cobalt silicate, Co2SiO4, were successfully grown by the floating-zone method in air at atmospheric pressure along the three principle orientations. The grown crystals were 30–60 mm in length and 6–10 mm in diameter. Well developed facets were found on all crystals grown. Impurity levels and the degree of a desired excess of silicon in grown crystals were determined by using the ICP-AES technique. In addition, the presence of a small amount of inclusions in the matrix of grown crystals due to a small excess of silica was confirmed by TEM. Dislocation densities were determined upon etching; the observed densities were on the order of 105–106 cm?2.

Q. Tang; R. Dieckmann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Increasing 13C CP-MAS NMR Resolution Using Single Crystals: Applicatio...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the resolution in solid state NMR, we investigated the use of single crystals in CP-MAS. Model compounds used were octaethyl porphyrins (NiOEP, H 2 OEP, ZnOEP). Over 200%...

108

Collecting and Processing Neutron Fibre Diffraction Data from a Single-Crystal Diffractometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An optimum strategy for collecting fibre diffraction data from a neutron single-crystal diffractometer is proposed. Methods for processing data collected using this strategy are described and illustrated by studies on cellulose.

Langan, P.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-zr single crystals Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 4 5 > >> 1 X-Ray Production Using Stacked Pyroelectric Crystals Andrew Kovanen, Yaron Danon, Don Gillich Summary: approximately double that of a single crystal.1 This research...

110

Observation of Inhomogeneous Spatial Conductivity on YBCO Single Crystal by LT-UHV-STM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated that the current mode STM measurement can be used to reveal the inhomogeneous spatial conductivity of a flat surface. Utilizing this mode on an atomically flat YBCO single crystal with a specif...

R. Itti; Wu Ting; H. Sakai; Y. Yamada; Y. Ishimaru…

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Modelling of high-temperature mechanical behaviour of a single crystal superalloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Introduction The development of single crystal...materials for modern gas turbines has been one of...necessary to develop strategies to extrapolate...particular, the development of an appropriate...creep and R is the gas constant. The...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Photoionization spectra of silver dimers adsorbed on the surface of a ZnS single crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use the photostimulated luminescence flash method to measure photoionization spectra of Ag2 clusters adsorbed on the surface of a ZnS single crystal. Adsorbed dimers of silver are prepared by treatment of the ...

O. V. Ovchinnikov; D. A. Minakov; M. S. Smirnov…

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Coal Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Coal Gasifiers Description Accurate temperature measurement inside a coal gasifier is essential for safe, efficient, and cost-effective operation. However, current sensors are prone to inaccurate readings and premature failure due to harsh operating conditions like high temperature (1,200-1,600 °C), high pressure (up to 500 pounds per square inch gauge [psig]),

114

Single crystal growth and characterization of ilmenite, FeTiO?, for electronic applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SINGLE CRYSTAL GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ILMENITE, FeTi03, FOR ELECTRONIC APPUCATIONS A Thesis by BRIAN LEONARD GRIES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering SINGLE CRYSTAL GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ILMENITE, FeT)Oq, FOR ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS A Thesis by BRIAN LEONARD GRIES Approved as to style and content by...

Gries, Brian Leonard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Modeling the elastic and plastic response of single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODELING THE ELASTIC AND PLASTIC RESPONSE OF SINGLE CRYSTALS AND POLYCRYSTALLINE AGGREGATES A Thesis by PARAG VILAS PATWARDHAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MODELING THE ELASTIC AND PLASTIC RESPONSE OF SINGLE CRYSTALS AND POLYCRYSTALLINE AGGREGATES A Thesis by PARAG VILAS...

Patwardhan, Parag Vilas

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

116

Testing and Analysis for Lifetime Prediction of Crystalline Silicon PV Modules Undergoing Degradation by System Voltage Stress: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Acceleration factors are calculated for crystalline silicon PV modules under system voltage stress by comparing the module power during degradation outdoors to that in accelerated testing at three temperatures and 85% relative humidity. A lognormal analysis is applied to the accelerated lifetime test data considering failure at 80% of the initial module power. Activation energy of 0.73 eV for the rate of failure is determined, and the probability of module failure at an arbitrary temperature is predicted. To obtain statistical data for multiple modules over the course of degradation in-situ of the test chamber, dark I-V measurements are obtained and transformed using superposition, which is found well suited for rapid and quantitative evaluation of potential-induced degradation. It is determined that shunt resistance measurements alone do not represent the extent of power degradation. This is explained with a two-diode model analysis that shows an increasing second diode recombination current and ideality factor as the degradation in module power progresses. Failure modes of the modules stressed outdoors are examined and compared to those stressed in accelerated tests.

Hacke, P.; Smith, R.; Terwiliger, K.; Glick, S.; Jordan, D.; Johnston, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Novel vortex dynamics in untwinned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Magnetotransport measurements on a clean, untwinned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} single crystal show that the vortex dynamics at temperatures just below the vortex lattice melting transition are highly dependent on the type of modulation of the probing current. While in the case of DC current the flux flow is disordered, the {open_quotes}shaking{close_quotes} of the vortex lattice by a square-wave current leads to a more uniform vortex motion. A small asymmetry ({approximately}10%) in the durations of the positive and negative parts of the square-wave period induces periodical oscillations of the voltage response amplitude. The period of oscillations ({approximately}100 s) is the same order of magnitude as the time needed for vortices to cross the sample (transit time). The authors relate the observed voltage oscillations to a periodically ordered vortex motion.

Gordeev, S.N.; Oussena, M.; Pinfold, S.; Langan, R.M. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)] [and others

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Process and apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

119

High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While current optical communication networks efficiently carry and process huge amounts of digital information over large and medium distances, silicon photonics technology has the...

Brimont, A; Thomson, D J; Sanchis, P; Herrera, J; Gardes, F Y; Fedeli, J M; Reed, G T; Martí, J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Low cost, single crystal-like substrates for practical, high efficiency solar cells  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that high efficiency (20%) solar cells can be routinely fabricated using single crystal photovoltaic (PV) materials with low defect densities. Polycrystalline materials with small grain sizes and no crystallographic texture typically result in reduced efficiences. This has been ascribed primarily to the presence of grain boundaries and their effect on recombination processes. Furthermore, lack of crystallographic texture can result in a large variation in dopant concentrations which critically control the electronic properties of the material. Hence in order to reproducibly fabricate high efficiency solar cells a method which results in near single crystal material is desirable. Bulk single crystal growth of PV materials is cumbersome, expensive and difficult to scale up. We present here a possible route to achieve this if epitaxial growth of photovoltaic materials on rolling-assisted-biaxially textured-substrates (RABiTS) can be achieved. The RABiTS process uses well-established, industrially scaleable, thermomechanical processing to produce a biaxially textured or single-crystal-like metal substrate with large grains (50-100 {mu}m). This is followed by epitaxial growth of suitable buffer layers to yield chemically and structurally compatible surfaces for epitaxial growth of device materials. Using the RABiTS process it should be possible to economically fabricate single-crystal-like substrates of desired sizes. Epitaxial growth of photovoltaic devices on such substrates presents a possible route to obtaining low-cost, high performance solar cells.

Goyal, A.; Specht, E.D.; List, F.A. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Mechanical Dissipation in Silicon Flexures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermo-mechanical properties of silicon make it of significant interest as a possible material for mirror substrates and suspension elements for future long-baseline gravitational wave detectors. The mechanical dissipation in 92um thick single-crystal silicon cantilevers has been observed over the temperature range 85 K to 300 K, with dissipation approaching levels down to phi = 4.4E-7.

S. Reid; G. Cagnoli; D. R. M. Crooks; J. Hough; P. Murray; S. Rowan; M. M. Fejer; R. Route; S. Zappe

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

122

High Volume Manufacturing of Silicon-Film Solar Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report, 26 February 2003 - 30 September 2003  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract was to continue to improve AstroPower's technology for manufacturing Silicon-Film* wafers, solar cells, and modules to reduce costs, and increase production yield, throughput, and capacity. As part of the effort, new technology such as the continuous back metallization screen-printing system and the laser scribing system were developed and implemented. Existing processes, such as the silicon nitride antireflection coating system and the fire-through process were optimized. Improvements were made to the statistical process control (SPC) systems of the major manufacturing processes: feedstock preparation, wafer growth, surface etch, diffusion, and the antireflection coating process. These process improvements and improved process control have led to an increase of 5% relative power, and nearly 15% relative improvement in mechanical and visual yield.

Rand, J. A.; Culik, J. S.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Bulk Quantities of Single-Crystal Silicon Micro-/Nanoribbons Generated from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as oxides (ZnO, SnO2, Ga2O3, Fe2O3, In2O3, CdO, PbO2, etc.),3 sulfides (CdS, ZnS),4 nitride (GaN),5, crystallinity, and doping levels. These methods can form membranes, tubes, and ribbons, with thicknesses

Rogers, John A.

124

Stretchable form of single crystal silicon for high performance electronics on rubber substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention may be adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Sun, Yugang (Naperville, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Stretchable form of single crystal silicon for high performance electronics on rubber substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention may be adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

University of Illinois (Urbana, IL)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

126

Polymorphic single crystal {r_reversible} single crystal transition in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

Polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III has been determined. It is established that the crystal growth at II {r_reversible} III polymorphic transitions is accompanied by the formation and growth of daughter-modification nuclei in the matrix crystal.

Asadov, Yu. G., E-mail: yusifasadov@rambler.ru; Nasirov, E. V. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Growth and characterization of isotopically enriched {sup 70}Ge and {sup 74}Ge single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Isotopically enriched {sup 70}Ge and {sup 74}Ge single crystals were successfully gown by a newly developed vertical Bridgman method. The system allows us to reliably grow high purity Ge single crystals of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} volume. To our knowledge, we have grown the first {sup 70}Ge single crystal. The electrically active chemical impurity concentration for both crystals was found to be {approximately}2 {times} cm{sup {minus}3} which is two order of magnitude better that of {sup 74}Ge crystals previously grown by two different groups. Isotopic enrichment of the {sup 70}Ge and the {sup 74}Ge crystals is 96.3% and 96.8%, respectively. The residual chemical impurities present in both crystals were identified as phosphorus, copper, aluminum, and indium. A wide variety of experiments which take advantage of the isotopic purity of our crystals are discussed.

Itoh, K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Growth and characterization of isotopically enriched [sup 70]Ge and [sup 74]Ge single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Isotopically enriched [sup 70]Ge and [sup 74]Ge single crystals were successfully gown by a newly developed vertical Bridgman method. The system allows us to reliably grow high purity Ge single crystals of approximately 1 cm[sup 3] volume. To our knowledge, we have grown the first [sup 70]Ge single crystal. The electrically active chemical impurity concentration for both crystals was found to be [approximately]2 [times] cm[sup [minus]3] which is two order of magnitude better that of [sup 74]Ge crystals previously grown by two different groups. Isotopic enrichment of the [sup 70]Ge and the [sup 74]Ge crystals is 96.3% and 96.8%, respectively. The residual chemical impurities present in both crystals were identified as phosphorus, copper, aluminum, and indium. A wide variety of experiments which take advantage of the isotopic purity of our crystals are discussed.

Itoh, K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Silicon depletion-type microdisk electro-optic modulators using selectively integrated Schottky diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diodes Nick K. Hon, Linjie Zhou, and Andrew W. Poon Photonic Device Laboratory, Department of Electronic the merit of less parasitic resistance can be made by depositing a metal film on the silicon surface

Poon, Andrew Wing On

130

15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

Sopori, B. L.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical ({omega}) axis of nearly 360{sup o} and out of plane tilts ({phi} and {nu}) of from -3.4{sup o} to 4.4{sup o} and from -2.8{sup o} to 3.5{sup o}, respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing {omega} rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

Bruce, Douglas R [ORNL; Gaulin, Bruce D. [McMaster University; Granroth, Garrett E [ORNL; Roberts II, Charles K [ORNL; Sherline, Todd E [ORNL; Solomon, Landon M [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Modelling of high-temperature mechanical behaviour of a single crystal superalloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...blade materials for modern gas turbines has been one of the most...of the squares of the residuals (SSR) between calculated...Here R again is the gas constant and A1, B1 and...on Single Crystals for Turbine Blades. Munich: MTU...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Martensitic transformation in NiMnGa single crystals: Numerical simulation and experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is based on a detailed description of the stored energy. Furthermore, the energy dissipation due to phase microstructures in single crystals and the related energy dissipation can be predicted to some extent for SMAs. Let us name, without any ambitions for completeness, the models of Artemev et al. (2000), Falk

Arndt, Marcel

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate single crystals Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: precipitate Total crystals Only crystalb 1 30% MPD Na Acetate pH 4.6 0.02 M CaCl2 5.06 197 540 17 1 2 0.4 M K... a single crystal from 755 samples. Note that had the...

135

Single-crystal x-ray diffraction of brucite to 14 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-crystal brucite, Mg(OH)2, was studied to 14 GPa in a quasi-hydrostatic pressure medium using a diamond anvil cell and energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The parameters of a third-order Birch-...

Thomas S. Duffy; Jinfu Shu; Ho-kwang Mao…

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

ZnO Nanostructures Single-Crystal Hexagonal Disks and Rings of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ZnO Nanostructures Single-Crystal Hexagonal Disks and Rings of ZnO: Low-Temperature, Large of Chemistry University of New Orleans New Orleans, LA 70148 (USA) Fax: (+1)504-280-6860 E-mail: fli@uno.edu Dr to ellipsoids to disks, and even much more complex shapes, by adjusting experimental parameters,[33] we can

Wang, Zhong L.

137

Transport and superconducting properties of RNi2B2C (R=Y, Lu) single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The in-plane resistivity, in-plane absolute thermopower, and upper critical held measurements are reported for single-crystal samples of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C superconductors. The in-plane resistivity shows metallic behavior and varies approximately...

Rathnayaka, KDD; Bhatnagar, AK; Parasiris, A.; Naugle, Donald G.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Reduction of the trapping of positrons in dislocated single crystals of iron when charged with hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The positron annihilation measurement was carried out with the pure iron single crystals deformed in various ways before and after hydrogen permeation. The positron trapping intensity was reduced more in the screw dislocation than in the edge dislocation by hydrogen charging. The trap occupancy by hydrogen was very close to the fraction of the reduction in positron trapping intensity.

Park, Y.K.; Waber, J.T.; Snead, C.L. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thermodynamics of strained vanadium dioxide single crystals Yijia Gu,1,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics of strained vanadium dioxide single crystals Yijia Gu,1,a Jinbo Cao,2 Junqiao Wu,2 condition plays an important role. To investigate the strain contribution, a phenomenological thermodynamic films. In order to control and manipulate the MIT, it is necessary to understand the thermodynamics

Wu, Junqiao

140

Molecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single Abstract The oxidation of aluminum single crystals is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with dynamic charge transfer between atoms. The simulations are performed on three aluminum low-index surfaces

Southern California, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Angle-resolved photoemission study of the (100) surface of a ZrN0.93 single crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The (100) surface of a ZrN0.93 single crystal has been studied using angle-resolved photoemission and synchrotron radiation. A mapping of the bulk-band structure is presented and compared with an augmented-plane-wave band structure, calculated for stoichiometric composition. The experimentally determined bands are found to be located deeper below the Fermi energy than the calculated bands but the dispersions agree fairly well. A surface state is observed at 3.8 eV binding energy, for photon energies below 24 eV, and a structure interpreted as arising from vacancy induced states is observed at a binding energy of 2.1 eV for photon energies above 30 eV. The latter structure is found to exhibit a strong intensity modulation with photon energy. This intensity modulation is compared with the resonance enhancement observed in the emission from states just below the Fermi energy above the Zr 4p absorption threshold.

J. Lindström; L. I. Johansson; A. Callens; D. S. L. Law; A. N. Christensen

1987-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996  

SciTech Connect

Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)] [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Influence of water vapor pressure on the induction period during Li2SO4H2O single crystals dehydration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, lithium sulfate monohydrate 1. Introduction The decomposition reactions of solids, or reactions between of single crystals for the thermal dehydration of magnesium oxalate dihydrate [9] and zinc acetate dihydrate of the nucleation process, we have chosen the reaction of dehydration of lithium sulfate monohydrate single crystals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 January 1990--30 June 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research to improve the understanding of amorphous silicon alloys and other relevant non-semiconductor materials for use in high-efficiency, large-area multijunction modules. The research produced an average subcell initial efficiency of 8.8% over a 1-ft{sup 2} area using same-band-gap, dual-junction cells deposited over a ZnO/AlSi back reflector. An initial efficiency of 9.6% was achieved using a ZnO/Ag back reflector over smaller substrates. A sputtering machine will be built to deposit a ZnO/Ag back reflector over a 1-ft{sup 2} area so that a higher efficiency can also be obtained on larger substrates. Calculations have been performed to optimize the grid pattern, bus bars, and cell interconnects on modules. With our present state of technology, we expect a difference of about 6% between the aperture-area and active-area efficiencies of modules. Preliminary experiments show a difference of about 8%. We can now predict the performance of single-junction cells after long-term light exposure at 50{degree}C by exposing cells to short-term intense light at different temperatures. We find that single-junction cells deposited on a ZnO/Ag back reflector show the highest stabilized efficiency when the thickness of the intrinsic layers is about 2000 {angstrom}. 8 refs.

Guha, S. [United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1991--31 December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress made during Phase 1 of research and development program to obtain high-efficiency amorphous silicon alloy multijunction modules. Using a large-area deposition system, double-and triple-junction cells were made on stainless steel substrates of over 1 ft{sup 2} area with Ag and ZnO predeposited back reflector. Modules of over 1 ft{sup 2} were produced with between 9.2% and 9.9 initial aperture-area efficiencies as measured under a USSC Spire solar simulator. Efficiencies as measured under the NREL Spire solar simulator were found to be typically 15% to 18% lower. The causes for this discrepancy are now being investigated. The modules show about 15% degradation after 600 hours of one-sun illumination at 50{degrees}C. To optimize devices for higher stabilized efficiency, a new method was developed by which the performance of single-junction cells after long-term, one-sun exposure at 50{degrees}C can be predicted by exposing cells to short-term intense light at different temperatures. This method is being used to optimize the component cells of the multijunction structure to obtain the highest light-degraded efficiency.

Banerjee, A.; Chen, E.; Clough, R.; Glatfelter, T.; Guha, S.; Hammond, G.; Hopson, M.; Jackett, N.; Lycette, M.; Noch, J.; Palmer, T.; Pawlikiewicz, A.; Rosenstein, I.; Ross, R.; Wolf, D.; Xu, X.; Yang, J.; Younan, K.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Feedback-controlled resonance and temporal response modulations in silicon microring resonators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Micro-optical devices. Silicon microring resonators have been widely investigated for various layer on a 1-m-thick buried-oxide layer. The rib waveguide and the microring have a designed waveguide microring is designed with arc radius of 15 m and interaction lengths of 20 m. The intrinsic region width

Poon, Andrew Wing On

147

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 January 1992--30 June 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research on semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials to enhance the performance of multi-band-gap, multijunction panel with an area greater than 900 cm{sup 2} by 1992. Double-junction and triple-junction cells are mode on a Ag/ZnO back reflector deposited on stainless steel substrates. An a-SiGe alloy is used for the i-layer in the bottom and the middle cells; the top cell uses an amorphous silicon alloy. After the evaporation of an antireflection coating, silver grids and bus bars are put on the top surface and the panel is encapsulated in an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/Tefzel structure to make a 1-ft{sup 2} monolithic module.

Guha, S. [United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

Sopori, B. L.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Mass Production of Large-Area Integrated Thin-Film Silicon Solar-Cell Module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mass-production technology of a-Si single junction modules with stable 8% efficiency had been developed in the Shiga factory of the Kaneka Corporation. In 1999, Kaneka instituted Kaneka Solartech Corporation...

Yoshihisa Tawada; H. Yamagishi; K. Yamamoto

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical ?-glycine single crystal from lithium acetate as solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single crystals of organic nonlinear optical material, ?-glycine were grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solutions of glycine and lithium acetate. The ?-phase was confirmed by single crystal XRD and powder XRD analysis. Presence of various functional groups was identified by FTIR spectrum analysis. Thermal analysis was performed to study the thermal stability of the grown crystals. The dielectric and microhardness studies of the crystals were determined. The optical analysis shows that UV cut-off of ?-glycine is at 240 nm and it has a wide transparency window. The second harmonic generation relative efficiency of the grown crystals was measured by Kurtz and Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser and was observed to be 3.4 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate.

P.V. Dhanaraj; N.P. Rajesh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Nanophotonic production, modulation and switching of ions by silicon microcolumn arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production and use of silicon microcolumn arrays that harvest light from a laser pulse to produce ions are described. The systems of the present invention seem to behave like a quasi-periodic antenna array with ion yields that show profound dependence on the plane of laser light polarization and the angle of incidence. By providing photonic ion sources, this enables enhanced control of ion production on a micro/nano scale and direct integration with miniaturized analytical devices.

Vertes, Akos; Walker, Bennett N.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

Nanophotonic production, modulation and switching of ions by silicon microcolumn arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production and use of silicon microcolumn arrays that harvest light from a laser pulse to produce ions are described. The systems of the present invention seem to behave like a quasi-periodic antenna array with ion yields that show profound dependence on the plane of laser light polarization and the angle of incidence. By providing photonic ion sources, this enables enhanced control of ion production on a micro/nano scale and direct integration with miniaturized analytical devices.

Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Walker, Bennett N. (Washington, DC)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

153

Angle-resolved photoemission studies of single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-x  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the first angle-resolved photoemission and low-energy electron-diffraction (LEED) results obtained from clean single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-x (001) surfaces prepared by cleaving in a vacuum. The surfaces exhibit (1×1)-ordered LEED patterns, but many of the photoemission features exhibit little or no angular dependence. The most important exception is the upper spectral edge, which shows angular dispersion and a strong photon energy dependence.

N. G. Stoffel; Y. Chang; M. K. Kelly; L. Dottl; M. Onellion; P. A. Morris; W. A. Bonner; G. Margaritondo

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Single crystal growth and superconductivity of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2  

SciTech Connect

We report the single crystal growth of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (0 <= x <= 0.082) from Sn flux. The temperature-composition phase diagram is mapped out based on the magnetic susceptibility and electrical transport measurements. Phase diagram of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2 is qualitatively different from those of Sr and Ba, it could be due to both the charge doping and structural tuning effects associated with Co substitution.

Hu, Rongwei; Ran, Sheng; Budko, Serguei; Straszheim, Warren E.; Canfield, Paul C.

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oscillatory Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance, and Magnetic Susceptibility of a Graphite Single Crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance, and magnetic susceptibility of a graphite single crystal have been measured at liquid helium temperatures and in magnetic fields up to 25 kilogauss. All three phenomena are periodic functions of reciprocal field and exhibit the same period for like orientations of the crystal axes with respect to the magnetic field. The phases however are different. Where possible, experiment and theory have been compared.

Ted G. Berlincourt and M. C. Steele

1955-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} single crystals: Physical properties and mechanical behavior  

SciTech Connect

The materials processing, physical properties and mechanical behavior of an ultra-high temperature structural silicide, Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, have been studied. High purity single crystals of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} have been synthesized by both optical floating zone and Czochralski methods. The thermal and elastic properties of the MO{sub 5}Si{sub 3} single crystals were experimentally measured. Results show that Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} has significant thermal expansion anisotropy along the a and c directions with {alpha}{sub c}/{alpha}{sub a} = 2.2. Single crystal elastic moduli of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} indicate that it has less elastic anisotropy and lower shear moduli than transition metal disilicides. Tensile stresses of up to 1.8 GPa can develop at grain boundaries after cooling from the melting point due to the thermal expansion mismatch in Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, causing grain boundary cracking during processing of polycrystals. Room temperature Vickers indentation tests on (100) and (001) planes have been performed with different indenter diagonal orientations. The orientation dependence of hardness and fracture toughness of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} single crystals have been obtained. The corresponding deformation and fracture modes have been revealed by microscopy studies. A comparison of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with other high temperature structural silicides, e.g., C11{sub b} and C40 transition metal disilicides, is discussed.

Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Peralta, P.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thermographic analyses of the growth of Cd1-xZnxTe single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Bulk Cd1-xZnxTe (0single crystals for gamma-ray detectors are grown mainly from near-stoichiometric melts. We discuss the influence of the thermal pre-history of the melts (superheating, thermo-cycling, and cooling rate) on various physical properties based on our thermographic analyses, electrical conductivity and viscosity measurements. Increasing the Zn content causes non-monotonic dependencies in the quality of the crystals structure.

Kopach, O.V.; Bolotnikov, A.; Shcherbak, Larysa P.; Fochuk, Petro M.; and James, Ralph B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Coherence length of the KY(WO4)2 single crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coherence scattering lengths of a KY(WO4)2 single crystal in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the growth directions were estimated from the broadening of X-ray reflections. Qualitative analysis of the shape of the diffracted peaks and the intensity distribution in reciprocal space maps indicated the presence of dislocations and volume defects, which introduced a negative dilation into the crystal host.

Shalimov, A.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Single crystal growth and characterization of nearly stoichiometric LiVO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

LiVO{sub 2} undergoes an imperfectly understood orbital ordering transition near 500 K resulting in a loss of magnetic moment below the transition. Studies of the transition have been hampered by a lack of high-quality stoichiometric single crystals. Here we report the growth and basic characterization of large, nearly stoichiometric LiVO{sub 2} single crystals. The crystals were characterized by magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, differential scanning calorimetry, and specific heat measurements over a temperature range from 2 to 650 K. A first-order phase transition with large hysteresis near T{sub t}{approx}500 K was observed in all measurements. An anisotropy of the order of 100 was observed in the in-plane versus out-of-plane resistivity, and the inferred semiconducting energy gap was 0.18 eV for Tsingle crystals at temperatures below and above T{sub t}. Superlattice reflections were observed below T{sub t} and disappeared upon heating above the phase transition temperature. Upon cooling below T{sub t}, the supperlattice spots reappeared. Bright field electron micrographs indicate that the crystals develop a roughly hexagonal network of cracks.

Tian, W.; Chisholm, M.F.; Khalifah, P.G.; Jin, R.; Sales, B.C.; Nagler, S.E.; Mandrus, D

2004-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module  

SciTech Connect

The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the R{phi} module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case {Delta}ENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 {Omega}/cm.

Kipnis, I.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-in2se3 single crystals Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 4 5 > >> 1 X-Ray Production Using Stacked Pyroelectric Crystals Andrew Kovanen, Yaron Danon, Don Gillich Summary: approximately double that of a single crystal.1 This research...

162

Electrical and mechanical studies of high purity aluminum single crystals at 4.2 K under cyclic strain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of orientation on strain hardening and resistivity degradation in high purity aluminum single crystals resulting from uniaxial cyclic strain at 4.2 K. Aluminum crystals with various...

Zou, Hong

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

163

Light-induced degradation at the silicon/silicon dioxide interface  

SciTech Connect

Single-crystal silicon point-contact solar cells show a degradation in their efficiency after being exposed to concentrated sunlight. This change has been linked to an increase in the surface recombination velocity. A similar effect is produced by carrier injection under forward bias. The annealing kinetics, the role of ultraviolet light, and possible causes for the creation of surface states are discussed.

Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

1988-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Silicon Cell Basics Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:19pm Addthis Silicon-used to make some the earliest photovoltaic (PV) devices-is still the most popular material for solar cells. Silicon is also the second-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen). However, to be useful as a semiconductor material in solar cells, silicon must be refined to a purity of 99.9999%. In single-crystal silicon, the molecular structure-which is the arrangement of atoms in the material-is uniform because the entire structure is grown from the same crystal. This uniformity is ideal for transferring electrons efficiently through the material. To make an effective PV cell, however, silicon has to be "doped" with other elements to make n-type and p-type layers.

165

Studying the semiconductor-metal phase transition in nanoscale vanadium dioxide, doped with ions of 3d-elements on a silicon surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanoscale vanadium dioxide doped with chromium and iron is obtained via molecular layering method on the surface of a single-crystal silicon. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the samples is dete...

D. V. Nazarov; O. M. Osmolowskaya…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors  

SciTech Connect

Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Beck, P [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville; Rowe, E [Fisk University, Nashville; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals ((SC)-C-4): Preparation and characterization  

SciTech Connect

A set of six spherically curved Cu single crystals referred to as Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals (S{sup 4}Cs) has been prepared in such a way that their exposed surfaces collectively span all possible crystallographic surface orientations that can be cleaved from the face centered cubic Cu lattice. The method for preparing these S{sup 4}Cs and for finding the high symmetry pole point are described. Optical profilometry has been used to determine the true shapes of the S{sup 4}Cs and show that over the majority of the surface, the shape is extremely close to that of a perfect sphere. The local orientations of the surfaces lie within ±1{degree} of the orientation expected on the basis of the spherical shape; their orientation is as good as that of many commercially prepared single crystals. STM imaging has been used to characterize the atomic level structure of the Cu(111)±11{degree}-S{sup 4}C. This has shown that the average step densities and the average step orientations match those expected based on the spherical shape. In other words, although there is some distribution of step-step spacing and step orientations, there is no evidence of large scale reconstruction or faceting. The Cu S{sup 4}Cs have local structures based on the ideal termination of the face centered cubic Cu lattice in the direction of termination. The set of Cu S{sup 4}Cs will serve as the basis for high throughput investigations of structure sensitive surface chemistry on Cu.

de Alwis, A.; Holsclaw, B.; Pushkarev, V. V.; Reinicker, A.; Lawton, T. J.; Blecher, M. E.; Sykes, E. C. H.; Gellman, A. J.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A Computational Approach to Homogenizing Nickel-Based Single Crystal Alloys  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computational Approach to Homogenizing Nickel-Based Computational Approach to Homogenizing Nickel-Based Single Crystal Alloys Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2013 Significance * Provides significantly diminished processing costs, including reduced energy consumption and throughput times, and increased availability of capital equipment such as furnaces, due to shorter heat treatments * Generates superior Ni-based superalloys with improved performance in downstream applications * Provides extreme flexibility, allowing for modification to meet the differing constraints of individual production facilities and the level of homogenization desired

169

Electrical properties of PbTe single crystals with excess tellurium  

SciTech Connect

The effects of excess (up to 0.1 at %) Te atoms and heat treatment at 473 and 573 K for 120 h on the conductivity {sigma}, thermopower {alpha}, and Hall coefficient R of PbTe single crystals are studied. It is shown that excess Te atoms and annealing strongly affect the values and character of the temperature dependences of these parameters and the signs of {alpha} and R at low temperatures, which is caused by the acceptor effect of these atoms and the formation of antisite defects due to localization of Te in vacancies of the lead sublattice upon annealing.

Bagiyeva, G. Z., E-mail: bagieva-gjulandam@rambler.ru; Mustafayev, N. B.; Abdinova, G. Dj.; Abdinov, D. Sh. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Effect of annealing on the electrical properties of thallium-doped PbTe single crystals  

SciTech Connect

It is found that electrical parameters of PbTe single crystals, the character of the dependences of these parameters on temperature and Tl impurity concentration, and the conductivity type (signs of {alpha} and R) are governed to a great extent by the temperature of preliminary annealing. The cause of this effect is that the concentration of doubly charged vacancies in the tellurium sublattice increases with an increase in the annealing temperature, as a result of which the formation of electrically neutral or singly charged complexes of impurity-vacancy type becomes more likely.

Ahmedova, G. A., E-mail: gulgunahmed@yahoo.com; Abdinova, G. J.; Abdinov, J. Sh. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Growth, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of CuFeTe{sub 2} Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

CuFeTe{sub 2} single crystals were grown and the temperature dependence of their magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range 1.8-400 K was investigated. It is found that the magnetic susceptibility shows anomalies at temperatures T{sub s} = 65 and T{sub N} = 125 K. At T > 125 K, the crystal is in the paramagnetic state controlled by Fe{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions with an effective magnetic moment of 1.44 {mu}B.

Dzhabbarov, A.I.; Orudzhev, S.K.; Guseinov, G.G.; Gakhramanov, N.F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, pr. Dzhavida 33, Baku, 370143 (Azerbaijan)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The Resonance Scattering Phenomenon of Fast Negatively Charged Particles in a Single Crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy spectrum of the extended attractive potential of a crystallographic row for negatively charged particles has quasi-bound states. It follows that a negatively charged particle with small transversal momentum component ($p_{\\bot} R <<1$) may undergo resonance scattering. Thus the resonance scattering phenomenon can be observed in a single crystal, when fast electrons move with a small glancing angle ($\\theta_0 << 1/pR$) to a crystallographic axis. The calculated results for the electrons and angular widths of resonance peaks are consistent with experimental data.

Kovalev, Gennady V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Electronic band structure imaging of three layer twisted graphene on single crystal Cu(111)  

SciTech Connect

Few layer graphene (FLG) is grown on single crystal Cu(111) by Chemical Vapor Deposition, and the electronic valence band structure is imaged by Angle-Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy. It is found that graphene essentially grows polycrystalline. Three nearly ideal Dirac cones are observed along the Cu ?{sup ¯}K{sup ¯} direction in k-space, attributed to the presence of ?4° twisted three layer graphene with negligible interlayer coupling. The number of layers and the stacking order are compatible with Raman data analysis demonstrating the complementarity of the two techniques for a more accurate characterization of FLG.

Marquez Velasco, J. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece) [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Kelaidis, N.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Tsoutsou, D.; Tsipas, P.; Speliotis, Th.; Pilatos, G.; Likodimos, V.; Falaras, P.; Dimoulas, A., E-mail: dimoulas@ims.demokritos.gr [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Raptis, Y. S. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

174

Magnetic field induced discontinuous spin reorientation in ErFeO{sub 3} single crystal  

SciTech Connect

The spin reorientation of ErFeO{sub 3} that spontaneously occurs at low temperature has been previously determined to be a process involving the continuous rotation of Fe{sup 3+} spins. In this work, the dynamic process of spin reorientation in ErFeO{sub 3} single crystal has been investigated by AC susceptibility measurements at various frequencies and static magnetic fields. Interestingly, two completely discontinuous steps are induced by a relatively large static magnetic field due to the variation in the magnetic anisotropy during this process. It provides deeper insights into the intriguing magnetic exchange interactions which dominate the sophisticated magnetic phase transitions in the orthoferrite systems.

Shen, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Cheng, Zhenxiang, E-mail: cheng@uow.edu.au; Hong, Fang; Wang, Xiaolin [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Xu, Jiayue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Yuan, Shujuan; Cao, Shixun [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)] [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

175

A new subunit of thermoelectric generator using single crystal-like elements of laminated type  

SciTech Connect

A compact subunit of thermoelectric generator is designed using single crystal-like 288 elements of (Bi,Sb){sub 2} (Te,Se){sub 3} compounds of laminated type. It is expected that the maximum power amounts to 17.3 (W) with 11.1 (A) and 1.56 (V) at the temperature difference of 50 {degree}C. The elements are prepared by the Bridgman method using a new type of crucible. Thermoelectric properties of these elements are measured using a simple Peltier technique. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Tanji, Y. [R& D Division, Tokin Corporation, Sendai, 982 (Japan); Nakagawa, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, 982 (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980 (Japan); Ido, H.; Kuboki, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajyo, 985 (Japan); Kogo, M. [R& D Division, Tokin Corporation, Sendai, 982 (Japan); Masumoto, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980 (Japan); Sato, R. [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajyo, 985 (Japan)

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

The growth and characterization of LiGd?(Mo0?)? single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and was used along with a thermo- electric heater/cooler. The DIP packaging technique also made the samples much more rugged and easier to handle (see figure 11). Figure 11 Holder III a) ceramic package, b) bonding pad, c) conductive high temperature... 1981 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THE GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LiGd (MoO ) SINGLE CRYSTALS A Thesis JAMES ALLYN REIMUND Approved as to style and content by: (R. K. Pandey, Cha~m . o Committee) )() (R. L. Geiger, Member) (T. W...

Reimund, James Allyn

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres for high temperature composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilisation of fibre-reinforced metal, intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in gas turbine engines offers the potential of improved fuel efficiency, higher operating temperature and greater thrust to weight ratio. The development of ceramic fibres with high strength, excellent strength retention at elevated temperatures and good creep resistance is essential to the successful implementation of composites in various high temperature components. Several single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres have been developed to meet the demanding performance requirements. Recent progress made on developing these fibers will be discussed.

J.-M. Yang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Physical properties of BeAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of BeAl{sub 6}O{sub 10}, beryllium hexaaluminate, were grown by the Czochralski method. The optical, acousto-optical, elastic, and a number of thermo-mechanical properties of bulk crystals of BeAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} were investigated in comparison with crystal of BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, chrysoberyl. It has been demonstrated that this material is the promising host for active media of tunable solid state lasers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Pestryakov, E.V.; Petrov, V.V.; Zubrinov, I.I.; Semenov, V.I.; Trunov, V.I.; Kirpichnikov, A.V. [Department of Quantum Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)] [Department of Quantum Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia); Alimpiev, A.I. [Design and Technological Institute of Monocrystals, Novosibirsk 630058 (Russia)] [Design and Technological Institute of Monocrystals, Novosibirsk 630058 (Russia)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Photovoltaic manufacturing technology monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrates: Final technical report, July 5, 1995--December 31, 1999  

SciTech Connect

Iowa Thin Film Technologies is completing a three-phase program that has increased throughput and decreased costs in nearly all aspects of its thin-film photovoltaic manufacturing process. The overall manufacturing costs have been reduced by 61 percent through implementation of the improvements developed under this program. Development of the ability to use a 1-mil substrate, rather than the standard 2-mil substrate, results in a 50 percent cost-saving for this material. Process development on a single-pass amorphous silicon deposition system has resulted in a 37 percent throughput improvement. A wide range of process and machine improvements have been implemented on the transparent conducting oxide deposition system. These include detailed parameter optimization of deposition temperatures, process gas flows, carrier gas flows, and web speeds. An overall process throughput improvement of 275 percent was achieved based on this work. The new alignment technique was developed for the laser scriber and printer systems, which improved registration accuracy from 100 microns to 10 microns. The new technique also reduced alignment time for these registration systems significantly. This resulted in a throughput increase of 75 percent on the scriber and 600 percent on the printer. Automated techniques were designed and implemented for the module assembly processes. These include automated busbar attachment, roll-based lamination, and automated die cutting of finished modules. These processes were previously done by hand labor. Throughput improvements ranged from 200 percent to 1200 percent, relative to hand labor rates. A wide range of potential encapsulation materials were evaluated for suitability in a roll lamination process and for cost-effectiveness. A combination material was found that has a cost that is only 10 percent of the standard EVA/Tefzel cost and is suitable for medium-lifetime applications. The 20-year lifetime applications still require the more expensive material.

Jeffrey, F.

2000-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

180

Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module  

SciTech Connect

The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G. [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Fabrication of Ordered Array of Tips-pentacene Micro- and Nano-scale Single Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

light emitting diode OM Optical microscope OTFT Organic thin film transistors PDMS Poly(dimethylsiloxane) PMMA Poly(methyl methacrylate) PR Photoresist PSC Polymer solar cells RIE Reactive Ion Etching SEM Scanning electron microscope Tips.... ............................................... 15 Figure 10. Optical microscope (OM) images of big and flat Tips-pentacene on (a) Silicon (b) Silicon with 50nm thick oxide (c) Silicon with 1000nm oxide and (d) Silicon with 100 nm PMMA coating...

Xia, Ning

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect

We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Diffraction Profiles of Elasticity Bent Single Crystals with Constant Strain Gradients  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a set of equations that can be used to predict the dynamical diffraction profile from a non-transparent single crystal with a constant strain gradient examined in Bragg reflection geometry with a spherical incident X-ray beam. In agreement with previous work, the present analysis predicts two peaks: a primary diffraction peak, which would have still been observed in the absence of the strain gradient and which exits the specimen surface at the intersection point of the incident beam with the sample surface, and a secondary (mirage) peak, caused by the deflection of the wavefield within the material, which exits the specimen surface further from this intersection point. The integrated intensity of the mirage peak increases with increasing strain gradient, while its separation from the primary reflection peak decreases. The directions of the rays forming the mirage peak are parallel to those forming the primary diffraction peak. However, their spatial displacement might cause (fictitious) angular shifts in diffractometers equipped with area detectors or slit optics. The analysis results are compared with experimental data from an Si single-crystal strip bent in cantilever configuration, and the implications of the mirage peak for Laue analysis and high-precision diffraction measurements are discussed.

Yan,H.; Kalenci, O.; Noyan, I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Present Status and Future Prospects of Silicon Solar Cell Arrays and Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Present Status and Future Prospects of Silicon Solar Cell Arrays and Systems H. Durand The first part of this paper...present state of the art of the single crystal silicon cell industry: production volume, cost breakdown and main...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

Blewer, Robert S. (Albuquerque, NM); Gullinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelly, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Sylvia S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Development and Evaluation of a Test System for the Quality Assurance during the Mass Production of Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for the CMS Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of four large-scale experiments that is going to be installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For CMS an inner tracking system entirely equipped with silicon microstrip detectors was chosen. With an active area of about 198 m2 it will be the largest tracking device of the world that was ever constructed using silicon sensors. The basic components in the construction of the tracking system are approximately 16,000 so-called modules, which are pre-assembled units consisting of the sensors, the readout electronics and a support structure. The module production is carried out by a cooperation of number of institutes and industrial companies. To ensure the operation of the modules within the harsh radiation environment extensive tests have to be performed on all components. An important contribution to the quality assurance of the modules is made by a test system of which all components were developed in Aachen. In ad...

Franke, Torsten

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Growth of Epitaxial gamma-Al2O3 Films on Rigid Single-Crystal Ceramic Substrates and Flexible, Single-Crystal-Like Metallic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on diverse substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The high quality of epitaxial growth and cubic structure of -Al2O3 films was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. SrTiO3 and MgO single crystal substrates were used to optimize the growth conditions for epitaxial -Al2O3 film. Under the optimized conditions, epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on flexible, single-crystal-like, metallic templates. These included untextured Hastelloy substrates with a biaxially textured MgO layer deposited using ion-beam-assisted-deposition and biaxially textured Ni-W metallic tapes with epitaxially grown and a biaxially textured, MgO buffer layer. These biaxially textured, -Al2O3 films on flexible, single-crystal-like substrates are promising for subsequent epitaxial growth of various complex oxide films used for electrical, magnetic and electronic device applications.

Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition  

SciTech Connect

Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of 3-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO)6) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this manuscript, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) precursor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured -tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W3O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

Klein, Kate L [ORNL; Randolph, Steven J [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Rack, Philip D [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

X-ray detection capability of a BaCl{sub 2} single crystal scintillator  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray detection capability of a scintillation detector equipped with a BaCl{sub 2} single crystal was evaluated. The scintillation decay kinetics can be expressed by a sum of two exponential decay components. The fast and slow components have lifetimes of 1.5 and 85 ns, respectively. The total light output is 5% that of YAP:Ce. A subnanosecond timing resolution was obtained. The detection efficiency of a 67.41 keV x-ray is 87% for a detector equipped with a BaCl{sub 2} crystal 6-mm thick. Thus, excellent timing resolution and high detection efficiency can be simultaneously achieved. Additionally, luminescence decay characteristics under vacuum ultraviolet excitation have been investigated. Radiative decay of self-trapped excitons is thought to be responsible for the fast scintillation component.

Koshimizu, Masanori [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 9800-8579 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Onodera, Kazuya; Asai, Keisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 9800-8579 (Japan); Nishikido, Fumihiko [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Haruki, Rie [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Advanced Scientific Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1155 (Japan); Shibuya, Kengo [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kishimoto, Shunji [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Single shot ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) of laser-driven shocks in single crystal explosives  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first experiments to measure states in shocked energetic single crystals with dynamic ellipsometry. We demonstrate that these ellipsometric techniques can produce reasonable Hugoniot values using small amounts of crystalline RDX and PETN. Pressures, particle velocities and shock velocities obtained using shocked ellipsometry are comparable to those found using gas-gun flyer plates and molecular dynamics calculations. The adaptation of the technique from uniform thin films of polymers to thick non-perfect crystalline materials was a significant achievement. Correct sample preparation proved to be a crucial component. Through trial and error, we were able to resolve polishing issues, sample quality problems, birefringence effects and mounting difficulties that were not encountered using thin polymer films.

Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eakins, Dan E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Single crystal growth and characterization of the large-unit-cell compound Cu13Ba  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of Cu13Ba were successfully grown out of Ba–Cu self flux. Temperature dependent magnetization, M (T ), electrical resistivity, ?(T)?(T), and specific heat, Cp(T)Cp(T), data are reported. Isothermal magnetization measurements, M(H)M(H), show clear de Haas-van Alphen oscillations at T = 2 K for applied fields as low as View the MathML source?0H=1T. An anomalous behavior of the magnetic susceptibility is observed up to T ? 50 K reflecting the effect of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations at fairly high temperatures. The field- and temperature-dependencies of the magnetization indicate the presence of diluted magnetic impurities with a concentration of the order of 0.01 at.%. Accordingly, the minimum and lower temperature rise observed in the electrical resistivity at and below T = 15 K is attributed to the Kondo-impurity effect.

Jesche, Anton [Ames Laboratory; Budko, Serguei L. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

Ruzicka, Jakub; Houzvicka, Jindrich; Bok, Jiri; Praus, Petr; Mojzes, Peter

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

193

Gantmakher-Kaner oscillations at 79 GHz in single-crystal copper plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin plates of high-purity, single-crystal copper have been investigated with the microwave transmission technique at 79 GHz with the utilization of a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surfaces and parallel to the ?100?, ?110?, and ?111? crystal axes. The observed Gantmakher-Kaner oscillations are compared with a theoretical model first proposed by Phillips, Baraff, and Schmidt to explain their data in copper at 35 GHz for a ?100? orientation. With the aid of their model we find two classes of signals: (a) those arising from a sharp cutoff of the topological effectiveness, and (b) those due to an extremal helical trajectory. The generally excellent agreement between observation and the predictions of the model for all three crystal orientations confirms the physical significance of the model, although it is lacking a rigorous mathematical derivation.

T. M. Hsu and G. L. Dunifer

1983-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Surface Impedance Measurements of Single Crystal MgB2 Films for Radiofrequency Superconductivity Applications  

SciTech Connect

We report microstructure analyses and superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) measurements of large scale epitaxial MgB{sub 2} films. MgB{sub 2} films on 5 cm dia. sapphire disks were fabricated by a Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) technique. The electron-beam backscattering diffraction (EBSD) results suggest that the film is a single crystal complying with a MgB{sub 2}(0001) {parallel} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) epitaxial relationship. The SRF properties of different film thicknesses (200 nm and 350 nm) were evaluated under different temperatures and applied fields at 7.4 GHz. A surface resistance of 9 {+-} 2 {mu}{Omega} has been observed at 2.2 K.

Binping Xiao, Xin Zhao, Joshua Spradlin, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, Teng Tan, Xi Xiaoxing

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Deformation of Diopside Single Crystal at Mantle Pressure 2 TEM Characterization of Deformation Microstructures  

SciTech Connect

The dislocation microstructures of diopside single crystals deformed at high-pressure (4 {<=} P {<=} 9 GPa), high-temperature (1100{sup o} {<=} T {<=} 1400 {sup o}C) using a Deformation-DIA high-pressure apparatus (D-DIA) have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy using weak-beam dark-field (WBDF), precession electron diffraction (PED), large-angle convergent-beam electron diffraction (LACBED) and the thickness-fringe method. Dislocation glide is the dominant deformation mechanism under these conditions. The 1/2<110>{l_brace}110{r_brace} glide is controlled by lattice friction on the edge segments and shows extensive cross-slip. The [001] glide occurs mostly on {l_brace}110{r_brace}; no evidence for [001](010) glide has been found. The [100] dislocations bear a strong lattice friction probably due to complex (out of glide) core structures.

E Amiguet; P Cordier; P Raterron

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Positron annihilation in Al single crystals from 85 mK to 300K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Doppler-broadening and positron lifetime data have been taken for well annealed ultra-pure Al(110) crystals from 85 mK to 300K. The Doppler-broadening data are independent of specimen temperature from 85 mK to 77K, while they show an increase between 77K and 300K consistent with the linear slope observed previously by Hood and Schultz (1979). Over the whole temperature range studied, the Doppler data scale to the static thermal expansion coefficient. The lifetime data also show no obvious dependence on temperature over the entire range studied, although they were statistically limited by the cryostat geometry. These results, which represent the lowest temperatures studied by any positron annihilation technique, provide no evidence for positron localisation at low temperatures in very well annealed single crystals.

P J Schultz; A Vehanen; W Thomlinson; K G Lynn; I K MacKenzie

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Antiferromagnetic spin excitations in single crystals of nonsuperconducting Li$_{1-x}$FeAs  

SciTech Connect

We use neutron scattering to determine spin excitations in single crystals of nonsuperconducting Li1 xFeAs throughout the Brillouin zone. Although angle resolved photoemission experiments and local density approximation calculations suggest poor Fermi surface nesting conditions for antiferromagnetic (AF) order, spin excitations in Li1 xFeAs occur at the AF wave vectors Q = (1,0) at low energies, but move to wave vectors Q = ( 0.5, 0.5) near the zone boundary with a total magnetic bandwidth comparable to that of BaFe2As2. These results reveal that AF spin excitations still dominate the low-energy physics of these materials and suggest both itinerancy and strong electron-electron correlations are essential to understand the measured magnetic excitations.

Wang, Meng [ORNL; Wang, X.C. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics/Chinese Academy of Scie; Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Harriger, Leland W [ORNL; Luo, H.Q. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics; Zhao, Yang [ORNL; Lynn, J. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Liu, Q.Q. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics; Jin, C.Q. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics; Fang, Chen [Purdue University; Hu, Jiangping [Purdue University and Chinese Academy of Sciences; Dai, Pengcheng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single crystal substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an experimental demonstration of thermal tuning of resonance frequency in a planar terahertz metamaterial consisting of a gold split-ring resonator array fabricated on a bulk single crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrate. Cooling the metamaterial starting from 409 K down to 150 K causes about 50% shift in resonance frequency as compare to its room temperature resonance, and there is very little variation in resonance strength. The resonance shift is due to the temperature-dependent refractive index (or the dielectric constant) of the strontium titanate. The experiment opens up avenues for designing tunable terahertz devices by exploiting the temperature sensitive characteristic of high dielectric constant substrates and complex metal oxide materials.

Singh, Ranjan; Jia, Q X; Taylor, Antoinette J; Chen, Hou-Tong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Rainer Wallny

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Resonant stimulation of Raman scattering from single-crystal thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers  

SciTech Connect

Amplified Raman scattering was observed from single crystals of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers (TPCOs). Under ns-pulsed excitation, the TPCO crystals exhibited amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at resonant absorption wavelengths. With increasing excitation wavelength to the 0-0 absorption edge, the stimulated resonant Raman peaks appeared both in the 0-1 and 0-2 ASE band regions. When the excitation wavelength coincided with the 0-1 ASE band energy, the Raman peaks selectively appeared in the 0-2 ASE band. Such unusual enhancement of the 0-2 Raman scattering was ascribed to resonant stimulation via vibronic coupling with electronic transitions in the uniaxially oriented TPCO molecules.

Yanagi, Hisao, E-mail: yanagi@ms.naist.jp; Marutani, Yusuke; Matsuoka, Naoki; Hiramatsu, Toru; Ishizumi, Atsushi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Sasaki, Fumio [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)] [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hotta, Shu [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

202

Status, Technology and Development of Silicon Solar Cells at Iner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The current solar cells processing at INER are single crystal silicon with 1.2–2.8 ?-cm resistivity. They are thermal diffused n on p or p on n type cells with Ti/Pd/Ag metallization and Ta2O5 AR coating. Some wo...

S. S. Jao; H. H. Tseng; C. Cheng; Y. C. Tzeng…

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Microstructure and properties of copper thin films on silicon substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

copper thin films but on an expense of conductivity. This study proposes a technique to deposit high strength and high conductivity copper thin films on different silicon substrates at room temperature. Single crystal Cu (100) and Cu (111) have been grown...

Jain, Vibhor Vinodkumar

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Synthesis and single crystal structure refinement of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica  

SciTech Connect

A sodium brittle mica with the ideal composition [Na{sub 4}]{sup inter}[Mg{sub 6}]{sup oct}[Si{sub 4}Al{sub 4}]{sup tet}O{sub 20}F{sub 4} was synthesized via melt synthesis in a gas tight crucible. This mica is unusual inasmuch as the known mica structure holds only room for two interlayer cations per unit cell and inasmuch as it readily hydrates despite the high layer charge while ordinary micas and brittle micas are non-swelling. The crystal structure of one-layer hydrate sodium brittle mica was determined and refined from single crystal X-ray data. Interlayer cations reside at the center of the distorted hexagonal cavities and are coordinated by the three inner basal oxygen atoms. The coordination of the interlayer cation is completed by three interlayer water molecules residing at the center of the interlayer region. The relative position of adjacent 2:1-layers thus is fixed by these octahedrally coordinated interlayer cations. Pseudo-symmetry leads to extensive twinning. In total five twin operations generate the same environment for the interlayer species and are energetically degenerate. - Graphical abstract: The sodium brittle mica has been successfully synthesized by melt synthesis and the crystal structure of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt synthesis yielded coarse grained sodium brittle mica which showed little disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium brittle mica hydrated completely to the state of one-layer hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica could therefore be determined and refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrangement of upper and lower tetrahedral sheet encompassing interlayer cation were clarified.

Kalo, Hussein; Milius, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Braeu, Michael [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany)] [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany); Breu, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Breu@uni-bayreuth.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Magnetic-field induced absorption of zero-phonon lines in tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(2+) bis(hexafluorophosphate) and diperchlorate single crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic-field induced absorption of zero-phonon lines in tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(2+) bis(hexafluorophosphate) and diperchlorate single crystals ...

G. Hensler; E. Gallhuber; H. Yersin

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of the NMR Line Shapes of LiF and NaF Single Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental cw line shapes have been obtained for Li7, Na23, and F19 nuclei in NaF and LiF single crystals, and compared with several line-shape theories. A new line-shape theory is described which gives better results than previous ones for these two crystal systems.

