National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for module voltage 12v

  1. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  2. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  3. High voltage photo switch package module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  4. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  5. Low Voltage High Precision Spatial Light ModulatorsFinal Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papavasiliou, A P

    2005-02-09

    The goal of this project was to make LLNL a leader in Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) by developing the technology that will be needed by the next generation of SLMs. We would use new lower voltage actuators and bond those actuators directly to controlling circuitry to break the fundamental limitations that constrain current SLM technology. This three-year project was underfunded in the first year and not funded in the second year. With the funding that was available, we produced actuators and designs for the controlling circuitry that would have been integrated in the second year. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are arrays of tiny movable mirrors that modulate the wave-fronts of light. SLMs can correct aberrations in incoming light for adaptive optics or modulate light for beam control, optical communication and particle manipulation. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is a technology that utilizes the microfabrication tools developed by the semiconductor industry to fabricate a wide variety of tiny machines. The first generation of MEMS SLMs have improved the functionality of SLMs while drastically reducing per pixel cost making arrays on the order of 1000 pixels readily available. These MEMS SLMs however are limited by the nature of their designs to be very difficult to scale above 1000 pixels and have very limited positioning accuracy. By co-locating the MEMS mirrors with CMOS electronics, we will increase the scalability and positioning accuracy. To do this we will have to make substantial advances in SLM actuator design, and fabrication.

  6. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or coulombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  7. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or culombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  8. A reduced voltage polarization intensity electrooptic modulator in SBN:60 utilizing a step strain waveguide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottinger, Tina Lynette

    1997-01-01

    . Electrooptic modulation via the linear electrooptic effect has been demonstrated by polarization intensity modulation at 0.633 gm wavelength in both substrates. LiNbo3 devices require a v,, of 10.75 V for a Tc-radian phase shift. SBN devices require a voltage...

  9. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  10. Hybrid Design Optimization of High Voltage Pulse Transformers for Klystron Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvain, Candolfi; Davide, Aguglia; Jerome, Cros

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid optimization methodology for the design of high voltage pulse transformers used in klystron modulators. The optimization process is using simplified 2D FEA design models of the 3D transformer structure. Each intermediate optimal solution is evaluated by 3D FEA and correction coefficients of the 2D FEA models are derived. A new optimization process using 2D FEA models is then performed. The convergence of this hybrid optimal design methodology is obtained with a limited number of time consuming 3D FEA simulations. The method is applied to the optimal design of a monolithic high voltage pulse transformer for the CLIC klystron modulator.

  11. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  12. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore »rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  13. Characterization of Multicrystalline Silicon Modules with System Bias Voltage Applied in Damp Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Call, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    As it is considered economically favorable to serially connect modules to build arrays with high system voltage, it is necessary to explore potential long-term degradation mechanisms the modules may incur under such electrical potential. We performed accelerated lifetime testing of multicrystalline silicon PV modules in 85 degrees C/ 85% relative humidity and 45 degrees C/ 30% relative humidity while placing the active layer in either positive or negative 600 V bias with respect to the grounded module frame. Negative bias applied to the active layer in some cases leads to more rapid and catastrophic module power degradation. This is associated with significant shunting of individual cells as indicated by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves. Mass spectroscopy results support ion migration as one of the causes. Electrolytic corrosion is seen occurring with the silicon nitride antireflective coating and silver gridlines, and there is ionic transport of metallization at the encapsulant interface observed with damp heat and applied bias. Leakage current and module degradation is found to be highly dependent upon the module construction, with factors such as encapsulant and front glass resistivity affecting performance. Measured leakage currents range from about the same seen in published reports of modules deployed in Florida (USA) and is accelerated to up to 100 times higher in the environmental chamber testing.

  14. Design of a Solid-State Fast Voltage Compensator for klystron modulators requiring constant AC power consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide, Aguglia; Philippe, Viarouge; Jerome, Cros

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for klystron modulators integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This kind of solution is mandatory for the CLIC project under study, which requires several hundreds of synchronously operated klystron modulators for a total pulsed power of 39 GW. The topology is optimized for the challenging CLIC specifications, which require a very precise output voltage flat-top as well as fast rise and fall times (3µs). The Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to manage the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage. Consequently, its dimensioning power and cost is minimized.

  15. Testing and Analysis for Lifetime Prediction of Crystalline Silicon PV Modules Undergoing Degradation by System Voltage Stress: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Smith, R.; Terwiliger, K.; Glick, S.; Jordan, D.; Johnston, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-07-01

    Acceleration factors are calculated for crystalline silicon PV modules under system voltage stress by comparing the module power during degradation outdoors to that in accelerated testing at three temperatures and 85% relative humidity. A lognormal analysis is applied to the accelerated lifetime test data considering failure at 80% of the initial module power. Activation energy of 0.73 eV for the rate of failure is determined, and the probability of module failure at an arbitrary temperature is predicted. To obtain statistical data for multiple modules over the course of degradation in-situ of the test chamber, dark I-V measurements are obtained and transformed using superposition, which is found well suited for rapid and quantitative evaluation of potential-induced degradation. It is determined that shunt resistance measurements alone do not represent the extent of power degradation. This is explained with a two-diode model analysis that shows an increasing second diode recombination current and ideality factor as the degradation in module power progresses. Failure modes of the modules stressed outdoors are examined and compared to those stressed in accelerated tests.

  16. Ca2 -dependent activation of Cl currents in Xenopus oocytes is modulated by voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Ian

    a fast electrical block to polyspermy in the egg (7). Voltage-clamp recordings of Cl current provide- acteristics that complicate interpretation of the under- lying Ca2 signals (11, 21). In particular, it remains sources of Ca2 can be discriminated by recording ICl,Ca evoked by hyperpolarizing voltage steps because

  17. Suppose E = 12V, R=10 Potential across battery's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Suppose E = 12V, R=10 and r=2 Potential across battery's terminals is V across terminals only resistor, Req ++= 321 1111 RRRReq #12;Exercise iRV = Battery with potential V supplies current i to 2) i = 0 EQUAL TO 12V ba VirV =-+E i ba VirV =++E A real battery has =12V and r = 2. Is the V across

  18. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  19. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  20. Large voltage modulation in magnetic field sensors from two-dimensional arrays of Y-Ba-Cu-O nano Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Cho, E. Y.; Wong, T. J.; Glyantsev, V. N.; Huh, J. U.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.; Beeman, J. W.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Wu, S. M.

    2014-02-10

    We have fabricated and tested two-dimensional arrays of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} superconducting quantum interference devices. The arrays contain over 36?000 nano Josephson junctions fabricated from ion irradiation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} through narrow slits in a resist-mask that was patterned with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Measurements of current-biased arrays in magnetic field exhibit large voltage modulations as high as 30?mV.

  1. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  2. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of electrically gated bismuth telluride nanowires I. Bejenari,1,2,* V. Kantser,2, and A. A. Balandin1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric properties of electrically gated bismuth telluride nanowires I. Bejenari,1,2,* V can modify thermoelectric properties of intrinsic, n-type and p-type bismuth telluride nanowires, and thermoelectric figure of merit on the nanowire thickness, gate voltage, and excess hole electron concentration

  4. Electro-optic polymer modulators with 0.8 V half-wave voltage Yongqiang Shi,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an optical push­pull architecture and are made from poly methylmethacrylate with a high molecular, California 92008 Hua Zhang and William H. Steier Center for Photonic Technology, Department of Electrical transfer functions, large output optical power, wide modulation bandwidth, high extinction ratio, and low

  5. Ferroelectric modulation on resonant tunneling through perovskite double-barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Ruifang; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Li, Aidong; Wu, Di

    2014-04-07

    The negative differential resistance (NDR) due to resonance tunneling is achieved at room temperature in perovskite double-barrier heterostructures composed of a 10 unit-cell-thick SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well sandwiched in two 10 unit-cell-thick LaAlO{sub 3} barriers. The NDR occurs at 1.2?V and does not change with voltage cycling. When the paraelectric SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well is replaced by a ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3}, the onset of the NDR can be modulated by polarization switching in the ultrathin BaTiO{sub 3}. A polarization pointing to the collector lowers the NDR voltage but a polarization pointing to the emitter increases it. The shift of the NDR voltage is ascribed to reversal of the extra electric field in the quantum well due to the polarization switching.

  6. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  7. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  8. PHYSICS 327 Spring 2015 1/13/2015 LAB 1 -DC VOLTAGE DIVIDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    produces output voltage which is independent of the load resistance (RL, in this case). Remember a provided "power supply" for the source of the input voltage Vin. The circuit is described by the equation 2 (breadboard), and use the power supply to provide Vin = 12 V. For each value of R2, measure Vin and Vout

  9. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented by John Wohlgemuth at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the activities of a working group chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module life versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem Power at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about A 12V start-stop Li polymer...

  11. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E. (Los Alamos, NM); McCormick, J. Byron (Los Alamos, NM); Kerwin, William J. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  12. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  13. A 1-V series-array Josephson voltage standard operated at 35 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, F.; Koehler, H.; Weber, P.; Bluethner, K.; Meyer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Josephson voltage standards utilize microwave-induced constant voltage steps in the dc characteristic of Josephson tunnel junctions. This paper describes the design and operation of array circuits with 108 and 2000 junctions connected in series. In contrast with similar realizations, simple {ital Q}-band equipment is used for the microwave supply. The microwave attenuation of 1000 junctions was about 1 dB. The version with 2000 junctions generated Josephson voltages up to 1.2 V when operated at 35 GHz. The stability times of the quantized levels were, under normal laboratory conditions (unshielded room), better than 10 min.

  14. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  15. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  16. Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    1 LTC660 100mA CMOS Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION U s Simple Conversion of 5V to ­5V Supply s Output Drive: 100mA s ROUT: 6.5 (0.65V Loss at 100mA) s BOOST Pin (Pin 1) for Higher Switching Frequency-capacitor voltage converter. It performs supply voltage conversion from positive to negative from an input range

  17. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  18. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the voltage unbalance. Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations, increased vibrations and mechanical stresses, increased losses resulting in lower efficiency, and...

  19. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  20. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  1. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  2. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  3. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  4. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  5. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  6. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, N. Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  7. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  8. Module Handbook Module title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Students learn about selected topics from inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, materials chemistryModule Handbook Module title Module title in English Credits Degree of compulsion Level Learning Theory of Functional Materials 6 Compulsory Basic A systematic foundation for quantum physics

  9. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  10. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  11. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  12. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  13. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  14. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  15. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  16. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  17. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh (Los Alamos, NM); Dale, Gregory E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  18. Chronic Benzodiazepine Administration Potentiates High Voltage-Activated Calcium Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Nader G.

    effects from drug withdrawal phenomena to dependence on a variety of drugs of abuse. High voltage benzodiazepine physical dependence. Benzodiazepines, a group of positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors legitimate prescription of benzodiazepines increases the proportion of patients who develop dependence

  19. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  20. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  1. Long Pulse Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckoldt, J

    2015-01-01

    Long pulse modulators are used to produce high-voltage, high-power pulses with durations of several hundred microseconds up to some milliseconds. The loads are one or more klystrons for producing RF power to accelerate the particle beam in superconducting cavities. After years of development and improvements in different institutes a variety of topologies exist, and are presented. The basics of modulators, pulse requirements and klystrons are explained. Additionally, the charging of internal energy storage will be addressed. The outlook for future developments is given.

  2. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  3. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  4. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  5. A Surprising Clarification of the Mechanism of Ion-channel Voltage-Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Palaniappan

    2011-04-20

    An intense controversy has surrounded the mechanism of voltage-gating in ion channels. We interpreted the two leading models of voltage-gating with respect to the thermodynamic energetics of membrane insertion of the voltage-sensing 'module' from a comprehensive set of potassium channels. KvAP is an archaeal voltage-gated potassium channel whose x-ray structure was the basis for determining the general mechanism of voltage-gating. The free energy of membrane insertion of the KvAP voltage sensor was revealed to be a single outlier. This was due to its unusual sequence that facilitated large gating movements in its native lipid membrane. This degree of free energy was the least typical of the other voltage sensors, including the Shaker potassium channel. We inferred that the two leading models of voltage-gating referred to alternative mechanisms of voltage-gating: each is applicable to an independent set of ion channels. The large motion of the voltage-sensor during gating proposed by the KvAP-paddle model of gating is unlikely to be mirrored by the majority of ion channels whose voltage sensors are not located at the membrane-cytoplasm interface in the channel closed state.

  6. Development Status of the ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2008-06-16

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-} 0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  7. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC; ,

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  8. Energy use in optical modulators David A. B. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Energy use in optical modulators David A. B. Miller Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Nano particularly low energy for low-voltage electroabsorption modulators Optical modulators can offer low energy can usefully define an optical energy launch efficiency E , which is the ratio of the useful energy

  9. Power Module User's Manual 3/2/05 Commercial Confidential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    Standard litre per minute, measured at 1 atm, 0°C UPS Uninterrupted power supply V Volt VDC Voltage, DirectNexaTM Power Module User's Manual MAN5100078 3/2/05 Commercial Confidential NexaTMPower Module i NexaTM (310-0027) Power Module User's Manual 5,000,001 Series PBS Proprietary Notice

  10. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 18 Photovoltaic Arrays & Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    flow from parallel connected module into shaded module · Prevent battery discharging through panel #12 the impact of mismatch losses from modules connected in series · Prevents current flow 6 Prevents current;2 Operation of Blocking Diode Illuminated Current Battery Discharge Current Path 7 Battery Voltage Dark

  11. Regulation of N-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Presynaptic Function by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Susan C.

    N-type voltage-gated calcium channels localize to presynaptic nerve terminals and mediate key events including synaptogenesis and neurotransmission. While several kinases have been implicated in the modulation of calcium ...

  12. Voltage Regulation PHYS 309 Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Rhett

    an regulated output of 5. It will also put out up to 1.5 yielding a power of 7.5. Obviously there are some LED circuits is to be used as a switch. Use 6 identical LEDs in this circuit. Use a multimeter to check that the LEDs all activate at the same voltage. Record the value of the LED voltage and your Zener

  13. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  14. PREDICTING VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David

    ($200 mV for a nominal volt- age of 1.1 V).1 Such conservative operating voltage margins guarantee VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM AND MICROARCHITECTURAL EVENT ACTIVITY .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SHRINKING FEATURE SIZE AND DIMINISHING SUPPLY VOLTAGE ARE MAKING CIRCUITS MORE SENSITIVE TO SUPPLY VOLTAGE

  15. Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer The Department-2008DVD-EN Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits 00094-2008DVD-EN Contents Voltage

  16. Copper laser modulator driving assembly including a magnetic compression laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser modulator (10) having a low voltage assembly (12) with a plurality of low voltage modules (14) with first stage magnetic compression circuits (20) and magnetic assist inductors (28) with a common core (91), such that timing of the first stage magnetic switches (30b) is thereby synchronized. A bipolar second stage of magnetic compression (42) is coupled to the low voltage modules (14) through a bipolar pulse transformer (36) and a third stage of magnetic compression (44) is directly coupled to the second stage of magnetic compression (42). The low voltage assembly (12) includes pressurized boxes (117) for improving voltage standoff between the primary winding assemblies (34) and secondary winding (40) contained therein.

