National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for module sion cd

  1. Modulation of Rhamm (CD168) for selective adipose tissue development

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turley, Eva A; Bissell, Mina J

    2014-05-06

    Herein is described the methods and compositions for modulation of Rhamm, also known as CD 186, and its effects on wound repair, muscle differentiation, bone density and adipogeneisis through its ability to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Compositions and methods are provided for blocking Rhamm function for selectively increasing subcutaneous, but not, visceral fat. Compositions and methods for modulating Rhamm in wound repair are also described.

  2. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells and Modules Tutorial; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, David S.

    2015-06-13

    This is a tutorial presented at the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference to cover the introduction, background, and updates on CdTe cell and module technology, including CdTe cell and module structure and fabrication.

  3. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R.; Powell, R.; Sasala, R.

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  4. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 September 1996--15 January 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandwisch, D.W. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. Solar Cells, Inc., has developed this technology and is scaling its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract supports these efforts. Activities during the third phase of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, ES and H programs, and large-scale next-generation coating-system prototype development. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film, monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  5. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 November 1994--15 November 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandwisch, D.W. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this subcontract are to advance Solar Cells, Inc.`s (SCI`s) photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase module performance, and provide the groundwork for SCI to expand its commercial production capacities. Activities during the second year of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, and ES and H programs. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  6. Performance Stabilization of CdTe PV Modules using Bias and Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Reversible performance changes due to light exposure frustrate repeatable performance measurements on CdTe PV modules. It is common to use extended light-exposure to ensure that measurements are representative of outdoor performance. We quantify the extent to which such a light-exposed state depends on module temperature and consider bias in the dark to aid in stabilization. We evaluate the use of dark forward bias to bring about a performance state equivalent to that obtained with light exposure, and to maintain a light-exposed state prior to STC performance measurement. Our results indicate that the most promising method for measuring a light-exposed state is to use light exposure at controlled temperature followed by prompt STC measurement with a repeatable time interval between exposure and the STC measurement.

  7. FRm : John A. Deny, DitiSion Of

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to : lieads of Divisions am3 Man DAW.: December 6, 1954 FRm : John A. Deny, DitiSion Of SPNBOL : csm-R:AcB The attached tabulation of active AEC contracts over $l,ooO,Mx) haa been ,xepared as a result of recurring requests fcr infmmatirm cm ow larger contracts. It consists ox- Pa-t I - E+ime contracts and Pert II - Sub- ccdxacts, and lists the contracts alphabetically bq Operations Office to shar; (1) tne of work being prformed by the contractcr; (2) contract rmter; (3).ac&ated dollar

  8. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  9. Fabrication of stable large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 10 May 1992--9 May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, J.F.; Meyers, P.V.

    1993-08-01

    This report highlights the progress made by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), in its program to produce 60-cm {times} 120-cm solar modules based on CdTe films. During the past year, confirmed efficiency has increased to 10.4% (active area) on a 1 cm{sup 2} cell, 9.8% (aperture area) on a 64-cm{sup 2} 8-cell submodule, and 6.6% (total area) on a 7200-cm{sup 2} module. A module measured in-house had a power output of 53 W, for a total-area efficiency of 7.4%. Average efficiency of modules produced is steadily increasing and standard deviation is decreasing; in a limited run of 12 modules, results were 6.3% ({plus_minus} 0.2%). Field testing has begun; a nominal 1-kW array of 24 modules was set up adjacent to SCI`s facilities. Analysis indicates that present modules are limited in efficiency by shunt resistance and optical absorption losses in the glass superstrate. Loss analysis of present devices allows us to project a module efficiency of 11.8%. A third generation deposition method -- atmospheric pressure elemental vapor deposition (APEVD) has been brought on-line and has produced good quality CdTe. In addition, SCI is expanding its proactive safety, health, environmental, and disposal program dealing with issues surrounding cadmium.

  10. Modules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modules Modules Modules Approach to Managing The Environment Modules is a system which you can use to specify what software you want to use. If you want to use a particular software package loading its module will take care of the details of modifying your environment as necessary. The advantage of the modules approach is that the you are not required to explicitly specify paths for different executable versions and try to keep their related man paths and environment variables coordinated.

  11. Magnetooptical study of CdSe/ZnMnSe semimagnetic quantum-dot ensembles with n-type modulation doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshina, I. I. Ivanov, S. V.

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic and polarization investigations of the photoluminescence and resonant electron spin-flip Raman scattering in ensembles of self-organized CdSe/ZnMnSe semimagnetic quantum dots with n-type modulation doping are carried out. It is demonstrated that exciton transitions contribute to the photoluminescence band intensity, along with the transitions of trions in the singlet state. In the Hanle-effect measurements, negative circular polarization in zero magnetic field is observed, which is related to the optical orientation of a trion heavy hole. The lifetime and spin-relaxation time of a heavy hole are estimated as ?3 and ?1 ps, respectively. Such short times are assumed to be due to Auger recombination with the excitation of an intrinsic transition in a Mn{sup 2+} ion. Investigations of the photoluminescence-maximum intensity and shift in a longitudinal magnetic field at the ?{sup ?}?{sup +} and ?{sup ?}?{sup ?} polarizations reveal the pronounced spin polarization of electrons. Under resonant excitation conditions, a sharp increase in the photoluminescence-band maximum intensity at ?{sup ?} excitation polarization over the ?{sup +} one is observed. The Raman scattering peak at the electron spin-flip transition is observed upon resonant excitation in a transverse magnetic field in crossed linear polarizations. This peak is shown to be a Brillouin function of a magnetic field.