Ben T. Gravely and J. D. Memory

1971-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Pinning in twin boundaries of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-. delta. single crystals  

SciTech Connect

We present direct observation of Lorentz force induced flux motion and pinning by twin boundaries in single crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7 {minus}{delta}}. From AC magnetoresistance measurements, we derive the effective pinning potential attributed to twin boundaries. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Kwok, W.K.; Welp, U.; Vandervoort, K.G.; Crabtree, G.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Liu, J.Z. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Brooks, J.; Hettinger, J.; Hannahs, S.T. (Boston Univ., MA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fleshler, S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Direct Laser Deposition of a Single-Crystal Ni3Al-Based IC221W Alloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process based on laser cladding, which involves laser processing fine metallic powders into fully denseDirect Laser Deposition of a Single-Crystal Ni3Al-Based IC221W Alloy WEIPING LIU and J.N. Du221W alloy were produced on a SX Ni-base superalloy substrate by means of the laser-engineered net

DuPont, John N.

209

Density-functional study of organicinorganic hybrid single crystal ZnSe,,C2H8N2...12  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

January 2004 Unusual properties i.e., strong band dispersion, high carrier mobility, wide absorption-energy electric energy conversion are predicted to exist in the organic­inorganic chalcogenide single crystal Zn structures and exhibiting high carrier mobilities, as well as for possessing a variety of doping

Li, Jing

210

High power single-crystal fiber CW 946 nm laser and blue generation based on Rubidium-doped PPKTP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for high power, continuous wave and polarized laser at 946 nm (fig1.c). We demonstrate a polarized laser. Laurell, "High-power, continous-wave, second harmonic generation at 532 nm in periodically poled KTiOPO4(b)(a) (c) High power single-crystal fiber CW 946 nm laser and blue generation based on Rubidium

Boyer, Edmond

211

Patterned aluminum nanowires produced by electron beam at the surfaces of AlF3 single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patterned aluminum nanowires produced by electron beam at the surfaces of AlF3 single crystals C is demonstrated for fabricating patterned aluminum nanowires in AlF3 substrate in a scanning electron microscope nanowires of different sizes. The aluminum nanowires may act as nano- interconnects for nanoelectronics

Wang, Zhong L.

212

Vacancy hardening in single-crystal TiNx,,001... layers C.-S. Shin, D. Gall,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vacancy hardening in single-crystal TiNx,,001... layers C.-S. Shin, D. Gall,a) N. Hellgren, J; accepted 27 February 2003 We investigate the effect of N vacancies on the mechanical properties are entirely due to anion vacancies. Hardness values increase continuously, while the elastic modulus decreases

Gall, Daniel

213

Oxygen self-diffusion ``fast-paths'' in titanite single crystals and a general method for deconvolving self-diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen self-diffusion ``fast-paths'' in titanite single crystals and a general method most other minerals, titanite rarely if ever forms perfect crystals. In addition to the point defects could occur. During the course of an experimental study of oxygen lattice diffusion in titanite, we

Watson, E. Bruce

214

Magnetic phase diagram of the S=1/2 triangular layered compound NaNiO2: a single crystal study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic phase diagram of the S=1/2 triangular layered compound NaNiO2: a single crystal study S de Magnetic Field Laboratory, CNRS, BP166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9, France Abstract. Using magnetic torque measurement on a NaNiO2 single crystal, we have established the magnetic phase diagram of this triangular

Boyer, Edmond

215

Radiation damage of polyethylene single crystals in electron microscopy between 1 and 2.5 MV. II. The influence of temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1043 Radiation damage of polyethylene single crystals in electron microscopy between 1 and 2.5 MV mécanismes réels décrits par les chimistes. Abstract. 2014 The critical dose measured for polyethylene single. Introduction. Polyethylene single crystals, like every organic sub- stance, lose their crystallinity when

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

The Fabrication of an Inverter using Rubrene Single Crystal Organic Transistors C. Corbet, Y. Matsuoka, K. Watanabe, P.I. Yoshihiro Iwasa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fabrication of an Inverter using Rubrene Single Crystal Organic Transistors C. Corbet, Y single crystal devices. The purpose of this project is to fabricate an inverter device using organic by a physical vapor transport method with a nitrogen flow. Inverter devices were fabricated by laminating thus

Mellor-Crummey, John

217

Single Crystal Growth and Structural Characterization of a Novel Mixed-Valent Ternary Uranium Oxide, K8U7O24  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single crystals of K8U7O24 (K8U7.04O24) were grown out of a reactive potassium fluoride flux and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The reaction was carried out in a sealed copper tube. The title ...

Cory M. Read; Mark D. Smith; Hans-Conrad zur Loye

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Conductivity anisotropy in the doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Temperature dependences (temperature range T = 0.5-300 K) of resistivity in the plane of layers and in the direction perpendicular to the layers, and the galvanomagnetic effects in undoped and doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals are studied (magnetic field H < 80 kOe, T = 0.5-4.2 K). It is shown that upon doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with the Group III atoms (In and B), conductivity anisotropy increases mainly due to an increase in resistivity in the direction perpendicular to the layers. This fact makes it possible to assume that the atoms of these impurities are incorporated mainly into the van der Waal gaps between the layers upon doping. It is also revealed that, upon doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with In and B, the temperature dependence of conductivity becomes weaker, which indicates an increase in the role of scattering by defects in scattering mechanisms. The concentrations and mobilities of charge carriers, values of the Hall factor conditioned by the anisotropy of effective masses and orientation of ellipsoids with respect to crystallographic axes, areas of the extreme section of the Fermi surface by the plane perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, and the Fermi energy are evaluated.

Abdullaev, N. A., E-mail: anadir@azintex.com; Kakhramanov, S. Sh.; Kerimova, T. G.; Mustafayeva, K. M. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Nemov, S. A. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Optical investigation of defects in semi-insulating Tl6I4S single crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Native defect levels in ternary compound Tl6I4S single crystals were studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and photoconductivity (PC) measurements. From the PL measurements, a broad emission band centered at 1.64 eV was observed at low temperatures. The peak can be decomposed using two standard Gaussian functions to reveal two emission bands at 1.55 and 1.66 eV. The PL peak at 1.55 eV is attributed to donor-acceptor pair recombination between a sulphur vacancy (VS) deep donor (Ed=0.57eV) and an antisite defect (SI) shallow acceptor (Ea=20meV). The 1.66-eV emission band is attributed to self-activated luminescence involving a defect complex and is described using a configuration coordinate model. Within this framework, the 1.66-eV emission band is associated with a S vacancy donor bound to a Tl vacancy acceptor that forms a VS?VTl Schottky pair. The photoconductivity spectra show the presence of a deep donor level located at 0.46 eV below the conduction-band edge, in good agreement with that measured by PL spectroscopy.

J. A. Peters; M. Sebastian; S. Nguyen; Zhifu Liu; Jino Im; A. J. Freeman; M. G. Kanatzidis; B. W. Wessels

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

220

Advanced Undergraduate-Laboratory Experiment on Electron Spin Resonance in Single-Crystal Ruby  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An electron-spin-resonance experiment which has been successfully performed in the advanced undergraduate laboratory at Rice University is described. In this experiment the ESR spectrum arising from Cr 3+ ions in a single-crystal synthetic ruby is studied. Both the positions and the intensities of the observable resonance lines are measured and the data are compared to the predictions of a theory based upon the use of a simple effective-spin Hamiltonian for the Cr 3+ ion. Although this experiment requires the use of apparatus not always available in undergraduate laboratories it involves measurements on a quantum-mechanical system whose behavior although far from trivial is nevertheless simple enough that the correspondence between observable physical quantities and their theoretically predicted values can be convincingly demonstrated. Since the student who undertakes this experiment can carry out himself all the measurements and perform for himself all the calculations required for interpretation of the experimental results the excellent agreement between the theory and the experiment is demonstrated for the student in a vivid fashion. The complete execution of the experiment including the full theoretical analysis of the problem is very helpful to the student in his attempt to grasp the significance of the many new quantum-mechanical quantities to which he is being exposed in his undergraduate studies.

Lee A. Collins; Michael A. Morrison; Paul L. Donoho

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Superconductivity and Physical Properties of CaPd2Ge2 Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

We present the superconducting and normal state properties of CaPd2Ge2 single crystals investigated by magnetic susceptibility ?, isothermal magnetization M, heat capacity Cp, in-plane electrical resistivity ? and London penetration depth ? versus temperature T and magnetic field H measurements. Bulk superconductivity is inferred from the ?(T) and Cp(T) data. The ?(T) data exhibit metallic behavior and a superconducting transition with Tc onset = 1.98 K and zero resistivity at Tc 0 = 1.67 K. The ?(T) reveals the onset of superconductivity at 2.0 K. For T > 2.0 K, the ?(T) and M(H) are weakly anisotropic paramagnetic with ?ab > ?c. The Cp(T) data confirm the bulk superconductivity below Tc = 1.69(3) K. The superconducting state electronic heat capacity is analyzed within the framework of a single-band ?-model of BCS superconductivity and various normal and superconducting state parameters are estimated. Within the ?-model, the Cp(T) data and the ab plane ?(T) data consistently indicate a moderately anisotropic s-wave gap with ?(0)/kBTc ? 1.6, somewhat smaller than the BCS value of 1.764. The relationship of the heat capacity jump at Tc and the penetration depth measurement to the anisotropy in the s-wave gap is discussed.

Anand, V K [Ames Laboratory; Kim, Hyunsoo [Ames Laboratory; Tanatar, Makariy A [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Ruslan [Ames Laboratory; Johnston, David C [Ames Laboratory

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

222

First order phase transition and superconductivity in BaNi2As2 single crystals  

SciTech Connect

We report the synthesis and physical properties of single crystals of stoichiometric BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} which crystallizes in the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type with lattice parameters a = 4.112(4) {angstrom} and c = 11.54(2) {angstrom}. Resistivity and heat capacity show a first order phase transition at T{sub 0} = 130 K with a thermal hysteresis of 7 K. The Hall coefficient is weakly temperature dependent from room temperature to 2 K where it has a value of -4 x 10{sup -10} {Omega}-cm/Oe. Resist.ivity, ac-susceptibility, and heat capacity find evidence for bulk superconductivity at T{sub c} = 0.7 K. The Sommerfeld coefficient at T{sub c} is 11.6 {+-} 0.9 mJ/ molK{sup 2}. The upper critical field is anisotropic with initial slopes of dH{sub c2}{sup c}/dT = -0.19 T/K and dH{sub c2}{sup ab}/dT = -0.40 T/K, as determined by resistivity.

Ronning, F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurita, N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, B L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimczuk, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Movshovich, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Evolution of the Surface Science of Catalysis from Single Crystals to Metal Nanoparticles under Pressure  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum studies of metal single crystal surfaces using electron and molecular beam scattering revealed that the surface atoms relocate when the surface is clean (reconstruction) and when it is covered by adsorbates (adsorbate induced restructuring). It was also discovered that atomic steps and other low coordination surface sites are active for breaking chemical bonds (H-H, O=O, C-H, C=O and C-C) with high reaction probability. Investigations at high reactant pressures using sum frequency generation (SFG)--vibrational spectroscopy and high pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HPSTM) revealed bond breaking at low reaction probability sites on the adsorbate-covered metal surface, and the need for adsorbate mobility for continued turnover. Since most catalysts (heterogeneous, enzyme and homogeneous) are nanoparticles, colloid synthesis methods were developed to produce monodispersed metal nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm range and controlled shapes to use them as new model catalyst systems in two-dimensional thin film form or deposited in mesoporous three-dimensional oxides. Studies of reaction selectivity in multipath reactions (hydrogenation of benzene, cyclohexene and crotonaldehyde) showed that reaction selectivity depends on both nanoparticle size and shape. The oxide-metal nanoparticle interface was found to be an important catalytic site because of the hot electron flow induced by exothermic reactions like carbon monoxide oxidation.

Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

224

Barium iron arsenide, barium cobalt arsenide, barium nickel arsenide single crystals and superconductivity upon cobalt doping  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure and physical properties of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, BaCo{sub 2}As{sub 2}, and BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals are surveyed. BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} gives a magnetic and structural transition at T{sub N} = 132(1) K, BaCo{sub 2}As{sub 2} is a paramagnetic metal, while BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} has a structural phase transition at T{sub 0} = 131 K, followed by superconductivity below {Tc} = 0.69 K. The bulk superconductivity in Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} below {Tc} = 22 K is demonstrated by resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat data. In contrast to the cuprates, the Fe-based system appears to tolerate considerable disorder in the transition metal layers. First principles calculations for BaFe{sub 1.84}Co{sub 0.16}As{sub 2} inter-band scattering due to Co is weak.

Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sefat, A S [ORNL; Mcguire, M M [ORNL; Sales, B [ORNL; Jin, R [ORNL; Mandrus, D [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Polarized Neutron Studies on Antiferromagnetic Single Crystals: Technical Report No. 4  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The theory of neutron scattering by magnetic crystals as given by Halpern and Johnson predicts changes in the polarization state of the neutron beam upon scattering which depend upon the relative orientation of the neutron polarization vector and the crystal magnetic axis. This was investigated experimentally with a polarized beam spectrometer using single crystals of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and alpha - Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in which reside unique antiferromagnetic axes. Studies were made on several different reflections in both crystals for a number of different temperatures both below and above the Neel point. Results support the theoretical predictions and indicate directions for the moments in these crystals consistent with previous work. A more detailed study of the polarization changes in the (111) reflection in alpha - Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at room temperature on application of a magnetic field was carried out, The results indicate that the principal source of the parasitic ferromagnetism in hematite is essentially independent of the orientation of the antiferromagnetic domains within the crystal.

Nathans, R.; Riste, T.; Shirane, G.; Shull, C.G.

1958-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Silicon Photonic Components and Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Significant progress in silicon photonics has led to flattop filters, polarization independence, low power modulators and switches, and low dark current germanium detectors. Future...

Watts, Michael

227

Deuterium in crystalline and amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

The authors report deuteron magnetic resonance (DMR) measurements on aged deuterium-implanted single crystal n-type silicon and comparisons with amorphous silicon spectra. The sample film was prepared six years ago by deuteration from a-D{sub 2} plasma and evaluated by a variety of experimental methods. Deuterium has been evolving with time and the present DMR signal shows a smaller deuteron population. A doublet from Si-D configurations along (111) has decreased more than have central molecular DMR components, which include 47 and 12 kHz FWHM gaussians. Transient DMR magnetization recoveries indicate spin lattice relaxation to para-D{sub 2} relaxation centers.

Borzi, R.; Ma, H.; Fedders, P.A.; Leopold, D.J.; Norberg, R.E.; Boyce, J.B.; Johnson, N.M.; Ready, S.E.; Walker, J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Influence of composition on microstructural parameters of single crystal nickel-base superalloys  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen nickel-base superalloy single crystals containing a range of chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), and rhenium (Re) levels, and fixed amounts of aluminum (Al) and tantalum (Ta), were examined to determine the effect of bulk composition on basic microstructural parameters, including {gamma} Prime solvus, {gamma} Prime volume fraction, topologically close-packed (TCP) phases, {gamma} and {gamma} Prime phase chemistries, and {gamma}-{gamma} Prime lattice mismatch. Regression models describing the influence of bulk alloy composition on each of the microstructural parameters were developed and compared to predictions by a commercially-available software tool that used computational thermodynamics. Co produced the largest change in {gamma} Prime solvus over the wide compositional range explored and Mo produced the biggest effect on the {gamma} lattice parameter over its range, although Re had a very potent influence on all microstructural parameters investigated. Changing the Cr, Co, Mo, and Re contents in the bulk alloy had an impact on their concentrations in the {gamma} matrix and to a smaller extent in the {gamma} Prime phase. The software tool under-predicted {gamma} Prime solvus temperatures and {gamma} Prime volume fractions, and over-predicted TCP phase volume fractions at 982 Degree-Sign C. However, the statistical regression models provided excellent estimations of the microstructural parameters and demonstrated the usefulness of such formulas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of Cr, Co, Mo, and Re on microstructure in new low density superalloys Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co produced a large change in {gamma} Prime solvus; Mo had a large effect on lattice mismatch. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Re exhibited very potent influence on all microstructural parameters was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma} and {gamma} Prime phase chemistries both varied with temperature and alloy composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Computational thermodynamic modeling tool did not accurately predict microstructure.

MacKay, R.A., E-mail: Rebecca.A.MacKay@nasa.gov [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Gabb, T.P. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Garg, A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Rogers, R.B.; Nathal, M.V. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

229

Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

Zhu, Xiaoyang

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

230

Single-crystal neutron diffraction studies on Ni-based metal-pnictide superconductor BaNi2As2  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of single-crystal neutron diffraction studies of the superconductor BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The experiments were performed on a tiny crystal of mass 0.8 mg at several temperatures between 20 and 200 K using the Single Crystal Diffractometer, SCD, at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Above 130 K, BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} crystallizes in the tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure. Our neutron diffraction data corroborate a first-order structural transition around 130 K with a relatively large hysteresis of about 10K, in agreement with observations from bulk studies. The anisotropic thermal displacement coefficients are enhanced along c-axis approaching the transition, and a splitting is observed for in-plane type reflections below the transition, which is evidence for a change in crystal structure.

Kothapalli, Karunakar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronning, F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz, A J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nakotte, Heinz [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

TEM and x-ray investigation of single crystal-like zirconia films fabricated by dual ion beam deposition  

SciTech Connect

Single crystal-like yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films have been deposited on amorphous quartz, polycrystalline zirconia, single crystal Si, and Hastelloy substrates using dual ion beam deposition (IBAD). These films are highly crystallographically aligned both normal to and within the film plane. The films are deposited at low substrate temperatures (< 200 C), and the film orientation is substrate independent. 0--20 X-ray diffraction, X-ray rocking curves, X-ray pole figures and X-ray phi scans are used to evaluate the film structure. High resolution cross-sectional TEM is used to examine the evolution of crystallographic film alignment on an amorphous quartz substrate. The data suggest that the evolution of biaxial alignment is nucleation controlled under these conditions.

Ressler, K.G.; Sonnenberg, N.; Cima, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Ceramics Processing Research Lab.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

The crystal structure of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3}: New single-crystal data for an old problem  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of the orthoborate {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were synthesized from Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 2 GPa and 800 {sup o}C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, collected at room temperature. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic pseudowollastonite-type structure, space group C2/c, with the lattice parameters a=1128.4(2) pm, b=652.6(2) pm, c=954.0(2) pm, and {beta}=112.8(1){sup o} (R{sub 1}=0.0124 and wR{sub 2}=0.0404 for all data). -- graphical abstract: The first satisfying single-crystal structure determination of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} sheds light on the extensively discussed structure of {pi}-orthoborates. The application of light pressure during the solid state synthesis yielded in high-quality crystals, due to pressure-induced crystallization. Research highlights: {yields} High-quality single crystals of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were prepared via high-pressure-induced crystallization. {yields} At least five different space groups for the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are reported. {yields} {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} is isotypic to the pseudowollastonite-type CaSiO{sub 3}. {yields} Remaining ambiguities regarding the structure of the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are resolved.

Pitscheider, Almut [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Oeckler, Oliver [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 Muenchen (Germany); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Latent and active abPPO4 mushroom tyrosinase cocrystallized with hexatungstotellurate(VI) in a single crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mushroom tyrosinase isoform abPPO4 (Agaricus bisporus polyphenol oxidase 4) was crystallized by means of an Anderson-type polyoxometalate. The enzyme crystallized as a crystallographic heterodimer containing the zymogen (L-TYR; 64 kDa), the 21 kDa smaller activated form (A-TYR) and the polyoxometalate (POM) within one single crystal in a 1:1:1 ratio.

Mauracher, S.G.

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

234

EPR investigation of defects in Bi12GeO20:Cr single crystal irradiated by high energy uranium ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of investigations of EPR spectra of chromium doped $Bi_{12} GeO_{20} (BGO)$ single crystals are presented. The crystals were studied before and after irradiation by the $^{235}U$ ions with energy 9.47 MeV/u and fluency $5 \\cdot 10^{2} cm^{-2}$. The effect of heating irradiated samples in air on the EPR spectra is also studied.

Stefaniuk, I; Rogalska, I; Wróbel, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Combined Investigation of Water Sorption on TiO2 Rutile (110) Single Crystal Face: XPS vs. Periodic DFT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Combined Investigation of Water Sorption on TiO2 Rutile (110) Single Crystal Face: XPS vs(0)169157150; e-mail: roques@ipno.in2p3.fr Keywords: water, sorption, rutile TiO2, (110), XPS, DFT. Abstract XPS and periodic DFT calculations have been used to investigate water sorption on the TiO2 rutile (110) face. Two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

McCarthy, A.M.

1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

237

Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

One-dimensional SnF{sub 2} single crystals in the inner channels of single-wall carbon nanotubes: I. Preparation and basic characterization  

SciTech Connect

One-dimensional (1D) SnF{sub 2} single crystals have been obtained by crystallization from melt in the inner channels of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). SWCNTs with an inner diameter of 1.02-1.4 nm, synthesized by electric-arc discharge and chemically purified, were used for incorporation. The synthesized 1D SnF{sub 2} single crystal-SWCNT composites are basically characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive analysis, electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. The characteristic motifs of tin cation distribution in the SWCNT inner channel confirm the formation of SnF{sub 2} single crystals.

Zakalyukin, R. M., E-mail: ruslan@ns.crys.ras.ru; Demyanets, L. N.; Kiselev, N. A.; Kumskov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Kislov, M. B.; Krestinin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Hutchison, J. L. [Department of Materials at Oxford University (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Sum frequency generation (SFQ) vibrational spectroscopy studies of combustion reactions on platinum single crystal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the dissociation of CO catalyzed by platinum single crystals. At 40 torr of CO, the Pt(111) crystal dissociates CO at 673 K. Under the same conditions, Pt(100) dissociates CO at 500 K, and Pt(557) dissociates CO at 548 K. Hence, the CO dissociation reaction is a structure sensitive reaction. SFG was used to monitor the CO top site resonance as the platinum crystals were heated to the dissociation temperature when exposed to 40 torr of CO. In all three systems, the CO resonance shifts to lower frequency as the platinum crystal is heated. However, the frequency of the CO resonance at the dissociation frequency is lower on the (100) and (111) crystal faces than on the Pt(557) crystal. We believe that the (111) and (100) crystal faces must undergo roughening to expose step or kink sites in order to facilitate the dissociation reaction. This is supported by UHV studies of CO dissociation catalyzed by platinum crystals. These studies observe dissociation only when step or kink sites are present. Since the Pt(111) surface is very stable, it needs to be heated to 673 K to produce the low coordination number sites needed for CO dissociation. Since the Pt(100) surface easily reconstructs, it is able to form the active sites for CO dissociation at relatively low temperatures. The SFG spectra support our conclusion that the CO molecules are sitting on low coordination number platinum atoms at the dissociation temperature. Since the Pt(557) surface already has step sites, the dissociation reaction can take place without further roughening of the surface. The CO resonance on the (557) crystal face at the dissociation temperature is at a very similar frequency to CO molecules adsorbed on only the step sites of the crystal. Further studies showed that the dissociation reaction takes place on the (557) surface at CO pressures as low as 1 torr. At 1 torr of CO, the carbon deposition rate is 1.0 x 10{sup -2} ML minute{sup -1}. A series of experiments at CO pressures ranging from 5 to 20 torr leads to a 0.8 order dependence of the dissociation reaction on CO pressure.

Gaughan, Jessica S.

2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

AMORPHOUS SILICON-BASED MINIMODULES WITH SILICONE ELASTOMER ENCAPSULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fabricated one and two cell, amorphous silicon based mini-modules encapsulated with a modern silicone. The first module consisted of a single cell with a current collecting grid and bus bars on two sides of the cell. The current collecting grid used a spacing of 1 cm. 250 µm diameter tinned copper wire was used

Deng, Xunming

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals.

Curlee, Richard M. (Tijeras, NM); Tuthill, Clinton D. (Edgewood, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Thermal analysis of a nano-pore silicon-based substrate using a YAG phosphor supported COB packaged LED module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents the development of a nano-pore silicon-based (NPSB) substrate as a thermal substrate for multi-chip array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using a YAG phosphor supported chip-on-board (COB) package structure. The proposed structure of the substrate has a nanoporous anodised aluminium oxide (AAO) layer and silicon dioxide (SiO2), that are deposited by electroplating plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) on a thermally oxidised silicon wafer, respectively. To analyse the thermal characteristics of the proposed substrate, we use an InGaN blue LED with a 5 W multi-chip array and an individual LED chip size of 900 ?m × 900 ?m × 150 ?m. The thermal performance was investigated, the junction temperature was estimated using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solver package, and the measurement results were validated using an infrared (IR) camera and the thermal transient tester (T3ster). Due to the effect of the cerium-activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce3+) yellow phosphor package on an NPSB thermal substrate, the parallel heat flow generates and induces reduction of the overall thermal resistance by as much as 0.3 K/W.

Z. Chuluunbaatar; C. Wang; E.S. Kim; N.Y. Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Specific features of the effect of irradiation with electrons and neutrons on photoelectric properties of CdS single crystals nominally undoped and doped with Cu  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrical, photoelectric, and magnetic properties of CdS single crystals undoped and doped with copper (N Cu ? 1018 cm?3) and irradiated with electrons (E = 1.2 MeV, ? = 2 × 1017 cm?2) and neutro...

H. Ye. Davidyuk; V. V. Bozhko; L. V. Bulatetska

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Structure of high-temperature nickel alloy ZhS36VI for single-crystal blades of high-pressure turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fine structure, phase composition, and segregation inhomogeneity of carbonless single-crystal rhenium-alloyed alloy ZhS36VI in cast and heat-treated conditions are studied. The structural and phase stabili...

V. P. Kuznetsov; V. P. Lesnikov; E. V. Moroz…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Dielectric, hypersonic, and domain anomalies of ,,PbMg13Nb23O3...1x,,PbTiO3...x single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric, hypersonic, and domain anomalies of ,,PbMg1Ã?3Nb2Ã?3O3...1Ã?x,,PbTiO3...x single crystals

246

Excited-state absorption and 1064-nm end-pumped laser emission of Nd:YVO4 single-crystal fiber grown by laser-heated pedestal growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present an investigation of the excited-state absorption and laser emission of a 1.0-at.%-Nd3+ -doped YVO4 single-crystal fiber grown by the low-cost and...

de Camargo, Andrea S S; Nunes, Luiz Antonio O; Ardila, Diogenes R; Andreeta, José Pedro

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Single Crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta with a Conventional Superconducting Tip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials in the Josephson junction where, Ic is theYBCO) single crystal Josephson junctions can be explained byfor Pb/I/Pb STM Josephson junctions near zero bias with

Kimura, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.; Yang, A.; Thewalt, M.L.W.; Riemann, H.