  17. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  18. An Efficient Supply Modulator for Linear Wideband RF Power Amplifiers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turkson, Richard

    2011-10-21

    of a class A Power amplifier in wideband wireless standards like WiMax is improved by dynamically controlling the bias current and supply voltage of the PA. An efficient supply modulator based on a switching regulator architecture is proposed...

  19. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  20. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  1. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  2. Saving Megawatts with Voltage Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, T.; Bell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2008, PCS UtiliData commissioned an Industrial Voltage Optimization system at the Plum Creek Timber Medium Density Fiberboard facility in Columbia Falls, Montana. The system was based upon the AdaptiVolt(TM) Volt/VAR Optimization system...

  3. Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    ?' In most applications, the differences between current feedback (CFB) and voltage feedback (VFB) are not apparent. Today's CFB and VFB amplifiers have comparable performance, but there are cer- tain unique Performance · Feedback Freedom Aside from the well-known attribute of CFB amplifiers, gain

  4. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  5. Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender Philosophy of time, as practiced throughout the last hundred venue for attacking questions about the nature of time--in sharp contrast to the primary venue slowly in philosophy of time.1 Since twentieth-century analytic philosophy as a whole often drew

  6. Low Beam Voltage, 10 MW, L-Band Cluster Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryaev, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Yakovlev, V.P.; /Fermilab; Kazakov, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Hirshfield, J.L.; /Yale U. /Omega-P, New Haven

    2009-05-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-beam klystron (MBK) for possible ILC and Project X applications is presented. The chief distinction between this MBK design and existing 10-MW MBK's is the low operating voltage of 60 kV. There are at least four compelling reasons that justify development at this time of a low-voltage MBK, namely (1) no pulse transformer; (2) no oil tank for high-voltage components and for the tube socket; (3) no high-voltage cables; and (4) modulator would be a compact 60-kV IGBT switching circuit. The proposed klystron consists of four clusters containing six beams each. The tube has common input and output cavities for all 24 beams, and individual gain cavities for each cluster. A closely related optional configuration, also for a 10 MW tube, would involve four totally independent cavity clusters with four independent input cavities and four 2.5 MW output ports, all within a common magnetic circuit. This option has appeal because the output waveguides would not require a controlled atmosphere, and because it would be easier to achieve phase and amplitude stability as required in individual SC accelerator cavities.

  7. Improved Control Strategy for Active Bouncers used in Klystron Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguglia, D; Benedetti, M; Garcia Retegui, R; Maestri, S; Nisbet, D

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a closed-loop control system for klystron modulators. The system is based on the discharge of a capacitor into a step-up voltage transformer and an active bouncer implemented with a multiphase buck converter. In order to obtain a constant Klystron voltage at the at-top, the active bouncer must compensate both the capacitor discharge and the pulse transformer characteristic. The proposed control includes an inner voltage regulation loop that controls the active bouncer output voltage and an outer one that controls the klystron voltage. The primary side current and main capacitor voltage are included in the regulation loops to simplify the controllers. Simulations demonstrate that the strategy adopted allows to obtain a precision better than 0:1% on a 110 kV klystron. Experimental tests have shown that the multiphase converter is able to track a high dynamics reference even under variable output voltage conditions.

  8. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  9. Module Configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oweis, Salah (Ellicott City, MD); D'Ussel, Louis (Bordeaux, FR); Chagnon, Guy (Cockeysville, MD); Zuhowski, Michael (Annapolis, MD); Sack, Tim (Cockeysville, MD); Laucournet, Gaullume (Paris, FR); Jackson, Edward J. (Taneytown, MD)

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  10. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, I.J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage. 19 figs.

  11. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, Ira J. (Whippany, NJ)

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage.

  12. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  13. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  14. Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakymyshyn, C.P. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Brubaker, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Johnston, P.M. [Johnston (Paul M.), Raleigh, NC (United States); Reinbold, C. [ABB High Voltage Switchgear, Greensburg, PA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Measurement of voltages and currents in power transmission and distribution systems are critical to the electric utility industry for both revenue metering and reliability. Nonconventional instrument transformers based on intensity modulation of optical signals have been reported in the literature for more than 20 years. Recently described devices using passive bulk optical sensor elements include the Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) and Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT). These technologies offer substantial advantages over conventional instrument transformers in accuracy, optical isolation bandwidth, environmental compatibility, weight and size. This paper describes design and manufacturing issues associated with the EOVT and the Optical Metering Unit (OMU) recently introduced by ABB with field installation results presented for prototype units in the 345 kV and 420 kV voltage classes. The OMU incorporates an EOVT and MOCT to monitor the voltage and current on power transmission lines using a single free-standing device.

  15. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington,FL LLC Jump to:EnergyVogt SolarVoltage

  16. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  17. Broadband Terahertz Modulators based on MEMS-Reconfigurable Mesh Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unlu, Mehmet; Li, Shenglin; Yang, Shang-Hua; Hashemi, Mohammad R; Jarrahi, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive progress in terahertz technology, existing terahertz modulators have not yet offered the modulation specifications required for high-performance terahertz imaging, spectroscopy, and communication systems. Here, we present a novel terahertz intensity modulation technique based on MEMS-reconfigurable double-layered mesh filters, which offers record-high modulation depths and modulation bandwidths, without a considerable compromise in modulation speed or modulation voltage through a fully integrated device configuration. The unique advantage of the presented modulation technique compared with the previously demonstrated terahertz modulation schemes based on tunable metamaterials is reconfiguring the device geometry, which enables radical changes in the device scattering parameters over a broad range of frequencies. Device geometry reconfiguration is made possible through integration of a double-layered mesh filter with an array of electrostatically-actuated MEMS switches. We experimentally ...

  18. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    voltage dependences of electrodeelectrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting voltage dependences...

  19. NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage-Induced Degradation Mechanisms on PV Modules and Methods For Test." 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Key

  20. Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-lm wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    is the increased operating voltage. Potential applications include spatial light modulators and adaptive optics. VC modulators are useful for adaptive optics,1 spatial light modulators,2 and switchable displays.3 The response online 15 July 2011) A fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) light

  1. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  2. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  3. The Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) for Mitigating Effects of Voltage Sags on Industrial Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferraro, R. J.; Osborne, R.; Stephens, R.

    2000-01-01

    , Sizing Constant Voltage Transformers to Maximize Voltage Regulationfor Process Control Devices. 4. EPRl PEAC, 1997, PQTN Application Brochure #Io-Tutorial; Inrush Current Measurement 5. Basic Measuring Instruments, Inc., Alex McEachern, power...

  4. Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) · Pie chart: gives percent power flow is of the line's rating 3 #12;Base Case Voltage Contours Area

  5. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  6. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  7. Production of high voltage by ion bombardment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Lucas Carter

    2003-01-01

    and was embedded in a Teflon rod. The beam energies were varied between 30 and 100 kV. A maximum voltage of approximately 90 kV was achieved on the target, and at this voltage, the power efficiency was approximately 85 percent. This power efficiency was greater...

  8. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol (Naperville, IL); Bader, Samuel D. (Oak Park, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  9. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  10. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  11. Degradation Study of the Peel Strength of Mini-Modules Under...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado QA TG5 UV, temperature and humidity Acceleration Factors for Damp-Heat and HAST with High Voltage Stress...

  12. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  13. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  14. Thermionic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sadwick, Laurence P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wernsman, Bernard R. (Clairton, PA)

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  15. Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH -High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabner, Helmut

    Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH - High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory (EEH) of the Department of Information Technology and Electrical focus of the high voltage laboratory is in the area of technologies for a future sustainable electric

  16. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits Emad Bidari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Un-Ku

    Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits by Emad Bidari A THESIS submitted to Oregon State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. THE OPERATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOW-VOLTAGE INTEGRA- TOR. LOW-VOLTAGE SC FILTER STAGES

  17. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  18. Module No: 420244International Humanitarian Module Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420244International Humanitarian law Module Title: Co-requisite:public international law 1Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Second year Evening Study-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  19. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  20. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); Schwartz, James Edward (Slingerlands, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  1. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  2. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  3. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  4. module.h

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /* OS-9 module header definitions */ /* Executable memory module */ typedef struct { unsigned m_sync, /* sync bytes ($87cd) */ m_size, /* module size ...

  5. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  6. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  7. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  8. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  9. Voltage Management of Networks with Distributed Generation. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, James

    2008-01-01

    At present there is much debate about the impacts and benefits of increasing the amount of generation connected to the low voltage areas of the electricity distribution network. The UK government is under political ...

  10. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  11. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and...

  12. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Undervoltage operation can result in increased currents, reduced starting torque, and lower efficiency. Suggested Actions Conduct a voltage drop survey. Voltage drop...

  13. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  14. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, Max E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  15. Thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kortier, William E. (Columbus, OH); Mueller, John J. (Columbus, OH); Eggers, Philip E. (Columbus, OH)

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  16. Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications Brisa Calderon, Dr provide low voltages, all the components in a PMS must be able to operate at low voltages. Optimizing these components to operate at low voltages in turn contributes to the optimization of the PMS as a whole. Theory

  17. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  18. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan (El Cerrito, CA); Graves, Simon (Berkeley, CA); Lenox, Carl J. S. (Oakland, CA); Culligan, Matthew (Berkeley, CA); Danning, Matt (Oakland, CA)

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  19. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  20. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  1. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  2. Calibrated Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Cho-Ying

    2010-07-14

    and SNR simulations vs. the number of iterations of the calibration scheme for PVT variations on the modulator .......................................................................................... 94 xiii? ? ? ? Page Fig. 4...-time ?? ADC with immunity to the process, voltage, temperature (PVT) variations by using capacitor ratios to determine the system coefficients, one of the critical issues of a continuous-time ?? ADC is its high sensitivity to the variations due...

  3. The following changes to the EIA in the Yucca Mountain Rule Docket (A-95-12, V-B-2) were made in this document to correct typographical and other minor errors in the text.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The following changes to the EIA in the Yucca Mountain Rule Docket (A-95-12, V-B-2) were made Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada" Pg. ii Item 4.1 changed to read, "Performance Standards with Expected Values of TSPA-SR Calculations for a Repository at Yucca Mountain for Nominal

  4. A 1.8V 2-2 cascade Sigma-Delta modulator for high speed applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kye-Shin

    2002-01-01

    In order to satisfy today's most important requirements of the A/D and D/A converters that are low voltage and high speed operation, a low voltage and high speed circuit solutions for [] modulators are strongly demanding. However, simply reducing...

  5. ILC Marx Modulator Development Program Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhart, C.; Beukers, T.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Development of a first generation prototype (P1) Marx-topology klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider is nearing completion at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is envisioned as a smaller, lower cost, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, 'Baseline Conceptual Design'. The Marx presents several advantages over conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at ILC parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. The P1-Marx employs all solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. A general overview of the modulator design and the program status are presented.

  6. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  7. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  8. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  9. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Alcaraz, Gisele; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  10. Supported PV module assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  11. Status Update on the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; Larsen, Ray; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This paper is a status update of the SLAC P2 Marx. This Marx-topology klystron modulator is a second-generation modulator which builds upon experience gained from the SLAC P1 Marx. There are several fundamental differences between these modulators including the correction scheme, bus voltages, and the control system architecture. These differences, along with preliminary experimental results and the schedule for further development, are detailed in this paper.

  12. UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

    2012-07-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

  13. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  14. Module Embedding Atanas Radenski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radenski, Atanas

    Module Embedding 1 Atanas Radenski Computer Science Department UNC-WSSU, P. O. Box 19479 Winston module embedding that enables the building of new modules from existing ones through inheritance for this mechanism. Module embedding is beneficial when modules and classes are used in combination and need

  15. Klystron Gun Arcing and Modulator Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, S

    2004-05-04

    The demand for 500 kV and 265 amperes peak to power an X-Band klystron brings up protection issues for klystron faults and the energy dumped into the arc from the modulator. This situation is made worse when more than one klystron will be driven from a single modulator, such as the existing schemes for running two and eight klystrons. High power pulsed klystrons have traditionally be powered by line type modulators which match the driving impedance with the load impedance and therefore current limit at twice the operating current. Multiple klystrons have the added problems of a lower modulator source impedance and added stray capacitance, which converts into appreciable energy at high voltages like 500kV. SLAC has measured the energy dumped into klystron arcs in a single and dual klystron configuration at the 400 to 450 kV level and found interesting characteristics in the arc formation. The author will present measured data from klystron arcs powered from line-type modulators in several configurations. The questions arise as to how the newly designed solid-state modulators, running multiple tubes, will react to a klystron arc and how much energy will be dumped into the arc.

  16. Working with Modules within Python

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Modules within Python The EnvironmentModules python package gives access to the module system from within python. The EnvironmentModules python package has a single...

  17. ILC MARX MODULATOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM STATUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhart, Craig; Benwell, Andrew; Beukers, Tony; Kemp, Mark; Larsen, Raymond; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; Tang, Tao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A Marx-topology klystron modulator is under development for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and disolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The developmental testing of a first generation prototype, P1, has been completed. This modulator has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. Development of a second generation prototype, P2, is underway. The P2 is based on the P1 topology but incorporates an alternative cell configuration to increase redundancy and improve availability. Status updates for both prototypes are presented.

  18. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  19. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  20. Low voltage amplifier architecture for high speed switched capacitor circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Asit

    2001-01-01

    This work concentrates on circuit realization of high speed and low voltage switched capacitor circuits, with emphasis on the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). An overview of switched capacitor circuits is given. Speed and voltage...

  1. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  2. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  3. Long term voltage stability analysis for small disturbances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Men, Kun

    2009-05-15

    design and optimize the system. ?? Challenge 2, accurately estimating voltage stability margin online remains as a dream for industry. So far, due to heavy computation burden, the major thrust in voltage stability analysis, especially for large... of load dynamics to restore power consumption beyond the capability of the combined transmission and generation system. ? This definition try to emphasize that load is the main driving force of a voltage collapse, and voltage stability is a stuctural...