  12. Understanding and managing health and environmental risks of CIS, CGS, and CdTe photovoltaic module production and use: A workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1994-04-28

    Environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risks presented by CIS, CGS and CdTe photovoltaic module production, use and decommissioning have been reviewed and discussed by several authors. Several EH&S concerns exit. The estimated EH&S risks are based on extrapolations of toxicity, environmental mobility, and bioavailability data for other related inorganic compounds. Sparse data, however, are available for CIS, CGS or CdTe. In response to the increased interest in these materials, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been engaged in a cooperative research program with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Technology (IFT), the Institute of Ecotoxicity of the GSF Forschungszentrum fair Umwelt und Gesundheit, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to develop fundamental toxicological and environmental data for these three compounds. This workshop report describes the results of these studies and describes their potential implications with respect to the EH&S risks presented by CIS, CGS, and CdTe module production, use and decommissioning.

  13. U. S. Attic Grsrgy 'bmiss~o3 U. S. Atomic lb-al-w CamLf3sion December 27, S.957

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    a . - 3 U. S. Attic Grsrgy 'bmiss~o3 U. S. Atomic lb-al-w CamLf3sion December 27, S.957

  14. THE WIRED SURVEY. IV. NEW DUST DISKS FROM THE McCOOK and SION WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Debes, John H.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2013-06-10

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook and Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf (WD) photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known WDs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit WD models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known WDs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of WDs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The WD dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  15. CD Templates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE has developed templates for CD labels and CD packages. These can be used for all EERE products. Both templates are available as EPS files, which can be downloaded and edited in a graphics package like Adobe Illustrator.

  16. Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-01

    Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

  17. Perspectives on the pathways for cadmium telluride photovoltaic module manufacturers to address expected increases in the price for tellurium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This study investigates the impacts of potential tellurium (Te) supply constraints on future cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) module deployment and finds: (1) CdTe PV modules can remain...

  18. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  19. Module Configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  20. Year Modules

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual photovoltaic module shipments, 2004-2014 (peak kilowatts) Year Modules 2004 143,274 2005 204,996 2006 320,208 2007 494,148 2008 920,693 2009 1,188,879 2010 2,644,498 2011 3,772,075 2012 4,655,005 2013 4,984,881 2014 6,237,524 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Note: Includes both U.S. Shipments and Exports.

  1. Year Modules

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    dollars per peak watt) Year Modules 2004 $2.99 2005 $3.19 2006 $3.50 2007 $3.37 2008 $3.49 2009 $2.79 2010 $1.96 2011 $1.59 2012 $1.15 2013 $0.75 2014 $0.87 Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2004-2014 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation.

  2. PROJECT PROFILE: Interface Science and Engineering for Reliable, High Efficiency CdTe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While crystalline silicon accounted for two thirds of the PV market in 2014, cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules are becoming increasingly competitive with continued improvements in efficiency and reduction in price. This project will contribute to enabling 24% efficient CdTe cells by improving surface and interface recombination in the devices. Surface and interface recombination, which is the loss of photo-generated carriers before they are collected, becomes more detrimental to CdTe device performance as carrier lifetime increases. This project will develop effective surface passivation for CdTe and carrier selective contacts for higher efficiency, improved reproducibility, and increased stability.

  3. Thermionic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  4. Advanced CdTe Photovoltaic Technology: September 2007 - March 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, K.

    2011-05-01

    During the last eighteen months, Abound Solar (formerly AVA Solar) has enjoyed significant success under the SAI program. During this time, a fully automated manufacturing line has been developed, fabricated and commissioned in Longmont, Colorado. The facility is fully integrated, converting glass and semiconductor materials into complete modules beneath its roof. At capacity, a glass panel will enter the factory every 10 seconds and emerge as a completed module two hours later. This facility is currently undergoing trials in preparation for large volume production of 120 x 60 cm thin film CdTe modules. Preceding the development of the large volume manufacturing capability, Abound Solar demonstrated long duration processing with excellent materials utilization for the manufacture of high efficiency 42 cm square modules. Abound Solar prototype modules have been measured with over 9% aperture area efficiency by NREL. Abound Solar demonstrated the ability to produce modules at industry leading low costs to NREL representatives. Costing models show manufacturing costs below $1/Watt and capital equipment costs below $1.50 per watt of annual manufacturing capacity. Under this SAI program, Abound Solar supported a significant research and development program at Colorado State University. The CSU team continues to make progress on device and materials analysis. Modeling for increased device performance and the effects of processing conditions on properties of CdTe PV were investigated.

  5. Categorical ExcluSIon Determination Forn1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exercises and simulation I8lB 1.3 * Routine maintenance and custodial services DB 1,4 * Air conditioning installation for existing equipment DB 1.5 Cooling water system...

  6. Effect and optimization of CdS/CdTe interdiffusion on CdTe electrical properties and CdS/CdTe cell performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, W.; Mao, D.; Kaydanov, V.; Ohno, T.R.; Trefny, J.V.; Levi, D.H.; Johnston, S. McCandless, B.E.

    1999-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of the CdS/CdTe interdiffusion on the properties of the CdTe films and the CdS/CdTe cell performance. Sulfur (S) diffusion into the CdTe films leads to a decreased defect density in the films, improvement of cell performance, and possibly to the increase of the carrier lifetime in the films. Cell performance is improved with the increase of the amount of S in the CdTe films. S diffusion into CdTe also deteriorates the uniformity of the CdS window layers, resulting in worse cell performance. Based on this study, we propose a processing method to improve cell performance. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  8. Quality Assurance for Critical Decision Reviews RM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance for Critical Decision Reviews Module March 2010 CD-0 O 0 OFFICE OF Q C CD-1 F ENVIRO Standard R Quality A Rev Critical Decis CD-2 M ONMENTAL Review Plan Assuranc view Module sion (CD) Ap CD March 2010 L MANAGE n (SRP) e (QA) e pplicability D-3 EMENT CD-4 Post Ope eration Standard Review Plan, 2 nd Edition, March 2010 i FOREWORD The Standard Review Plan (SRP) 1 provides a consistent, predictable corporate review framework to ensure that issues and risks that could challenge the

  9. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  10. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  11. Heterojunctions of model CdTe/CdSe mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Swol, Frank; Zhou, Xiaowang W.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Martin, James E.