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

249

Chain-oxygen ordering in twin-free YBa2Cu3O7-single crystals driven by 20-keV electron irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chain-oxygen ordering in twin-free YBa2Cu3O7- single crystals driven by 20-keV electron irradiation 2005 We have examined the effects of 20-keV electron irradiation on the -Cu 1 -O 1 - n chain-oxygen arrange- ments in oxygen-deficient but otherwise twin-free YBa2Cu3O7- single crystals. Comparison

Johansen, Tom Henning

250

Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

X-ray dynamical diffraction from single crystals with arbitrary shape and strain field: A universal approach to modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of dynamical diffraction in single crystals engender many unique diffraction phenomena that cannot be interpreted by the kinematical-diffraction theory, yet knowledge of them is vital to resolving a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from crystal optics to strain measurements in crystalline specimens. Although the fundamental dynamical-diffraction theory was established decades ago, modeling it remains a challenge in a general case wherein the crystal has complex boundaries and mixed diffraction geometries (Bragg or Laue). Here, we propose a universal approach for modeling x-ray dynamical diffraction from a single crystal with arbitrary shape and strain field that is based on the integral representation of the Takagi-Taupin equations. Using it, we can construct the solution iteratively via a converging series, independent of the diffraction geometry. Moreover, the integral equations offer additional insights into the diffraction physics that are not readily apparent in its differential counterparts. To demonstrate this approach, we studied the dynamical diffraction from a slab of single crystal with both Bragg and Laue diffraction excited on the entrance boundaries, a problem that is difficult to model by other methods. We also explored the mirage effect caused by the presence of a linear strain field and compared it to the Eikonal theory. Lastly, we derived a dynamical-diffraction equation correlating the structural properties of a particle to its far-field Bragg-diffraction pattern, shedding light on how dynamical diffraction affects these kinematical-diffraction-based inverse techniques for reconstructing the shape and the strain field.

Hanfei Yan and Li Li

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

252

Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

Roberts, J.G.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate Sarnoff Corporation, CN5300, Princeton, New Jersey 08543  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposition on the surfaces of transition metal or transition metal carbide single crystals, and the physical on a graphitized SiC surface, as opposed to highly conductive metal and metal carbide substrates that require1 Field effect in epitaxial graphene on a silicon carbide substrate Gong Gua) Sarnoff Corporation

Feenstra, Randall

255

NREL Core Program (NCPV), Session: Film Silicon (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This project supports the Solar America Initiative by: R and D that contributes to goal of grid parity by 2015; research to fill the industry R and D pipeline for next-generation low-cost scalable products; development of industry collaborative research; and improvement of NREL tools and capabilities for film silicon research. The project addresses both parts of film silicon roadmap: (1) amorphous-silicon-based thin film PV--amorphous and nanocrystalline materials, present '2nd generation' technology, 4% of world PV sales in 2007; (2) advanced R and D toward film crystal silicon--definition, large-grained or single-crystal silicon < 100 {micro}m thick; 3-8 year horizon; and goal of reaching 15% cells at area costs approaching thin films.

Branz, H. M.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Evaluation of the dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in high energy clinical proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode for accurate relative dose measurements in large and small field high-energy clinical proton beams.Methods: The dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector were assessed by comparison with a reference Markus parallel plate ionization chamber, an Exradin A16 microionization chamber, and Exradin T1a ion chamber. The diamond detector was operated at zero bias voltage at all times. Comparative dose distribution measurements were performed by means of Fractional depth dose curves and lateral beam profiles in clinical proton beams of energies 155 and 250 MeV for a 14 cm square cerrobend aperture and 126 MeV for 3, 2, and 1 cm diameter circular brass collimators. ICRU Report No. 78 recommended beam parameters were used to compare fractional depth dose curves and beam profiles obtained using the diamond detector and the reference ionization chamber. Warm-up/stability of the detector response and linearity with dose were evaluated in a 250 MeV proton beam and dose rate dependence was evaluated in a 126 MeV proton beam. Stem effect and the azimuthal angle dependence of the diode response were also evaluated.Results: A maximum deviation in diamond detector signal from the average reading of less than 0.5% was found during the warm-up irradiation procedure. The detector response showed a good linear behavior as a function of dose with observed deviations below 0.5% over a dose range from 50 to 500 cGy. The detector response was dose rate independent, with deviations below 0.5% in the investigated dose rates ranging from 85 to 300 cGy/min. Stem effect and azimuthal angle dependence of the diode signal were within 0.5%. Fractional depth dose curves and lateral beam profiles obtained with the diamond detector were in good agreement with those measured using reference dosimeters.Conclusions: The observed dosimetric properties of the synthetic single crystal diamond detector indicate that its behavior is proton energy independent and dose rate independent in the investigated energy and dose rate range and it is suitable for accurate relative dosimetric measurements in large as well as in small field high energy clinical proton beams.

Mandapaka, A. K.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Patyal, B. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G. [INFN–Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)] [INFN–Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

In situ single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) transformation of the one-dimensional polymer catena-poly[[di­aqua(sulfato)copper(II)]-2-glycine] into the two-dimensional polymer poly[2-glycine-4-sulfato-copper(II)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On heating a crystal of the one-dimensional coordination polymer catena-poly[[diaqua(sulfato)copper(II)]-2-glycine] to 435 K in an oven, its aspect changed from blue to a very pale blue. Crystal structure analysis indicated that it had undergone a single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) solid-state transformation, losing two water mol­ecules and forming a two-dimensional coordination polymer, viz. poly[2-glycine-4-sulfato-copper(II)].

Stoeckli-Evans, H.

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Microsoft Word - 41344_Texas A&M_Mech of Single Crystal Blades_Factsheet_Rev01_10-03.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation into the Mechanics of Single Crystal Turbine Blades Investigation into the Mechanics of Single Crystal Turbine Blades with a View Toward Enhancing Turbine Efficiency October 8, 2003 DE-FC26-01NT41344 1 FACT SHEET I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS PI: K.R.Rajagopal, Texas A & M University Co-PI: I.J.Rao, New Jersey Institute of Technology II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objective(s) To model the behavior of single crystal turbine blades within a full thermodynamic framework, accounting for the evolving anisotropy of the material as it deforms and the creep behavior at different temperatures. B. Background/Relevancy The preferred solution to the generation of electric power is by means of gas turbines as they are cheaper and produce considerably less carbon monoxide than conventional methods of power

260

Photoconductivity and luminescence of CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals at a high level of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect

The luminance-current and spectral characteristics of photoluminescence of the CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals are studied. The superlinear portion of the excitation-intensity dependence of photoconductivity at low excitation intensities in compensated p-CuInSe{sub 2} crystals is explained on the basis of a recombination model. The emission band that peaked at 0.98 eV in the n-CuInSe{sub 2} photoluminescence spectrum corresponds to radiative recombination of electrons at the donor level with a depth of 0.04 eV. The maximum in the band intensity corresponds to the energy gap between the trap level and the valence band.

Guseinov, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M.; Mamedov, R. M. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)], E-mail: rovshan63@rambler.ru

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Electroluminescence and phototrigger effect in single crystals of GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} alloys  

SciTech Connect

The effects of switching and electroluminescence as well as the interrelation between these effects in single crystals of GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} alloys are detected and studied. It is established that the threshold voltage for switching depends on temperature, resistivity, and composition of alloys, and also on the intensity and spectrum of photoactive light. As a result, a phototrigger effect is observed; this effect arises under irradiation with light from the fundamental-absorption region. Electroluminescence is observed in the subthreshold region of the current-voltage characteristic; the electroluminescence intensity decreases drastically to zero as the sample is switched from a high-resistivity state to a low-resistivity state. Experimental data indicating that the electroluminescence and the switching effect are based on the injection mechanism (as it takes place in other layered crystals of the III-V type) are reported.

Kyazym-Zade, A. G., E-mail: bsu_aydin@yahoo.com; Salmanov, V. M.; Mokhtari, A. G.; Dadashova, V. V.; Agaeva, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Evolution of London penetration depth with scattering in single crystals of K1?xNaxFe2As2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

London penetration depth, ?(T), was measured in single crystals of K1?xNaxFe2As2, x=0 and 0.07, down to temperatures of 50 mK, ?Tc/50. Isovalent substitution of Na for K significantly increases impurity scattering, with ?(Tc) rising from 0.2 to 2.2 ?? cm, and leads to a suppression of Tc from 3.5 to 2.8 K. At the same time, a close to T-linear ??(T) in pure samples changes to almost T2 in the substituted samples. The behavior never becomes exponential as expected for the accidental nodes, as opposed to T2 dependence in superconductors with symmetry imposed line nodes. The superfluid density in the full temperature range follows a simple clean and dirty d-wave dependence, for pure and substituted samples, respectively. This result contradicts suggestions of multiband scenarios with strongly different gap structure on four sheets of the Fermi surface.

H. Kim; M. A. Tanatar; Yong Liu; Zachary Cole Sims; Chenglin Zhang; Pengcheng Dai; T. A. Lograsso; R. Prozorov

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

263

Photocatalytic Activity of Bulk TiO{sub 2} Anatase and Rutile Single Crystals Using Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study on the photocatalytic activity of well-defined, macroscopic bulk single-crystal TiO{sub 2} anatase and rutile samples has been carried out, which allows us to link photoreactions at surfaces of well-defined oxide semiconductors to an important bulk property with regard to photochemistry, the life time of e-h pairs generated in the bulk of the oxides by photon absorption. The anatase (101) surface shows a substantially higher activity, by an order of magnitude, for CO photo-oxidation to CO{sub 2} than the rutile (110) surface. This surprisingly large difference in activity tracks the bulk e-h pair lifetime difference for the two TiO{sub 2} modifications as determined by contactless transient photoconductance measurements on the corresponding bulk materials.

Xu Mingchun; Gao Youkun [Department of Physical Chemistry I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 (Germany); Moreno, Elias Martinez; Kunst, Marinus [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-1000 Berlin 39 (Germany); Muhler, Martin [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 (Germany); Wang Yuemin [Department of Physical Chemistry I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 (Germany); Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 (Germany); Idriss, Hicham [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen and School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, AB24 3EU Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom); Woell, Christof [Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Origins of low resistivity and Ge donor level in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The energy level of Ge in Ge-ion implanted ZnO single crystals is studied by Hall-effect and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The variations in resistivity from ?10{sup 3} ?cm for un-implanted samples to ?10{sup ?2} ?cm for as-implanted ones are observed. The resistivity is further decreased to ?10{sup ?3} ?cm by annealing. The origins of the low resistivity are attributed to both the zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) related defects and the electrical activated Ge donor. An activation energy of Ge donors estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration is 102 meV. In PL studies, the new peak at 372 nm (3.33 eV) related to the Ge donor is observed in 1000 °C annealed samples.

Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kushida, K. [Departments of Arts and Sciences, Osaka Kyoiku University Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

265

Detection of charge transfer processes in Cr-doped SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

An insulator-to-metal transition is observed in Cr-doped SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals upon extended exposure to a high electric field, namely, electroconditioning (EC). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and transport measurements under laser irradiation show anticorrelation between the Cr{sup 3+} EPR signal and the electrical current. This proves that the Cr{sup 3+} ions are responsible for the photocurrent that initiates the EC process. We observe the presence of Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 4+} mixed valencies in the bulk in the conducting state. The EPR characterization of the spectra in the conducting state excludes the possibility of a Cr{sup 3+}-oxygen vacancy complex in the bulk as a result of the EC.

La Mattina, F. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); IBM Research, Zurich Research Laboratory, Saeumerstr. 4, CH-8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Bednorz, J. G.; Alvarado, S. F. [IBM Research, Zurich Research Laboratory, Saeumerstr. 4, CH-8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Shengelaya, A. [Physics Institute of Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze 3, GE-0128, Tbilisi (Georgia); Keller, H. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

266

Temperature-dependent photocarrier recombination dynamics in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements have been used to study the temperature-dependent photocarrier recombination dynamics in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) single crystals. We found a significant change of nearly four orders of magnitude of the PL decay time, from microseconds at low temperatures to subnanoseconds at room temperature. The slow PL decay at low temperatures indicates localization of the photocarriers at the band tails. Due to the large band tail states, the PL decay time depends strongly on both the photon energy and excitation density. It is pointed out that the drastically enhanced nonradiative recombination at high temperatures is one of the main factors that determine the power conversion efficiency of CZTS-based solar cells.

Phuong, Le Quang; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko, E-mail: kanemitu@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okano, Makoto; Yamada, Yasuhiro [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Nagaoka, Akira; Yoshino, Kenji [Department of Applied Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

267

Synthesis and single crystal x-ray diffraction study of a Schiff base derived from 4-acylpyrazolone and 2-aminophenol  

SciTech Connect

The title compound, (Z)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4[1((2hydroxyphenyl)amino)propylidene] -3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one was synthesized by refluxing compound 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-4-propionyl-5-pyrazolone, with 2-aminophenol in ethanol. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pca2{sub 1} having unit cell parameters: a = 26.2993(8), b = 7.0724(2) and c = 18.7170(5)Å. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules, A, and, B, in the asymmetric unit cell. The crystal structure was solved by direct method using single crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures to a final R- value of 0.049 for 5207 observed reflections.

Sharma, Naresh; Kant, Rajni, E-mail: vivek-gupta2k2@hotmail.com; Gupta, Vivek K., E-mail: vivek-gupta2k2@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi - 180006 (India); Jadeja, R. N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

268

The synthesis, single-crystal structure, optical absorption, and resistivity of Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5}  

SciTech Connect

The compound Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5} has been synthesized by the reaction of the elements at 1273 K. From a single-crystal study Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5} crystallizes in the Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 3} structure type with four formula units in the space group D{sup 8}{sub 4h}?P4/ncc of the tetragonal system in a cell with dimensions a=7.4968(4) Å and c=13.6302(9) Å at 100(2) K. From optical absorption measurements Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5} is found to have an optical band gap of 1.92 eV (indirect) or 1.98 eV (direct), consistent with its red color. Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5} is a wide gap semiconductor, as indicated by its electrical resistivity at 298 K of 4.37(2)×10{sup 9} ? cm measured on a single crystal. - Graphical abstract: The structure of Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The new compound Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5} was synthesized from the elements and recrystallized from Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. • Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5} crystallizes in the Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 3} structure type. • The band gap of Th{sub 2}GeSe{sub 5} is1.92 eV and its resistivity shows it to be a wide gap semiconductor.

Koscielski, Lukasz A.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Ibers, James A., E-mail: ibers@chem.northwestern.edu

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Anharmonicity and isomorphic phase transition: a multi-temperature X-ray single-crystal and powder diffraction study of 1-(2'-aminophenyl)-2-methyl-4-nitroimidazole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multi-temperature single-crystal and powder diffraction experiments on 1-(2'-aminophenyl)-2-methyl-4-nitroimidazole show that this crystal undergoes an isomorphic phase transition with the coexistence of two phase domains over a wide temperature range. The anharmonic approach was the only way to model the resulting disorder.

Poulain, A.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

270

A phenomenological thermodynamic potential for BaTiO3 single crystals Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A phenomenological thermodynamic potential for BaTiO3 single crystals Y. L. Lia Department; accepted 4 August 2005; published online 16 September 2005 A phenomenological thermodynamic potential is to con- struct such a thermodynamic potential. II. PHENOMENOLOGICAL THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIAL

Chen, Long-Qing

271

Anisotropic magnetoresistance of single-crystal HoNi2B2C and the interplay of magnetic and superconducting order  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The in-plane resistivity and magnetization measurements as a function of the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field and the temperature are reported for single-crystal samples of the HoNi2B2C magnetic superconductor. Features corresponding...

Rathnayaka, KDD; Naugle, Donald G.; Cho, BK; Canfield, PC.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Surface Atomic Structure of As-prepared Nd1Ba2Cu3Oy Single Crystals Characterized Using An UHV-STM System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope/spectroscopy (UHV-STM/STS) system has been used to...1Ba2Cu3Oy (Nd123) single crystals. A quasi-square lattice with average lattice spacings of 4×4 Å2 has been ob...

Wu Ting; T. Egi; R. Itti; K. Kuroda; N. Koshizuka

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Role of -Al2O3 Single Crystal Support to Pt Nanoparticles Construction Zhongfan Zhang*, Long Li*, Lin-lin Wang**, Sergio I. Sanchez***, Qi Wang****,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Role of -Al2O3 Single Crystal Support to Pt Nanoparticles Construction Zhongfan Zhang*, Long Li the preparation of a model Pt/-Al2O3 catalyst and its characterization by a cross-sectional high-resolution electron microscopy (XHREM) method. Pt/-Al2O3 is the most important technologically-relevant heterogeneous

Frenkel, Anatoly

274

Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires  

SciTech Connect

A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport (see picture) and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A. J.; Grimes, C. A.; Mallouk, T. E.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

275

X-Ray Storage Luminescence of BaFCl:Eu2+ Single Crystals Nomadics, Inc., 1024 South InnoVation Way, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-Ray Storage Luminescence of BaFCl:Eu2+ Single Crystals Wei Chen* Nomadics, Inc., 1024 South InnoVed: January 18, 2005; In Final Form: March 22, 2005 Temperature behaviors of X-ray luminescence (XL might not be oxidized to Eu3+ upon X-ray or -irradiation. Instead, the color centers, Cl excitons

Chen, Reuven

276

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

277

Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A statistical model approximation for perovskite solid-solutions: a Raman study of lead-zirconate- titanate single crystal  

SciTech Connect

Lead titanate (PbTiO3) is a classical example of a ferroelectric perovskite oxide illustrating a displacive phase transition accompanied by a softening of a symmetry-breaking mode. The underlying assumption justifying the soft-mode theory is that the crystal is macroscopically sufficiently uniform so that a meaningful free energy function can be formed. In contrast to PbTiO3, experimental studies show that the phase transition behaviour of lead-zirconate-titanate solid solution (PZT) is far more subtle. Most of the studies on the PZT system have been dedicated to ceramic or powder samples, in which case an unambiguous soft-mode study is not possible, as modes with different symmetries appear together. Our Raman scattering study on titanium-rich PZT single crystal shows that the phase transitions in PZT cannot be described by a simple soft-mode theory. In strong contrast to PbTiO3, splitting of transverse E-symmetry modes reveals that there are different locally-ordered regions. The role of crystal defects, random distribution of Ti and Zr at the B- cation site and Pb ions shifted away from their ideal positions, dictates the phase transition mechanism. A statistical model explaining the observed peak splitting and phase transformation to a complex state with spatially varying local order in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary is given.

Frantti, Johannes [Aalto University, Finland; Fujioka, Y [Aalto University, Finland; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Xie, Y [Simon Fraser University, Canada; Glazer, A [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Crystal structure of La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} single crystals doped with bismuth  

SciTech Connect

Precision X-ray diffraction studies of La{sub 2-x}Bi{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} (x = 0.04, 0.06, and 0.18) single crystals are performed. It is found that in the compounds doped with bismuth, analogously with the structure of the metastable {beta}{sub ms} phase of pure La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} (LM), the La, Mo1, and O1 atoms deviate from the threefold axis on which they are located in the high-temperature {beta} phase. It is shown that bismuth atoms substitute for part of lanthanum atoms and occupy a position at the threefold axis in the neighborhood of the split lanthanum position. The implantation of bismuth atoms in the LM structure results in the return of a part of the molybdenum atoms to the position at the threefold axis. The occupancy of this position is equal to the occupancy of the bismuth atomic position.

Alekseeva, O. A., E-mail: olalex@ns.crys.ras.ru; Verin, I. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Krasil'nikova, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Voronkova, V. I. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Increasing the laser-induced damage threshold of single-crystal ZnGeP{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of single-crystal zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP), ZnGeP{sub 2}, was increased to 2 J/cm{sup 2} at 2.05 {mu}m and a 10 kHz pulse rate frequency (double the previously measured value of 1 J/cm{sup 2}). This increased LIDT was achieved by improving the polishing of ZGP optical parametric oscillator crystals. Two different polishing techniques were evaluated. Surfaces were characterized using scanning white-light interferometry to determine rms surface roughness and sample flatness. The photon backscatter technique was used to determine the degree of surface and subsurface damage in the sample induced through the fabrication process. The effect of subsurface damage in the samples was studied by removing different amounts of material during polishing for otherwise identical samples. Statistical LIDT was measured using a high-average-power, repetitively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF 2.05 {mu}m pump laser. On average, lower surface roughness and photon backscatter measurements were a good indicator of ZGP samples exhibiting higher LIDT. The removal of more material during polishing significantly improved the LIDT of otherwise identical samples, indicating the importance of subsurface damage defects in the LIDT of ZGP.

Zawilski, Kevin T.; Setzler, Scott D.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Pollak, Thomas M. [BAE Systems, Advanced Systems and Technology, P.O. Box 868, MER15-1813, Nashua, New Hampshire 03061-0868 (United States)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Heavy-electron behavior in single-crystal YbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity on single crystals of the intermetallic borocarbide YbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. An enhanced linear contribution is observed in the specific heat with a Sommerfeld coefficient of 530 mJ/molK{sup 2}, indicative of a heavy-electron system with a Kondo temperature {approximately}10 K. The magnetic susceptibility, which is anisotropic and Curie-Weiss-like at high temperatures, is also consistent with our interpretation of a strongly correlated ground state at low temperatures and crystal-electric- field excitations at higher temperatures. At {ital T}=1.8 K, the Wilson ratio is determined to be 0.85 using the high-temperature effective moment. The resistivity shows a quadratic temperature dependence below 1.5 K with a {ital T}{sup 2} coefficient of 1.2 {mu}{Omega}cmK{sup {minus}2}. Unlike the other members of the series {ital R}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C ({ital R}=Y, Gd{endash}Lu), YbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C does not order above our lowest measurement temperature of 0.34 K. The suppression of superconductivity in YbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C is consistent with a significantly enhanced hybridization between the conduction electrons and the 4{ital f} states. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Yatskar, A.; Budraa, N.K.; Beyermann, W.P. [University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)] [University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Canfield, P.C.; Budko, S.L. [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Thermal chemistry of copper(I)-N,N '-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces has been characterized under ultrahigh vacuum by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A series of thermal stepwise conversions were identified, starting with the partial dissociative adsorption of the copper acetamidinate dimers into a mixture of monomers and dimers on the surface. An early dissociation of a C-N bond leads to the production of N-sec-butylacetamidine, which is detected in TPD experiments in three temperature regimes, the last one centered around 480 K. Butene, and a small amount of butane, is also detected above approximately 500 K, and hydrogen production, an indication of dehydrogenation of surface fragments, is observed at 460, 550 and 670 K. In total, only about 10% of the initial copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate adsorbed monolayer decomposes, and only about {approx}3% of carbon is left behind on the surface after heating to high temperatures. The implications of this surface chemistry to the design of chemical film growth processes using copper acetamidinates as precursors are discussed.

Ma Qiang; Zaera, Francisco; Gordon, Roy G. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

General matrix ENDOR line shape model applied to the methyl radical in lithium acetate dihydrate using single crystal data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new general matrix ENDOR line shape model is tested against ENDOR data on the methyl radical in ??irradiated lithium acetate dihydrate. All parameters in the line shape model are determined or narrowly limited by experiment. These include the dipolar tensors of all protons within 5 Å of the methyl radical the microwave and radiofrequency magnetic fields and the electronic and nuclear spin–lattice and spin–spin relaxation times. The theoretical simulations agree satisfactorily with the experimental lineshape microwavemagnetic field dependence radiofrequency magnetic field dependence and angular variation of single crystalENDOR line intensities. The effective nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time is ?10 ms at 77 K and seems to be dominated by an angularly independent nuclear relaxation mechanism. The angularly dependent electron–nuclear dipolar interaction is found to be of much less importance for the ENDOR response. It is noted that the angular variation of ENDOR intensities is an important parameter to assess the nuclear relaxation mechanisms that control the ENDOR response. Data on cw and pulsed matrix ENDOR are compared and found to be similar. It is also shown that a model based on idealized line shape theory for disordered systems can satisfactorily reproduce matrix ENDOR line shapes. Both models allow calculation of the relative contributions from angularly independent and dependent ENDOR responses.

Larry Kevan; P. A. Narayana; K. Toriyama; M. Iwasaki

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Role of polaron hopping in leakage current behavior of a SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal  

SciTech Connect

We studied the ionic/electronic transport and resistance degradation behavior of dielectric oxides by solving the electrochemical transport equations. Here, we took into account the non-periodical boundary conditions for the transport equations using the Chebyshev collocation algorithm. A sandwiched Ni|SrTiO{sub 3}|Ni capacitor is considered as an example under the condition of 1.0?V, 1.0??m thickness for SrTiO{sub 3} layer, and a temperature of 150?°C. The applied voltage resulted in the migration of ionic defects (oxygen vacancies) from anode towards cathode. The simulated electric potential profile at steady state is in good agreement with the recent experimental observation. We introduced the possibility of polaron-hopping between Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} at the electrode interface. It is shown that both the oxygen vacancy transport and the polaron-hopping contribute to the resistance degradation of single crystal SrTiO{sub 3}, which is consistent with the experimental observations.

Cao, Y., E-mail: yxc238@psu.edu; Randall, C. A.; Chen, L. Q. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Bhattacharya, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, YM 502205 (India); Shen, J. [Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

System and method for liquid silicon containment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

286

System and method for liquid silicon containment  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding ember adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

287

SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACE ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

] ~ 310 [GPa] Phase g - Siebörger et al. [001] [111] #12;EPFL LASER CLADDING PROCESS Substrate Clad Remelted zone Vb Deposit G,VS LASER CLADDING PROCESS #12;EPFL b primary phaseg primary phase EPITAXY MCr CLADDING OF MCrAlY ON CMSX 4 #12;EPFL DENDRITE BRANCH SELECTION [100] [001] [010] [001] [010] [100] Laser

Cambridge, University of

288

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thermodynamic and transport properties of single-crystal Yb{sub 14}MnSb{sub 11}  

SciTech Connect

Relatively large (up to 250 mg) single crystals of the intermetallic compound Yb{sub 14}MnSb{sub 11} have been prepared by a flux-growth technique. The results of thermodynamic and transport measurements of these samples are presented. The compound orders ferromagnetically at approximately T{sub C}=53{plus_minus}1K, with a magnetization consistent with the assignment Mn{sup 3+} (3d{sup 4}) and Yb{sup 2+} (4f{sup 14}). The Mn moments are local in nature, with the full effective and saturated moment of the Hund{close_quote}s rule spin-only ground state. The electrical resistivity has a metallic temperature dependence, with only a modest anisotropy. Room-temperature values of the resistivity are relatively high for an intermetallic compound: 1630{plus_minus}160 {mu}{Omega}cm and 1250{plus_minus}130 {mu}{Omega}cm for currents flowing approximately parallel and perpendicular to the {ital c} axis, respectively. There is a distinct loss of spin-disorder scattering in the resistivity at T{sub C}. From the heat capacity, a rough estimation of the magnetic entropy gives {Delta}S{sub M}{approx}12.1 J/mol K, the value in reasonable agreement with the expected {Delta}S{sub M}{approx}R ln 5 from the assignment of these moments. All of these data are consistent with a picture of Mn{sup 3+} local moments being coupled via conduction electrons. To this end, Yb{sub 14}MnSb{sub 11} appears to be analogous to local-moment rare-earth intermetallic compounds, and may point the way toward a class of 3d Kondo lattice compounds. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Fisher, I.R.; Wiener, T.A.; Budko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Chan, J.Y.; Kauzlarich, S.M. [Department of Chemistry, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Evaluation of Melt-Grown, ZnO Single Crystals for Use as Alpha-Particle Detectors  

SciTech Connect

As part of an ongoing investigation of the scintillation properties of zinc-oxide-based scintillators, several melt-grown, ZnO single crystals have been characterized using -particle excitation, infrared reflectance, and room temperature photoluminescence. The crystals, grown by Cermet, Inc. using a pressurized melt growth process, were doped with Group 1 elements (Li), Group 2 elements (Mg), Group 3 elements (Ga, In) and Lanthanides (Gd, Er, Tm). The goals of these studies are to better understand the scintillation mechanisms associated with various members of the ZnO scintillator family and to then use this knowledge to improve the radiation detection capabilities of ZnO-based scintillators. One application for which ZnO is particularly well suited as a scintillator is as the associated particle detector in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Application requirements include the exclusion of organic materials, outstanding timing resolution, and high radiation resistance. ZnO(Ga) and ZnO(In) have demonstrated fast (sub-nanosecond) decay times with relatively low light yields, and ZnO(Ga) has been used in a powder form as the associated particle detector for a D-T neutron generator. Four promising candidate materials, ZnO, ZnO:Ga, ZnO:In,Li, and ZnO:Er,Li, were identified in this study. These four samples demonstrated sub-nanosecond decay times and alpha particle excited luminescence comparable to BC-400 fast plastic scintillator. The ZnO:Mg,Ga, ZnO:Gd, and ZnO:Li samples demonstrated appreciable slow (microsecond) decay components that would be incompatible with high-counting-rate applications.