  4. Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    The design of high voltage systems and their com­ ponents (e.g. gas insulated switchgear, trans­ formers etc

  5. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  6. DC BUFFERING AND FLOATING CURRENT FOR A HIGH VOLTAGE IMB APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Morrison

    2014-08-01

    An interface technique for the latest generation of the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB) has been conceived to enable measurement of impedance spectra for battery modules up to 300V. A 300V capable or higher IMB is an enabling technology for in-situ diagnostics within electric vehicle charging stations or battery back-ups within power distribution sub-stations. It is possible that the existing IMB can be adapted via a 300V interface module to a test battery with voltage significantly greater than 50V. Recently a new concept was conceived for the calibration, algorithm and electronics of the IMB. That algorithm and calibration for that concept have been physically validated. The principal feature of the new electronics is the floating current source excitation of the battery under test. The single ended current excitation of the battery under test, used in the 50V IMB, requires that the negative terminal of the test battery must be the analog ground for the IMB. The new floating current technique allows the test battery to be fully high impedance isolated for a measurement. That isolation will improve IMB noise immunity and enable interrogation of cells internal to a battery module. All these techniques still use the same rapid concept for impedance measurement with the IMB. The purpose of this disclosure is to provide an overview of the analytical validation for three concepts to interface the floating current excitation to a high voltage battery. Recursive simulation models were used in different test scenarios to validate the various new concepts. The analysis will show that it is possible to interface the floating signal current to obtain an impedance measurement on a high voltage test battery. Additionally, the analysis will investigate stress seen by electronics while testing a 300V battery.

  7. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan (El Cerrito, CA); Graves, Simon (Berkeley, CA); Danning, Matt (Oakland, CA)

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  8. Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk version (APA): Beczkowski, S., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2012). Current-voltage model of LED light sources from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 06, 2015 #12;Current-voltage model of LED light sources Szymon Bczkowski, Stig

  9. LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY Phillip E. Allen, Benjamin J. Blalock implies battery operation which favors low voltage and low power circuits. These factors and others have of the magnitudes of the n-channel and p-channel thresholds [4]. This implies that low voltage analog circuits

  10. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  11. Test Results of a Compact Conventional Modulator for Two-Klystron Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, S

    2004-05-04

    Modulator technology has not advanced greatly over the last 30 years. Today, with the advent of the High Voltage, High Power IGBT there are several approaches for a solid state ON/OFF switched modulator. Klystron and accelerator technology is forcing voltages and peak powers higher such as the demand for 500 kV and 500 amperes peak to power two X-Band klystrons. Conventional technology (line-type modulators) were never overly concerned about rise time and efficiency. A few years ago, the klystron department at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) undertook an investigation into what could be done in a conventional modulator at 500 kV. We have reported on test bed measurements and shown both conceptual and hardware pictures during design and construction. We have now completed the modulator tank.

  12. Electrical Circuit Flashover Model of Polluted Insulators under AC Voltage Based on the Arc Root Voltage Gradient Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qing

    In order to study the flashover mechanism of polluted insulators under AC voltage, a new arc propagation criterion which is based on an arc root voltage gradient is proposed. This criterion can explain the variation of the ...

  13. Shield Module Design Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Shield Module Design Considerations Adam Carroll Van Graves July 3, 2014 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Shield Module Design Considerations 3 July 2014 Overview · Capability to remotely remove and reinstall the shield modules is required · Shield module concept is He-cooled tungsten

  14. Test-to-Failure of Crystalline Silicon Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Trudell, D.; Bosco, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    Accelerated lifetime testing of five crystalline silicon module designs was carried out according to the Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-to-Failure Protocol. This protocol compares the reliability of various module constructions on a quantitative basis. The modules under test are subdivided into three accelerated lifetime testing paths: 85..deg..C/85% relative humidity with system bias, thermal cycling between ?40..deg..C and 85..deg..C, and a path that alternates between damp heat and thermal cycling. The most severe stressor is damp heat with system bias applied to simulate the voltages that modules experience when connected in an array. Positive 600 V applied to the active layer with respect to the grounded module frame accelerates corrosion of the silver grid fingers and degrades the silicon nitride antireflective coating on the cells. Dark I-V curve fitting indicates increased series resistance and saturation current around the maximum power point; however, an improvement in junction recombination characteristics is obtained. Shunt paths and cell-metallization interface failures are seen developing in the silicon cells as determined by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves in the case of negative 600 V bias applied to the active layer. Ability to withstand electrolytic corrosion, moisture ingress, and ion drift under system voltage bias are differentiated.

  15. Method of Controlling Corona Effects and Breakdown Voltage of Small Air Gaps Stressed by Impulse Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios Maglaras; Trifon Kousiouris; Frangiskos Topalis; Dimitrios Katsaros; Leandros A. Maglaras; Konstantina Giannakopoulou

    2014-10-15

    This paper investigates the influence of a resistor on the dielectric behavior of an air gap. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap and the latter is stressed by impulse voltage. Air gap arrangements of different geometry with either the rod or the plate grounded are stressed with impulse voltages of both positive and negative polarity. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap in the return circuit connecting the gap with the impulse generator. The method followed involves the investigation of the graphs of the charging time concerning the air gaps capacitances, in connection to the value of the resistor, the geometry of the gap, the effect of grounding and the polarity effect. It is determined that the charging time of the air gap increases, as the value of the resistor increases. It is also determined that the peak voltage value of the fully charged air gap decreases as the value of the resistor increases. The results of the mathematical and simulation analysis are compared with the results of the oscillograms taken from experimental work. In addition and consequently to the above results it is concluded from the experimental work that the in series connection of the resistor in the circuit has significant influence on corona pulses (partial discharges) occurring in the gap and on the breakdown voltage of the gap. A new method of controlling the corona effects and consequently the breakdown voltage of small air gaps stressed by impulse voltage of short duration in connection to the ground effect and the polarity effect has arisen. Furthermore through mathematical analysis of the charging graphs obtained from simulation and experimental oscillograms there was a calculation of the values of the capacitance of the air gaps in relation to their geometry and the results were compared to the values calculated with mathematical analysis.

  16. Automatic System for the D.C. High Voltage Qualification of the Superconducting Electrical Circuits of the LHC Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozzini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Bednarek, M; Jurkiewicz, P; Kotarba, A; Ludwin, J; Olek, S

    2008-01-01

    A d.c. high voltage test system has been developed to verify automatically the insulation resistance of the powering circuits of the LHC. In the most complex case, up to 72 circuits share the same volume inside cryogenic lines. Each circuit can have an insulation fault versus any other circuit or versus ground. The system is able to connect up to 80 circuits and apply a voltage up to 2 kV D.C. The leakage current flowing through each circuit is measured within a range of 1 nA to 1.6 mA. The matrix of measurements allows characterizing the paths taken by the currents and locating weak points of the insulation between circuits. The system is composed of a D.C. voltage source and a data acquisition card. The card is able to measure with precision currents and voltages and to drive up to 5 high voltage switching modules offering 16 channels each. A LabVIEW application controls the system for an automatic and safe operation. This paper describes the hardware and software design, the testing methodology and the res...

  17. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,Local GovernmentofVoltage unbalance degrades the performance

  18. Graphene terahertz modulators by ionic liquid gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yang; Qiu, Xuepeng; Liu, Jingbo; Deorani, Praveen; Banerjee, Karan; Son, Jaesung; Chen, Yuanfu; Chia, Elbert E M; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphene based THz modulators are promising due to the conical band structure and high carrier mobility of graphene. Here, we tune the Fermi level of graphene via electrical gating with the help of ionic liquid to control the THz transmittance. It is found that, in the THz range, both the absorbance and reflectance of the device increase proportionately to the available density of states due to intraband transitions. Compact, stable, and repeatable THz transmittance modulation up to 93% (or 99%) for a single (or stacked) device has been demonstrated in a broad frequency range from 0.1 to 2.5 THz, with an applied voltage of only 3 V at room temperature.

  19. Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

  20. System and method of modulating electrical signals using photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductors as variable resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, John Richardson; Caporaso, George J; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for producing modulated electrical signals. The system uses a variable resistor having a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material construction whose conduction response to changes in amplitude of incident radiation is substantially linear throughout a non-saturation region to enable operation in non-avalanche mode. The system also includes a modulated radiation source, such as a modulated laser, for producing amplitude-modulated radiation with which to direct upon the variable resistor and modulate its conduction response. A voltage source and an output port, are both operably connected to the variable resistor so that an electrical signal may be produced at the output port by way of the variable resistor, either generated by activation of the variable resistor or propagating through the variable resistor. In this manner, the electrical signal is modulated by the variable resistor so as to have a waveform substantially similar to the amplitude-modulated radiation.

  1. Recent Upgrade of the Klystron Modulator at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.P.; Lam, B.K.; Morris, B.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory employs 244 klystron modulators on its two-mile-long linear accelerator that has been operational since the early days of the SLAC establishment in the sixties. Each of these original modulators was designed to provide 250 kV, 262 A and 3.5 {mu}S at up to 360 pps using an inductance-capacitance resonant charging system, a modified type-E pulse-forming network (PFN), and a pulse transformer. The modulator internal control comprised of large step-start resistor-contactors, vacuum-tube amplifiers, and 120 Vac relays for logical signals. A major, power-component-only upgrade, which began in 1983 to accommodate the required beam energy of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project, raised the modulator peak output capacity to 360 kV, 420 A and 5.0 {mu}S at a reduced pulse repetition rate of 120 pps. In an effort to improve safety, performance, reliability and maintainability of the modulator, this recent upgrade focuses on the remaining three-phase AC power input and modulator controls. The upgrade includes the utilization of primary SCR phase control rectifiers, integrated fault protection and voltage regulation circuitries, and programmable logic controllers (PLC) -- with an emphasis on component physical layouts for safety and maintainability concerns. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of each upgraded component in the modulator control system. We will also report the testing and present status of the modified modulators.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF HIGH POWER RF VECTOR MODULATORS*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Wilson, Joshua L [ORNL; Champion, Mark [FNAL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A fan-out RF power distribution system can allow many accelerating cavities to be powered by a single high-power klystron amplifier. High-power vector modulators can perform independent control of amplitudes and phases of RF voltages at the cavities without changing the klystron signal. A prototype highpower RF vector modulator employing a quadrature hybrid and two ferrite phase shifters in coaxial TEM transmission lines has been built and tested for 402.5 MHz. RF properties of the design and results of high power testing are presented.

  3. P1-Marx Modulator for the ILC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    A first generation prototype, P1, Marx-topology klystron modulator has been developed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The P1-Marx has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. A review of the P1-Marx design and its operational history in the L-band test stand are presented.

  4. Advanced silicon photonic modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorace, Cheryl M

    2010-01-01

    Various electrical and optical schemes used in Mach-Zehnder (MZ) silicon plasma dispersion effect modulators are explored. A rib waveguide reverse biased silicon diode modulator is designed, tested and found to operate at ...

  5. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Abel, Dave (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD)

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  6. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T. (Phoenix, AZ); McIver, III, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  7. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  8. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson (Tracy, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  9. Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    external gate voltage in our schemes. Moreover, proposed schemes are robust against the noise of system parameters. Authors: Lue Xinyou ; Zheng Lili 1 ; Wu, Jing 2 ; Zhan...

  10. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  11. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  12. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  13. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte Interfacial Processes in Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards First Principles prediction of...

  14. Sharp interface and voltage conservation in the phase field method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-07-14

    of rabbit ventricles, with a corresponding reduction in simulation time. ... applied to cardiac tissue modeling and examine voltage conservation when using this.

  15. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  16. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  17. Global Design Analysis for Highly Repeatable Solid-state Klystron Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony, Dal Gobbo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the repeatability issue in the electrical-to-radio frequency conversion chains using pulsed klystrons. The focus is on the power electronics used in klystron modulators. Repeatability definition is presented and simulation results allow deriving important conclusions regarding the voltage repeatability harmonic content versus power electronics design directions. The trade-off between klystron modulator and low level RF controls is a key point for optimizing the global system repeatability performance.

  18. Ultrafast Power Processor for Smart Grid Power Module Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAITRA, ARINDAM; LITWIN, RAY; lai, Jason; Syracuse, David

    2012-12-30

    This project’s goal was to increase the switching speed and decrease the losses of the power semiconductor devices and power switch modules necessary to enable Smart Grid energy flow and control equipment such as the Ultra-Fast Power Processor. The primary focus of this project involves exploiting the new silicon-based Super-GTO (SGTO) technology and build on prototype modules already being developed. The prototype super gate-turn-off thyristor (SGTO) has been tested fully under continuously conducting and double-pulse hard-switching conditions for conduction and switching characteristics evaluation. The conduction voltage drop measurement results indicate that SGTO has excellent conduction characteristics despite inconsistency among some prototype devices. Tests were conducted with two conditions: (1) fixed gate voltage and varying anode current condition, and (2) fixed anode current and varying gate voltage condition. The conduction voltage drop is relatively a constant under different gate voltage condition. In terms of voltage drop as a function of the load current, there is a fixed voltage drop about 0.5V under zero current condition, and then the voltage drop is linearly increased with the current. For a 5-kV voltage blocking device that may operate under 2.5-kV condition, the projected voltage drop is less than 2.5 V under 50-A condition, or 0.1%. If the device is adopted in a converter operating under soft-switching condition, then the converter can achieve an ultrahigh efficiency, typically above 99%. The two-pulse switching test results indicate that SGTO switching speed is very fast. The switching loss is relatively low as compared to that of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs). A special phenomenon needs to be noted is such a fast switching speed for the high-voltage switching tends to create an unexpected C?dv/dt current, which reduces the turn-on loss because the dv/dt is negative and increases the turn-off loss because the dv/dt is positive. As a result, the turn-on loss at low current is quite low, and the turn-off loss at low current is relatively high. The phenomenon was verified with junction capacitance measurement along with the dv/dt calculation. Under 2-kV test condition, the turn-on and turn-off losses at 25-A is about 3 and 9 mJ, respectively. As compared to a 4.5-kV, 60-A rated IGBT, which has turn-on and turn-off losses about 25 and 20 mJ under similar test condition, the SGTO shows significant switching loss reduction. The switching loss depends on the switching frequency, but under hard-switching condition, the SGTO is favored to the IGBT device. The only concern is during low current turn-on condition, there is a voltage bump that can translate to significant power loss and associated heat. The reason for such a current bump is not known from this study. It is necessary that the device manufacturer perform though test and provide the answer so the user can properly apply SGTO in pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converter and inverter applications.