    2015-03-18

    We report on the strain behavior of compound mixtures of model group II-VI semiconductors. We use the Stillinger-Weber Hamiltonian that we recently introduced, specifically developed to model binary mixtures of group II-VI compounds such as CdTe and CdSe. We also employ molecular dynamics simulations to examine the behavior of thin sheets of material, bilayers of CdTe and CdSe. The lattice mismatch between the two compounds leads to a strong bending of the entire sheet, with about a 0.5 to 1° deflection between neighboring planes. To further analyze bilayer bending, we introduce a simple one-dimensional model and use energy minimization tomore » find the angle of deflection. The analysis is equivalent to a least-squares straight line fit. We consider the effects of bilayers which are asymmetric with respect to the thickness of the CdTe and CdSe parts. We thus learn that the bending can be subdivided into four kinds depending on the compressive/tensile nature of each outer plane of the sheet. We use this approach to directly compare our findings with experimental results on the bending of CdTe/CdSe rods. To reduce the effects of the lattice mismatch we explore diffuse interfaces, where we mix (i.e. alloy) Te and Se, and estimate the strain response.« less

  12. Heterojunctions of model CdTe/CdSe mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank; Zhou, Xiaowang W.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Martin, James E.

    2015-03-18

    We report on the strain behavior of compound mixtures of model group II-VI semiconductors. We use the Stillinger-Weber Hamiltonian that we recently introduced, specifically developed to model binary mixtures of group II-VI compounds such as CdTe and CdSe. We also employ molecular dynamics simulations to examine the behavior of thin sheets of material, bilayers of CdTe and CdSe. The lattice mismatch between the two compounds leads to a strong bending of the entire sheet, with about a 0.5 to 1° deflection between neighboring planes. To further analyze bilayer bending, we introduce a simple one-dimensional model and use energy minimization to find the angle of deflection. The analysis is equivalent to a least-squares straight line fit. We consider the effects of bilayers which are asymmetric with respect to the thickness of the CdTe and CdSe parts. We thus learn that the bending can be subdivided into four kinds depending on the compressive/tensile nature of each outer plane of the sheet. We use this approach to directly compare our findings with experimental results on the bending of CdTe/CdSe rods. To reduce the effects of the lattice mismatch we explore diffuse interfaces, where we mix (i.e. alloy) Te and Se, and estimate the strain response.

  13. Heterojunctions of model CdTe/CdSe mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank; Zhou, Xiaowang W.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Martin, James E.

    2015-03-18

    We report on the strain behavior of compound mixtures of model group IIVI semiconductors. We use the StillingerWeber Hamiltonian that we recently introduced, specifically developed to model binary mixtures of group IIVI compounds such as CdTe and CdSe. We also employ molecular dynamics simulations to examine the behavior of thin sheets of material, bilayers of CdTe and CdSe. The lattice mismatch between the two compounds leads to a strong bending of the entire sheet, with about a 0.5 to 1 deflection between neighboring planes. To further analyze bilayer bending, we introduce a simple one-dimensional model and use energy minimization to find the angle of deflection. The analysis is equivalent to a least-squares straight line fit. We consider the effects of bilayers which are asymmetric with respect to the thickness of the CdTe and CdSe parts. We thus learn that the bending can be subdivided into four kinds depending on the compressive/tensile nature of each outer plane of the sheet. We use this approach to directly compare our findings with experimental results on the bending of CdTe/CdSe rods. To reduce the effects of the lattice mismatch we explore diffuse interfaces, where we mix (i.e. alloy) Te and Se, and estimate the strain response.

  14. Pd?Cd11? (0.21???0.51)a partly disordered ?-brass type phase and Pd?.???Cd?.??? -a ?-brass related incommensurate phase in the palladiumcadmium system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Partha Pratim; Lidin, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The Cd rich part of the CdPd phase diagram was reassessed by means of synthesis and single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. The region contains two phases that have been reported to have substantial compositional widths, Cd??Pd? and Cd?Pd. The phase Cd??Pd? that has previously been reported to be a disordered ?-brass crystallizing is space group P4-bar 3m is here shown to crystallize in I4-bar 3m and the mechanism for compositional variation is explained. The phase Pd?Cd has previously been shown to constitute a phase field or a phase bundle of modulated structures and here we determine the structure of a compound Pd?.???Cd?.??? which crystallizes in the orthorhombic superspace group mm(?00)0s0 (F=[(, , 0, 0); (, 0, , 0 ); (0, , , 0 )] with the fundamental cell dimensions a=4.687(2) , b=10.000(1) , c=14.140(2) , q=0.6432(6)a?. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of the partly disordered ?-brass type Pd?Cd11? (0.21???0.51) and ?-brass related Pd?.???Cd?.??? in the palladiumcadmium binary system. Highlights: Partly disordered ?-brass type Pd?Cd11? (0.21???0.51) and ?-brass related Pd?.???Cd?.??? have been synthesized. The Pd?Cd11? structure have been described by cluster concept. Incommensurately modulated Pd?.???Cd?.??? have been described by (3+1) D space description. The structure of Pd?.???Cd?.??? has two different chains of atomic subunits, each with their own translational periodicities.