Neal, John S [ORNL; Giles, N. C. [West Virginia University; Yang, Xiaocheng [West Virginia University; Wall, R. Andrew [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Ucer, Burak [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Williams, Richard T. [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Wisniewski, Dariusz J [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Rengarajan, Varatharajan [ORNL; Nause, Jeff E [ORNL; Nemeth, Bell [Cermet, Inc., Atlanta

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Spin liquid in a single crystal of the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the evidence for spin liquid in the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4 by means of single-crystal neutron scattering in zero and applied magnetic fields. The magnetically ordered phase appearing below TN=8 K remains nonconventional down to 1.5 K. The magnetic Bragg peaks at the q=0 positions are broad and their line shapes have strong Lorentzian contributions. Additionally, the peaks are connected by weak diffuse streaks oriented along the ?111? directions. The observed short-range magnetic correlations are explained within the spiral spin-liquid model. The specific shape of the energy landscape of the system, with an extremely flat energy minimum around q=0 and many low-lying excited spiral states with q=?111?, results in thermal population of this manifold at finite temperatures. The agreement between the experimental results and the spiral spin-liquid model is only qualitative, indicating that microstructure effects might be important to achieve quantitative agreement. Application of a magnetic field significantly perturbs the spiral spin-liquid correlations. The magnetic peaks remain broad but acquire more Gaussian line shapes and increase in intensity. The 1.5 K static magnetic moment increases from 1.58 ?B/Co at zero field to 2.08 ?B/Co at 10 T. The magnetic excitations appear rather conventional at zero field. Analysis using classical spin-wave theory yields values of the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor exchange parameters J1=0.92(1) meV and J2=0.101(2) meV and an additional anisotropy term D=?0.0089(2) meV for CoAl2O4. In the presence of a magnetic field, the spin excitations broaden considerably and become nearly featureless at the zone center.

O. Zaharko; N. B. Christensen; A. Cervellino; V. Tsurkan; A. Maljuk; U. Stuhr; C. Niedermayer; F. Yokaichiya; D. N. Argyriou; M. Boehm; A. Loidl

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

292

Magnetic properties of (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(In{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} alloy single crystals  

SciTech Connect

(FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(In{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} alloy single crystals are grown by oriented crystallization in the entire range of component concentrations. For the single crystals, studies of the magnetic properties are carried out in the temperature range 4-300 K and the magnetic-field range 0-14 T. It is established that almost all of the alloys are paramagnetic materials at temperatures down to the lowest achievable temperatures ({approx}4 K). It is shown that the ground magnetic phase state of the alloys is the spin-glass state with the freezing temperature steadily increasing with increasing Fe{sup 2+} cation content. The most probable causes and mechanism of formation of the magnetic state of the (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(In{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} crystals are discussed.

Bodnar, I. V., E-mail: chemzav@bsuir.by; Novikova, M. A. [Belarussian State University of Information and Radio Electronics (Belarus); Trukhanov, S. V. [National Academy of Sciences, Scientific and Practical Center for Material Science (Belarus)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Measurement of the Young's modulus and internal friction of single crystal and polycrystalline copper, and copper-graphite composites as a function of temperature and orientation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEASUREMENT OF THE YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by S teven Norman Wicks trom Submitted... AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by Steven Norman Wickstrom Approved as to style and content by: A(J ~a Alan Wolfenden (Chairman of Committee) Don E. Bray (Member) Donald G...

Wickstrom, Steven Norman

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of an Electric Field on the Growth and Optoelectronic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Organic Single Crystals of 1-(Phenylazo)-2-naphthol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of an Electric Field on the Growth and Optoelectronic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Organic Single Crystals of 1-(Phenylazo)-2-naphthol ... The elementary component of the crystal needle is believed to be the individual molecular column as indicted by the X-ray diffraction results. ... Because ?? was measured between two Pt electrodes and ?? between two ITO electrodes, the contact resistance may play a role. ...

Chong-yang Liu; Vincent Lynch; Allen J. Bard

1997-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

295

Single-crystal Si formed on amorphous substrate at low temperature by nanopatterning and nickel-induced lateral crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Nan Yao and Henny Zandbergen Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Jeffrey K. Farrer TSL/EDAX, Draper of thermally oxidized silicon wafer by low pressure chemical vapor deposition at 550 °C, followed by plasma

296

Fundamnetal chemistry of silicon CVD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Model CVD reactor studies and UHV surface adsorption kinetic measurements are a powerful combination for investigation of the chemical mechanisms active in thermal silicon CVD from silane. We use the model reactor to separate two regimes of pressure and temperature in which SiH4 heterogeneous decomposition or homogeneous pyrolysis chemistry dominate the observed silicon film growth kinetics. Residence time of SiH4 in the reactor hot zone and total pressure are essential quantities distinguishing the two regimes. Growth rates are controlled by surface SiH4 adsorption kinetics in the heterogeneous regime. The regime we call the homogeneous regime is dominated by adsorption kinetics of higher silanes SinH2n+2. UHV adsorption kinetic measurements comparing SiH4 Si2H6 and Si3H8 chemisorption on clean well defined single crystal surfaces are useful in understanding the two regimes. The UHV studies also demonstrate the necessity of considering the competitive adsorption of SiH4 with the higher silanes in film growth rate measurements because of homogenous reactions forming higher silanes from SiH4 under certain reactor conditions and because of trace disilane impurities commonly present in commercially available SiH4.

S. M. Gates; B. A. Scott; R. D. Estes

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Abstract. --The density matrix formalism is applied to the interpretation of Mossbauer spectra of single crystals of K3Fe(CN) taken with polarized y-radiation to find the average electric hyper-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of single crystals of K3Fe(CN)« taken with polarized y-radiation to find the average electric hyper- fine also. By a properly chosen set of measurements sites. A MOSSBAUER STUDY OF THE ELECTRIC HYPERFINE

Boyer, Edmond

298

Floating Silicon Method  

SciTech Connect

The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

Kellerman, Peter

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

In situ dehydration behavior of zeolite-like pentagonite: A single-crystal X-ray study  

SciTech Connect

The structural modifications upon heating of pentagonite, Ca(VO)(Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (space group Ccm2{sub 1}, a=10.3708(2), b=14.0643(2), c=8.97810(10) A, V=1309.53(3) A{sup 3}) were investigated by in situ temperature dependent single-crystal X-ray structure refinements. Diffraction data of a sample from Poona district (India) have been measured in steps of 25 up to 250 Degree-Sign C and in steps of 50 Degree-Sign C between 250 and 400 Degree-Sign C. Pentagonite has a porous framework structure made up by layers of silicate tetrahedra connected by V{sup 4+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. Ca and H{sub 2}O molecules are extraframework occupants. Room temperature diffraction data allowed refinement of H positions. The hydrogen-bond system links the extraframework occupants to the silicate layers and also interconnects the H{sub 2}O molecules located inside the channels. Ca is seven-fold coordinated forming four bonds to O of the tetrahedral framework and three bonds to extraframework H{sub 2}O. The H{sub 2}O molecule at O9 showing a high displacement parameter is not bonded to Ca. The dehydration in pentagonite proceeds in three steps. At 100 Degree-Sign C the H{sub 2}O molecule at O8 was released while O9 moved towards Ca. As a consequence the displacement parameter of H{sub 2}O at O9 halved compared to that at room temperature. The unit-cell volume decreased to 1287.33(3) A{sup 3} leading to a formula with 3H{sub 2}O per formula unit (pfu). Ca remained seven-fold coordinated. At 175 Degree-Sign C Ca(VO)(Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}){center_dot}3H{sub 2}O transformed into a new phase with 1H{sub 2}O molecule pfu characterized by doubling of the c axis and the monoclinic space group Pn. Severe bending of specific T--O--T angles led to contraction of the porous three-dimensional framework. In addition, H{sub 2}O at O9 was expelled while H{sub 2}O at O7 approached a position in the center of the channel. The normalized volume decreased to 1069.44(9) A{sup 3}. The Ca coordination reduced from seven- to six-fold. At 225 Degree-Sign C a new anhydrous phase with space group Pna2{sub 1} but without doubling of c had formed. Release of H{sub 2}O at O7 caused additional contraction of T--O--T angles and volume reduction (V=1036.31(9) A{sup 3}). Ca adopted five-fold coordination. During heating excursion up to 400 Degree-Sign C this anhydrous phase remained preserved. Between room temperature and 225 Degree-Sign C the unit-cell volume decreased by 21% due to dehydration. The dehydration steps compare well with the thermo-gravimetric data reported in the literature. - Graphical abstract: Pentagonite structure at room temperature and at 225 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the relationship between the removal of H{sub 2}O molecules and structural modifications of the framework of pentagonite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentagonite undergoes phase transitions upon heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze similarities and differences between pentagonite and related structures.

Danisi, Rosa Micaela, E-mail: rosa.danisi@krist.unibe.ch [Mineralogical Crystallography, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland); Armbruster, Thomas; Lazic, Biljana [Mineralogical Crystallography, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Magnetic structure of Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} brownmillerite by single-crystal Mössbauer spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine orientation of the Fe{sup 3+} magnetic moments and electric field gradient (efg) axes in the brownmillerite-type strontium ferrite structure for both iron sublattices where the efg tensor is not axially symmetric, the Mössbauer spectra of powdered and oriented single-crystal Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} were analyzed by solving the complete Hamiltonian for hyperfine interactions in the excited and ground states of the {sup 57}Fe nuclei. The magnetic moments of both octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated iron cations lie on the ac-plane of the orthorhombic unit cell and are parallel to the shortest c-axis, whilst the main efg axes are parallel to the longest crystallographic axis, b. This orientation is similar to that in Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}, in spite of the structural differences of strontium and calcium ferrite brownmillerites at low temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectra of powdered and oriented single-crystal Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}, analyzed by solving the complete Hamiltonian for hyperfine interactions in the excited and ground states of the {sup 57}Fe nuclei, show that the magnetic moments of both octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated iron cations are parallel to the shortest c-axis of the orthorhombic brownmillerite unit cell . Display Omitted - Highlights: • Single-crystal Mössbauer spectroscopy is used to study magnetic structure of Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • Complete Hamiltonian for hyperfine interactions in excited and ground states was solved. • Fe{sup 3+} magnetic moments are parallel to the shortest crystallographic axis c. • The orientation of nuclear electric field gradient is similar to that in Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

Waerenborgh, J.C. [UCQR, IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, CFMC-UL, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Tsipis, E.V. [UCQR, IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, CFMC-UL, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Auckett, J.E.; Ling, C.D. [School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); Kharton, V.V., E-mail: kharton@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Institute of Solid State Physics RAS, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Line Broadening and Decoherence of Electron Spins in Phosphorus-Doped Silicon Due to Environmental 29^Si Nuclear Spins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phosphorus-doped silicon single crystals with 0.19 % effect of environmental 29^Si nuclear spins on the donor electron spin is systematically studied. The linewidth as a function of f shows a good agreement with theoretical analysis. We also report the phase memory time T_M of the donor electron spin dependent on both f and the crystal axis relative to the external magnetic field.

Eisuke Abe; Akira Fujimoto; Junichi Isoya; Satoshi Yamasaki; Kohei M. Itoh

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

302

Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Single Crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta with a Conventional Superconducting Tip  

SciTech Connect

We have performed both Josephson and quasiparticle tunneling in vacuum tunnel junctions formed between a conventional superconducting scanning tunneling microscope tip and overdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+ single crystals. A Josephson current is observed with a peak centered at a small finite voltage due to the thermal-fluctuation-dominated superconducting phase dynamics. Josephson measurements at different surface locations yield local values for the Josephson ICRN product. Corresponding energy gap measurements were also performed and a surprising inverse correlation was observed between the local ICRN product and the local energy gap.

Kimura, H.; Barber Jr., R. P.; Ono, S.; Ando, Yoichi; Dynes, Robert C.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

Rabi Waves and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes, produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves - has been experimentally identified for the first time. Raman spectra in perfect quasi-1D carbon nanotubes are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D carbon nanotubes of larger diameter. They characterized by vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice and its revival part in frequency representation, which is the consequence of Rabi wave packet formation.

Dmitry Yearchuck; Alla Dovlatova

2011-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

Dissolution-induced surface modifications and permeability changes associated with fluid flow through an abraded saw-cut in single crystal quartz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-CUT IN SINGLE CRYSTAL QUARTZ A Thesis by JAMES ALBERT BOWMAN, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Brann Jo on (Co-Chairman ommittee) Thomas T. Tieh (Co-Chairman of Committee) Andrew )ash (Member) Frank Dale Morgan (Member) John H. pang (Head...-axis z-plane Figure 4. Geometrv and crystallograpiuc orienration of negative crystal developed on m-plane of quartz dissoived in a weak basic solunon. After Gratz and others (1990). 12 Profiles F F S- Slow Dissolving Plane F-Fast Dissolvmg Plane l...

Bowman, James Albert

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Modifications of the surface properties of metals by oxide overlayers: 1, Oxidized zirconium deposited on the Pt(100) single crystal surface  

SciTech Connect

Metallic zirconium was deposited on a single crystal Pt(100) surface by thermal evaporation in UHV conditions. The deposit was oxidized by exposure to oxygen immediately after deposition. Oxidized zirconium was found to grow on the platinum ace by the layer-by-layer mechanism. The adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface was studied as a function of the zirconium coverage. The results show that oxidized zirconium forms a chemically inert layer which blocks the adsorptive sites of the underlying platinum substrate. The properties of the free Pt surface were unaffected by the presence of the oxidized zirconium layer.

Bardi, U.; Ross, P.N.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Effect of Mg doping on the growth aspects, crystalline perfection, and optical and thermal properties of congruent LiNbO3 single crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single crystals of Mg-doped lithium niobate with diffrent dopant concentrations were grown using a automatic diameter controlled crystal puller. Crack formation at the higher dopant concentration (6 mol%) was observed, although a good-quality crystal could be grown at the same concentration with a change in the pulling rate; this result is related to the thermal conductivity of the material. An investigation of the crystalline perfection and optical properties and a thermal analysis were carried out, in consideration of potential usage for device fabrication.

Riscob, B.

2013-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

307

X-ray-diffraction determination of the Ni-dopant site in single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anomalous dispersive x-ray-diffraction measurements have determined the dopant-site distribution in Ni-doped single crystals of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-?. The data from a YBa2(Cu0.83Ni0.17)3O7-? crystal show that over 95% of the Ni dopants occupy the Cu(2) site in the copper oxide planes, with negligible occupation of the Cu(1) copper oxide chain sites. General guidelines are presented for selecting the most effective hkl diffraction planes for measuring dopant concentration profiles. Direct measurement of the energy dependence of the dopant atomic scattering forces is also demonstrated.

S. A. Hoffman; M. A. Castro; G. C. Follis; S. M. Durbin

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Features of the charge-transport mechanism in layered Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependences (T = 5-300 K) of the resistivity in the plane of layers and in the direction perpendicular to the layers, as well as the Hall effect and the magnetoresistance (H < 80 kOe, T = 0.5-4.2 K) in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium, are investigated. It is shown that the doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with terbium atoms results in p-type conductivity and in increasing hole concentration. The doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with chlorine atoms modifies also the character of its conductivity instead of changing only the type from p to n. In the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the direction perpendicular to layers, a portion arises with the activation conductivity caused by the hopping between localized states. The charge-transport mechanism in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine is proposed.

Abdullaev, N. A., E-mail: anadir@azintex.com; Abdullaev, N. M.; Aliguliyeva, H. V.; Kerimova, T. G.; Mehdiyev, G. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Nemov, S. A. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

A Successful Synthesis of the CoCrFeNiAl{sub 0.3} Single-Crystal, High-Entropy Alloy by Bridgman Solidification  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, a face-centered-cubic, single-crystal CoCrFeNiAl{sub 0.3} (designated as Al0.3), high-entropy alloy (HEA) was successfully synthesized by the Bridgman solidification (BS) method, at an extremely low withdrawal velocity through a constant temperature gradient, for which it underwent two BS steps. Specially, at the first BS step, the alloy sample underwent several morphological transitions accompanying the crystal growth from the melt. This microstructure evolves from as-cast dendrites, to equiaxed grains, and then to columnar crystals, and last to the single crystal. In particular, at the equiaxed-grain region, some visible annealing twins were observed, which indicates a low stacking fault energy of the Al0.3 alloy. Although a body-centered- cubic CoCrFeNiAl (Al1) HEA was also prepared under the same conditions, only a single columnar-crystal structure with instinctively preferential crystallographic orientations was obtained by the same procedure. A similar morphological transition from dendrites to equiaxed grains occurred at the equiaxed-grain region in Al1 alloy, but the annealing twins were not observed probably because a higher Al addition leads to a higher stacking fault energy for this alloy.

Ma, S. G.; Zhang, S. F.; Gao, M. C.; Liaw, P. K.; Zhang, Y.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

Silicon-based silicon–germanium–tin heterostructure photonics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Bordas, GC Roelkens, HPMM Ambrosius, P Thijs, F Karouta, and MK Smit. 2011 Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes...Sorger, VJ , ND Lanzilloti-Kimura, RM Ma, and X Zhang. 2012 Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Low Cost Solar Array Project cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Final report, November 26, 1980-September 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the work reported was to investigate high-risk, high-payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-Czochralski sheet material. These tasks were addressed: technical feasibility study of forming front and back junctions using liquid dopant techniques, liquid diffusion mask feasibility study, application studies of antireflective material using a meniscus coater, ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study, and cost analysis. (LEW)

Campbell, R.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Solar-Grade Silicon from Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Via Iodine Chemical Vapor Transport Purification: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This conference paper describes the atmospheric-pressure in an ''open'' reactor, SiI2 transfers from a hot (>1100C) Si source to a cooler (>750C) Si substrate and decomposes easily via 2SiI2 Si+ SiI4 with up to 5?m/min deposition rate. SiI4 returns to cyclically transport more Si. When the source is metallurgical-grade Si, impurities can be effectively removed by three mechanisms: (1) differing free energies of formation in forming silicon and impurity iodides; (2) distillation; and (3) differing standard free energies of formation during deposition. Distillation has been previously reported. Here, we focused on mechanisms (1) and (3). We made feedstock, analyzed the impurity levels, grew Czochralski single crystals, and evaluated crystal and photovoltaic properties. Cell efficiencies of 9.5% were obtained. Incorporating distillation (step 2) should increase this to a viable level.

Ciszek, T. F.; Wang, T. H.; Page, M. R.; Bauer, R. E.; Landry, M. D.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Far-infrared transmission study of single-crystal Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 1 Cu sub 2 O sub x superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We report the infrared transmission of free-standing single crystals of the high-temperature superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub {ital x}}, at temperatures between 25 and 300 K and at frequencies covering the range of 1.5{ital k}{sub {ital B}T{ital c}}{l angle}{h bar}{omega}{lt}12{ital k}{sub {ital B}T{ital c}}. The normal-state Drude relaxation rate follows a linear temperature dependence {h bar}/{tau}=3{ital k}{sub {ital B}T}. In the superconducting state there is no indication of a transmission peak, which characterizes a superconducting gap in the optical conductivity. We suggest that a strong pair-breaking interaction is responsible for this null result.

Forro, L.; Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P.; Mandrus, D.; Mihaly, L. (Department of Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA) Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (USA) National Synchroton Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (USA))

1990-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

315

The equilibrium concentration of hydrogen atoms ahead of a mixed mode I-mode III crack tip in single crystal iron  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of the equilibrium hydrogen concentration profiles about a mixed ode I-mode III crack in single crystal iron were performed. Both material anisotropy and the tetragonal nature of the distortion induced in the iron crystal structure by interstitial hydrogen were incorporated. Results show that, unlike the case of a spherical distortion, a strong coupling exists between the strain field of the interstitial hydrogen and the stress field of the crack for orientations of the crack plane that are not coincident with the cube axes of the lattice. As a result, the predicated enhancement of hydrogen in the crack tip region increases with increasing levels of mode III loading for those orientations. The results may help reconcile conflicting observations concerning the potential role of shear stresses in hydrogen embrittlement and preferential cracking of grains ahead of loaded crack tips in sustained load cracking experiments.

Zhang, T.Y.; Hack, J.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates  

SciTech Connect

We report on the performance of large area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). 20x20 {mu}m{sup 2} area SSPDs with 80 and 100 nm linewidths and 50% fill factor were fabricated in 4-nm-thick NbN films grown on single-crystal MgO substrates. The high quality of the devices was verified by electrical and optical testing and compares favorably to measurements of 10x10 {mu}m{sup 2} area SSPDs. Measurements of kinetic inductance versus bias current indicate that the constriction density is low. The fiber-coupled detection efficiency of the devices was 0.4%-3.5% at 100 Hz dark count rate.

Miki, Shigehito; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Wang Zhen [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Miller, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Albion College 611 East Porter Street, Albion, Michigan 49224 (United States); Hadfield, Robert H. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

317

Effect of electron irradiation on superconductivity in single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2 (x=0.24)  

SciTech Connect

A single crystal of isovalently substituted Ba(Fe1?xRux)2As2 (x=0.24) is sequentially irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons up to a maximum dose of 2.1×1019 e?/cm2. The electrical resistivity is measured in situ at T=22??K during the irradiation and ex situ as a function of temperature between subsequent irradiation runs. Upon irradiation, the superconducting transition temperature Tc decreases and the residual resistivity ?0 increases. We find that electron irradiation leads to the fastest suppression of Tc compared to other types of artificially introduced disorder, probably due to the strong short-range potential of the pointlike irradiation defects. A more detailed analysis within a multiband scenario with variable scattering potential strength shows that the observed Tc versus ?0 is fully compatible with s± pairing, in contrast to earlier claims that this model leads to a too rapid suppression of Tc with scattering.

Prozorov, Ruslan [Ames Laboratory; Konczykowski, M [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies; Tanatar, Makariy A. [Ames Laboratory; Thaler, Alexander [Ames Laboratory; Budko, Serguei L [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C [Ames Laboratory; Mishra, V [Argonne National Laboratory; Hirschfeld, P J [University of Florida

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Surface structure of coadsorbed benzene and carbon monoxide on the rhodium(111) single crystal analyzed with low-energy electron diffraction intensities  

SciTech Connect

The first structural analysis of a molecular coadsorbate system is presented. Mutual reordering and site shifting are found to occur for benzene and CO coadsorbed in a (/sub 13//sup 31/) lattice on Rh(111). This low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensity analysis yields the first confirmed hollow-site adsorption of CO on a single-crystal metal surface, with a C-O bond length expanded by 0.06 +/- 0.05 A from the gas phase. The flat-lying benzene is found centered over hcp-type hollow sites with a strong Kekule-type distortion: C-C bond lengths alternate between 1.33 +/- 0.15 A (hydrogen positions were not determined). This suggests the possibility of a 1,3,5-cyclohexatriene species being formed. The Rh-C bond length is 2.35 +/- 0.05 A for benzene and 2.16 +/- 0.04 A for CO.

Van Hove, M.A.; Lin, R.F.; Somorjai, G.A.

1986-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

N-HO and C-HF hydrogen bonds in the incommensurately modulated crystal structure of adamantan-1-ammonium 4-fluorobenzoate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The incommensurately modulated crystal structure and the intermolecular interactions of the organic salt C10H18N+?C7H4FO2- are studied by analysing single-crystal X-ray diffraction data within the (3+1)-dimensional superspace approach and superspace group P21/n(0)00.

Sch?nleber, A.

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Bridgman Growth of Large SrI2:Eu2+ Single Crystals: A High-performance Scintillator for Radiation Detection Applications  

SciTech Connect

Single-crystal strontium iodide (SrI2) doped with relatively high levels (e.g., 3 - 6 %) of Eu2+ exhibits characteristics that make this material superior, in a number of respects, to other scintillators that are currently used for radiation detection. Specifically, SrI2:Eu2+ has a light yield that is significantly higher than LaBr3:Ce3+ -a currently employed commercial high-performance scintillator. Additionally, SrI2:Eu2+ is characterized by an energy resolution as high as 2.6% at the 137Cs gamma-ray energy of 662 keV, and there is no radioactive component in SrI2:Eu2+ - unlike LaBr3:Ce3+ that contains 138La. The Ce3+-doped LaBr3 decay time is, however, faster (30 nsec) than the 1.2 sec decay time of SrI2:Eu2+. Due to the relatively low melting point of strontium iodide (~515 oC), crystal growth can be carried out in quartz crucibles by the vertical Bridgman technique. Materials-processing and crystal-growth techniques that are specific to the Bridgman growth of europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators are described here. These techniques include the use of a porous quartz frit to physically filter the molten salt from a quartz antechamber into the Bridgman growth crucible and the use of a bent or bulb grain selector design to suppress multiple grain growth. Single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators with good optical quality and scintillation characteristics have been grown in sizes up to 5.0 cm in diameter by applying these techniques. Other aspects of the SrI2:Eu2+ crystal-growth methods and of the still unresolved crystal-growth issues are described here.

Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Hawrami, Rastgo [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Higgins, William [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Van Loef, Edgar [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Glodo, J. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Shah, Kanai [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Tupitsyn, E [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Groza, Michael [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville, TN

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Synthesis, single-crystal structure, and optical absorption of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15}  

SciTech Connect

The compound Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} has been synthesized by the solid-state reaction at 1273 K of Th, Rb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Se, and Ge, and its structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Red crystals of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} crystallize at 100(2) K with four formula units in a new structure type in the monoclinic space group C{sub 2h}{sup 5}?P2{sub 1}/c. The structure is three-dimensional and comprises Rb and Th atoms coordinated by Se atoms to form nine-, eight-, and seven-coordinate polyhedra. Infinite channels that contain Rb atoms are present. Crystals of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} are red in color; an indirect band gap of 1.83 eV was derived from single-crystal optical measurements. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} viewed down the b-axis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The new compound Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} was synthesized at 1273 K from the elements in the presence of Ge. • The structures of the two known Rb/Th/Se compounds, RbTh{sub 2}Se{sub 6} and Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15}, differ markedly. • Optical measurements establish the band gap of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} to be indirect with a value of 1.83 eV.