  19. A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA 2 JNC Petrochemical Corporation, Ichihara Research Center, Ichihara an alignment layer, but it needs a delicate mechanical shearing process. Scattering-free PNLCs have been

  20. Electrostrictive and electrostatic responses in contact mode voltage modulated Scanning Probe Microscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Ievlev, Anton; Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Electromechanical response of solids underpins image formation mechanism of several scanning probe microscopy techniques including the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). While the theory of linear piezoelectric and ionic responses are well developed, the contributions of quadratic effects including electrostriction and capacitive tip-surface forces to measured signal remain poorly understood. Here we analyze the electrostrictive and capacitive contributions to the PFM and ESM signals and discuss the implications of the dielectric tip-surface gap on these interactions.

  1. Electrochemical modulation of fluorescence of nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds for voltage sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakakibara, Reyu

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) color center in diamond has been used to sense environmental variables such as temperature and electric and magnetic fields. Most sensing protocols depend on the optically detectable magnetic ...

  2. Method for linearizing deflection of a MEMS device using binary electrodes and voltage modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horenstein, Mark N. (West Roxbury, MA) [West Roxbury, MA

    2008-06-10

    A micromechanical device comprising one or more electronically movable structure sets comprising for each set a first electrode supported on a substrate and a second electrode supported substantially parallel from said first electrode. Said second electrode is movable with respect to said first electrode whereby an electric potential applied between said first and second electrodes causing said second electrode to move relative to said first electrode a distance X, (X), where X is a nonlinear function of said potential, (V). Means are provided for linearizing the relationship between V and X.

  3. Fast switching, modular high-voltage DC/AC-power supplies for RF-Amplifiers and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex, J.; Schminke, W. [Thomcast AG, Turgi (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A new kind of high voltage high-power Pulse-Step Modulator (PSM) for broadcast transmitters, accelerator sources, for NBI (Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma Heating), gyrotrons and klystrons has been developed. Since its first introduction in 1984 for broadcast transmitters, more than 100 high-power sound broadcast transmitters had been equipped with the first generation of the PSM modulators, using Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) as switching elements. Recently, due to faster switching elements and making use of the latest DSP technologies (Digital Signal Processing), the performance data and areas of application could be extended further. In 1994, a precision high voltage source for MW gyrotrons was installed at CRPP in Lausanne. Supplementary very low cost solutions for lower powers but high voltages had been developed. Hence, today, a large area of applications can be satisfied with the family of solutions. The paper describes the principle of operation, the related control systems and refers to some particular applications of the PSM amplifiers, especially the newest developments and corresponding field results.

  4. Stability issues in IC Low Drop Out voltage regulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chava, Krishna Chaitanya

    2002-01-01

    . The problem of instability of the LDO voltage regulator at low Electo Static Resistance (ESR) of the load capacitors and the consequences of this problem are highlighted. As a solution to some of the discussed problems, an alternate LDO voltage regulator...

  5. CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS* Charles K. Sinclair # , Cornell voltage DC electron guns with photoemission cathodes are a natural choice for generating the beams gradient in these guns. The photocathode operational lifetime is limited by the gun vacuum and by ion back

  6. Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids Savaghebi). Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids. I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid, 3 in Microgrids," Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol.3, no.4, pp.1893-1902, Dec. 2012. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2012

  7. Measurement of high voltage using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrego, Celestino Pete

    2007-04-25

    A novel variation of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been utilized to measure a high voltage collected on an aluminum target by Direct Energy Conversion. The maximum high voltage on the target was measured to be 97.5 kV +/- 2 k...

  8. Influences of impedance matching network on pulse-modulated radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, W. G. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Xu, K.; Sun, B.; Ding, Z. F. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Pulse-modulated RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APDGs) were investigated in recent years to reduce the thermal accumulation and extend the operation region of the stable alpha glow mode. Different pulse-modulated voltage and current waveforms were acquired in previous experiments, but no attention was paid to the interpretation. We investigated this issue and associated phenomenon via positive and negative feedback effects derived from varying the series capacitor in the inversely L-shaped matching network used in our pulse-modulated RF APGD source. The evolutions of pulse-modulated RF waveforms were found to be associated with the feedback region and the pulsed plasma absorbed RF power. In the positive feedback region, pulse-modulated RF APGDs are relatively stable. In the negative feedback region, wide spikes as well as undershoots occur in RF voltage and current waveforms and the plasma absorbed RF power. In case of a high RF power discharge with a low modulation frequency, the pulse-modulated RF APGD is extinguished and re-ignited due to the enhanced undershoot during the initial pulse phase. The pulse-modulated RF APGD can transit from positive to negative feedback region in a range of series capacitance. Experimental results are discussed by the aid of equivalent circuit, negative and positive feedback effects.

  9. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  10. Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for Rating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the efforts of previous QA task forces and proposes a QA rating system to differentiate the relative durability of model designs.

  11. I-A Modulated Digitally Controlled Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I-A Modulated Digitally Controlled Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter for WCDMA RF Power Amplifiers.edu Abstract- This paper focuses on the non-inverting buck- boost converter supplying an adjustable DC voltage the WCDMA RFPA settling time requirements. 1. INTRODUCTION Non-inverting buck-boost DC-DC power converter

  12. System Design of a Wide Bandwidth Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Periasamy, Vijayaramalingam

    2010-07-14

    Sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters are gaining in popularity in recent times because of their ability to trade-off resolutions in the time and voltage domains. In particular, continuous-time modulators are finding more acceptance at higher...

  13. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  14. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  15. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  16. SNS LINAC MODULATOR OPERATIONAL HISTORY AND PERFOMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peplov, Vladimir V [ORNL; Anderson, David E [ORNL; Cutler, Roy I [ORNL; Hicks, Jim [ORNL; Saethre, Robert B [ORNL; Wezensky, Mark W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) were initially installed at the Spallation Neutron Source Linear Accelerator (SNS Linac) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2005. A fifteenth HVCM was added in 2009. Each modulator provides a pulse of up to 140 kV at a maximum width of 1.35 msec. Peak power level is 11 MW with an 8% duty factor. The HVCM system must be available for neutron production (NP) 24/7 with the exception being two, 6-week maintenance periods per year. HVCM reliability is one of the most important factors to maximize Linac availability and achieve SNS performance goals. During the last few years several modifications have been implemented to improve the overall system reliability. This paper presents operational history of the HVCM systems and examines failure mode statistical data since the modulators began operating at 60 Hz. System enhancements and upgrades aimed at providing long term reliable operation with minimal down time are also discussed in the paper.

  17. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  18. Module No: 410336Personal Statutes for Non-Module Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410336Personal Statutes for Non- Muslims Module Title: Co-requisite:Introduction of Islamic Jurisprudence Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Third Year Academic rank Module coordinator 307384Assistant Professor Dr. Fuad Sartawi ResearchTutorial Guidance

  19. Module No: 410319Copyrights and Neighboring Module Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410319Copyrights and Neighboring Rights Module Title: Co-requisite:Effects of ObligationsPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization elective requirementModule level: Third Year Evening Academic rank Module coordinator e-bataineh@philadelphia.edu.joAssistant Professor Dr. Iyad Bataineh

  20. PV Cell and Module Calibration Activities at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.; Anderberg, A.; Kiehl, J.; Mack, C.; Moriarty, T.; Ottoson, L.; Rummel, S.

    2005-11-01

    The performance of PV cells and modules with respect to standard reference conditions is a key indicator of progress of a given technology. This task provides the U.S. terrestrial PV community with the most accurate measurements that are technically possible in a timely fashion. The international module certification and accreditation program PVGap requires certification laboratories to maintain their calibration traceability path to groups like this one. The politics of a "world record" efficiency requires that an independent laboratory perform these measurements for credibility. Most manufacturers base their module peak watt rating upon standards and reference cells calibrated under this task. This task has been involved in reconciling disputes between manufacturers and their cell suppliers in terms of expected versus actual performance. This task has also served as a resource to the PV community for consultation on solar simulation, current versus voltage measurement instrumentation, measurement procedures and measurement artifacts.

  1. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  2. User's Manual for Data for Validating Models for PV Module Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.; Anderberg, A.; Deline, C.; Glick, S.; Muller, M.; Perrin, G.; Rodriguez, J.; Rummel, S.; Terwilliger, K.; Silverman, T. J.

    2014-04-01

    This user's manual describes performance data measured for flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in Cocoa, Florida, Eugene, Oregon, and Golden, Colorado. The data include PV module current-voltage curves and associated meteorological data for approximately one-year periods. These publicly available data are intended to facilitate the validation of existing models for predicting the performance of PV modules, and for the development of new and improved models. For comparing different modeling approaches, using these public data will provide transparency and more meaningful comparisons of the relative benefits.

  3. Arc Detection and Interlock Module for the PEP II Low Level RF System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tighe, R.; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    A new arc detection and interlock generating module for the SLAC PEP-II low-level RF VXI-based system has been developed. The system is required to turn off the RF drive and high voltage power supply in the event of arcing in the cavity windows, klystron window, or circulator. Infrared photodiodes receive arc signals through radiation resistant optical fibers. Gain and bandwidth are selectable for each channel to allow tailoring response. The module also responds to interlock requests from other modules in the VXI system and communicates with the programmable logic controller (PLC) responsible for much of the low-level RF system's interlock functionality.

  4. Approved Module Information for PD2003, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering Principles 2 Module Code: PD2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PD2003, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering Principles 2 Module Code: PD2003 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module? No Module Dependancies Pre-requisites: Engineering Principles (PD1803). Co-requisites: None Specified Module

  5. Approved Module Information for BF2210, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Making Managerial Decisions Module Code: BF2210

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BF2210, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Making Managerial Decisions Module Code: BF2210 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Florian Gebreiter Email Address gebreif1

  6. Approved Module Information for LPM040, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Rethinking European Integration Module Code: LPM040

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LPM040, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Rethinking European Integration Module Code: LPM040 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Yes Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Nathaniel Copsey Email Address n

  7. Approved Module Information for LEM039, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Grammar Module Code: LEM039

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LEM039, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Grammar Module Code: LEM039 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Urszula Clark Email Address u

  8. Approved Module Information for LS3006, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Hispanic Film Module Code: LS3006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LS3006, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Hispanic Film Module Code: LS3006 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Raquel Medina Email Address r

  9. Approved Module Information for LT2102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Inventory Control Module Code: LT2102

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LT2102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Inventory Control Module Code: LT2102 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name James Stone Email Address j

  10. Approved Module Information for PY2217, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Personality Practical (JH) Module Code: PY2217

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PY2217, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Personality Practical (JH) Module Code: PY2217 School: Life and Health Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ed Walford Email Address e

  11. Approved Module Information for BS3347, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Economics of Entrepreneurship Module Code: BS3347

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BS3347, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Economics of Entrepreneurship Module Code: BS3347 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Anna Rebmann Email Address rebmanna

  12. Approved Module Information for PY3351, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Child Development Module Code: PY3351

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PY3351, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Child Development Module Code: PY3351 School: Life and Health Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Claire Farrow Email Address farrowc

  13. Approved Module Information for CE2110, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Process Laboratory Module Code: CE2110

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE2110, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Process Laboratory Module Code: CE2110 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name John Brammer Email Address brammejg

  14. Approved Module Information for LK2004, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Global Society Module Code: LK2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LK2004, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Global Society Module Code: LK2004 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Demelza Jones Email Address jonesd4@aston

  15. Approved Module Information for CH3117, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Literature Research Project Module Code: CH3117

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CH3117, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Literature Research Project Module Code: CH3117 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Andrew James Sutherland Email Address

  16. Approved Module Information for LE1008, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Grammar & Meaning Module Code: LE1008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LE1008, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Grammar & Meaning Module Code: LE1008 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Jack Grieve Email Address grievej1

  17. Approved Module Information for BN3385, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Effective Project Delivery Module Code: BN3385

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BN3385, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Effective Project Delivery Module Code: BN3385 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Panagiotis Petridis Email Address petridip

  18. Approved Module Information for BS1163, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Microeconomics Module Code: BS1163

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BS1163, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Microeconomics Module Code: BS1163 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name David Morris Email Address morrisd5@aston

  19. Approved Module Information for LEM016, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Methodology Module Code: LEM016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LEM016, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Methodology Module Code: LEM016 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Muna Morris-Adams Email Address adamsmm

  20. Approved Module Information for BF2251, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Financial Management Module Code: BF2251

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BF2251, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Financial Management Module Code: BF2251 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Colin Chapman Email Address chapmac1@aston

  1. Approved Module Information for LT2315, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Rail Transport Module Code: LT2315

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LT2315, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Rail Transport Module Code: LT2315 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name P Connor Email Address connorp

  2. Approved Module Information for ME2018, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Quality Engineering Module Code: ME2018

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for ME2018, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Quality Engineering Module Code: ME2018 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name David Upton Email Address uptondp

  3. Approved Module Information for LI2008, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Communication across Cultures Module Code: LI2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LI2008, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Communication across Cultures Module Code: LI2008 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Olga Castro Email Address o

  4. Approved Module Information for CE4018, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Advanced Particle Processing Module Code: CE4018

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE4018, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Advanced Particle Processing Module Code: CE4018 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Mark Leaper Email Address m

  5. Approved Module Information for SE4031, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Extended Integrative Option Module Code: SE4031

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for SE4031, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Extended Integrative Option Module Code: SE4031 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 30 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Trevor Oliver Email Address t

  6. Approved Module Information for LT1312, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Literature Review Project Module Code: LT1312

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LT1312, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Literature Review Project Module Code: LT1312 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name David Carpenter Email Address d

  7. Approved Module Information for LS2017, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Contemporary Latin America Module Code: LS2017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LS2017, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Contemporary Latin America Module Code: LS2017 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Stephanie Panichelli-Batalla Email Address

  8. Approved Module Information for CE3013, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Particle Processing Module Code: CE3013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE3013, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Particle Processing Module Code: CE3013 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Mark Leaper Email Address m

  9. Approved Module Information for LE2057, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Computer Mediated Communication Module Code: LE2057

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LE2057, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Computer Mediated Communication Module Code: LE2057 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Nur Hooton Email Address n

  10. Approved Module Information for BS3325, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Competition Policy -Theory Module Code: BS3325

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BS3325, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Competition Policy - Theory Module Code: BS3325 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Yes Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Matt Olczak Email Address olczakm

  11. Approved Module Information for BL1179, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Accounting for Law Module Code: BL1179

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BL1179, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Accounting for Law Module Code: BL1179 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Angela Stanhope Email Address a

  12. Approved Module Information for BFM120, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Investment Management Module Code: BFM120