  15. Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps1_purdue_dongaonkar.pdf (2.37 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet Models: TIF and TPV Agenda for the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden,

  16. Supported PV module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  17. Molecular Control of the Nanoscale: Effect of PhosphineChalcogenide Reactivity on CdSCdSe Nanocrystal Composition and Morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruberu, T. Purnima A.; Albright, Haley R.; Callis, Brandon; Ward, Brittney; Cisneros, Joana; Fan, Hua-Jun; Vela, Javier

    2012-04-22

    We demonstrate molecular control of nanoscale composition, alloying, and morphology (aspect ratio) in CdSCdSe nanocrystal dots and rods by modulating the chemical reactivity of phosphinechalcogenide precursors. Specific molecular precursors studied were sulfides and selenides of triphenylphosphite (TPP), diphenylpropylphosphine (DPP), tributylphosphine (TBP), trioctylphosphine (TOP), and hexaethylphosphorustriamide (HPT). Computational (DFT), NMR (31P and 77Se), and high-temperature crossover studies unambiguously confirm a chemical bonding interaction between phosphorus and chalcogen atoms in all precursors. Phosphinechalcogenide precursor reactivity increases in the order: TPPE < DPPE < TBPE < TOPE < HPTE (E = S, Se). For a given phosphine, the selenide is always more reactive than the sulfide. CdS1xSex quantum dots were synthesized via single injection of a R3PSR3PSe mixture to cadmium oleate at 250 C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV/Vis and PL optical spectroscopy reveal that relative R3PS and R3PSe reactivity dictates CdS1xSex dot chalcogen content and the extent of radial alloying (alloys vs core/shells). CdS, CdSe, and CdS1xSex quantum rods were synthesized by injection of a single R3PE (E = S or Se) precursor or a R3PSR3PSe mixture to cadmiumphosphonate at 320 or 250 C. XRD and TEM reveal that the length-to-diameter aspect ratio of CdS and CdSe nanorods is inversely proportional to R3PE precursor reactivity. Purposely matching or mismatching R3PSR3PSe precursor reactivity leads to CdS1xSex nanorods without or with axial composition gradients, respectively. We expect these observations will lead to scalable and highly predictable bottom-up programmed syntheses of finely heterostructured nanomaterials with well-defined architectures and properties that are tailored for precise applications.

  18. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  19. Module 4- Budgeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module outlines basic costing concepts such as control accounts, work packages and planning packages.

  20. Modules Software Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environment » Modules Environment Modules Software Environment NERSC uses the module utility to manage nearly all software. There are two huge advantages of the module approach: NERSC can provide many different versions and/or installations of a single software package on a given machine, including a default version as well as several older and newer versions; and Users can easily switch to different versions or installations without having to explicitly specify different paths. With modules,

  1. Thermodynamic properties of model CdTe/CdSe mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Swol, Frank; Zhou, Xiaowang W.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Martin, James E.

    2015-02-20

    We report on the thermodynamic properties of binary compound mixtures of model groups II–VI semiconductors. We use the recently introduced Stillinger–Weber Hamiltonian to model binary mixtures of CdTe and CdSe. We use molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the volume and enthalpy of mixing as a function of mole fraction. The lattice parameter of the mixture closely follows Vegard's law: a linear relation. This implies that the excess volume is a cubic function of mole fraction. A connection is made with hard sphere models of mixed fcc and zincblende structures. We found that the potential energy exhibits a positive deviation frommore » ideal soluton behaviour; the excess enthalpy is nearly independent of temperatures studied (300 and 533 K) and is well described by a simple cubic function of the mole fraction. Using a regular solution approach (combining non-ideal behaviour for the enthalpy with ideal solution behaviour for the entropy of mixing), we arrive at the Gibbs free energy of the mixture. The Gibbs free energy results indicate that the CdTe and CdSe mixtures exhibit phase separation. The upper consolute temperature is found to be 335 K. Finally, we provide the surface energy as a function of composition. Moreover, it roughly follows ideal solution theory, but with a negative deviation (negative excess surface energy). This indicates that alloying increases the stability, even for nano-particles.« less

  2. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, James R.

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  3. Transcriptomic changes during maize roots development responsive to Cadmium (Cd) pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Hua; He, Xiujing; Gao, Jian; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Zhiming; Shen, Yaou; Pan, Guangtang; Lin, Haijian

    2015-09-04

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd), acts as a widespread environmental contaminant, which has shown to adversely affect human health, food safety and ecosystem safety in recent years. However, research on how plant respond to various kinds of heavy metal stress is scarcely reported, especially for understanding of complex molecular regulatory mechanisms and elucidating the gene networks of plant respond to Cd stress. Here, transcriptomic changes during Mo17 and B73 seedlings development responsive to Cd pollution were investigated and comparative RNAseq-based approach in both genotypes were performed. 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) with significant alteration in expression were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the maize seedling development; of those, most of DGEs were found comprised of stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, as well as transcription factors, such as thaumatin-like protein, ZmOPR2 and ZmOPR5. More interestingly, genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found contributed to the regulatory mechanism of Cd sensitivity in both different genotypes. Moreover, 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M12) were identified by consensus co-expression network. These results will expand our understanding of complex molecular mechanism of response and defense to Cd exposure in maize seedling roots. - Highlights: • Transcriptomic changes responsive to Cd pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach. • 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes. • Most of DGEs belong to stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, transcription factors. • 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways. • Genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found.

  4. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  5. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovotaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2002-07-23

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  6. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  7. CD DVD Retrieval | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CD DVD Retrieval Publications KMD Contacts Project Summaries EPAct 2005 Arctic Energy Office Announcements Software Stripper Wells The user can download the complete CD/DVD via zip files, or if applicable use the interactive webpages to review the content online. Users can also request mailed copies of the media using the NETL CD-DVD ordering system. CD Image Title: Naturally Fracture Reservoir Simulator: FRACGEN & NFFLOW Info: The DOE sponsored a project to simulate the behavior of tight,

  8. Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dukovic, Gordana; Merkle, Maxwell G.; Nelson, James H.; Hughes, Steven M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-08-06

    colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. Among the II-VI semiconductors, CdS is of particular interest because it has the correct band alignment for water photolysis[2] and has been demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.[11-16] We have found that the photoexcitation of CdS and CdSe/CdS in the presence of an organometallic Pt precursor leads to deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the semiconductor surface. Stark differences are observed in the Pt nanoparticle location on the two substrates, and the photodeposition can be completely inhibited by the modification of the semiconductor surface. Our results suggest that tuning of the semiconductor band structure, spatial organization and surface chemistry should be crucial in the design of photocatalytic nanostructures.