Koscielski, Lukasz A.; Pozzi, Eric A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Ibers, James A., E-mail: ibers@chem.northwestern.edu

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Search for WW and WZ production in lepton, neutrino plus jets final states at CDF Run II and Silicon module production and detector control system for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker  

SciTech Connect

In the first part of this work, we present a search for WW and WZ production in charged lepton, neutrino plus jets final states produced in p{bar p} collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, using 1.2 fb{sup -1} of data accumulated with the CDF II detector. This channel is yet to be observed in hadron colliders due to the large singleWplus jets background. However, this decay mode has a much larger branching fraction than the cleaner fully leptonic mode making it more sensitive to anomalous triple gauge couplings that manifest themselves at higher transverse W momentum. Because the final state is topologically similar to associated production of a Higgs boson with a W, the techniques developed in this analysis are also applicable in that search. An Artificial Neural Network has been used for the event selection optimization. The theoretical prediction for the cross section is {sigma}{sub WW/WZ}{sup theory} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) = 2.09 {+-} 0.14 pb. They measured N{sub Signal} = 410 {+-} 212(stat) {+-} 102(sys) signal events that correspond to a cross section {sigma}{sub WW/WZ} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) = 1.47 {+-} 0.77(stat) {+-} 0.38(sys) pb. The 95% CL upper limit to the cross section is estimated to be {sigma} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) < 2.88 pb. The second part of the present work is technical and concerns the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) assembly phase. Although technical, the work in the SCT assembly phase is of prime importance for the good performance of the detector during data taking. The production at the University of Geneva of approximately one third of the silicon microstrip end-cap modules is presented. This collaborative effort of the university of Geneva group that lasted two years, resulted in 655 produced modules, 97% of which were good modules, constructed within the mechanical and electrical specifications and delivered in the SCT collaboration for assembly on the end-cap disks. The SCT end-caps and barrels consist of 4088 silicon modules, with a total of 6.3 million readout channels. The coherent and safe operation of the SCT during commissioning and subsequent operation is the essential task of the Detector Control System (DCS). The main building blocks of the DCS are the cooling system, the power supplies and the environmental system. The DCS has been initially developed for the SCT assembly phase and this system is described in the present work. Particular emphasis is given in the environmental hardware and software components, that were my major contributions. Results from the DCS testing during the assembly phase are also reported.

Sfyrla, Anna; /Geneva U.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

D0 silicon trackers  

SciTech Connect

The present Fermilab D0 silicon microstrip tracker, the silicon microstrip tracker which was designed to replace it, and plans for upgrading the present silicon tracker are described.

W. E. Cooper

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Amorphous Silicon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE has a proven track record of funding successes in amorphous silicon (a-Si)research. A list of current projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion on the production and manufacturing of...

325

Seventh workshop on the role of impurities and defects in silicon device processing  

SciTech Connect

This workshop is the latest in a series which has looked at technological issues related to the commercial development and success of silicon based photovoltaic (PV) modules. PV modules based on silicon are the most common at present, but face pressure from other technologies in terms of cell performance and cell cost. This workshop addresses a problem which is a factor in the production costs of silicon based PV modules.

NONE

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Nonlinear-optical and structural properties of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to investigate the nonlinearity of refraction in nanostructured silicon carbide films depending on their structural features (synthesis conditions for such films, substrate temperature during their deposition, concentration of the crystalline phase in the film, Si/C ratio of atomic concentrations in the film, and size of SiC nanocrystals formed in the film). The corresponding dependences are obtained, as well as the values of nonlinear-optical third-order susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)}({omega}; {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}) for various silicon polytypes (3C, 21R, and 27R) which exceed the value of {chi}{sup (3)} in bulk silicon carbide single crystals by four orders of magnitude.

Brodyn, M. S.; Volkov, V. I., E-mail: volkov@iop.kiev.ua; Lyakhovetskii, V. R.; Rudenko, V. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Puzilkov, V. M.; Semenov, A. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Monocrystals (Ukraine)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction facilities on station 9.8 at the SRS Daresbury Laboratory - hydrogen location in the high-pressure structure of ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new high-pressure single-crystal diffraction facility constructed on station 9.8 at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory, is described. Initial results on the low-melting-point compound ethanol are presented; diffraction data were of sufficient quality to enable H-atoms to be located.

Allan, D.R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Magnetic field dependence of the coherence length and penetration depth of MgB2 single crystals T. Klein,1,2 L. Lyard,1 J. Marcus,1 Z. Holanova,1 and C. Marcenat3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic field dependence of the coherence length and penetration depth of MgB2 single crystals T with a phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau model introducing field dependent parameters i.e., penetration depth and which scattering form factor, and muon spin relaxation rate. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.184513 PACS number s : 74

Boyer, Edmond

329

PHONON DISPERSION CURVES OF ORDERED PHASES OF T.B.B.A. Abstract. --The lattice dynamics of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured by mean of inelastic neutron scattering of the molecules. Previous neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been done on non-deuterated single of a melting of the terminal aliphatic chains. So neutron coherent inelastic scattering measure- ments have

Boyer, Edmond

330

Electronic structure of a PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 single crystal in the ferroelectric and paraelectric states, according to X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy data and first principle calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electronic structure of the PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 single crystal is studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on an ESCALAB 250 system and first principle FEFF9 at temperatures of 296 and 403 K.

A. T. Kozakov; O. E. Polozhentsev…

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous-silicon-based thin-film photovoltaic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CELLS... . 1. Transmittance modulation spectrum TT for an amorphous silicon-based pin solar cell prepared... . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research has been supported through the ......

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous-silicon solar cells Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

results for: amorphous-silicon solar cells Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Institute of Energy Conversion University of Delaware Summary: modules. Consulted for a research...

333

Electron spin coherence of phosphorus donors in silicon: Effect of environmental nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We report electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments of phosphorus donors in isotopically controlled silicon single crystals. By varying the concentration of the {sup 29}Si isotope, f, from 0.075% to 99.2%, we systematically study the effect of the environmental nuclear spins on the donor-electron spin. We find excellent agreement between experiment and theory for decoherence times due to nuclear-induced spectral diffusion, clarifying that the nuclear-induced decoherence is dominant in the range of f studied. We also observe that the EPR linewidth shows a transition from the square-root dependence to the linear dependence on f, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

Abe, Eisuke [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, 223-8522 (Japan); Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; Lyon, Stephen A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Tojo, Shinichi; Fujimoto, Akira; Itoh, Kohei M. [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, 223-8522 (Japan); Morton, John J. L. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Witzel, Wayne M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Ager, Joel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Haller, Eugene E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Isoya, Junichi [Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, 305-8550 (Japan); Thewalt, Mike L. W. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Germanium-rich silicon-germanium materials for field-effect modular application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of electric-field-induced optical modulation in the materials capable of monolithically integrated on silicon (Si) substrates offer the possibility of high-speed modulation in a pico second timeframe as ...

Jongthammanurak, Samerkhae

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Electrical properties of Pb{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te single crystals with an excess of tellurium  

SciTech Connect

The effect of excess Te atoms (as high as 0.5 at %) and thermal treatment at 473 K for 120 h on the electrical conductivity {sigma}, the thermopower coefficient {alpha}, and the Hall coefficient R of Pb{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Te single crystals in the temperature range {approx}77-300 K is investigated. It is shown that excess atoms of tellurium predominantly act as acceptor impurity centers at low concentrations in unannealed samples and form antisite defects at relatively high concentrations (0.05 at % or higher) being located mainly in vacancies of the lead sublattice, and decrease the hole concentration. As a result of annealing, certain lattice defects (for example, deformational) are healed, and the accommodation process for Te atoms at lead-sublattice vacancies is intensified. These processes substantially affect the values of the electrical parameters, their temperature dependences, as well as the sign of the thermopower and Hall coefficients of the samples.

Bagieva, G. Z., E-mail: bagieva-gjulandam@rambler.ru; Abdinova, G. D.; Mustafayev, N. B.; Abdinov, D. Sh. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Soft x-ray appearance potential spectroscopy study of MgO (100) and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (100) single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Soft x-ray appearance potential spectroscopy (SXAPS) measurements was used to measure on MgO (100) and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (100) single crystals. Mg 1s, Al 1s, and O 1s SXAPS self-deconvoluted (SD) spectra were obtained. The features of the Mg 1s and O1s SD spectra are in fair agreement with those of the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra for an MgO thin film (3 ML) on Ag (100). This suggests that the SXAPS spectra reflect electronic states of the relaxed MgO (100) surface. The features of the Al 1s and O 1s SD spectra are in qualitative agreement with those of the electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The SXAPS SD spectra are discussed in terms of antibonding states and partial density of empty states obtained by theoretical calculations for MgO and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3,} respectively. The present result suggests that the “approximate dipole selection rule” is applicable to the SXAPS spectra of MgO and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as 3d transition metal oxides.

Fukuda, Yasuo, E-mail: royfuku@rie.shizuoka.ac.jp; Sanada, Noriaki; Mochizuki, Sachie; Yatsuzuka, Ikuko [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Magnetic structures and interplay between rare-earth Ce and Fe magnetism in single-crystal CeFeAsO  

SciTech Connect

Neutron and synchrotron resonant x-ray magnetic scattering (RXMS) complemented by heat capacity and resistivity measurements reveal the evolution of the magnetic structures of Fe and Ce sublattices in a CeFeAsO single crystal. The RXMS of magnetic reflections at the Ce LII edge shows a magnetic transition that is specific to the Ce antiferromagnetic long-range ordering at TCe? 4 K with short-range Ce ordering above TCe, whereas neutron diffraction measurements of a few magnetic reflections indicate a transition at T?? 12 K with an unusual order parameter. Detailed order-parameter measurements on several magnetic reflections by neutrons show a weak anomaly at 4 K that we associate with the Ce ordering. The successive transitions at TCe and T? can also be clearly identified by two anomalies in heat capacity and resistivity measurements. The higher transition temperature at T?? 12 K is mainly ascribed to Fe spin reorientation transition, below which Fe spins rotate uniformly and gradually in the ab plane. The Fe spin reorientation transition and short-range Ce ordering above TCe reflect the strong Fe-Ce couplings prior to long-range ordering of the Ce. The evolution of the intricate magnetic structures in CeFeAsO going through T? and TCe is proposed.

Zhang, Qiang [Ames Laboratory; Tian, Wei [Ames Laboratory; Li, Haifeng [Ames Laboratory; Kim, Jong-Woo [Argonne Naitonal Laboratory; Yan, Jiaqiang [Ames Laboratory; McCallum, Robert William [Ames Laboratory; Lograsso, Thomas A. [Ames Laboratory; Zarestky, Jerel L. [Ames Laboratory; Budko, Sergey L. [Ames Laboratory; McQueeney, Robert J. [Ames Laboratory; Vaknin, David [Ames Laboratory

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

Correlated vortex pinning in slightly orthorhombic twinned Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 single crystals: Possible shift of the vortex-glass/liquid transition  

SciTech Connect

The interest in twin-boundary (TB) planes as a source of vortex pinning has been recently renewed with the discovery of the new iron-arsenide pnictide superconductors. In the family of compounds Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 a structural transition from a tetragonal to orthorhombic lattice takes place for compounds with xsingle crystals. Using a scaling approach we are able to determine the angular regions where correlated or uncorrelated disorder prevails. In the tetragonal samples (x>xcr) there is no twinning and we find good agreement with the expected scaling function under uncorrelated disorder, with small anisotropy values similar to those reported in the literature. We show that in the orthorhombic samples (x

Bermudez, M. Marziali [Universidad de Buenos Aires; Pasquini, G. [Universidad de Buenos Aires; Budko, Sergey L. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study  

SciTech Connect

Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

340

New oxyfluoride glass with high fluorine content and laser patterning of nonlinear optical BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} single crystal line  

SciTech Connect

A new oxyfluoride glass of 50BaF{sub 2}-25Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-25B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol. %) with a large fraction of fluorine, i.e., F/(F + O) = 0.4, was prepared using a conventional melt-quenching method in order to synthesize new glass-ceramics containing nonlinear optical oxyfluoride crystals. The refractive index at 632.8 nm and ultra-violet cutoff wavelength of the glass were 1.564 and {approx}200 nm, respectively. Eu{sup 3+} ions in the glass showed a high quantum yield of 88% in the photoluminescence spectrum in the visible region. BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals (size: 50-100 nm) showing second harmonic generations were formed through the crystallization of the glass. Lines consisting of BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals were patterned successfully on the glass surface by laser irradiations (Yb:YVO{sub 4} laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm, laser power of 1.1 W, scanning speed of 8 {mu}m/s). High resolution transmission electron microscope observations combined with a focused ion beam technique indicate that BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals are highly oriented just like a single crystal. The present study proposes that the new oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramics prepared have a high potential for optical device applications.

Shionozaki, K.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Quantum Critical Behavior in the Heavy Fermion Single Crystal Ce(Ni0.935Pd0.065)2Ge2  

SciTech Connect

We have performed magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, resistivity, and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal of the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sup 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which is believed to be close to a quantum critical point (QCP) at T = 0. At lowest temperature (1.8--3.5 K), the magnetic susceptibility behaves as {chi}(T)-{chi} (0) {proportional_to} T{sup -1/6} with {chi} (0) = 0.032 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/mole (0.0025 emu/mole). For T < 1 K, the specific heat can be fit to the formula {Delta} C/T = {gamma}{sub 0} - T{sup 1/2} with {gamma}{sub 0} of order 700 mJ/mole-K{sup 2}. The resistivity behaves as {rho} = {rho}{sub 0} + AT{sup 3/2} for temperatures below 2 K. This low temperature behavior for {gamma} (T) and {rho} (T) is in accord with the SCR theory of Moriya and Takimoto. The inelastic neutron scattering spectra show a broad peak near 1.5 meV that appears to be independent of Q; we interpret this as Kondo scattering with T{sub K} = 17 K. In addition, the scattering is enhanced near Q=(1/2, 1/2, 0) with maximum scattering at {Delta} E = 0.45 meV{sup -}; we interpret this as scattering from antiferromagnetic fluctuations near the antiferromagnetic QCP.

Wang, Cuihuan [ORNL; Lawrence, J M [University of California, Irvine; Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL; Chang, S [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gofryk, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ronning, F [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McClellan, K J [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rodriguez-Rivera, J A [NCNR and University of Maryland; Lynn, J W [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Upper critical fields and thermally-activated transport of Nd(0.7Fe0.3) FeAs single crystal  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the resistivity and the upper critical field H{sub c2} of Nd(O{sub 0.7}F{sub 0.3})FeAs single crystals in strong DC and pulsed magnetic fields up to 45 T and 60 T, respectively. We found that the field scale of H{sub c2} is comparable to {approx}100 T of high T{sub c} cuprates. H{sub c2}(T) parallel to the c-axis exhibits a pronounced upward curvature similar to what was extracted from earlier measurements on polycrystalline samples. Thus this behavior is indeed an intrinsic feature of oxypnictides, rather than manifestation of vortex lattice melting or granularity. The orientational dependence of H{sub c2} shows deviations from the one-band Ginzburg-Landau scaling. The mass anisotropy decreases as T decreases, from 9.2 at 44K to 5 at 34K. Spin dependent magnetoresistance and nonlinearities in the Hall coefficient suggest contribution to the conductivity from electron-electron interactions modified by disorder reminiscent that of diluted magnetic semiconductors. The Ohmic resistivity measured below T{sub c} but above the irreversibility field exhibits a clear Arrhenius thermally activated behavior over 4--5 decades. The activation energy has very different field dependencies for H{parallel}ab and H{perpendicular}ab. We discuss to what extent different pairing scenarios can manifest themselves in the observed behavior of H{sub c2}, using the two-band model of superconductivity. The results indicate the importance of paramagnetic effects on H{sub c2}(T), which may significantly reduce H{sub c2}(0) as compared to H{sub c2}(0) {approx}200--300 T based on extrapolations of H{sub c2}(T) near T{sub c} down to low temperatures.

Balakirev, Fedor F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jaroszynski, J [NHMFL, FSU; Hunte, F [NHMFL, FSU; Balicas, L [NHMFL, FSU; Jo, Youn - Jung [NHMFL, FSU; Raicevic, I [NHMFL, FSU; Gurevich, A [NHMFL, FSU; Larbalestier, D C [NHMFL, FSU; Fang, L [CHINA; Cheng, P [CHINA; Jia, Y [CHINA; Wen, H H [CHINA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Rabi Wave Packets and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of quasi-1D carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes (CZSNTs), produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. Multichain coupled qubit system represents itself Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice, formed in CZSNTs plus quantized external electromagnetic (EM) field. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves, predicted in \\cite{Slepyan_Yerchak} has experimentally been identified for the first time. It is shown, that Raman spectra in quasi-1D CZSNTs are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D those ones. They characterized by semiclassical consideration by the only one vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice instead of longitudinal and transverse optical phonon $G^+$ and $G^-$modes and the out-of-plane radial breathing mode, which are observed in Raman spectra of 2D single wall nanotubes. It is consequence of 2D - 1D transition in all physical properties of nanotubes. It is shown, that strong electron-photon coupling takes place in CZSNTs by interaction with EM-field and quantum nature of EM-field has to be taken into account. It has been done for the first time in stationary spectroscopy at all. All optical spectra, in particular, Raman spectra are registered by usual stationary measurement technique in nonequilibrium conditions, which are the consequence of Rabi wave packets' formation. It leads in its turn to appearance of additional lines, corresponding to revival part of inversion dependence of joint EM-field + matter system in frequency representation.

Dmitry Yearchuck; Alla Dovlatova

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

344

The structure of adsorbed sulfur and carbon on molybdenum and rhenium single crystal surfaces, and their influence on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon chemisorption  

SciTech Connect

An ultra-high vacuum (10/sup -10/ Torr) study was performed on the chemisorption and structures of S and C adsorbates on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010) single crystal surfaces. Both S and C adsorb strongly on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010), with adsorption energies >70 kcal/mol for coverages less than saturation. S was proposed to adsorb in the highest symmetry sites on all surfaces except for theta/sub s/ > 0.75 on Mo(100), where studies suggest two different adsorption sites. C adsorbs in a ''carbidic'' or active phase on Mo(100), where it is also proposed to adsorb in the highest symmetry sites. However, C adsorbs in a ''graphitic'' or inactive phase on Re(0001) and Re(1010). CO chemisorption on the S and C overlayers was found to be blocked (except for C on Mo(100)), with S blocking adsorption more efficiently than C. Changes in adsorption energy were determined to be caused by local crowding of CO molecules by S or C, rather than a long-range electronic interaction. Unsaturated hydrocarbons decomposed completely on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010). Similar to the results for CO chemisorption, strong adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons (leading to decomposition) was blocked by pre-adsorbed S, allowing only physisorption to occur (adsorption energies < 11 kcal/mol). The effect of pre-adsorbed ''graphitic'' C on Re(0001) and Re(1010) on unsaturated hydrocarbon chemisorption was the same; strong adsorption (leading to decomposition) was blocked allowing only physisorption. However, Mo(100) with pre-adsorbed ''carbidic'' carbon blocks only decomposition while allowing strong reversible molecular chemisorption (12 to 23 kcal/mol). Differences in inhibition efficiency of S and C are proposed to be caused by differences in bond distances of the adsorbates to the surface. Greater distance from the metal surface causes more interaction with neighboring metal atoms. These differences also suggest explanations for catalytic hydrodesulfurization of thiophene.

Kelly, D.G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Polarized X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Single-Crystal Mn(V) Complexes Relevant to the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II  

SciTech Connect

High-valent Mn-oxo species have been suggested to have a catalytically important role in the water splitting reaction which occurs in the Photosystem II membrane protein. In this study, five- and six-coordinate mononuclear Mn(V) compounds were investigated by polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy in order to understand the electronic structure and spectroscopic characteristics of high-valent Mn species. Single crystals of the Mn(V)-nitrido and Mn(V)-oxo compounds were aligned along selected molecular vectors with respect to the X-ray polarization vector using X-ray diffraction. The local electronic structure of the metal site was then studied by measuring the polarization dependence of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) pre-edge spectra (1s to 3d transition) and comparing with the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Mn(V)-nitrido compound, in which the manganese is coordinated in a tetragonally distorted octahedral environment, showed a single dominant pre-edge peak along the MnN axis that can be assigned to a strong 3dz2-4pz mixing mechanism. In the square pyramidal Mn(V)-oxo system, on the other hand, an additional peak was observed at 1 eV below the main pre-edge peak. This component was interpreted as a 1s to 3dxz,yz transition with 4px,y mixing, due to the displacement of the Mn atom out of the equatorial plane. The XANES results have been correlated to DFT calculations, and the spectra have been simulated using a TD (time-dependent)-DFT approach. The relevance of these results to understanding the mechanism of the photosynthetic water oxidation is discussed.

Yano, J.K.; Robblee, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Marcus, M.A.; Bendix, J.; Workman, J.M.; Collins, T.J.; Solomon, E.I.; George, S.D.; Yachandra, V.K.; /LBL, Berkeley /Copenhagen U. /Stanford U., Chem. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

346

Single-crystal studies of the Chevrel-phase superconductor La{sub x}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8}. 2: Physical and superconducting properties  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of La{sub x}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8} have been grown and some of their magnetic, transport, and superconducting properties studied. The electrical resistivity is characterized by its high value at room temperature, its low residual resistivity ratio, and a pronounced negative curvature at high temperatures. Comparison with the isostructural compounds Mo{sub 3}Se{sub 4} (Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8}) and LaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} shows that this behavior is due to structural as well as to extrinsic features (e.g., brittleness due to weak intercluster bondings). The position of the Fermi level near a peak of the density of states plays an important role in the normal-state physical properties, fixing the functional forms of both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The superconducting state is mainly characterized by a strong lanthanum concentration dependence of the critical temperature {Tc}, by quite definite granular effects, and by a very high critical field (H{sub c2}(0) {approximately} 55 T). The intragrain critical current density, as estimated by magnetic measurements, is relatively high (4 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at zero field and 1.7 K), three times larger than the one obtained for the void compound Mo{sub 3}Se{sub 4}. The fact is due to a higher density of pinning centers in the ternary compound because of microstructural features such as microcracks or crystal defects caused by the extreme brittleness of the crystals.

Pena, O.; Le Berre, F.; Padiou, J.; Marchand, T. [Univ. de Rennes I (France). Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire] [Univ. de Rennes I (France). Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire; Horyn, R.; Wojakowski, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Low Temperature and Structure Research] [Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Low Temperature and Structure Research

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Spent-fuel special-studies progress report: probable mechanisms for oxidation and dissolution of single-crystal UO/sub 2/ surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Due to the complexity of the structural, microstructural and compositional characteristics of spent fuel, basic leaching and dissolution mechanisms were studied with UO/sub 2/ matrix material, specifically with single-crystal UO/sub 2/, to isolate individual contributory factors. The effects of oxidation and oxidation-dissolution were investigated in different oxidation conditions, such as in air, oxygenated solutions and deionized water containing H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. In addition, the effects of temperature on dissolution of UO/sub 2/ were studied in autoclaves at 75 and 150/sup 0/C. Also, oxidation and dissolution measurements were investigated via electrochemical methods to determine if those techniques could be applied to the characterization of leaching and dissolution of spent fuel in a hot cell. Finally, the effects of radiation were explored since the radiolysis of water may create a localized oxidizing condition at or near the spent fuel-solution interface, even in neutral or reducing conditions as commonly found in deep geological environments. The oxidation and oxidation-dissolution mechanisms for UO/sub 2/ are proposed as follows: The UO/sub 2/ surface is first oxidized in solution to form a UO/sub 2+x/ surface layer several angstroms thick. This oxidized surface has a high dissolution rate since the UO/sub 2+x/ reacts with the dissolved O/sub 2/, or H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, to form uranyl complex ions in a U(VI) state. As the uranyl ions exceed the solubility limits in solution, they become hydrolyzed to form solid deposits and suspended particles of UO/sub 3/ hydrates. The thickness and porosity of the deposited UO/sub 3/ hydrate surface-film is dependent on temperature, pH and deposition time. A long-term dissolution rate is then determined by the nature of the surface film, such as porosity, solubility and mechanical properties.

Wang, R.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Versatile module for experiments with focussing neutron guides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the development of a versatile module that permits fast and reliable use of focussing neutron guides under varying scattering angles. A simple procedure for setting up the module and neutron guides is illustrated by typical intensity patterns to highlight operational aspects as well as typical parasitic artefacts. Combining a high-precision alignment table with separate housings for the neutron guides on kinematic mounts, the change-over between neutron guides with different focussing characteristics requires no readjustments of the experimental set-up. Exploiting substantial gain factors, we demonstrate the performance of this versatile neutron scattering module in a study of the effects of uniaxial stress on the domain populations in the transverse spin density wave phase of single crystal Cr.

Adams, T; Chacon, A; Wagner, J N; Rahn, M; Mühlbauer, S; Georgii, R; Pfleiderer, C; Böni, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Anisotropic dynamics of water ultra-confined in macroscopically oriented channels of single-crystal beryl: A multi-frequency analysis  

SciTech Connect

The properties of fluids can be significantly altered by the geometry of their confining environments. While there has been significant work on the properties of such confined fluids, the properties of fluids under ultraconfinement, environments where, at least in one plane, the dimensions of the confining environment are similar to that of the confined molecule, have not been investigated. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of water in beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), the structure of which contains approximately 5-A-diam channels parallel to the c axis. Three techniques, inelastic neutron scattering, quasielastic neutron scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy, have been used to quantify these properties over a dynamic range covering approximately 16 orders of magnitude. Because beryl can be obtained in large single crystals we were able to quantify directional variations, perpendicular and parallel to the channel directions, in the dynamics of the confined fluid. These are significantly anisotropic and, somewhat counterintuitively, show that vibrations parallel to the c-axis channels are significantly more hindered than those perpendicular to the channels. The effective potential for vibrations in the c direction is harder than the potential in directions perpendicular to it. There is evidence of single-file diffusion of water molecules along the channels at higher temperatures, but below 150 K this diffusion is strongly suppressed. No such suppression, however, has been observed in the channel-perpendicular direction. Inelastic neutron scattering spectra include an intramolecular stretching O-H peak at 465 meV. As this is nearly coincident with that known for free water molecules and approximately 30 meV higher than that in liquid water or ice, this suggests that there is no hydrogen bonding constraining vibrations between the channel water and the beryl structure. However, dielectric spectroscopic measurements at higher temperatures and lower frequencies yield an activation energy for the dipole reorientation of 16.4 0.14 kJ/mol, close to the energy required to break a hydrogen bond in bulk water. This may suggest the presence of some other form of bonding between the water molecules and the structure, but the resolution of the apparent contradiction between the inelastic neutron and dielectric spectroscopic results remains uncertain.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Ishai, Paul ben [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel] [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Energy Policy 30 (2002) 477499 Photovoltaic module quality in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Policy 30 (2002) 477­499 Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market

Kammen, Daniel M.

351

Development efforts on silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the major results from the silicon high-concentration solar cell program at Stanford University from the period 1983--1990. Following a detailed design study, efforts were focused upon experimental verification of the modeled results that predicted 28% efficiencies for a new 500X concentrator solar cell design. A history of the research progress is given detailing the critical experiments that enabled the demonstration of 19.6% cells in 1983, then subsequent improvements culminating in efficiencies over 28% by 1987. In addition to laboratory efficiency improvements, the report details advances in the understanding of the fundamental device physics and modeling of silicon solar cell operation. The latter stages of the program included the development of module-ready cells in large quantity for the EPRI prototype 500X concentrator modules. Several of these 48-cell modules are currently in the field under test.

Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Thin silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M. [Astro Power Inc., Solar Park, Newark, DE (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

PDSF Modules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modules Modules Modules Modules Approach to Managing The Environment Modules is a system which you can use to specify what software you want to use. If you want to use a particular software package loading its module will take care of the details of modifying your environment as necessary. The advantage of the modules approach is that the you are not required to explicitly specify paths for different executable versions and try to keep their related man paths and environment variables coordinated. Instead you simply "load" and "unload" specific modules to control your environment. Getting Started with Modules If you're using the standard startup files on PDSF then you're already setup for using modules. If the "module" command is not available, please

354

Effect of a high electric field on the conductivity of MnGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}, MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, and MnGaInS{sub 4} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The results of studying the effect of a high electric field on the conductivity of MnGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}, MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, and MnGaInS{sub 4} single crystals are reported. The activation energy is determined in high and low electric fields. It is established that the decrease in the activation energy with increasing the external voltage is associated with decreasing the depth of the potential well, in which the electron is located.

Niftiev, N. N. [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan); Tagiev, O. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Anisotropy of the solid-state epitaxy of silicon carbide in silicon  

SciTech Connect

A new method for the solid-state synthesis of epitaxial layers is developed, in which a substrate participates in the chemical reaction and the reaction product grows not on the substrate surface, as in traditional epitaxial methods, but inside the substrate. This method offers new opportunities for elastic-energy relaxation due to a mechanism operating only in anisotropic media, specifically, the attraction of point defects formed during the chemical reaction. The attracting point centers of dilatation form relatively stable objects, dilatation dipoles, which significantly reduce the total elastic energy. It is shown that, in crystals with cubic symmetry, the most favorable arrangement of dipoles is the ?111? direction. The theory is tested by growing silicon carbide (SiC) films on Si (111) substrates by chemical reaction with carbon monoxide CO. High-quality single-crystal SiC-4H films with thicknesses of up to 100 nm are grown on Si (111). Ellipsometric analysis showed that the optical constants of the SiC-4H films are significantly anisotropic. This is caused not only by the lattice hexagonality but also by a small amount (about 2–6%) of carbon atoms remaining in the film due to dilatation dipoles. It is shown that the optical constants of the carbon impurity correspond to strongly anisotropic highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

Kukushkin, S. A., E-mail: kukushkin_s@yahoo.com; Osipov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Machine Science (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Electrical conduction mechanism in La{sub 3}Ta{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 5.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 14} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The electrical conduction mechanism in La{sub 3}Ta{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 5.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 14} (LTGA) single crystals was studied by nonstoichiometric defect formation during crystal growth. Since stoichiometric LTGA is not congruent, the single crystal grown from the stoichiometric melt was Ta-poor and Al-rich, where Al atoms were substituted not only in Ga sites but also in Ta sites. The population of the substitutional Al in Ta sites increased with increasing oxygen partial pressure during growth (growth-pO{sub 2}) in the range from 0.01 to 1?atm. Below 600?°C, substitutional Al atoms in Ta sites were ionized to yield holes, and thus the electrical conductivity of the LTGA crystal depended on temperature and the growth-pO{sub 2}. The dependence of the electrical conductivity on the growth-pO{sub 2} decreased as temperature increased. The temperature rise increases ionic conductivity, for which the dominant carriers are oxygen defects formed by the anion Frenkel reaction.

Yaokawa, Ritsuko, E-mail: e4777-1009@yahoo.co.jp; Aota, Katsumi [Citizen Holdings Co., Ltd., 840, Shimotomi, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8511 (Japan); Uda, Satoshi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

357

Performance Measurement Technologies for High-Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of the I–V curves of crystalline silicon c-Si cells and modules are discussed. Special attention is paid to the recent high-efficiency devices. The effect of the sweep speed and direction...

Yoshihiro Hishikawa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Identification and mitigation of performance-limiting defects in epitaxially grown kerfless silicon for solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reducing material use is a major driver for cost reduction of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. The dominant wafer fabrication process employed in the industry today, ingot casting & sawing, wastes approximately ...

Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Data Transmission at Terabit/s Data Rates Using Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Frequency Combs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate frequency comb generation using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators. The frequency combs are used for WDM data transmission at terabit/s data rates and...

Weimann, Claudius; Schindler, Philipp; Bekele, Dagmawi; Palmer, Robert; Korn, Dietmar; Pfeifle, Joerg; Koeber, Sebastian; Schmogrow, Rene; Alloatti, Luca; Elder, Delwin L; Yu, Hui; Bogaerts, Wim; Dalton, Larry R; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Koos, Christian

360

Module Configuration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

Oweis, Salah (Ellicott City, MD); D'Ussel, Louis (Bordeaux, FR); Chagnon, Guy (Cockeysville, MD); Zuhowski, Michael (Annapolis, MD); Sack, Tim (Cockeysville, MD); Laucournet, Gaullume (Paris, FR); Jackson, Edward J. (Taneytown, MD)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

Ihlefeld, Jon

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

362

Manifestation of light and heavy electrons in the galvanomagnetic characteristics of Te-doped n-Bi{sub 0.88}Sb{sub 0.12} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The components of resistivity ({rho}{sub ij}), Hall coefficient (R{sub ijk}), and magnetoresistance ({rho}{sub ij,kl}) of n-Bi{sub 0.88}Sb{sub 0.12} single crystals doped with tellurium to 0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 at % have been measured in the temperature range of 77-300 K. It is concluded that light and heavy electrons are involved in transport processes. The energy spacing between the bands of light and heavy electrons is found to be 40 meV, and the ratios of the effective masses and electron mobilities are estimated as m{sub 2}*/m{sub l}* = 3 and b Almost-Equal-To 0.16, respectively.

Tairov, B. A., E-mail: btairov@physics.ab.az; Ibragimova, O. I., E-mail: ofeliya_i@physics.ab.az; Rahimov, A. H. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Brazis, R., E-mail: brazis@pfi.lt [Semiconductor Physics Institute (Lithuania)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

NMR relaxation study of the phase transitions and relaxation mechanisms of the alums MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) single crystals have been investigated. The phase transition temperatures, NMR spectra, and the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei in the two crystals were determined using DSC and FT NMR spectroscopy. The resonance lines and relaxation times of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei undergo significant changes at the phase transition temperatures. The sudden changes in the splitting of the Rb and Cs resonance lines are attributed to changes in the local symmetry of their sites, and the changes in the temperature dependences of T{sub 1} are related to variations in the symmetry of the octahedra of water molecules surrounding Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +}. We also compared these {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs NMR results with those obtained for the trivalent cations Cr and Al in MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O and MAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O crystals. - Graphical Abstract: The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb, Cs, and NH{sub 4}) single crystals have been investigated. Highlights: > The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) crystals {yields} The NMR spectra and the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei in the two crystals {yields} The variations in the symmetry of the octahedra of water molecules surrounding Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +}.

Lim, Ae Ran, E-mail: aeranlim@hanmail.net [Department of Science Education, Jeonju University, Jeonju 560-759 (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Younkee [Solid State Analysis Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kye-Young [Department of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Electronic structure and fundamental absorption edges of KPb2Br5, K0.5Rb0.5Pb2Br5, and RbPb2Br5 single crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar+-ion irradiated (001) surfaces of KPb2Br5, K0.5Rb0.5Pb2Br5, and RbPb2Br5 single crystals grown by the Bridgman method have been measured and fundamental absorption edges of the ternary bromides have been recorded in the polarized light at 300 K and 80 K. The present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal high chemical stability of (001) surfaces of KxRb1?xPb2Br5 (x=0, 0.5, and 1.0) single crystals. Substitution of potassium for rubidium in KxRb1?xPb2Br5 does not cause any changes of binding energy values and shapes of the XPS constituent element core-level spectra. Measurements of the fundamental absorption edges indicate that band gap energy, Eg, increases by about 0.14 and 0.19 eV when temperature decreases from 300 K to 80 K in \\{KPb2Br5\\} and RbPb2Br5, respectively. Furthermore, there is no dependence of the Eg value for \\{KPb2Br5\\} upon the light polarization, whilst the band gap energy value for RbPb2Br5 is bigger by 0.03–0.05 eV in the case of E?c compared to those in the cases of E?a and E?b.

A.Yu. Tarasova; L.I. Isaenko; V.G. Kesler; V.M. Pashkov; A.P. Yelisseyev; N.M. Denysyuk; O.Yu. Khyzhun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tritium in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results on infrared and luminescence measurements of tritium incorporated amorphous silicon are reported. Tritium is an unstable isotope that readily substitutes hydrogen in the amorphous silicon network. Due to its greater mass, bonded tritium is found to introduce new stretching modes in the infrared spectrum. Inelastic collisions between the beta particles, produced as a result of tritium decay, and the amorphous silicon network, results in the generation of excess electron-hole pairs. Radiative recombination of these carriers is observed.

Sidhu, L.S.; Kosteski, T.; O`Leary, S.K.; Gaspari, F.; Zukotynski, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Kherani, N.P.; Shmadya, W. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal Immobilization, and Catalytic Applications. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

368

Highly Efficient Silicon Light Emitting Diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap

Leminh Holleman Wallinga; P. Leminh; J. Holleman; H. Wallinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

SOLAR MARKET POWERS SILICON  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SOLAR MARKET POWERS SILICON ... Polysilicon shortages are boon to manufacturers, bane of solar energy industry ... Solar energy is a relatively new market for polysilicon manufacturers. ...

JEAN-FRA&CCEDIL;NOIS TREMBLAY

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

370

Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Design and analysis of the internally cooled silicon mirrors and benders for wiggler sources at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

When silicon single crystal mirrors are bent to cylindrical figures of typically 6 km bending radius, the moments needed are very small and easy to disturb by cooling attachments to the sides of the mirror. Hence, we decided to abandon the conventional concept of cooling plates attached to the sides of the mirrors and instead have chosen to use internal water channels. We present here the design of mirrors with cooling channels near the neutral axis of the silicon beam that have a rather thick {open_quote}{open_quote}hot wall.{close_quote}{close_quote} The results of this analytical work are nonintuitive, regarding the stresses produced by wiggler heating. The design path chosen minimizes figure errors due to coolant pressure variations and residual stresses from machining and bonding of multiple layers of silicon. The geometry of the water channels avoids water-to-vacuum seals and uses the mirror bender as the coolant manifold. Engineering efforts, which reduce the bending stresses at bender-to-silicon interface by a factor of five, will be presented. The complete mirror bender and motion control mechanics will be shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Schildkamp, W.; Jaski, Y. [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tonnessen, T.; Douglas, G. [Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations, 2511 C. Broadbent Parkway, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States)] [Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations, 2511 C. Broadbent Parkway, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Hypersonic and dielectric anomalies of ,,Pb,,Zn1/3Nb2/3...O3...0.905,,PbTiO3...0.095 single crystal Chi-Shun Tu, F.-C. Chao, C.-H. Yeh, and C.-L. Tsai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hypersonic and dielectric anomalies of ,,Pb,,Zn1/3Nb2/3...O3...0.905,,PbTiO3...0.095 single crystal scattering and dielectric permittivity on PZN-9.5%PT to look for both hypersonic and dielectric anomalies

373

Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin-film silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect

We have measured and analyzed the optical characteristics of a series of silicon nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made by using a two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulator ellipsometer that measures N, S, and C data simultaneously. The data were fit to a model consisting of air / roughness / SiN / crystalline silicon. The roughness was modeled using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation, assuming 50% SiN, 50% voids. The optical functions of the SiN film were parameterized using a model by Jellison and Modine. All the {Chi}{sup 2} are near 1, demonstrating that this model works extremely well for all SiN films. The measured dielectric functions were used to make optimized SiN antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells.

Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Modine, F.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A. [Georiga Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Thermally Oxidized Silicon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the lattice. The outline of four silicon unit cells is shown in black, whereas the outline of four expanded lattice cells in the oxide is shown in blue One of the most studied devices of modern technology is the field-effect transistor, which is the basis for most integrated circuits. At its heart

375

Performance Testing using Silicon Devices - Analysis of Accuracy: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Accurately determining PV module performance in the field requires accurate measurements of solar irradiance reaching the PV panel (i.e., Plane-of-Array - POA Irradiance) with known measurement uncertainty. Pyranometers are commonly based on thermopile or silicon photodiode detectors. Silicon detectors, including PV reference cells, are an attractive choice for reasons that include faster time response (10 us) than thermopile detectors (1 s to 5 s), lower cost and maintenance. The main drawback of silicon detectors is their limited spectral response. Therefore, to determine broadband POA solar irradiance, a pyranometer calibration factor that converts the narrowband response to broadband is required. Normally this calibration factor is a single number determined under clear-sky conditions with respect to a broadband reference radiometer. The pyranometer is then used for various scenarios including varying airmass, panel orientation and atmospheric conditions. This would not be an issue if all irradiance wavelengths that form the broadband spectrum responded uniformly to atmospheric constituents. Unfortunately, the scattering and absorption signature varies widely with wavelength and the calibration factor for the silicon photodiode pyranometer is not appropriate for other conditions. This paper reviews the issues that will arise from the use of silicon detectors for PV performance measurement in the field based on measurements from a group of pyranometers mounted on a 1-axis solar tracker. Also we will present a comparison of simultaneous spectral and broadband measurements from silicon and thermopile detectors and estimated measurement errors when using silicon devices for both array performance and resource assessment.

Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Status and Future of Silicon Photovoltaics Presented at: Renewable energies in the service of humanity: the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shortage Excess Capacity 81% Progress Ratio Historical Module Price Experience Curve #12;Solar PV History companies Oil companies Japanese companies Japanese roof program German FIT #12;0,60 6,00 60,00 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 ModulePrice(2010$/W) Cumulative Production (MW) 1979 $33.69/W 2012 $0.85/W Silicon

Canet, Léonie

377

Graphene-Silicon Schottky Diodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene-Silicon Schottky Diodes ... We have fabricated graphene-silicon Schottky diodes by depositing mechanically exfoliated graphene on top of silicon substrates. ... The I–V characteristics measured at 100, 300, and 400 K indicate that temperature strongly influences the ideality factor of graphene–silicon Schottky diodes. ...

Chun-Chung Chen; Mehmet Aykol; Chia-Chi Chang; A. F. J. Levi; Stephen B. Cronin

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

378

Tensile stress induced depolarization in [001]-poled transverse mode Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} -(6-7)%PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the effects of electrically induced and direct tensile stress on the deformation and dielectric properties of Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-(6-7)%PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals of [110]{sup L}x[001]{sup T} cut by using a unimorph sample and a four-point-bend (FPB) sample, respectively. The results show a dip in tip displacement for the unimorph sample at sufficiently high electric field parallel to the poling field direction and a sudden rise in capacitance for the FPB sample at sufficiently high tensile stress in the [110] crystal direction, respectively. These phenomena are attributed to the tensile stress induced rhombohedral-to-orthorhombic phase transition and associated depolarization events in the crystal. For the said crystal cut, the obtained tensile depoling stress is in the range of 15-20 MPa. The present work furthermore shows that the occurrence of tensile stress-induced depolarization is possible even when the direction of the applied electric field is parallel to the poling field direction, as in the unimorph sample examined.

Shukla, Rahul [Suman Mashruwala Advanced Microengineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Lim, Leong-Chew [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Microfine Materials Technologies Pte. Ltd., 10 Bukit Batok Crescent, 06-02 The Spire, Singapore 658079 (Singapore); Gandhi, Prasanna [Suman Mashruwala Advanced Microengineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Synthesis and characterization of alkali-metal titanium alkoxide compounds MTi(O-i-Pr) sub 5 (M = Li, Na, K): Single-crystal x-ray diffraction structure of (LiTi(O-i-Pr) sub 5 ) sub 2  

SciTech Connect

The series (MTi(O-iPr){sub 5}), M = Li, Na, or K, has been prepared by the reaction of MO-i-Pr with Ti(O-i-Pr){sub 4}. A single-crystal x-ray diffraction study revealed that (LiTi(O-i-Pr){sub 5}) crystallizes from toluene at {minus}30{degree}C in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n, with unit cell dimensions a = 11.440 (8) {angstrom}, b = 16.396 (13) {angstrom}, c = 11.838 (8) {angstrom}, {beta} = 92.59 (5){degree}, and Z = 4, as a dimer containing two approximately trigonal-bipyramidal titanium centers linked by lithium bridges. In benzene solution, all three compounds are dimeric, as revealed by cryoscopic molecular weight determination, and all three undergo an alkoxide ligand exchange process that is rapid on the {sup 1}H NMR time scale at room temperature. The positions of {nu}(M-O) are assigned based on the low-energy shifts observed upon deuteriation of the isopropoxide ligands. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Williams, D.S. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (USA)); Rheingold, A.L. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA))

1990-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

380

Large magnetic penetration depth and thermal fluctuations in a superconducting Ca10(Pt3As8)[(Fe1 xPtx)2As2]5 (x = 0.097) single crystal  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the temperature dependence of the absolute value of the magnetic penetration depth {lambda}(T) in a Ca{sub 10}(Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8})[(Fe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}]{sub 5} (x = 0.097) single crystal using a low-temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM). We obtain {lambda}{sub ab}(0) {approx} 1000 nm via extrapolating the data to T = 0. This large {lambda} and pronounced anisotropy in this system are responsible for large thermal fluctuations and the presence of a liquid vortex phase in this low-temperature superconductor with a critical temperature of 11 K, consistent with the interpretation of the electrical transport data. The superconducting parameters obtained from {lambda} and coherence length {zeta} place this compound in the extreme type II regime. Meissner responses (via MFM) at different locations across the sample are similar to each other, indicating good homogeneity of the superconducting state on a submicron scale.

Kim J.; Nazaretski E.; Ronning, F.; Haberkorn, N.; Civale, L.; Ni, N.; Cava, R.J.; Thompson, J.D.; Movshovich, R.

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Temperature dependence of structural parameters in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}: single crystal X-ray studies from 295 to 900K  

SciTech Connect

Crystallographic space group, structural parameters and their thermal changes in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} were investigated using high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments in the temperature range of 295=

Okudera, Hiroki [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, DE-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: h.okudera@fkf.mpg.de; Yoshiasa, Akira [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Masubuchi, Yuuji [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Higuchi, Mikio [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kikkawa, Shinichi [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Ge/SiGe quantum well devices for light modulation, detection, and emission.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This PhD thesis is devoted to study electro-optic properties of Gemanium/Silicon-Germanium (Ge/SiGe) multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for light modulation, detection, and emission on Si platform.… (more)

Chaisakul, Papichaya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Measurements on ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators: contrast ratio and speed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contrast ratio and the speed of a 16 × 16 electrically addressed spatial light modulator, composed of a ferroelectric liquid-crystal layer on top of a VLSI silicon backplane, are...

Collings, N; Gourlay, J; Vass, D G; White, H J; Stace, C; Proudley, G M

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System  

SciTech Connect

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, <100>, <110> and <111>) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W {center_dot} cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated with 500 nm thin-film silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), has been fabricated. The window consists of 81 square panes with a thickness of 0.019 mm {+-} 0.001 mm. Stiffened (orthogonal) sections are 0.065 mm in width and 0.500 mm thick (approximate). Appended drawing (Figure 1) depicts the window configuration. Assessment of silicon (and silicon nitride) material properties and CAD modeling and analysis of the window design suggest that silicon may be a viable solution to inherent parameters and constraints.

C.A. Gentile; H.M. Fan; J.W. Hartfield; R.J. Hawryluk; F. Hegeler; P.J. Heitzenroeder; C.H. Jun; L.P. Ku; P.H. LaMarche; M.C. Myers; J.J. Parker; R.F. Parsells; M. Payen; S. Raftopoulos; J.D. Sethian

2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

385

CDF Run IIb silicon: Stave design and testing  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Silicon Vertex Detectors (SVX) have been shown to be excellent tools for heavy flavor physics, with the secondary vertex detection and good vertex resolution.The CDF RunIIb Silicon Vertex Detector (SVXIIb) was designed to be a radiation tolerant replacement for the current SVXII which was not anticipated to survive the projected Run II luminosity dose. The outer five layers use identical structural elements, called staves, to support six silicon sensors on each side. The stave is composed of carbon fiber skins on a foam core with a built-in cooling tube. Copper on Kapton bus cable carriers power and data/control signals underneath three silicon modules on each side of the stave. A Hybrid equipped with four new SVX4 chips are used to readout two silicon sensors on each module which can be readout and tested independently. This new design concept leads to a very compact mechanical and electrical detecting unit, allowing streamline production and ease of testing and installation. A description of the design and mechanical performance of the stave is given. They also present here results on the electrical performance obtained using prototype staves as well as results with the first pre-production parts.

Rong-Shyang Lu

2003-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

Results of I-V Curves and Visual Inspection of PV Modules Deployed at TEP Solar Test Yard (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the PV Service Life Prediction project is to examine and report on how solar modules are holding up after being in the field for 5 or more years. This poster presents the common problems crystalline-silicon and thin-film modules exhibit, including details of modules from three manufactures that were tested January 13-16, 2014.

McNutt, P.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Miller, D.; Stoltenberg, B.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single...

388

Electronic conduction through single crystals of polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May, 1966 Major Subjects Physics ELECTRONIC CONDUCTION THROUGH SINGLE CRYSTRLS OF POLYETHYLENE k Thesis By Gerald Maurice Samson Approved as to style and content by: naen of the Committee ad of the D artment ber ber c- The autho. u... talc o Polyot! ylone . -y, i'oo Gerald !':cur"' co Samson Directed by: Zr. Joe S. The predominant conduction mechani m through single cryo' mls op polyethylene is shown to be Schott!cy ( hernal) oui "sion . or tompora- o tu. es - bove 0 C. . "or...

Samson, Gerald Maurice

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Photo-effects in iodine single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects 29 29 29 34 34 4D CHAPTER V. DISCUSSIGN A. Dark EMF Values B. photo EMP Spectral Response D. Tenperature Dependence 42 42 44 45 APPENDIX A . Tabulation of Driginal Experlnsntal Data B. Changes in Dark end I hoto EMP... with Tenperature 50 58 54 REFKRENCES LIST OP TABLES Table Effects of various gaseous amhients on dark and photo emf values Page 31 II Effects of cooling on dark and photo emf values 33 vi LIST OF PIGVRES Figure Possible photo-transitions in sn...

Rieves, John Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

390

High-Pressure Single-Crystal Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...systems such as water, methanol, formic acid, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane...cryostat or a furnace. It is still worth mentioning some older reviews covering...However, due to the high world-market prize of large diamonds and the fact...

Ronald Miletich; David R. Allan; Werner F. Kuhs

391

Molecular Transformations on Single Crystal Metal Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ACIDITIES OF GAS-PHASE ACIDS FOR DISPLACEMENT OF SURFACE...THERMAL-DESORPTION STUDY OF FORMIC-ACID DECOMPOSITION ON A CLEAN...In forward-looking markets the exchange rate will...spectrum (TPRS) for formic acid reaction with Cu(110...

R. J. MADIX

1986-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

392

Shock Driven Twinning in Tantalum Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Recovery based observations of high pressure material behavior generated under high explosively driven flyer based loading conditions are reported. Two shock pressures, 25, and 55 GPa and four orientations {l_brace}(100), (110), (111), (123){r_brace} were considered. Recovered material was characterized using electron backscatter diffraction along with a limited amount of transmission electron microscopy to assess the occurrence of twinning under each test condition. Material recovered from 25 GPa had a very small fraction of twinning for the (100), (110), and (111) oriented crystals while a more noticeable fraction of the (123) oriented crystal was twinned. Material recovered from 55 GPa showed little twinning for (100) orientation slightly more for the (111) orientation and a large area fraction for the (123) orientation. The EBSD and TEM observations of the underlying deformation substructure are rationalized by comparing with previous static and dynamic results.

McNaney, J M; HSUING, L M; Barton, N R; Kumar, M

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

393

Two?dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies on a single crystal of l?alanine. Separation of the local dipolar fields; and 2D exchange spectroscopy of the 1 4N relaxation processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two types of 2DNMR techniques namely separated local field 2DNMR (SLF 2DNMR) and 2D exchange NMR spectroscopy were applied to a single crystal of l?alanine at room temperature. In the SLF 2DNMR experiments we found that the 1 3C–1H dipolar field at the C?carbon nucleus could be separated not only from the chemical shift interaction but also from the 1 3C?–1 4N dipolar field. The angular variation of the 1 3C?–1H dipolar splitting was measured when the static magnetic field was rotated about three orthogonal axes (a b and c axes). The 1 3C??1H dipolar coupling tensor was determined and the C?–H bond length was evaluated to be 1.073 Å. In the 2D exchange NMR experiment for C?carbon nucleus the off?diagonal cross peaks due to the single quantum and the double quantum transitions for the spin?lattice relaxation processes of the adjacent 1 4N nucleus were observed. The single quantum transition rate constant was evaluated to be 0.8 s? 1 and the double quantum transition rate constant was estimated to be much smaller. Inspection of the experimental results of the 2D exchange NMR together with the theory indicates that (1) the double quantum cross peaks which appeared when a long mixing time (? m =1.0 s) was used is brought about by two consecutive single quantum processes and (2) the main spin?lattice relaxation process of the NH+ 3 nitrogen nucleus is the fluctuation of 1 4N–1H dipolar interaction rather than the fluctuation of 1 4N quadrupole interaction.

A. Naito; P. B. Barker; C. A. McDowell

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide...

395

Optical properties of nanostructured silicon-rich silicon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have conducted a study of the optical properties of sputtered silicon-rich silicon dioxide (SRO) thin films with specific application for the fabrication of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers, polarization ...

Stolfi, Michael Anthony

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Akros Silicon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Akros Silicon Akros Silicon Jump to: navigation, search Name Akros Silicon Place Folsom, California Zip 95630 Product Akros Silicon specilizes in fabless semicondutors used for Power Over Ethernet, networks, and broadband. References Akros Silicon[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Akros Silicon is a company located in Folsom, California . References ↑ "Akros Silicon" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Akros_Silicon&oldid=341960" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

397

Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are usually called LCOS spatial light modulators (SLMs). The architecture of LCOS devices is similar to conventional LC devices except that a silicon backplane constitutes one of the substrates (Figure 1). The silicon CMOS backplane consists of the electronic... transform processors make the holographic projection technology a practical proposition. Alps Electric UK and Light Blue Optics95 are two companies currently developing holographic projec- tors, automotive head-up displays, interactive projectors, etc...

Zhang, Zichen; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

398

Laser doping of silicon carbide substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A direct-write laser conversion technique was used to produce n-type and p-type doped tracks on SiC substrates. Polycrystalline and single-crystal SiC substrates were investigated. The tracks irradiated in an ...

I. A. Salama; N. R. Quick; A. Kar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Electrochemical thinning of silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

Medernach, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electrochemical thinning of silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

Medernach, J.W.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Module Basics Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with wavelengths from 350 to 1200 nm. Also, reflection from the front surface should be minimal. An antireflection coating added to the top surface can greatly reduce the reflection of sunlight, and texturing of the surface can cause light that strikes the surface to stay within the cells. Unfortunately, these textured

402

A solar module fabrication process for HALE solar electric UAVs  

SciTech Connect

We describe a fabrication process used to manufacture high power-to-weight-ratio flexible solar array modules for use on high-altitude-long-endurance (HALE) solar-electric unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). These modules have achieved power-to-weight ratios of 315 and 396 W/kg for 150{mu}m-thick monofacial and 110{mu}m-thick bifacial silicon solar cells, respectively. These calculations reflect average module efficiencies of 15.3% (150{mu}m) and 14.7% (110{mu}m) obtained from electrical tests performed by Spectrolab, Inc. under AMO global conditions at 25{degrees}C, and include weight contributions from all module components (solar cells, lamination material, bypass diodes, interconnect wires, and adhesive tape used to attach the modules to the wing). The fabrication, testing, and performance of 32 m{sup 2} of these modules will be described.