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BFM120, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Investment Management Module Code: BFM120 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Colin Chapman Email Address chapmac1@aston

  13. Approved Module Information for PY2216, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Neuroscience Practicals Module Code: PY2216

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PY2216, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Neuroscience Practicals Module Code: PY2216 School: Life and Health Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Yes Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ed Walford Email Address e

  14. Approved Module Information for BHM348, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Employee Relations & Counselling Module Code: BHM348

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BHM348, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Employee Relations & Counselling Module Code: BHM348 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name M Carter Email Address cartermr

  15. Approved Module Information for LT1307, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Principles of Economics Module Code: LT1307

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LT1307, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Principles of Economics Module Code: LT1307 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name David Carpenter Email Address d

  16. Approved Module Information for ME2050, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Dynamics and Control Module Code: ME2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for ME2050, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Dynamics and Control Module Code: ME2050 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Xianghong Ma Email Address max

  17. Approved Module Information for BHM328, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Strategic Business Sustainability Module Code: BHM328

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BHM328, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Strategic Business Sustainability Module Code: BHM328 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name H Borland Email Address borlanhm

  18. Approved Module Information for BF2244, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Strategic Finance Module Code: BF2244

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BF2244, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Strategic Finance Module Code: BF2244 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Colin Chapman Email Address chapmac1@aston

  19. Approved Module Information for CE3102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Reaction Engineering Module Code: CE3102

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE3102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Reaction Engineering Module Code: CE3102 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Feroz Kabir Email Address kabirf

  20. Approved Module Information for LE2053, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Variations of English Module Code: LE2053

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LE2053, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Variations of English Module Code: LE2053 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Jack Grieve Email Address grievej1

  1. Approved Module Information for BF3314, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Derivatives Module Code: BF3314

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BF3314, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Derivatives Module Code: BF3314 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Winifred Huang-Meier Email Address w

  2. Approved Module Information for PY3472, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Autistic Spectrum Module Code: PY3472

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PY3472, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Autistic Spectrum Module Code: PY3472 School: Life and Health Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Gina Rippon Email Address rippong@aston.ac.uk Telephone

  3. Approved Module Information for CE3112, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Nanomaterials Module Code: CE3112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE3112, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Nanomaterials Module Code: CE3112 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Qingchun Yuan Email Address q.yuan@aston.ac.uk Telephone

  4. Approved Module Information for CE1002, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Design and Build Module Code: CE1002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE1002, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Design and Build Module Code: CE1002 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Paul Andrew Tack Email Address tackpa

  5. Approved Module Information for LG2018, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Metropolis Berlin Module Code: LG2018

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LG2018, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Metropolis Berlin Module Code: LG2018 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Uwe Schütte Email Address u

  6. Approved Module Information for PD2002, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Commercial Practice Module Code: PD2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PD2002, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Commercial Practice Module Code: PD2002 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Jon Hewitt Email Address Not Specified

  7. Approved Module Information for BN2290, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Operational Research Techniques Module Code: BN2290

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BN2290, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Operational Research Techniques Module Code: BN2290 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ozren Despic Email Address o

  8. Approved Module Information for LT1319, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Air Transport Module Code: LT1319

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LT1319, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Air Transport Module Code: LT1319 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name James Stone Email Address j.stone@aston.ac.uk Telephone

  9. Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules Presents concept for hermetic encapsulation of TE modules...

  10. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  11. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  12. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  13. Module Handbook Fernstudium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Karsten

    Module Handbook Fernstudium postgradual Nanotechnology (Master of Science) Infineon Technology, Munich Distance studies postgraduate #12;Module name Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics Lecturer apl. Prof is to present the fundamental concepts of quantum physics in a way that a clear understanding of the theoretical

  14. A PC-PCL-based control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power operation of the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam (IDNB) Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribble, R.

    1993-06-01

    A stand-alone, semiautomated control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power energy sources on the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory using personal computer (PC) and programmable logic controller (PLC) technology has been developed and implemented. The control system, consisting of a PC with the graphic operator interface, the network connecting the PC to the PLC, the PLC, the PLC I/O modules, fiber-optic interfaces and software, is described.

  15. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  16. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  17. IMPACT OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE SCALING (DVS) ON CIRCUIT OPTIMIZATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquit Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2010-01-16

    Circuit designers perform optimization procedures targeting speed and power during the design of a circuit. Gate sizing can be applied to optimize for speed, while Dual-VT and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) can be applied to optimize for leakage...

  18. High frequency AC power converter for low voltage circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Nathaniel Jay Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel AC power delivery architecture that is suitable for VHF frequency (50-100MHz) polyphase AC/DC power conversion in low voltage integrated circuits. A complete AC power delivery architecture was ...

  19. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  20. Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

  1. Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage Lithium-ion Battery Composite Oxide Electrodes Apr 11 2014 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM Debasish Mohanty, ORNL, Oak Ridge...

  2. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  4. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  5. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  6. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  7. Voltage-matched configurations for multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods for interconnecting the subcells of a multijunction solar cell are investigated. The subcells are connected in parallel in these new methods. The bandgaps of the subcells must be selected for matched voltages when operated in parallel. We refer to multijunction solar cells with the subcells connected in parallel as having a voltage-matched configuration. Computer analyses of multijunction solar cells with a voltage-matched configuration and with series-connected subcells were performed. Roughly, the same performance with either approach for a multijunction cell with optimized bandgaps was found. Several advantages for the voltage-matched configuration relative to multijunction solar cells with series-connected subcells were identified, including wider selection of bandgaps for optimal performance, less sensitivity to radiation damage, and less sensitivity to spectral variations.

  8. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  9. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    General types of air core pulse transformers designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are discussed with special emphasis on pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. The design, operation, dielectric materials, and performance are described. It is concluded that high voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The principal disadvantage of high voltage air core transformers is that they are not generally available from commercial sources. Consequently, the potential user must become thoroughly familiar with all aspects of design, fabrication and system application before he can produce a high performance transformer system. (LCL)

  10. Fusing strategies for the dual-voltage fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrivastava, Rupam, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the 42V - 14V fault in a dual voltage system and discusses the possibility of effective fusing. A simple model for the system had been created from technical documentation. Based on the model and the ...

  11. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  12. High power solid state laser modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    2004-04-27

    A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

  13. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  14. Measuring Helical FCG Voltage with an Electric Field Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Javedani, J B; Reisman, D B; Goerz, D A; Ferriera, A J; Speer, R D

    2011-08-01

    A method of measuring the voltage produced by a helical explosive flux compression generator using a remote electric field antenna is described in detail. The diagnostic has been successfully implemented on several experiments. Measured data from the diagnostic compare favorably with voltages predicted using the code CAGEN, validating our predictive modeling tools. The measured data is important to understanding generator performance, and is measured with a low-risk, minimally intrusive approach.

  15. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Shariatpanahi; A. Iraji zad; I. Abdollahzadeh; R. Shirsavar; D. Bonn; R. Ejtehadi

    2011-09-12

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  16. 27.5 A Single-Inductor ACDC Piezoelectric Energy-Harvester/Battery-Charger IC Converting (0.35 to 1.2V) to (2.7 to 4.5V)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 27.5 A Single-Inductor AC­DC Piezoelectric Energy-Harvester/Battery- Charger IC Converting ±(0, GA Microscale integration constrains energy and the lifetime microsystems like wireless sensors and quiescent current nonetheless limit the input voltage range of the system and dissipate power. The harvester-charger

  17. Module bay with directed flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  18. Heterogeneous microring and Mach-Zehnder modulators based on lithium niobate and chalcogenide glasses on silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rao, Ashutosh; Patil, Aniket; Chiles, Jeff; Malinowski, Marcin; Novak, Spencer; Richardson, Kathleen; Rabiei, Payam; Fathpour, Sasan

    2015-08-20

    In this study, thin films of lithium niobate are wafer bonded onto silicon substrates and rib-loaded with a chalcogenide glass, Ge23Sb7S70, to demonstrate strongly confined single-mode submicron waveguides, microring modulators, and Mach-Zehnder modulators in the telecom C band. The 200 ?m radii microring modulators present 1.2 dB/cm waveguide propagation loss, 1.2 × 105 quality factor, 0.4 GHz/V tuning rate, and 13 dB extinction ratio. The 6 mm long Mach-Zehnder modulators have a half-wave voltage-length product of 3.8 V.cm and an extinction ratio of 15 dB. The demonstrated work is a key step towards enabling wafer scale dense on-chip integration ofmore »high performance lithium niobate electro-optical devices on silicon for short reach optical interconnects and higher order advanced modulation schemes.« less

  19. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  20. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beugelsdijk, Tony (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Tracy H. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence E. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Jeffrey E. (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, Michael Leon (Menan, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  1. Modulated curvaton decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: hooshyar.assadullahi@port.ac.uk, E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: mh.namjoo@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk [Yukawa Institute for theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    We study primordial density perturbations generated by the late decay of a curvaton field whose decay rate may be modulated by the local value of another isocurvature field, analogous to models of modulated reheating at the end of inflation. We calculate the primordial density perturbation and its local-type non-Gaussianity using the sudden-decay approximation for the curvaton field, recovering standard curvaton and modulated reheating results as limiting cases. We verify the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality between bispectrum and trispectrum parameters for the primordial density field generated by multiple field fluctuations, and find conditions for the bound to be saturated.

  2. Approved Module Information for CS2020, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Software Engineering Module Code: CS2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CS2020, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Software Engineering Module Code: CS2020 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Electronic Engineering and Computer Science. Available to Exchange Students? Yes Module Dependancies Pre

  3. Approved Module Information for BMM645, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: International Marketing Management Module Code: BMM645

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Management Module Code: BMM645 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Aarti Sood Email Address a.sood3 are expected to attend lectures and seminars as well as to take part in classroom discussions. The module

  4. Module Title: Project Module Code: OPTO6005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molinari, Marc

    Ibsen, Dr Ping Hua, Prof James Wilkinson Contact (email ID) sm@orc.soton.ac.uk, mi@orc.soton.ac.uk, ph2@orc.soton.ac.uk, jsw@orc.soton.ac.uk Is the module subject to external accreditation? No If yes and optical labs of the ORC 3. Train in technical and hands-on research skills to gain technical insight

  5. Module No: 410121Introduction to Commercial Module Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410121Introduction to Commercial Law Module Title: Co-requisite: Commercial Papers/ Companies and Bankruptcy/International Trade Law- Maritime Law Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: department prerequisiteModule level: First year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours

  6. Approved Module Information for BF3358, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Investments Module Code: BF3358

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module learned how to measure the performance of an investment strategy. ? Transferable Skill ? have conducted performance measurement Portfolio return measurement. Risk adjusted performance measures. Attribution analysis

  7. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  8. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  9. 2 MW Active Bouncer Converter Design for Long Pulse Klystron Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguglia, D

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some design issues of a 2 MW interleaved buck converter which is used as an active bouncer droop compensator for a 5.5MW long pulse klystron modulator. This novel design concept presents many challenges in terms of voltage ripple versus pulse rise-time. Issues related to the voltage ripple specification versus output filter design are discussed in detail. The design study is analyzed analytically, simulated numerically and is validated by experimental results obtained from a full power prototype.

  10. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive...

  11. INJECTIVE MODULES FOR UNIFORM ALGEBRAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Michael C.

    of right Banach A-modules as mod-A and the class of Banach A-bimodules as A-mod-A. We shall refer to the module maps in each case as morphisms. Modules will be denoted by upper-case Roman letters, morphisms ), bounded linear maps are denoted by lower-case Roman letters. The assumption that all modules

  12. Low voltage supply system for the very front end readout electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lustermann, W; Denes, P; Djambazov, L; Dröge, M; Faure, J L; Iliev, Bozhidar Z; Nanov, I; Raykov, P; Shivarov, N

    1999-01-01

    Low voltage supply system for the very front end readout electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

  13. Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI Kyung Ki Kim Department of Electrical trigger and an ultra low voltage current source on PD-SOI with low temperature and supply voltage oscillator based VCOs on SOI CMOS [4][5] have been reported. However, VCO with ultra low voltage less than 0

  14. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, Alan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  15. Approved Module Information for PH2502, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Pharmaceutical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PH2502, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Pharmaceutical Microbio Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Deborah Lowry Email Address lowryd to Exchange Students? Not Specified Module Learning Information Module Aims: Pharmaceutical Microbiology

  16. Voltage sensing in ion channels: Mesoscale simulations of biological devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peyser, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Electrical signaling via voltage-gated ion channels depends upon the function of a voltage sensor (VS), identified with the S1-S4 domain in voltage-gated K+ channels. Here we investigate some energetic aspects of the sliding-helix model of the VS using simulations based on VS charges, linear dielectrics and whole-body motion. Model electrostatics in voltage-clamped boundary conditions are solved using a boundary element method. The statistical mechanical consequences of the electrostatic configurational energy are computed to gain insight into the sliding-helix mechanism and to predict experimentally measured ensemble properties such as gating charge displaced by an applied voltage. Those consequences and ensemble properties are investigated for two alternate S4 configurations, \\alpha- and 3(10)-helical. Both forms of VS are found to have an inherent electrostatic stability. Maximal charge displacement is limited by geometry, specifically the range of movement where S4 charges and counter-charges overlap in t...

  17. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, A.N.; Watson, J.A.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load. 4 figs.

  18. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  19. A study of temperature compensating circuits for voltage references which use negative temperature coefficient zener diodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Spencer Delano

    1961-01-01

    OF FIGURES Figure Page Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Characteristics. Zener Diode Breakdown Voltage vs Temperature Coefficient . 3a. 1N746 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region 3b. 1N747 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current... Character- istics in Breakdown Region 10 3c. 1N748 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region 3d. 1N749 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region . 12 3e. IN750 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current...

  20. Design of Analog & Mixed Signal Circuits in Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulators for System-on-Chip applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chang Joon

    2013-08-22

    comparison stage.........................................................................56 III.3.5. PVT variations..........................................................................................59 III.4. Chip Measurement Results... under process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations. Section V summarizes the contributions of this dissertation. 9 II. 5TH-ORDER ACTIVE-RC FILTER FOR BLOCKER TOLERANT CONTINUOUS-TIME SIGMA-DELTA MODULATORS II.1. Background and Motivation...