  9. Detailed Course Module Description

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document lists the course modules for building science courses offered at Cornell's Collaborator Sustainable Buildingi Practice course.

  10. Module 8- Reporting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module illustrates and defines the different cost performance reports (CPR) available for reporting earned value information.

  11. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  12. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  13. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  14. CD

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Square Footage, and Number of Workers in the Building.) Metal Panel: A wall construction panel made of aluminum or galvanized steel fabricated in factories and fastened to the...

  15. CD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The loose waste sludge was then immobilized by blowing in dry powdered grout. The dry ... melter pouring is suspended, at least one steam atomized scrubber operates all the time. ...

  16. Reduction of Fermi level pinning and recombination at polycrystalline CdTe surfaces by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonds, Brian J.; Kheraj, Vipul; Palekis, Vasilios; Ferekides, Christos; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2015-06-14

    Laser processing of polycrystalline CdTe is a promising approach that could potentially increase module manufacturing throughput while reducing capital expenditure costs. For these benefits to be realized, the basic effects of laser irradiation on CdTe must be ascertained. In this study, we utilize surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) to investigate the changes to the electronic properties of the surface of polycrystalline CdTe solar cell stacks induced by continuous-wave laser annealing. The experimental data explained within a model consisting of two space charge regions, one at the CdTe/air interface and one at the CdTe/CdS junction, are used to interpret our SPS results. The frequency dependence and phase spectra of the SPS signal are also discussed. To support the SPS findings, low-temperature spectrally-resolved photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence were also measured. The data show that a modest laser treatment of 250 W/cm{sup 2} with a dwell time of 20 s is sufficient to reduce the effects of Fermi level pinning at the surface due to surface defects.

  17. Robust Measurement of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Exhibiting Light-Induced Transients: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deceglie, Michael, G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-09

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  18. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Prot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  19. Module 3- Project Scheduling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module differentiates between planning and scheduling and outlines basic scheduling concepts, the logic relationships and critical path, and different schedule formats.

  20. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  1. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  2. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goozner, Robert E.; Long, Mark O.; Drinkard, Jr., William F.

    1999-01-01

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate and electrolyzing the leachate to separate Cd from Te, wherein the Te is deposits onto a cathode while the Cd remains in solution.

  3. WPN 10-3: Procurement Toolkit CD

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To issue the Procurement Toolkit CD to all Grantees, to share with their local agencies, for use in the Weatherization Assistance Program.

  4. Logs Perl Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  5. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  6. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  7. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  8. CdS and CdS/CdSe sensitized ZnO nanorod array solar cells prepared by a solution ions exchange process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shikuan; Cao, Bingqiang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: CdS and CdS/CdSe quantum dots are assembled on ZnO nanorods by ion exchange process. The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO effectively extends the absorption spectrum. The performance of ZnO/CdS/CdSe cell is improved by extending absorption spectrum. - Abstract: In this paper, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium sulfide/cadmium selenide (CdS/CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are assembled onto ZnO nanorod arrays by a solution ion exchange process for QD-sensitized solar cell application. The morphology, composition and absorption properties of different photoanodes were characterized with scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum and Raman spectrum in detail. It is shown that conformal and uniform CdS and CdS/CdSe shells can grow on ZnO nanorod cores. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS/CdSe nanocable arrays were assembled with gold counter electrode and polysulfide electrolyte solution. The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO can effectively extend the absorption spectrum up to 650 nm, which has a remarkable impact on the performance of a photovoltaic device by extending the absorption spectrum. Preliminary results show one fourth improvement in solar cell efficiency.

  9. CD-0, Approve Mission Need

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Initiation Phase begins with the identification of a mission-related need. A Program Office will identify a credible performance gap between its current capabilities and capacities and those required to achieve the goals articulated in its strategic plan. The Mission Need Statement (MNS) is the translation of this gap into functional requirements that cannot be met through other than material means. It should describe the general parameters of the solution and why it is critical to the overall accomplishment of the Department’s mission, including the benefits to be realized. The mission need is independent of a particular solution, and should not be defined by equipment, facility, technological solution, or physical end-item. This approach allows the Program Office the flexibility to explore a variety of solutions and not limit potential solutions (refer to DOE G 413.3-17). The requirements needed to attain CD-0 are listed below.

  10. Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules Presents concept for hermetic encapsulation of TE modules ...

  11. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  12. CdO-CdS nano-composites as improved photo-catalysts for the generation of hydrogen from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahane, Shital V.; Mahamuni, Shailaja; Sasikala, R.; Sudarsan, V.

    2014-04-24

    CdO-CdS nanocomposites were prepared by polyol method followed by heating at 300C. XRD study confirmed the atomic scale mixing of CdO and CdS nanoparticles, leading to the formation of CdSO{sub 3} phase at the interfacial region between CdO and CdS. The enhancement in photo-catalytic activity for hydrogen generation from water is observed in case of CdO-CdS nanocomposites compared to individual CdS and CdO nanoparticles. Based on XRD, steady state and time resolved luminescence studies and surface area measurements, it is determined that, the fine mixing of CdS and CdO, higher surface area of the composite sample and increase in lifetime of the charge carriers are responsible for the observed increase in hydrogen yield from water when composite sample was used as the photo-catalyst compared to individual components.