Carey, P.G.; Aceves, R.C.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sinton, R.A. [Private Consultant, San Jose, CA (United States); Glenn, G.S. [Spectrolab, Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

1994-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

In-situ Studies of the Reactions of Bifunctional and Heterocyclic Molecules over Noble Metal Single Crystal and Nanoparticle Catalysts Studied with Kinetics and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in combination with gas chromatography (GC) was used in-situ to monitor surface bound reaction intermediates and reaction selectivities for the hydrogenation reactions of pyrrole, furan, pyridine, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal over Pt(111), Pt(100), Rh(111), and platinum nanoparticles under Torr reactant pressures and temperatures of 300K to 450K. The focus of this work is the correlation between the SFG-VS observed surface bound reaction intermediates and adsorption modes with the reaction selectivity, and how this is affected by catalyst structure and temperature. Pyrrole hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Rh(111) single crystals at Torr pressures. It was found that pyrrole adsorbs to Pt(111) perpendicularly by cleaving the N-H bond and binding through the nitrogen. However, over Rh(111) pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry binding through the {pi}-aromatic orbitals. A surface-bound pyrroline reaction intermediate was detected over both surfaces with SFG-VS. It was found that the ring-cracking product butylamine is a reaction poison over both surfaces studied. Furan hydrogenation was studied over Pt(111), Pt(100), 10 nm cubic platinum nanoparticles and 1 nm platinum nanoparticles. The product distribution was observed to be highly structure sensitive and the acquired SFG-VS spectra reflected this sensitivity. Pt(100) exhibited more ring-cracking to form butanol than Pt(111), while the nanoparticles yielded higher selectivities for the partially saturated ring dihydrofuran. Pyridine hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Pt(100). The {alpha}-pyridyl surface adsorption mode was observed with SFG-VS over both surfaces. 1,4-dihydropyridine was seen as a surface intermediate over Pt(100) but not Pt(111). Upon heating the surfaces to 350K, the adsorbed pyridine changes to a flat-lying adsorption mode. No evidence was found for the pyridinium cation. The hydrogenation of the {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal were investigated over Pt(111) and Pt(100). The selectivity for the hydrogenation of the C=C bond was found to depend on the number of methyl groups added to the bond. The adsorption modes of the three aldehydes were determined. The hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde was found to be nearly structure insensitive as the TOF and selectivity were very close to the same over Pt(111) and Pt(100). SFG-VS indicated identical surface intermediates over the two crystal faces during crotonaldehyde hydrogenation.

Kliewer, Christopher J.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

TOB Module Assembly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SiTracker Home Page Participating Institutions and Principal Contacts Useful Links Notes Images TOB Module Assembly and Testing Project TOB Integration Data Tracker Offline DQM LHC Fluence Calculator Total US Modules Tested Graph Total US Modules Tested Graph Total US Modules Tested Total US Modules Tested US Modules Tested Graph US Modules Tested Graph US Modules Tested US Modules Tested Rod Assembly TOB Modules on a Rod TOB Rod Insertion Installation of a TOB Rod Completed TOB Completed Tracker Outer Barrel TOB Module Assembly and Testing Project All 5208 modules of the CMS Tracker Outer Barrel were assembled and tested at two production sites in the US: the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the University of California at Santa Barbara. The modules were delivered to CERN in the form of rods, with the last shipment taking

405

Nd1+?Fe4B4: A composition-modulated compound with incommensurate composite crystal structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nd1+?Fe4B4 crystallizes with the tetragonal Sm1+?Fe4B4 structure type. It is characterized by two interpenetrating metal substructures with incommensurate translation periods, cNd and cFe. The structure is approximated using a superstructure model of composition Nd19(Fe4B4)17 with c?19cNd?17cFe=66.2(1) A?, and refined from single-crystal x-ray data to a consistency index of R=0.12 (2800 contributing reflections, 139 refined parameters). The results reveal rotational and displacive modulations of the Fe tetrahedra chains, Nd atom strings, and B atom pairs. Their periods can be expressed by Lrot=2Ldis=1/(1/crNd-1/cFe). High-resolution electron microscopy reveals 17-A?-spaced Moiré-type fringes, but no commensurately spaced structure segments.

A. Bezinge, H. F. Braun, and J. Muller

1987-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Silicon Cells | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cells Cells Jump to: navigation, search Name Silicon Cells Place United Kingdom Product Technology developer based upon a low cost method of processing silicon to produce a new generation of high energy density batteries. References Silicon Cells[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Silicon Cells is a company located in United Kingdom . References ↑ "Silicon Cells" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Silicon_Cells&oldid=351081" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs

407

Modified silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

1991-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modified silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Lindemer, Terrence B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Fabrication and properties of microporous silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microporous silicon layers were fabricated by electrochemical etching of single crystalline silicon wafers in HF-ethanol solutions. The pore properties of porous silicon were examined by physical adsorption of nitrogen and the relationship between...

Shao, Jianzhong

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Heterojunction Silicon Microwire Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heterojunction Silicon Microwire Solar Cells ... § Center for Advanced Photovoltaic Devices and Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada ...

Majid Gharghi; Ehsanollah Fathi; Boubacar Kante; Siva Sivoththaman; Xiang Zhang

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

411

21.9% efficient silicon bifacial solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the efficiency of bifacial silicon solar cells and mini-modules fabricated at SunPower Corp. The best cell has AM1.5G front efficiency of 21.9% and rear efficiency of 13.9%. The mini-modules, each containing 20 bifacial cells, attain efficiency as high as the average efficiency of their individual cells. The best module has AM1.5G front efficiency of 20.66% and rear efficiency of 10.54%. Optical properties of the bifacial cells have also been measured and analyzed. The results show that bifacial cells, compared to monofacial cells, absorb less infrared light and thus they can operate at lower temperature in space.

Zhou, C.Z.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.M. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Sinton, R.A. [Sinton Consulting, San Jose, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

413

Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

As a candidate material for fusion reactor applications, silicon carbide (SiC) undergoes transmutation reactions under high-energy neutron irradiation with magnesium as the major metallic transmutant; the others include aluminum, beryllium and phosphorus in addition to helium and hydrogen gaseous species. The impact of these transmutants on SiC structural stability is currently unknown. This study uses ion implantation to introduce Mg into SiC. Multiaxial ion-channeling analysis of the as-produced damage state suggests that there are preferred Si <100> interstitial splits. The microstructure of the annealed sample was examined using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results show a high concentration of likely non-faulted tetrahedral voids and possible stacking fault tetrahedra near the damage peak. In addition to lattice distortion, dislocations and intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults are also observed. Magnesium in 3C-SiC prefers to substitute for Si and it forms precipitates of cubic Mg2Si and tetragonal MgC2. The diffusion coefficient of Mg in 3C-SiC single crystal at 1573 K has been determined to be 3.8±0.4×10e-19 m2/sec.

Jiang, Weilin; Jung, Hee Joon; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zhaoying; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Zhu, Zihua; Edwards, Danny J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power Stories of Discovery & Innovation Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power Enlarge Photo Courtesy of University of Illinois Mechanically flexible, high efficiency solar module that uses an interconnected array of microscale GaAs photovoltaic cells, grown in a multilayer stack on a wafer and then printed onto a sheet of plastic. Enlarge Photo 04.15.11 Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power New method of fabricating semiconductors from gallium arsenide promises more affordable solar power, improved semiconductor devices. The biggest single barrier to widespread adoption of solar power continues to be the cost of solar cells. University of Illinois materials scientists supported by the DOE Office of Science have scored a

415

Recent developments in silicon calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC.

Brau, J.E.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Wanxiang Silicon Peak Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wanxiang Silicon Peak Electronics Co Ltd Wanxiang Silicon Peak Electronics Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Wanxiang Silicon-Peak Electronics Co Ltd Place Kaihua, Zhejiang Province, China Zip 324300 Sector Solar Product Maker of monocrystalline silicon ingots and wafers and subsidiary of the Wanxiang Group which includes solar cell and module maker Wanxiang Solar. Coordinates 29.140209°, 118.405113° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.140209,"lon":118.405113,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

417

An investigation on the effect of porosity on the transport properties of porous silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microelectronics technology today is dominated exclusively by Silicon (Si). The inefficiency of Si to emit light even at cryogenic temperatures has been overcome with the discovery of porous silicon (PS) and its visible luminescence at room temperature. The present investigation aims at analysing the effect of increasing porosity on the transport properties of porous silicon with reference to field and temperature-dependent dark and photo conductivity and further substantiating the results with modulation techniques. Pure silicon wafer of n-type was made porous by immersion in an appropriate etchant for a few minutes. The conductivity was found to increase as porosity increased and this effect could be attributed to the increase in the trap levels, with increasing porosity. Temperature-dependent studies reveal a decrease in activation energy with increase in porosity indicating an increase in conductivity. Reflectance and electroreflectance measurements were used to calculate the band gap of porous silicon. It was found to lie closer to the direct band gap of silicon. A reduction in the band gap of porous silicon has been observed.

J. Merline Shyla; Francis P. Xavier; P. Sagayaraj

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Black Silicon Solar Thin-film Microcells Integrating Top Nanocone Structures for Broadband and Omnidirectional Light-Trapping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells (u-cell) can be assembled into modules with characteristics (i.e., mechanically flexible forms, compact concentrator designs, and high-voltage outputs) that would be impossible to achieve using conventional, wafer-based approaches. In this paper, we describe a highly dense, uniform and non-periodic nanocone forest structure of black silicon (bSi) created on optically-thin (30 um) u-cells for broadband and omnidirectional light-trapping with a lithography-free and high-throughput plasma texturizing process. With optimized plasma etching conditions and a silicon nitride passivation layer, black silicon u-cells, when embedded in a polymer waveguiding layer, display dramatic increases of as much as 65.7% in short circuit current, as compared to a bare silicon device. The conversion efficiency increases from 8% to 11.5% with a small drop in open circuit voltage and fill factor.

Xu, Zhida; Brueckner, Eric P; Li, Lanfang; Jiang, Jing; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Liu, Gang L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

NERSC Modules Software Environment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environment » Modules Environment Environment » Modules Environment Modules Software Environment NERSC uses the module utility to manage nearly all software. There are two huge advantages of the module approach: NERSC can provide many different versions and/or installations of a single software package on a given machine, including a default version as well as several older and newer versions; and Users can easily switch to different versions or installations without having to explicitly specify different paths. With modules, the MANPATH and related environment variables are automatically managed. Users simply ``load'' and ``unload'' modules to control their environment. The module utility consists of two parts: the module command itself and the modulefiles on which it operates. Module Command

420

Modulational effects in accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed.

Satogata, T.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cordierite silicon nitride filters  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. (Acurex Environmental Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. (Aerotherm Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. (GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Crystalline silicon growth in nickel/a-silicon bilayer  

SciTech Connect

The effect of substrate temperature on amorphous Silicon crystallization, mediated by metal impurity is reported. Bilayers of Ni(200nm)/Si(400nm) are deposited on fused silica substrate by electron beam evaporator at 200 and 500 Degree-Sign C. Raman mapping shows that, 2 to 5 micron size crystalline silicon clusters are distributed over the entire surface of the sample. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies demonstrate silicon crystallizes over the metal silicide seeds and grow with the annealing temperature.

Mohiddon, Md Ahamad; Naidu, K. Lakshun [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India) and Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 POVO (Trento) (Italy); Dalba, G. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 POVO (Trento) (Italy); Rocca, F. [IFN-CNR, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Unit FBK-Photonics of Trento, 38123, Trento (Italy); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

425

Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Phoenix, AZ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Development of tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film large-area see-through color solar panels with reflective layer and 4-step laser scribing for building-integrated photovoltaic applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film large-area see-through color solar modules were successfully designed and developed for building-integrated photovoltaic applications. Novel and key technologies of reflective layers and ...

Chin-Yi Tsai, Chin-Yao Tsai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Fabrication of porous silicon membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In step 1, the surface of silicon is covered with fluorine ions. In step 2, when an electric field is applied across the interface, holes move towards the surface. In step 3, some of the holes are trapped at the surface, and they weaken the silicon...-silicon bonds. In step 4, thermal energy swings away the Si-F groups exposing the holes. In step 5, fluorine ions occupy the holes and release their charges. In the dissolution, Step 3 through Step 5 is repeated, and SiFz is removed from the reacting site...

Yue, Wing Kong

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

429

Concentrator silicon cell research  

SciTech Connect

This project continued the developments of high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cells with the goal of achieving a cell efficiency in the 26 to 27 percent range at a concentration level of 150 suns of greater. The target efficiency was achieved with the new PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cell structure, but only at low concentration levels around 20 suns. The PERL structure combines oxide passivation of both top and rear surfaces of the cells with small area contact to heavily doped regions on the top and rear surfaces. Efficiency in the 22 to 23 percent range was also demonstrated for large-area concentrator cells fabricated with the buried contact solar cell processing sequence, either when combined with prismatic covers or with other innovative approaches to reduce top contact shadowing. 19 refs.

Green, M.A.; Wenham, S.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Solar Photovoltaic Lab.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Silicone plesiotherapy molds  

SciTech Connect

Plesiotherapy, the treatment of superficial lesions by radioactive molds has largely been replaced by teletherapy techniques involving high energy photon and electron beams. There are, however, situations for which a short distance type treatment, in one form or another, is superior to any other presently available. Traditionally, molds have taken the form of rigid devices incorporating clamps to attach them to the patient. This ensures a reproducible geometry about a localized region since the molds are applied on a daily basis. To make such devices requires considerable skill and patience. This article describes an alternative method that eliminates the use of cumbersome devices in many situations. Silicone molds made from a plaster cast model have been found suitable for the treatment of surface lesions and especially for lesions in the oral and nasal cavities. With the use of radioactive gold seeds the molds may be left in place for a few days without fear of them moving.

Karolis, C.; Reay-Young, P.S.; Walsh, W.; Velautham, G.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Rheology of silicon carbide/vinyl ester nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New York, 1999. SILICON CARBIDE/VINYL ESTER NANOCOMPOSITESRheology of Silicon Carbide/Vinyl Ester NanocompositesABSTRACT: Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles with no

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The silicon pixel detector (SPD) for the ALICE experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the inner tracking system (ITS). The basic building block of the SPD is the half-stave carrying two detector ladders. The half-stave is equipped with a multi-chip module (MCM) and an optical fibre link for control and readout. A 5-layer aluminium/polyimide bus ensures the distribution of power and signals on each half-stave. The half-staves are mounted on a light-weight carbon-fibre structure with an integrated evaporative cooling system. An overview of the SPD development and the current status of the construction are presented.

V Manzari; the SPD project in the ALICE Collaboration; G Anelli; F Antinori; A Boccardi; G E Bruno; M Burns; I A Cali; M Campbell; M Caselle; P Chochula; M Cinausero; A Dalessandro; R Dima; R Dinapoli; D Elia; D Fabris; R A Fini; E Fioretto; F Formenti; B Ghidini; S Kapusta; A Kluge; M Krivda; V Lenti; F Librizzi; M Lunardon; V Manzari; M Morel; S Moretto; F Navach; P Nilsson; A Olmos Giner; F Osmic; G S Pappalardo; A Pepato; G Prete; P Riedler; R Santoro; F Scarlassara; G Segato; L Šándor; F Soramel; G Stefanini; R Turrisi; L Vannucci; G Viesti; T Virgili

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

module 4 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

module 4 module 4 HR5 TRANSITION BRIEFING module 4 More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Rev5functionalaccountabilityimplementationplan..doc Management (WFP) DEPARTMENT OF...

434

Silicon Carbide, SiC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon carbide occurring naturally as hexagonal crystals and associated with diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon was first reported in 1904/05 by Moissan as a component of the hydrochloric acid insoluble ...

Vera Haase; Gerhard Kirschstein; Hildegard List; Sigrid Ruprecht…

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Module Handbook Specialisation Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar cell Real solar cells Silicon solar cells: crystalline, multicrystalline, amorphous Cells: CdTe and CIGS technologies. Organic solar cells. Part 2: Fabrication Methods Crystal defects Theory Fabrication methods Solar cell properties Cell research and pilot productions facilities

Habel, Annegret

436

Direct Production of Silicones From Sand  

SciTech Connect

Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Modulating lignin in plants  

SciTech Connect

Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

439

Design and development of a silicon-segmented detector for 2D dose measurements in radiotherapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and protontherapy, require detectors with specific features, usually not available in conventional dosimeters. IMRT dose measurements, for instance, must face non-uniform beam fluences as well as a time-varying dose rate. Two-dimensional detectors present a great interest for dosimetry in beams with steep dose gradients, but they must satisfy a number of requirements and, in particular, they must exhibit high spatial resolution. With the aim of developing a dosimetric system adequate for 2D pre-treatment dose verifications, we designed a modular dosimetric device based on a monolithic silicon-segmented module. State and results of this work in progress are described in this article. The first 441 pixels, 6.29×6.29 cm2 silicon module has been produced by ion implantation on a 50 ?m thick p-type epitaxial layer. This sensor has been connected to a discrete readout electronics performing current integration, and has been tested with satisfactory results. In the final configuration, nine silicon modules will be assembled together to cover an area close to 20×20 cm2 with 3969 channels. In this case, the readout electronics will be based on an ASIC capable to read 64 channels by performing current-to-frequency conversion.

David Menichelli; Mara Bruzzi; Marta Bucciolini; Cinzia Talamonti; Marta Casati; Livia Marrazzo; Mauro Tesi; Claudio Piemonte; Alberto Pozza; Nicola Zorzi; Mirko Brianzi; Antonio De Sio

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

BY SILICON CRYSTALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

c October 29, 1942 a 1 1 _MIGH aECTgFXCATIOH - BY SILICON CRYSTALS . . c .. I n. The excellent pesformmce of Brftieh "red dot" c r y s t a l s f e explained R R due t o the kgife edge contact i n a t A polfehod ~ X ' f l i C B o H i g h frequency m c t l f f c n t f o n 8ependre c r i t i c a l l y on the ape%e;y of the rectifytnc boundary layer o f the crystal, C, For hl#$ comvere~on e f f i c i e n c y , the product c d t h i ~ capacity m a o f ' t h e @forward" (bulk) re-. sistance Rb o f the crystnl must b@ sm%P, depende primarily on the breadth of tha b f f e edge i t s lbngth. The contact am &harefore ~ E L V Q a rather large area wMQh prevents burn-out, thh3 t h e breadth of &h@ knife edge should be bdt8~1 than E~$O$B% % f I - ' amo For a knife edge, this produet very 14ttle upom For a wavsIL~n+3tih of PO emo the eowp,o%a%8sne 4

442

Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45°, -45°, and dendritic crack patterns. The effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics (SPVs). The use of thinner silicon in SPV technologies is being widely adopted because it significantly reduces costs; however, silicon is brittle, and thinner silicon, coupled with other recent trends in SPV technologies (thinner glass, lighter or no metal frames, increased use of certain polymers for encapsulation of the silicon cells), is more susceptible to stress and cracking. When the thin

443

Nucleation and solidification of silicon for photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The majority of solar cells produced today are made with crystalline silicon wafers, which are typically manufactured by growing a large piece of silicon and then sawing it into ~200 pm wafers, a process which converts ...

Appapillai, Anjuli T. (Anjuli Tara)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Becancour Silicon Inc BSI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name: Becancour Silicon Inc (BSI) Place: St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada Zip: H4M2M4 Sector: Solar Product: Canadian supplier of silicon metal for the...

445

Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

Kaschmitter, J.L.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam  

SciTech Connect

A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system(Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignmentof the silicon modules is of the order of 5 mm in their most precise coordinate.

ATLAS Collaboration; Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P.J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J.B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick,, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gottfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Hartel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J.C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Unel, M. Karagoz; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C.G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K.F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wellsf, P.S.; Zhelezkow, A.

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

447

High-heat-load synchrotron tests of room-temperature, silicon crystal monochromators at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station  

SciTech Connect

This note summarizes the results of the single crystal monochromator high-heat-load tests performed at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station. The results from two different cooling geometries are presented: (1) the ``pin-post`` crystal and (2) the ``criss-cross`` crystal. The data presented were taken in August 1993 (water-cooled pin-post) and in April 1995 (water- and gallium-cooled pin-post crystal and gallium-cooled criss-cross crystal). The motivation for trying these cooling (or heat exchanger) geometries is to improve the heat transfer efficiency over that of the conventional slotted crystals. Calculations suggest that the pin-post or the microchannel design can significantly improve the thermal performance of the crystal. The pin-post crystal used here was fabricated by Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations. From the performance of the conventional slotted crystals, it was thought that increased turbulence in the flow pattern may also enhance the heat transfer. The criss-cross crystal was a simple attempt to achieve the increased flow turbulence. The criss-cross crystal was partly fabricated in-house (cutting, etching and polishing) and bonded by RAO. Finally, a performance comparison among all the different room temperature silicon monochromators that have been tested by the APS is presented. The data includes measurements with the slotted crystal and the core-drilled crystals. Altogether, the data presented here were taken at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station between 1991 and 1995.

Lee, W.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Assoufid, L.

1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

448

Optical properties of silicon carbide for astrophysical applications I. New laboratory infrared reflectance spectra and optical constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical constants are fundamental inputs for radiative transfer models of astrophysical dust environments. However, previously published values contain errors and do not adequately represent the bulk physical properties of the cubic (beta) SiC polytype usually found around carbon stars. We provide new, uncompromised optical constants for beta- and alpha-SiC derived from single-crystal reflectance spectra and investigate quantitatively whether there is any difference between alpha- and beta-SiC that can be seen in infrared spectra and optical functions. Previous optical constants for SiC do not reflect the true bulk properties, and they are only valid for a narrow grain size range. The new optical constants presented here will allow narrow constraints to be placed on the grain size and shape distribution that dominate in astrophysical environments. In addition, our calculated absorption coefficients are much higher than laboratory measurements, which has an impact on the use of previous data to constrain abundances of these dust grains.

K. M. Pitman; A. M. Hofmeister; A. B. Corman; A. K. Speck

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

449

17.1%-Efficient Multi-Scale-Textured Black Silicon Solar Cells without Dielectric Antireflection Coating: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In this work we present 17.1%-efficient p-type single crystal Si solar cells with a multi-scale-textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. Multi-scale texturing is achieved by a gold-nanoparticle-assisted nanoporous etch after conventional micron scale KOH-based pyramid texturing (pyramid black etching). By incorporating geometric enhancement of antireflection, this multi-scale texturing reduces the nanoporosity depth required to make silicon 'black' compared to nanoporous planar surfaces. As a result, it improves short-wavelength spectral response (blue response), previously one of the major limiting factors in 'black-Si' solar cells. With multi-scale texturing, the spectrum-weighted average reflectance from 350- to 1000-nm wavelength is below 2% with a 100-nm deep nanoporous layer. In comparison, roughly 250-nm deep nanopores are needed to achieve similar reflectance on planar surface. Here, we characterize surface morphology, reflectivity and solar cell performance of the multi-scale textured solar cells.

Toor, F.; Page, M. R.; Branz, H. M.; Yuan, H. C.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Buckeye Silicon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Silicon Silicon Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckeye Silicon Address 2600 Dorr Street - Suite 1070 Place Toledo, Ohio Zip 43606 Sector Renewable Energy, Services, Solar Product Consulting; Manufacturing;Raw materials/extraction;Refining;Research and development Website http://www.sphereenergy.net Coordinates 41.6529122°, -83.6066466° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.6529122,"lon":-83.6066466,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

453

Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

Shalek, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Niagara Falls, NY); Hurley, George F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Silicon solar cells: state of the art  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Roberto Amendolia and Can Li Silicon solar cells: state of the art Martin A. Green...majority of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells produced to date have been based...this point are also explored. solar cells|silicon solar cells|silicon...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Crystalline-Silicon/Organic Heterojunctions for Solar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-semiconductors is potentially cheaper, but the organic solar cells are not very efficient. In this thesis we explore if organic semiconductors can be integrated with silicon to form hybrid organic/silicon solar cells that are both efficient, a silicon/organic heterojunction solar cell with an open-circuit voltage of 0.59 V and power conversion

456

Laser wafering for silicon solar.  

SciTech Connect

Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Electricity Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Market Module Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 101 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Electricity Market Module The NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM) represents the capacity planning, dispatching, and pricing of electricity. It is composed of four submodules-electricity capacity planning, electricity fuel dispatching, electricity load and demand, and electricity finance and pricing. It includes nonutility capacity and generation, and electricity transmission and trade. A detailed description of the EMM is provided in the EIA publication, Electricity Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2013, DOE/EIA-M068(2013). Based on fuel prices and electricity demands provided by the other modules of the NEMS, the EMM determines the most

458

Electronic properties of microcrystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

The electronic and optical properties of microcrystalline silicon films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are investigated with Hall-effect, electrical conductivity, photothermal deflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. In particular, the influence of the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction on the conductivity, the carrier density and the Hall mobility is investigated in highly doped films. A percolation model is proposed to describe the observed transport data. Photoluminescence properties were studied in undoped films. It is proposed that the photoluminescence is due to recombination at structural defects similar to those observed in crystalline silicon.

Carius, R.; Finger, F.; Backhausen, U.; Luysberg, M.; Hapke, P.; Houben, L.; Otte, M.; Overhof, H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation  

SciTech Connect

We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

Born, N., E-mail: norman.born@physik.uni-marburg.de [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, M. [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

460

Detailed Course Module Description  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Course Module Description Course Module Description Module/Learning Objectives Level of Detail in Module by Audience Consumers Gen Ed/ Community College Trades 1. Energy Issues and Building Solutions High High High Learning Objectives: * Define terms of building science, ecological systems, economics of consumption * Relate building science perspective, ecology, social science * Explain historical energy and environmental issues related to buildings * Compare Site and source energy * Examine the health, safety and comfort issues in buildings * Examine the general context for building solutions (zero energy green home with durability as the goal) * Explain a basic overview of alternative energy (total solar flux) - do we have enough energy * Examine cash flow to homeowners

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modules single-crystal silicon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Bracket for photovoltaic modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

462

Integrated LED Headlamp Module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

LED headlamp module integrates all necessary optics, electronics, and heat management into one compact unit that fits into standard mechanical headlamp frame. It provides high beam,...

Popelek, Jan

463

Module title Marketing Management Module code INT3602  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Module title Marketing Management Module code INT3602 Academic year(s) 2013/4 Credits 15 Basic - summary of the module content Module description This module will introduce new marketing students to the fascinating world of modern marketing in an innovative and comprehensive yet practical and enjoyable way

Mumby, Peter J.

464

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

465

Working with Modules within Python  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working with Modules within Perl and Python Working with Modules within Perl and Python Working with Modules within Perl and Python It can often be convenient to work with the modules system from within perl or python scripts. You can do this! Using Modules within Python The EnvironmentModules python package gives access to the module system from within python. The EnvironmentModules python package has a single function: module. Using this function you can provide the same arguments you would to "module" on the command line. The module() function accepts a list of arguments, like ['load','']; or ['unload','']. >>> import EnvironmentModules as EnvMod >>> EnvMod.module(['load','blast+']) It is important to understand that this is most effective for scripts