  1. Abstract--Although microsystems can replenish batteries and energize modules with ambient energy without having to store

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 Abstract-- Although microsystems can replenish batteries and energize modules with ambient energy, photovoltaic, dc- sourced, low-voltage starter, switched-inductor dc­dc converter. I. ENERGIZING WIRELESS, the starter energizes and drains an inductor LX in alternating cycles from the input vH into CST. When CST

  2. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  3. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  4. Approved Module Information for BHM346, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Organisational Behaviour: Theory &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BHM346, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Organisational Behaviour: Theory & Practice Module Code: BHM346 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Yves Guillaume Email Address guilyrf2

  5. Approved Module Information for CE2106, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Reaction Kinetics & Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE2106, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Reaction Kinetics & Equilibrium Thermodynamics Module Code: CE2106 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Mark Leaper Email Address

  6. Approved Module Information for BNM803, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Developing Business Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BNM803, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Developing Business Systems Workshop Module Code: BNM803 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Email Address Not Specified Telephone

  7. Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits 0 (rg G x m .- E . . . . . a r, a" P, 44' s" +N m - _ c o3 #12;Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits I

  8. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  9. Approved Module Information for ME3023, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Energy Efficiency Module Code: ME3023

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    for assessing thermal processes in industry. Key issues associated with energy usage and reduction includingApproved Module Information for ME3023, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Energy Efficiency Module Code: ME3023 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits

  10. Approved Module Information for ME2045, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Solid Mechanics Module Code: ME2045

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    and comprehensive theory as well as practical application of the fundamental principles of mechanics and materialsApproved Module Information for ME2045, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Solid Mechanics Module Code: ME2045 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits

  11. Approved Module Information for BHM347, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Assessment Performance & Reward Module Code: BHM347

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BHM347, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Assessment Performance & Reward Module Code: BHM347 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Practitioners: Recruitment and Selection (including Selection Assessment) Performance Measurement Management

  12. Approved Module Information for ME2502, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering for Industry Module Code: ME2502

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for ME2502, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering for Industry Module Code: ME2502 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module) Programmes in which available: BEng Design Engineering. BSc Industrial Product Design. BSc Product Design

  13. Approved Module Information for PD1803, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering Principles Module Code: PD1803

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PD1803, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering Principles Module Code: PD1803 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module; * have a knowledge and understanding of and be able to apply the basic engineering principles

  14. Approved Module Information for ME1601, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering Science Module Code: ME1601

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for ME1601, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Engineering Science Module Code: ME1601 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module/MEng Mechanical Engineering. BEng/MEng Electromechanical Engineering. BEng Design Engineering. BEng

  15. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  16. Power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B. (Torrance, CA); Newson, Steve (Redondo Beach, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  17. Approved Module Information for EE3WSN, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Wireless Sensor Networks Module Code: EE3WSN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for EE3WSN, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Wireless Sensor Networks Module Code: EE3WSN School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module

  18. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  19. Primary Voltage Control in Active Distribution Networks via Broadcast Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggavi, Suhas

    energy storage. We show that it is possible to use the same broadcast signal deployed for controlling) for real-time demand response developed by the authors in a previous contribution. We estimate the energy--Active distribution network, ancillary services, primary voltage control, electrical energy storage systems, broad

  20. Simplified VO M&V Protocol Simplified Voltage Optimization (VO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling is mentioned, it refers to using industry accepted distribution system power flow simulation tools the verification process. · Calculations of all system improvements (reduction of line losses and no-load lossesSimplified VO M&V Protocol 1 Simplified Voltage Optimization (VO) Measurement and Verification

  1. Smart Grid Voltage Sag Detection using Instantaneous Features Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    encountered power quality disturbances. Index Terms--Smart grid, voltage sag detection, power quality (PQ as the generation system is moved nearby the distribution level and this is achieved by using a set of micro grids grids are their availability, reliability, and profitability; in order to fulfill power demand according

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF BROADBAND LOW-VOLTAGE RF MEM SWITCHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Shyh-Chiang

    DEVELOPMENT OF BROADBAND LOW-VOLTAGE RF MEM SWITCHES S.C. Shen, D. T. Becher, D. C. Caruth, and M)333-4054 Fax: (217) 244-6375 Abstract We present novel RF switches using micro-electro- mechanical (MEM) technology. These MEM switches are built on GaAs substrates using GaAs MESFET MMIC- compatible processes

  3. CompilerDirected Dynamic Voltage Scaling Based on Program Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kremer, Ulrich

    '' the degraded CPU performance behind the memory hierarchy accesses which are on the critical path. The compiler. processor that can operate over a wide voltage range. The operating system controls the processor speed user environment, but not in a multi­user environment where the CPU is scheduled across di#erent active

  4. Control and Protection Cooperation Strategy for Voltage Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    are caused by unexpected backup relay operations due to low voltage or overload state caused by post fault load restoration dynamics. If such state can be sensed and adjusted appropriately prior to those relay adopted to save the system from severe states. A test system is built in real time digital simulator (RTDS

  5. High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction HVDC has been applied in electric power systems Supplier: ABB Railroa d DC Tie USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W 21

  6. High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction Interconnecting HVDC within an AC system requires conversion from AC to DC and inversion from DC to AC. We refer to the circuits which provide conversion from AC to DC as rectifiers and the circuits which provide conversion from DC to AC as inverters. The term

  7. Topical Review Voltage Dependence of the Na/K Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadsby, David

    Topical Review Voltage Dependence of the Na/K Pump R.F. Rakowski1 , D.C. Gadsby2 , P. De Weer3 1, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Received: 2 August 1996/Revised: 13 September 1996 Introduction Whether Na/K pump & Rakowski, 1988). While it follows from first principles that the rate of net forward Na/K pumping must

  8. Coupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    proposed integrated boost converters [7] that are beginning to see applications in automotive power buck-boost (Flyback) power converter [9,10] that utilizes one magnetic core to integrate two FlybackCoupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application Ting Qian, Brad

  9. Energy Optimization of Subthreshold-Voltage Sensor Network Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabal

    network processor results. This design, accompanied by bulk-silicon solar cells for energy scavenging, hasEnergy Optimization of Subthreshold-Voltage Sensor Network Processors Leyla Nazhandali, Bo ZhaiV and be- low) lends itself well to the performance and energy demands of sensor network processors

  10. Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toumpis, Stavros

    Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Stavros Toumpis Electrical balancing in wireless networks with a single class of traffic, focusing our attention on an important example, i.e., Wireless Sensor Networks. The analysis is based on the Wireless Minimum Cost Problem

  11. Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Yiyang Gong1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicators Yiyang Gong1,2* , Jin Zhong Li1 by nearly three-fold in comparison to Arch-D95N. Citation: Gong Y, Li JZ, Schnitzer MJ (2013) Enhanced; Published June 19, 2013 Copyright: © 2013 Gong et al. This is an open-access article distributed under

  12. Energy Efficiency in Low Voltage Hall Thrusters Jerry L. Ross

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Lyon B.

    Energy Efficiency in Low Voltage Hall Thrusters Jerry L. Ross Lyon B. King Energy efficiency/s of xenon. Acceleration and current efficiencies were compared to thrust efficiency over a range of magnet coil current values of 0 A - 2.5 A. Acceleration efficiencies were obtained with a 4-grid Retarding

  13. Standby Voltage Scaling for Reduced Power B. Calhoun, A. Chandrakasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton H.

    Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Abstract Lowering VDD during standby mode leakage, gate leakage, GIDL, and forward biased diode leak- age[2]. At the 0.13 m technology node to pinch in the rail voltages during standby[5]. The quantity and sizes of the devices used in the diode

  14. Optical Spectra of the High Voltage Erosive Water Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirozerski, A L

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper kinetics of emission spectra of the high voltage erosive water discharge at near ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges has been investigated. Obtained results show a similarity of physical properties of this discharge (and of corresponding plasmoids) to that of some other types of erosional discharges which also result in the formation of dust-gas fireballs.

  15. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Wilson, Michael J. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  16. Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Department of ECE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Maha Nizam Department of ECE University of Toronto devgan@magma-da.com ABSTRACT Full-chip verification requires one to check if the power grid is safe, i of the circuit attached to the grid, thereby precluding early verification of the grid. We propose a power grid

  17. Module Title: Metamaterials, Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Module Code: OPTO6004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molinari, Marc

    1 Module Title: Metamaterials, Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Module Code: OPTO6004 Core introduction to the three cornerstones of future photonic technologies, namely metamaterials, plasmonics. Comprehend the concept of metamaterials and underlying principles of their operation A3. Learn about

  18. Electrically tunable terahertz wave modulator based on complementary metamaterial and graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Xun-jun, E-mail: hexunjun@hrbust.edu.cn; Li, Teng-yue; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian-min; Jiang, Jiu-xing [Department of Electronic Science and technology, School of Applied Sciences, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Yang, Guo-hui; Meng, Fan-yi; Wu, Qun [Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, we design and numerically demonstrate an electrically controllable light-matter interaction in a hybrid material/metamaterial system consisting of an artificially constructed cross cut-wire complementary metamaterial and an atomically thin graphene layer to realize terahertz (THz) wave modulator. By applying a bias voltage between the metamaterial and the graphene layer, this modulator can dynamically control the amplitude and phase of the transmitted wave near 1.43 THz. Moreover, the distributions of current density show that this large modulation depth can be attributed to the resonant electric field parallel to the graphene sheet. Therefore, the modulator performance indicates the enormous potential of graphene for developing sophisticated THz communication systems.

  19. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jin-Mok Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2013-12-15

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/?Hz @ 100 Hz.

  20. Detailed Course Module Description | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Course Module Description Detailed Course Module Description This document lists the course modules for building science courses offered at Cornell's Collaborator...

  1. A Novel Active Bouncer System for Klystron Modulators with Constant AC Power Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabaleiro Magallanes, F; Viarouge, P; Cros, J; De Almeida Martins, C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and design methodologies of a novel active bouncer system, to be implemented in a transformer-based klystron modulator, which is able to meet two different objectives: 1. Regulate the output pulse voltage flattop, and 2. Attenuate the power fluctuation withdrawn from the AC network. This solution allows the utilization of a standard constant voltage / constant current power supply as a capacitor charger. The solution consists of a 4-quadrant switching converter placed in series with the main capacitor bank (forming a unique element in parallel with the capacitor charger), controlled with specific feed-back loops to achieve the two objectives. The complete design method, including a numerical optimization, of the whole system, is presented in the paper. Analyses of the compromises between the active bouncer specifications and the other modulator sub-components design is presented as well.

  2. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  3. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  4. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  5. Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damm, Werner

    Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Zaragoza Specialisation Provider: Biomass Energy #12;Specialisation Biomass Energy, University of Zaragoza Modul: Introduction and Basic Concepts

  6. Hierarchical classification of modulation signals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nam Jin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of classifying both analog and digital modulation signals using different kinds of classifiers. The classification of modulation signals has both civilian and military applications. A total of 31 statistical signal...

  7. A 1 MEGAWATT POLYPHASE BOOST CONVERTER-MODULATOR FOR KLYSTRON PULSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.A. REASS; J.D. DOSS; R.F. GRIBBLE

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes electrical design criteria and first operational results a 140 kV, 1 MW average, 11 MW peak, zero-voltage-switching 20 kHz polyphase bridge, boost converter/modulator for klystron pulse application. The DC-DC converter derives the buss voltages from a standard 13.8 kV to 2300 Y substation cast-core transformer. Energy storage and filtering is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. Three ''H-Bridge'' Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switching networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are chirped the appropriate duration to generate the desired klystron pulse width. PWM (pulse width modulation) of the individual 20 kHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes amorphous nanocrystalline material that provides the required low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Resonant shunt-peaking is used on the transformer secondary to boost output voltage and resonate transformer leakage inductance. With the appropriate transformer leakage inductance and peaking capacitance, zero-voltage-switching of the IGBT's is attained, minimizing switching losses. A review of these design parameters and the first results of the performance characteristics will be presented.

  8. Image-line voltage controlled oscillators and grating antennas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Alexander MacDonald

    1991-01-01

    Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kai Chang A novel active antenna is proposed with an image-line construction. An image-line Gunn diode oscillator utilizing a cap resonator, for frequency stability, is the source module for the antenna. A varactor... is added to the source module for frequency tuning. Combining Gunn diode bias and varactor tuning, 2 percent electronic tuning bandwidth in the X-band has been achieved. The source module is an integral part of an image-line periodic grating antenna...

  9. Approved Module Information for LE3028, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corpus Linguistics Module Code: LE3028

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    from primary sources (i.e. corpora) and secondary sources (e.g. dictionaries) Carrying outApproved Module Information for LE3028, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corpus Linguistics Module Code Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Garry Plappert Email Address g

  10. Approved Module Information for LE1083, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Words & Meaning Module Code: LE1083

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    and use data and information from primary sources (e.g. corpora) and secondary sources (e.g. dictionariesApproved Module Information for LE1083, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Words & Meaning Module Code: LE Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Garry Plappert Email Address g

  11. Approved Module Information for BM2243, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Digital Marketing Module Code: BM2243

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BM2243, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Digital Marketing Module Code: BM School & Subject Groups(and %): Pre-requisites for this module are: BM1134 Introduction to Marketing OR BM2257 Marketing Available to Exchange Students? Not Specified Module Learning Information Module

  12. Approved Module Information for BMM604, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Marketing Strategy Module Code: BMM604

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BMM604, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Marketing Strategy Module Code: Masters Available to Exchange Students? Not Specified Module Dependancies Pre-requisites: Marketing Management (BMM601). Co-requisites: None Specified Module Learning Information Module Aims: The Marketing

  13. Approved Module Information for BMM656, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Marketing Consultancy Module Code: BMM656

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BMM656, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Marketing Consultancy Module Code: MSc in Market Research and Consultancy. Available to Exchange Students? Not Specified Module Learning Information Module Aims: The Marketing Consultancy module offers a unique learning experience

  14. Approved Module Information for BF2262, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code: BF2262

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BF2262, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code Accounting (BF1101). Co-requisites: None Specified Module Learning Information Module Aims: This module aims to provide you with an overview of the management accounting function within business, enabling you

  15. Approved Module Information for BFM204, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code: BFM204

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BFM204, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code in Accounting and Finance. Available to Exchange Students? Not Specified Module Learning Information Module Aims: This module studies the functions and techniques of cost and management accounting. Students will examine

  16. Module isolation devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  17. Novel techniques for fault location, voltage profile calculation and visualization of transients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evrenosoglu, Cansin Yaman

    2009-05-15

    techniques of voltage profiles along transmission lines. A simple yet effective approach to accurately and rapidly obtain the voltage profile along a transmission line during fault transients is presented. The objective of the presented method is to eliminate...

  18. Voltage and Timing Adaptation for Variation and Aging Tolerance in Nanometer VLSI Circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, Kyu-Nam 1978-

    2012-09-10

    . Adaptive supply voltage (ASV) is one of the effective adaptation approaches for power-performance tuning. ASV has advantages on controlling dynamic and leakage power, while voltage generation and delivery overheads from conventional ASV systems make...