  13. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, ...

  14. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  17. NERSC Python Modules (Edison Only)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Python Modules (Edison Only) NERSC Python Modules (Edison Only) Python Interpreter Modules To use the NERSC-built installation on Edison, type: module load python This loads the default version of the following useful core modules: python_base: Python 2.7.x module. numpy: Defines the numerical array and matrix type and basic operations on them. scipy: Uses numpy to do advanced math, signal processing, optimization, statistics and much more. matplotlib: Plotting/visualization library.

  18. Module bay with directed flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  19. Unique Challenges Accompany Thick-Shell CdSe/nCdS (n > 10) Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y; Marchuk, K; Abraham, R; Sampat, S; Abraham, R.; Fang, N; Malko, AV; Vela, J

    2011-12-23

    Thick-shell CdSe/nCdS (n {ge} 10) nanocrystals were recently reported that show remarkably suppressed fluorescence intermittency or 'blinking' at the single-particle level as well as slow rates of Auger decay. Unfortunately, whereas CdSe/nCdS nanocrystal synthesis is well-developed up to n {le} 6 CdS monolayers (MLs), reproducible syntheses for n {ge} 10 MLs are less understood. Known procedures sometimes result in homogeneous CdS nucleation instead of heterogeneous, epitaxial CdS nucleation on CdSe, leading to broad and multimodal particle size distributions. Critically, obtained core/shell sizes are often below those desired. This article describes synthetic conditions specific to thick-shell growth (n {ge} 10 and n {ge} 20 MLs) on both small (sub2 nm) and large (>4.5 nm) CdSe cores. We find added secondary amine and low concentration of CdSe cores and molecular precursors give desired core/shell sizes. Amine-induced, partial etching of CdSe cores results in apparent shell-thicknesses slightly beyond those desired, especially for very-thick shells (n {ge} 20 MLs). Thermal ripening and fast precursor injection lead to undesired homogeneous CdS nucleation and incomplete shell growth. Core/shells derived from small CdSe (1.9 nm) have longer PL lifetimes and more pronounced blinking at single-particle level compared with those derived from large CdSe (4.7 nm). We expect our new synthetic approach will lead to a larger throughput of these materials, increasing their availability for fundamental studies and applications.

  20. Critical Decision 2 (CD-2) Approval Template | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Decision 2 (CD-2) Approval Template Critical Decision 2 (CD-2) Approval Template File ExampleCD-2Template02-14-12.docx More Documents & Publications Example BCP...

  1. NEMS International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA NEMS International Energy Module Model Documentation Report vii Mr. G. Daniel Butler U.S. Department of Energy EI-812 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 Tel:...

  2. International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA NEMS International Energy Module Model Documentation Report vii Mr. G. Daniel Butler U.S. Department of Energy EI-812 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 Tel:...

  3. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  4. International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    self-contained units which are linked by an integrating mechanism. The NEMS International Energy Module (IEM) computes world oil prices, provides a set of crude oil and refined...

  5. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  6. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  7. CD94-NKG2A Recognition of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E Bound to an HLA Class I Leader Sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie,E.; Clements, C.; Lin, J.; Sullivan, L.; Johnson, D.; Huyton, T.; Heroux, A.; Hoare, H.; Beddoe, T.; et al

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E by the heterodimeric CD94-NKG2 natural killer (NK) receptor family is a central innate mechanism by which NK cells monitor the expression of other HLA molecules, yet the structural basis of this highly specific interaction is unclear. Here, we describe the crystal structure of CD94-NKG2A in complex with HLA-E bound to a peptide derived from the leader sequence of HLA-G. The CD94 subunit dominated the interaction with HLA-E, whereas the NKG2A subunit was more peripheral to the interface. Moreover, the invariant CD94 subunit dominated the peptide-mediated contacts, albeit with poor surface and chemical complementarity. This unusual binding mode was consistent with mutagenesis data at the CD94-NKG2A-HLA-E interface. There were few conformational changes in either CD94-NKG2A or HLA-E upon ligation, and such a 'lock and key' interaction is typical of innate receptor-ligand interactions. Nevertheless, the structure also provided insight into how this interaction can be modulated by subtle changes in the peptide ligand or by the pairing of CD94 with other members of the NKG2 family. Differences in the docking strategies used by the NKG2D and CD94-NKG2A receptors provided a basis for understanding the promiscuous nature of ligand recognition by NKG2D compared with the fidelity of the CD94-NKG2 receptors.

  8. CdTe devices and method of manufacturing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Noufi, Rommel; Dhere, Ramesh G.; Albin, David S.; Barnes, Teresa; Burst, James; Duenow, Joel N.; Reese, Matthew

    2015-09-29

    A method of producing polycrystalline CdTe materials and devices that incorporate the polycrystalline CdTe materials are provided. In particular, a method of producing polycrystalline p-doped CdTe thin films for use in CdTe solar cells in which the CdTe thin films possess enhanced acceptor densities and minority carrier lifetimes, resulting in enhanced efficiency of the solar cells containing the CdTe material are provided.

  9. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  10. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production. Annual subcontract report, 1 July 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  11. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goozner, R.E.; Long, M.O.; Drinkard, W.F. Jr.

    1999-04-27

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the metals in dilute nitric acid, leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate, adding a calcium containing base to the leachate to precipitate Cd and Te, separating the precipitated Cd and Te from the leachate, and recovering the calcium-containing base. 3 figs.

  12. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goozner, Robert E.; Long, Mark O.; Drinkard, Jr., William F.

    1999-04-27

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the metals in dilute nitric acid, leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate, adding a calcium containing base to the leachate to precipitate Cd and Te, separating the precipitated Cd and Te from the leachate, and recovering the calcium-containing base.