  19. Switched-capacitor step-down rectifier for low-voltage power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei

    This paper presents a switched-capacitor rectifier that provides step down voltage conversion from an ac input voltage to a dc output. Coupled with current-drive source, low-loss and high step-down rectification is realized. ...

  20. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  1. Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    , photovoltaics, and synchronous generators. I. INTRODUCTION Penetration of DG into distribution network in terms of voltage profile improvement, line-loss reduction, and environmental impact reductionVoltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

  2. Incorporating voltage security into the planning, operation and monitoring of restructured electric energy markets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar

    2006-04-12

    state voltage stability index to detect potential dynamic voltage collapse. Finally, this dissertation examines developments in representation, standardization, communication and exchange of power system data. Power system data is the key input to all...

  3. Interline photovoltaic (I-PV) power plants for voltage unbalance compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moawwad, Ahmed

    This paper proposes a stationary-frame control method for voltage unbalance compensation using Interline Photovoltaic (I-PV) power system. I-PV power systems are controlled to compensate voltage unbalance autonomously. The ...

  4. Importance of the Equlibrium Node in Preventing the Voltage Collapse Occurs in the Wind Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    or insufficient reactive power supplies may also contribute to voltage collapse and blackouts. In recent years, the voltage collapse or blackouts have occurred worldwide, such as the blackout in France at 1978 and blackout

  5. Detailed Course Module Description

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153Danielthrough theKDesertDesigningCourse Module

  6. Optimal Distributed Voltage Regulation in Power Distribution Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Albert Y S; Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro; Tse, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of voltage regulation in power distribution networks with deep-penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs), e.g., renewable-based generation, and storage-capable loads such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. We cast the problem as an optimization program, where the objective is to minimize the losses in the network subject to constraints on bus voltage magnitudes, limits on active and reactive power injections, transmission line thermal limits and losses. We provide sufficient conditions under which the optimization problem can be solved via its convex relaxation. Using data from existing networks, we show that the conditions are expected to be satisfied by most networks. We also provide an efficient distributed algorithm to solve the problem. The algorithm is asynchronous, with a communication topology that is the same as the electrical network topology. We illustrate the algorithm's performance in the IEEE 34-bus and the 123-bus feeder test systems.

  7. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  8. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  9. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  10. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  11. Magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters at high discharge voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G., E-mail: Ioannis.G.Mikellides@jpl.nasa.gov; Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    A series of numerical simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic shielding in a Hall thruster operating in the discharge voltage range of 300–700?V (I{sub sp}???2000–2700?s) at 6?kW, and 800?V (I{sub sp} ? 3000) at 9?kW. At 6?kW, the magnetic field topology with which highly effective magnetic shielding was previously demonstrated at 300?V has been retained for all other discharge voltages; only the magnitude of the field has been changed to achieve optimum thruster performance. It is found that magnetic shielding remains highly effective for all discharge voltages studied. This is because the channel is long enough to allow hot electrons near the channel exit to cool significantly upon reaching the anode. Thus, despite the rise of the maximum electron temperature in the channel with discharge voltage, the electrons along the grazing lines of force remain cold enough to eliminate or reduce significantly parallel gradients of the plasma potential near the walls. Computed maximum erosion rates in the range of 300–700?V are found not to exceed 10{sup ?2}?mm/kh. Such rates are ?3 orders of magnitude less than those observed in the unshielded version of the same thruster at 300?V. At 9?kW and 800?V, saturation of the magnetic circuit did not allow for precisely the same magnetic shielding topology as that employed during the 6-kW operation since this thruster was not designed to operate at this condition. Consequently, the maximum erosion rate at the inner wall is found to be ?1 order of magnitude higher (?10{sup ?1}?mm/kh) than that at 6?kW. At the outer wall, the ion energy is found to be below the sputtering yield threshold so no measurable erosion is expected.

  12. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - Building America Topa High BindingVoltage

  13. ME/AE/CompE/EE 378 Mechatronics VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landers, Robert G.

    be labeled and contain units, and diagrams must be drawn with a software package. Table 1: Voltage Amplifier

  14. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  15. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  16. Performance Characteristics Of The Reduced Common Mode Voltage Near State PWM Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hava, Ahmet

    induction and permanent magnet machines are driven through three-phase Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) which to generate the required output voltages. Conventional Continuous PWM (CPWM) methods such as Space Vector PWM with rather smaller IGBT gate resistances), and high DC bus voltage levels, the CMVs generated result

  17. Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Li, Chendan). Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids. In Proceedings of the 11th.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Chendan Li

  18. Re-Dispatching Generation to Increase Power System Security Margin and Support Low Voltage Bus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Re-Dispatching Generation to Increase Power System Security Margin and Support Low Voltage Bus by re-dispatching generator outputs, using a normal vector found at a voltage collapse boundary or a low voltage boundary (LVB). This method uses the normal vector as an indicator to change the generation

  19. Voltage Utilization in Model Predictive Control for Michael Leuer, Joachim Bocker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Voltage Utilization in Model Predictive Control for IPMSM Michael Leuer, Joachim B¨ocker Power (IPMSM). Besides the good dynamics, the utilization of the DC link voltage is important for these motor types. Since the MPC is able to utilize the available DC link voltage optimally, the MPC is superior

  20. Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply Voltages Jui-Ming Chang and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply Voltages Jui-Ming Chang and Massoud Pedram Department and energy costs of these level shifters must be taken into account when comparing a multiple-supply voltage a dynamic programming technique for solv- ing the multiple supply voltage scheduling problem in both non

  1. Low-Voltage Ride-Through Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Low-Voltage Ride-Through Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines: State-of-the-Art Review deals with low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of wind turbines (WTs) and in particular those as to index some emerging solutions. Index Terms--Wind turbine, doubly-fed induction generator, low voltage

  2. Scaling Analysis of On-Chip Power Grid Voltage Variations in Nanometer Scale ULSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Scaling Analysis of On-Chip Power Grid Voltage Variations in Nanometer Scale ULSI AMIR H. AJAMI, 1 be insufficient to limit the voltage fluctuations over the power grid for future technologies. It is also shown voltage drop in the power grid may result in a functional failure in dynamic logic and a timing violation

  3. Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage-induced power grid voltage

  4. Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage voltage drops on the power grid that can affect circuit timing. We propose a statistical analysis supply voltage to circuit devices is referred to as the power grid. The consequences of power grid

  5. Statistical Estimation of LeakageInduced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering WithinDie Process Variations #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage­Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within­Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage­induced power grid voltage

  6. Hybrid Leakage and Voltage Reduction under EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Frank Mueller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    Hybrid Leakage and Voltage Reduction under EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Frank Mueller Department fabrication have resulted in an increasing need to conserve power of processors. While dynamic voltage scaling power. For such processors, voltage/frequency pairs below a critical speed result in higher power

  7. Throughput Analysis and Voltage-Frequency Island Partitioning for Streaming Applications under Process Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throughput Analysis and Voltage-Frequency Island Partitioning for Streaming Applications under in video decoding) in a system with Voltage-Frequency Island (VFI) partitions in the presence of process of synchronous blocks, communicating with each other on an asynchronous basis. The concept of Voltage

  8. Energy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks for Dynamic Voltage Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    scaling (DVS) is an effective approach to power reduction by scaling the processor voltage and frequency the voltage accordingly. On the other hand, a reduction of the operating frequency leads to an increaseEnergy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks for Dynamic Voltage Scaling Xiliang Zhong

  9. PreDVS: Preemptive Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-time Systems using Approximation Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    , dynamic voltage scal- ing, approximation algorithm 1. INTRODUCTION Energy conservation has been the main to save energy is that linear reduction in the supply voltage leads to approximately linear slow downPreDVS: Preemptive Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-time Systems using Approximation Scheme Weixun

  10. Energy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling for Dynamic Voltage Scaling with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    --Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a promising technique for battery-powered systems to conserve energy consumption reduction is based on dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), which exploits the super linear dependence of the power consumption of a CMOS processor on its operating voltage. However, a reduction of the operating frequency

  11. Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Control for a Multiple Clock Domain Microarchitecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwarkadas, Sandhya

    Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Control for a Multiple Clock Domain Microarchitecture Greg Semeraro the fre- quency/voltage of a Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) mi- croarchitecture. The MCD microarchitecture allows the frequency/voltage of microprocessor regions to be adjusted independently and dynamically

  12. Tangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    Voltage EnergyperOperation 1.0V #12;Low-Voltage Operation Vdd reduction is one of the best leversTangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy- Efficient On for energy efficiency o Big reduction in dynamic power; also reduction in static power New technologies

  13. Leakage-Aware Energy Minimization using Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Cache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    takes the advantage of the fact that linear reduction in the supply voltage can quadrati- cally reduceLeakage-Aware Energy Minimization using Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Cache Reconfiguration in Real are widely used to improve energy efficiency as well as overall performance. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS

  14. DVSleak: Combining Leakage Reduction and Voltage Scaling in Feedback EDF Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    DVSleak: Combining Leakage Reduction and Voltage Scaling in Feedback EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Recent trends in CMOS fabrication have the demand to conserve power of processors. While dynamic voltage fabrication processes are increasingly dominated by static power. For such processors, voltage/frequency pairs

  15. Systems and methods for reducing transient voltage spikes in matrix converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy using an energy conversion module that includes one or more switching elements. An exemplary electrical system comprises a DC interface, an AC interface, an isolation module, a first conversion module between the DC interface and the isolation module, and a second conversion module between the AC interface and the isolation module. A control module is configured to operate the first conversion module to provide an injection current to the second conversion module to reduce a magnitude of a current through a switching element of the second conversion module before opening the switching element.

  16. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  17. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    As wind generation grows, its influence on power system performance will becoming increasingly noticeable. Wind generation di#11;ffers from traditional forms of generation in numerous ways though, motivating the need to reconsider the usual approaches to power system assessment and performance enhancement. The project has investigated the impact of wind generation on transient stability and voltage control, identifying and addressing issues at three distinct levels of the power system: 1) at the device level, the physical characteristics of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are quite unlike those of synchronous machines, 2) at the wind-farm level, the provision of reactive support is achieved through coordination of numerous dissimilar devices, rather than straightforward generator control, and 3) from a systems perspective, the location of wind-farms on the sub-transmission network, coupled with the variability inherent in their power output, can cause complex voltage control issues. The project has sought to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic behaviour of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behaviour of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state variables and discrete events associated with limits. It was shown that these interactions can be quite complex, and may lead to switching deadlock that prevents continuation of the trajectory. Switching hysteresis was proposed for eliminating deadlock situations. Various type-3 WTG models include control blocks that duplicate integrators. It was shown that this leads to non-uniqueness in the conditions governing steady-state, and may result in pre- and post-disturbance equilibria not coinciding. It also gives rise to a zero eigenvalue in the linearized WTG model. In order to eliminate the anomalous behaviour revealed through this investigation, WECC has now released a new generic model for type-3 WTGs. Wind-farms typically incorporate a variety of voltage control equipment including tapchanging transformers, switched capacitors, SVCs, STATCOMs and the WTGs themselves. The project has considered the coordinated control of this equipment, and has addressed a range of issues that arise in wind-farm operation. The #12;first concerns the ability of WTGs to meet reactive power requirements when voltage saturation in the collector network restricts the reactive power availability of individual generators. Secondly, dynamic interactions between voltage regulating devices have been investigated. It was found that under certain realistic conditions, tap-changing transformers may exhibit instability. In order to meet cost, maintenance, fault tolerance and other requirements, it is desirable for voltage control equipment to be treated as an integrated system rather than as independent devices. The resulting high-level scheduling of wind-farm reactive support has been investigated. In addressing this control problem, several forms of future information were considered, including exact future knowledge and stochastic predictions. Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Programming techniques were used in the development of control algorithms. The results demonstrated that while exact future knowledge is very useful, simple prediction methods yield little bene#12;fit. The integration of inherently variable wind generation into weak grids, particularly subtransmission networks that are characterized by low X=R ratios, aff#11;ects bus voltages, regulating devices and line flows. The meshed structure of these networks adds to the complexity, especially when wind generation is distributed across multiple nodes. A range of techniques have been considered for analyzing the impact of wind variability on weak grids. Sensitivity analysis, based on the power-flow Jacobian, was used to highlight sections of a system that are most severely a#11;ffected by wind-power variations. A continuation power flow was used to determine parameter changes that reduce the impact of wind-power variability. It was also used to explore interactions betw

  18. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  19. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  20. Approved Module Information for BFM223, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Sustainability Accounting &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BFM223, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Sustainability Accounting & Accountability Module Code: BFM223 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module of this module is to introduce students to the different theories that underpin sustainability accounting

  1. Approved Module Information for LIM016, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: The EU: A Web of Institutions Module Code: LIM016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LIM016, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: The EU: A Web of Institutions Module Code: LIM016 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Helena Farrand-Carrapico Email

  2. Approved Module Information for CS2410, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Internet Applications and Techniques Module Code: CS2410

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CS2410, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Internet Applications and Techniques Module Code: CS2410 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Hongxia (Helen) Wang Email

  3. Approved Module Information for CH3102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Advances in Biomaterials Science Module Code: CH3102

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CH3102, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Advances in Biomaterials Science Module Code: CH3102 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Brian J Tighe Email Address tighebj

  4. Approved Module Information for LK3004, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corporate Power in a Globalised World Module Code: LK3004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LK3004, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corporate Power in a Globalised World Module Code: LK3004 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Gary Fooks Email Address g

  5. Approved Module Information for LG2025, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: The Legacy of National Socialism Module Code: LG2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LG2025, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: The Legacy of National Socialism Module Code: LG2025 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Uwe Schütte Email Address u

  6. Approved Module Information for LP2007, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Comparative Government and Politics Module Code: LP2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LP2007, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Comparative Government and Politics Module Code: LP2007 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ed Turner Email Address e

  7. Approved Module Information for LT2F09, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Data Analysis Module Code: LT2F09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F09, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Data Analysis Module Code: LT2F09 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  8. Approved Module Information for AM20CP, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Numerical Methods II Module Code: AM20CP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM20CP, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Numerical Methods II Module Code: AM20CP School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Juan Neirotti Email Address neirotjp

  9. Approved Module Information for LP3024, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Political Parties and Party Systems Module Code: LP3024

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LP3024, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Political Parties and Party Systems Module Code: LP3024 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ed Turner Email Address e

  10. Approved Module Information for BHM349, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Employee Relations in Context Module Code: BHM349