  13. Bond order potential module for LAMMPS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    pair_bop is a module for performing energy calculations using the Bond Order Potential (BOP) for use in the parallel molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. The bop pair style computes BOP based upon quantum mechanical incorporating both sigma and pi bondings. By analytically deriving the BOP pair bop from quantum mechanical theory its transferability to different phases can approach that of quantum mechanical methods. This potential is extremely effective at modeling 111-V and II-VI compounds such asmore » GaAs and CdTe. This potential is similar to the original BOP developed by Pettifor and later updated by Murdock et al. and Ward et al.« less

  14. Junction Evolution During Fabrication of CdS/CdTe Thin-film PV Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2010-09-01

    Discussion of the formation of CdTe thin-film PV junctions and optimization of CdTe thin-film PV solar cells.

  15. Energy efficiency CD ROM. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Totten, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Center for Renewable Energy and SustainableTechnology (CREST) has completed the three tasks of subcontract DE-FC36-97GO10228. Three separate multimedia CD-ROM products were developed.

  16. Sion Power Corp formerly Moltech Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Vehicles Product: Tucson, Arizona-based privately held developer of thin-film lithium-sulfur rechargeable batteries for propelling vehicles and other high energy-density...

  17. CategorIcal ExcluSIon Determination 1,'orn1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Guidelines OA 14 - Approval of technical exchange arrangements OA 15 - International umbrella agreements for energy R&D Facility Operations DB 1.2 - Training exercises and...

  18. Categ orical ExcluSIon DetermInation Fornl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Guidelines OA 14 - Approval of technical exchange arrangements DAIS - International umbrella agreements for energy R&D Facility Operations DB 1.2 - Training exercises and...

  19. CategorIcal ExcluSIon DetermInation Fornl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Guidelines OA I 4 - Approval of technical exchange arrangements DAIS - International umbrella agreements for energy R&D Facility Operations DB 1.2 - Training exercises and...

  20. Single crystalline multi-petal Cd nanoleaves prepared by thermal reduction of CdO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Waheed S.; National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering , P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad ; Cao, Chuanbao; Aslam, Imran; Ali, Zulfiqar; Butt, Faheem K.; Mahmood, Tariq; Nabi, Ghulam; Ihsan, Ayesha; Usman, Zahid; Rehman, Asma

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? Cd nanoleaves are obtained on abraded Cu substrate by thermal reduction of CdO. ? Vapour solid (VS) growth mechanism governs the formation of Cd nanoleaves (CdNLs). ? PL spectrum for CdNLs exhibits a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission band at 353 nm. ? UV band is attributed to interband radiative recombination under Xe illumination. -- Abstract: Multi-petal cadmium metal nanoleaves with 3040 nm thickness were fabricated on abraded copper substrate by simple thermal reduction of cadmium oxide (CdO) powder at 1050 C inside horizontal tube furnace (HTF) under nitrogen gas flow. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations of the as-prepared cadmium nanoleaves (CdNLs) were performed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Non-catalytic vapoursolid (VS) process based growth mechanism governing the formation of CdNLs has been proposed and discussed briefly. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for CdNLs measured at room temperature exhibited a single prominent emission band at 353 nm which may either be ascribed to surface oxidation effects or interband radiative recombination under Xe light illumination.

  1. Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Authors: Deng, Z., Schulz, O., Lin, S., Ding, B., Liu, X., Wei, X., Ros, R., Liu, Y., Yan, H., and Francis, M. Title: Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Source: Journal of the American

  2. Dynamics of photoexcited carrier relaxation and recombination in CdTe/CdS thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, D.H.; Fluegel, B.D.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    Efficiency-limiting defects in photovoltaic devices are readily probed by time-resolved spectroscopy. This paper presents the first direct optical measurements of the relaxation and recombination pathways of photoexcited carriers in the CdS window layer of CdTe/CdS polycrystalline thin films. Femtosecond time-resolved pump/probe measurements indicate the possible existence of a two-phase CdS/CdSTe layer, rather than a continuously graded alloy layer at the CdTe/CdS interface. Complementary time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the photoexcited carriers are rapidly captured by deep-level defects. The temporal and density-dependent properties of the photoluminescence prove that the large Stokes shift of the PL relative to the band edge is due to strong phonon coupling to deep-level defects in CdS. The authors suggest that modifications in the CdS processing may enhance carrier collection efficiency in the blue spectral region.

  3. Power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  4. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  5. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  6. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  8. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-17

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  9. Drupal Contributed Modules

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    These Drupal Modules extend the functionality of Drupal by including specific styles for dates and tabs, publishing options for scheduled and immediate publication of content modes, field visibility in content forms, keyword block filters (taxonomy based), adding content nodes to a specified queue for display in views, and status display of workflow settings.

  10. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  11. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  12. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Huis, Marijn A. van; Wang, Shuaiwei; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.

    2014-12-28

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., “Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth,” Nano Lett. 14, 3661–3667 (2014)]. In this work, we extend this force field by including another two important binary semiconductors, PbS and CdS, and provide detailed information on the validation of this force field. The parameterization combines Bader charge analysis, empirical fitting, and ab initio energy surface fitting. When compared with experimental data and density functional theory calculations, it is shown that a wide range of physical properties of bulk PbS, PbSe, CdS, CdSe, and their mixed phases can be accurately reproduced using this force field. The choice of functional forms and parameterization strategy is demonstrated to be rational and effective. This transferable force field can be used in various studies on II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials consisting of CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the force field model by molecular dynamics simulations whereby transformations are initiated by cation exchange.