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BHM349, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Employee Relations in Context Module Code: BHM349 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Vidu Badigannavar Email Address badiganv

  11. Approved Module Information for AM30PD, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Partial Differential Equations Module Code: AM30PD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM30PD, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Partial Differential Equations Module Code: AM30PD School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name David Saad Email Address saadd

  12. Approved Module Information for LYM002, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Globalisation and Social Change Module Code: LYM002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LYM002, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Globalisation and Social Change Module Code: LYM002 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Christian Bolsmann Email

  13. Approved Module Information for EE3DTR, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Digital Transmission Module Code: EE3DTR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for EE3DTR, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Digital Transmission Module Code: EE3DTR School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Sonia Boscolo Email Address s

  14. Approved Module Information for LPM027, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: International Ethics and Literature Module Code: LPM027

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LPM027, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: International Ethics and Literature Module Code: LPM027 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Amanda Beattie Email Address a

  15. Approved Module Information for LG3015, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: East Germany on Film Module Code: LG3015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LG3015, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: East Germany on Film Module Code: LG3015 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Claudia Gremler Email Address c

  16. Approved Module Information for AM30AT, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Approximation Theory and Methods Module Code: AM30AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM30AT, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Approximation Theory and Methods Module Code: AM30AT School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Roberto Alamino Email Address

  17. Approved Module Information for BFM102B, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Valuation of Investments Module Code: BFM102B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BFM102B, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Valuation of Investments Module Code: BFM102B School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Leonidas Tsiaras Email Address

  18. Approved Module Information for BNM805, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Foundations in Business Systems Module Code: BNM805

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BNM805, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Foundations in Business Systems Module Code: BNM805 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Andreas Schroeder Email Address schroeda

  19. Approved Module Information for LP2029, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Political Economy I Module Code: LP2029

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LP2029, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Political Economy I Module Code: LP2029 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Balazs Szent-Ivanyi Email

  20. Approved Module Information for AM20LM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Linear Mathematics Module Code: AM20LM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM20LM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Linear Mathematics Module Code: AM20LM School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Tomas Johansson Email Address johansst

  1. Approved Module Information for BFM102A, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Valuation of Investments Module Code: BFM102A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BFM102A, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Valuation of Investments Module Code: BFM102A School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Hugh Colaco Email Address colacoh

  2. Approved Module Information for AM20MC, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Multi Variate Calculus Module Code: AM20MC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM20MC, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Multi Variate Calculus Module Code: AM20MC School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Sotos C Generalis Email Address generasc

  3. Approved Module Information for BFM114, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Quantitative Methods for Finance Module Code: BFM114

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BFM114, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Quantitative Methods for Finance Module Code: BFM114 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name D Gilder Email Address gilderd

  4. Approved Module Information for LEM032, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Linguistic Investigation and Evidence Module Code: LEM032

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LEM032, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Linguistic Investigation and Evidence Module Code: LEM032 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Tim Grant Email Address t

  5. Approved Module Information for BS2209, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: International Business Environment 2 Module Code: BS2209

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BS2209, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: International Business Environment 2 Module Code: BS2209 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Yama Temouri Email Address temoury1

  6. Approved Module Information for BN1115, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Foundations of Business Analytics Module Code: BN1115

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BN1115, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Foundations of Business Analytics Module Code: BN1115 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ozren Despic Email Address o

  7. Approved Module Information for AM20VR, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Vector Calculus Module Code: AM20VR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM20VR, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Vector Calculus Module Code: AM20VR School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Roberto Alamino Email Address alaminrc

  8. Approved Module Information for LE1088, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Theories of Language and Identities Module Code: LE1088

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LE1088, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Theories of Language and Identities Module Code: LE1088 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Urszula Clark Email Address u

  9. Approved Module Information for AM20IM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Numerical Methods I Module Code: AM20IM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM20IM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Numerical Methods I Module Code: AM20IM School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Michael Stich Email Address stichm

  10. Approved Module Information for LG3013, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: German-Jewish Biographies Module Code: LG3013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LG3013, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: German-Jewish Biographies Module Code: LG3013 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Gertrud Reershemius Email

  11. Approved Module Information for LK1009, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Understanding Social Divisions A Module Code: LK1009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LK1009, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Understanding Social Divisions A Module Code: LK1009 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 15 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Anton Popov Email Address popova

  12. Approved Module Information for EE404B, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introductory Programming Module Code: EE404B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for EE404B, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introductory Programming Module Code: EE404B School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name E Turitsyna Email Address e

  13. Approved Module Information for CE4014, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Advanced Reaction Engineering II Module Code: CE4014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CE4014, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Advanced Reaction Engineering II Module Code: CE4014 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Feroz Kabir Email Address kabirf

  14. Approved Module Information for EE401B, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Digital Transmission Module Code: EE401B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for EE401B, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Digital Transmission Module Code: EE401B School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Sonia Boscolo Email Address s

  15. Approved Module Information for AM10IM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Matlab Module Code: AM10IM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM10IM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Matlab Module Code: AM10IM School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Tomas Johansson Email Address johansst

  16. Approved Module Information for AM11FM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Fundamental Mathematics Module Code: AM11FM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM11FM, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Fundamental Mathematics Module Code: AM11FM School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Harry Flynn Email Address flynnh

  17. Approved Module Information for LT2F08, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code: LT2F08

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F08, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code: LT2F08 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  18. Approved Module Information for BN1116, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Business Analytics Module Code: BN1116

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BN1116, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Business Analytics Module Code: BN1116 School: Aston Business School Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Leonidas Anastasakis Email Address

  19. Approved Module Information for AM30OT, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Option Theory Module Code: AM30OT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for AM30OT, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Option Theory Module Code: AM30OT School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Sudhir Jain Email Address jains@aston.ac.uk Telephone

  20. Approved Module Information for LEM067, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Research Methods in ELT Module Code: LEM067

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LEM067, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Research Methods in ELT Module Code: LEM067 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Sue Garton Email Address s

  1. New leading/trailing edge modulation strategies for two-stage AC/DC PFC adapters to reduce DC-link capacitor ripple current 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jing

    2007-09-17

    PFC stage and trailing edge modulation for the second DC/DC converter stage can significantly reduce the ripple current and ripple voltage of the DC-link capacitor. Thus, a smaller DC-link capacitance can be used, lowering the cost and size of the AC...

  2. Cycles and cycle modulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Some selected concepts for the solar activity cycle are briefly reviewed. Cycle modulations through a stochastic alpha effect are being identified with limited scale separation ratios. Three-dimensional turbulence simulations with helicity and shear are compared at two different scale separation ratios. In both cases the level of fluctuations shows relatively little variation with the dynamo cycle. Prospects for a shallow origin of sunspots are discussed in terms of the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. Tilt angles of bipolar active regions are discussed as a consequence of shear rather than the Coriolis force.

  3. Transportation Sector Module

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation7)

  4. Modulated preheating and isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enqvist, Kari; Rusak, Stanislav, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: stanislav.rusak@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-03-01

    We consider a model of preheating where the coupling of the inflaton to the preheat field is modulated by an additional scalar field which is light during inflation. We establish that such a model produces the observed curvature perturbation analogously to the modulated reheating scenario. The contribution of modulated preheating to the power spectrum and to non-Gaussianity can however be significantly larger compared to modulated perturbative reheating. We also consider the implications of the current constraints on isocurvature perturbations in case where the modulating field is responsible for cold dark matter. We find that existing bounds on CDM isocurvature perturbations imply that modulated preheating is unlikely to give a dominant contribution to the curvature perturbation and that the same bounds suggest important constraints on non-Gaussianity and the amount of primordial gravitational waves.

  5. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  6. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ace067goodson2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel...

  7. Approved Module Information for BSM929, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Strategic Management Module Code: BSM929

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BSM929, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Strategic Management Module Code foundation and a good working knowledge of the analytic frameworks of strategic management. The course Module Management Information Module Leader Name Carola Wolf Email Address wolfc@aston.ac.uk Telephone

  8. Approved Module Information for CS1320, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Problem Solving Module Code: CS1320

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for CS1320, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Problem Solving Module Code: CS to Exchange Students? Not Specified Module Learning Information Module Aims: To teach generic problem solving skills and meta-level reflection in the context of computer programming. Problem solving skills

  9. Approved Module Information for CE4503, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Advanced Process Design Module Code: CE4503

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Code: CE4503 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module available: BEng/MEng Chemical Engineering. Available to Exchange Students? Not Specified Module Dependancies. The Design Problem is intended to test the students ability to apply the principles of Chemical Engineering

  10. Approved Module Information for CS2010, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Group Project Module Code: CS2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Project New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module-requisites: Java Program Development (CS1410). Co-requisites: Software Engineering (CS2020). Module Learning, developing and demonstrating necessary project management, team working and software engineering skills

  11. Approved Module Information for CE2105, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Process Simulation Module Code: CE2105

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    : CE2105 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module processes with solids * Coal drying * Coal combustion Module Delivery Methods of Delivery & Learning Hours weighting (including approaches to formative assessment as well as summative): Assessment Type Category

  12. Approved Module Information for EM4031, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Logistics and Transportation Module Code: EM4031

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for EM4031, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Logistics and Transportation Module Learning Information Module Aims: This module will explore the role of logistics, applications and systems in all aspects of logistics (e.g. inventory management, warehousing) - Analyse supply

  13. Approved Module Information for PH3603, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Pharmaceutical Formulation III Module Code: PH3603

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for PH3603, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Pharmaceutical Formulation III Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Raj Badhan Email Address badharks Students? Not Specified Module Dependancies Pre-requisites: Pharmaceutical Calculations (PH1403). Medicines

  14. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  15. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  16. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  17. Mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Keavney, C.J.; Lindholm, F.A.; Nevgroschel, A.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    This paper reports the results of research on mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in conventional p/n junction silicon solar cells, with a view toward both the understanding of various heavy-doping effects and the achievement of high conversion efficiency. Experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted in order to correlate heavy-doping effects to actual solar cell performance. The experiments have utilized a variety of emitter configurations with various doping concentrations in order to emphasize a number of concentration-dependent mechanisms. The theoretical modeling addresses the determination of both recombination velocity at the passivated front surface and effects of recombination at the front ohmic contact.

  18. Induction of nuclear fission by high-voltage application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirokazu Maruyama

    2007-11-20

    In nuclear power generation, fissile materials are mainly used. For example, $U^{235}$ is fissile and therefore quite essential for use of nuclear energy. However, the material $U^{235}$ has very small natural abundance less than 1 %. We should seek possibility of utilizing fissionable materials such as $U^{238}$ because natural abundance of such fissionable materials is generally much larger than fissile ones. In this paper, we show that thermal neutrons with vanishing kinetic energy can induce nuclear fission when high voltage is applied to fissionable materials. To obtain this result, we use the liquid-drop model for nuclei. Finally, we propose how fissionable materials can be utilized.

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JULY 2008 1751 Dual Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and low side gate drivers are required in most switching power converters to provide on/off control Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage Floating Gate Drives Yan Yin, Member, IEEE, and Regan Zane, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--An integrated circuit (IC) design for low and high side gate drive in high

  20. Adding a Learning Module -1 Adding a Learning Module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yan

    Items focused on a specific subject that students can navigate at their own pace. For example or No for Enforce Sequential Viewing for the Learning Module. Selecting Yes will require students to view the Learning Module within a Table of Contents, which students can also use to navigate through the Learning

  1. Taught Masters Module Guide LEC Taught Masters Module Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    ;MODULE NUMBER: BIOL 405 MODULE TITLE: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE Number warming, ozone depletion, elevated CO2, tropospheric air pollution) and an in-depth analysis health: impacts, adaptation and mitigation Week 2 Air pollutants: plants as our garbage chutes

  2. Proposal for New Module Module Title: Photonic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molinari, Marc

    Information Academic Unit responsible for the module ORC Core/Compulsory/Optional Compulsory Programme, Dr. S. M. Ganapathy, Dr. G. Brambilla Contact (email ID) acp@orc.soton.ac.uk; smg@orc.soton.ac.uk; gb2@orc.soton.ac.uk Will the module be subject to external accreditation? No If yes, by which body

  3. Approved Module Information for CS1260, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mathematics for Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Thomas Davenport Email Address t.davenport@aston.ac.uk Telephone Number Not Specified Office Not Specified Level Description

  4. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  5. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province (China)

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  6. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Seery, Martin N. (San Rafael, CA); Holland, Rodney H. (Novato, CA)

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  7. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  8. Module Handbook Specialisation Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habel, Annegret

    Module Handbook Specialisation Wind Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 NTU Athens Specialisation Provider: Wind Energy #12;Specialisation Wind Energy, NTU Athens, 2nd Semester Module 1/Wind Energy: Wind potential, Aerodynamics & Loading

  9. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Harper, Jason

    2014-06-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  10. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  11. Short Manual Software Modules for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    1 Short Manual Software Modules for Format Conversion, Transformation, and Synthesis 1 Introduction This document includes a short description of calling syntax and handling of the software modules developed describes the software installation process, chapter 3 shows the calling syntax of the SIF-to-CDFG format

  12. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2014 (AEO2014). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  13. Approved Module Information for EE1F06, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mathematics Module Code: EE1F06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for EE1F06, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mathematics Module Code: EE1F06 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Mike Stephenson Email Address Not Specified Telephone Number

  14. Approved Module Information for LT2F04, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Inventory Module Code: LT2F04

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F04, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Inventory Module Code: LT2F04 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c.iannacci@aston.ac.uk Telephone

  15. Approved Module Information for ME2F33, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Elements of Gas Engineering Module Code: ME2F33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for ME2F33, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Elements of Gas Engineering Module Code: ME2F33 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Lee Jenkins Email Address jenkinl1@aston

  16. Approved Module Information for ME2F66, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mathematical Methods in Engineering Module Code: ME2F66

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for ME2F66, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mathematical Methods in Engineering Module Code: ME2F66 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Lee Jenkins Email Address jenkinl1

  17. Approved Module Information for LT1F05, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Legal and Environmental Aspects Module Code: LT1F05

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT1F05, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Legal and Environmental Aspects Module Code: LT1F05 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  18. Approved Module Information for LT2F05, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Sourcing and Procurement Module Code: LT2F05

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F05, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Sourcing and Procurement Module Code: LT2F05 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  19. Approved Module Information for LT2F06, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Retail Logistics Module Code: LT2F06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F06, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Retail Logistics Module Code: LT2F06 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  20. Approved Module Information for LT1F04, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Warehousing Module Code: LT1F04

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT1F04, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Warehousing Module Code: LT1F04 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c.iannacci@aston.ac.uk Telephone