  13. First-principles study of atomic and electronic structures of 60° perfect and 30°/90° partial glide dislocations in CdTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kweon, Kyoung E.; Aberg, Daniel; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2016-05-16

    The atomic and electronic structures of 60° glide perfect and 30°/90° glide partial dislocations in CdTe are studied using combined semi-empirical and density functional theory calculations. The calculations predict that the dislocation cores tend to undergo significant reconstructions along the dislocation lines from the singly-periodic (SP) structures, yielding either doubly-periodic (DP) ordering by forming a dimer or quadruply-periodic (QP) ordering by alternating a dimer and a missing dimer. Charge modulation along the dislocation line, accompanied by the QP reconstruction for the Cd-/Te-core 60° perfect and 30° partials or the DP reconstruction for the Cd-core 90° partial, results in semiconducting character,more » as opposed to the metallic character of the SP dislocation cores. Dislocation-induced defect states for the 60° Cd-/Te-core are located relatively close to the band edges, whereas the defect states lie in the middle of the band gap for the 30° Cd-/Te-core partial dislocations. In addition to the intracore charge modulation within each QP core, the possibility of intercore charge transfer between two different dislocation cores when they are paired together in the same system is discussed. As a result, the analysis of the electronic structures reveals the potential role of the dislocations on charge transport in CdTe, particularly in terms of charge trapping and recombination.« less

  14. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with an Oxygenated Amorphous CdS (a-CdS:O) Window Layer: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X.; Dhere, R. G.; Yan, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; DeHart, C.; Duda, A.; Perkins, C.; To, B.

    2002-05-01

    In the conventional CdS/CdTe device structure, the poly-CdS window layer has a bandgap of {approx}2.4 eV, which causes absorption in the short-wavelength region. Higher short-circuit current densities (Jsc) can be achieved by reducing the CdS thickness, but this can adversely impact device open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Also, poly-CdS film has about 10% lattice mismatch related to the CdTe film, which limits the improvement of device Voc and FF. In this paper, we report a novel window material: oxygenated amorphous CdS film (a-CdS:O) prepared at room temperature by rf sputtering. The a-CdS:O film has a higher optical bandgap (2.5-3.1 eV) than the poly-CdS film and an amorphous structure. The preliminary device results have demonstrated that Jsc of the CdTe device can be greatly improved while maintaining higher Voc and FF. We have fabricated a CdTe cell demonstrating an NREL-confirmed Jsc of 25.85 mA/cm2 and a total-area efficiency of 15.4%.

  15. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive ...

  16. Detailed Course Module Description | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Course Module Description Detailed Course Module Description This document lists the course modules for building science courses offered at Cornell's Collaborator...

  17. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module ...

  18. Module Solar AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Module Solar AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Module Solar AG Place: Baar, Switzerland Product: A Swiss PV module and materials supplier and developer Coordinates: 40.808083,...

  19. Module isolation devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  20. VERDE Analytic Modules

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates servedmore » within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  1. 2015 PV Module Reliability Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosts an annual Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop so that solar technology experts can share information leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Improvements to module reliability reduce the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology—both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  2. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  3. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  4. cd ordering | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CD-DVD Ordering System Please complete the following information so the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) can promptly process your order. Below is a sample of the fields required to order a CD or DVD. If any fields are left blank you may not receive your disk. Data gathered by this form will be used only by the NETL. and will not be distributed for any other purpose. Data transferred via the Internet to this database should not be considered secure. Last Name: Doe First Name: John Middle

  5. Nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with molybdenum oxide as contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Hongmei; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-10-06

    Using a 10 nm thick molybdenum oxide (MoO3-x) layer as a transparent and low barrier contact to p-CdTe, we demonstrate nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 11% under front side illumination. Annealing the as-deposited MoO3 film in N2 resulted in a reduction of the cell’s series resistance, from 9.97 Ω/cm2 to 7.69 Ω/cm2, and increase in efficiency from 9.9% to 11%. Under illumination from the back, the MoO3-x/Au side, the nanowire solar cells yielded Jsc of 21 mA/cm2 and efficiency of 8.67%. Our results demonstrate use of a thin layer transition metal oxide as a potential way for a transparent back contact to nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells. As a result, this work has implications toward enabling a novel superstrate structure nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cell on Al foil substrate by a low cost roll-to roll fabrication process.

  6. Nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with molybdenum oxide as contact

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dang, Hongmei; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-10-06

    Using a 10 nm thick molybdenum oxide (MoO3-x) layer as a transparent and low barrier contact to p-CdTe, we demonstrate nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 11% under front side illumination. Annealing the as-deposited MoO3 film in N2 resulted in a reduction of the cell’s series resistance, from 9.97 Ω/cm2 to 7.69 Ω/cm2, and increase in efficiency from 9.9% to 11%. Under illumination from the back, the MoO3-x/Au side, the nanowire solar cells yielded Jsc of 21 mA/cm2 and efficiency of 8.67%. Our results demonstrate use of a thin layer transition metal oxide as a potentialmore » way for a transparent back contact to nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells. As a result, this work has implications toward enabling a novel superstrate structure nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cell on Al foil substrate by a low cost roll-to roll fabrication process.« less

  7. High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-05-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of the new clathrates K8Cd4Ge42, Rb8Cd4Ge42, and Cs8Cd4Ge42

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schafer, Marion; Bobev, Svilen

    2016-03-25

    This paper presents results from our exploratory work in the systems K-Cd-Ge, Rb-Cd-Ge, and Cs-Cd-Ge, which yielded the novel type-I clathrates with refined compositions K8Cd3.77(7)Ge42.23, Rb8Cd3.65(7)Ge42.35, and Cs7.80(1)Cd3.65(6)Ge42.35. The three compounds represent rare examples of clathrates of germanium with the alkali metals, where a d10 element substitutes a group 14 element. The three structures, established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, indicate that the framework-building Ge atoms are randomly substituted by Cd atoms on only one of the three possible crystallographic sites. Furthermore, this and several other details of the crystal chemistry are elaborated.

  9. Determination of CdTe bulk carrier lifetime and interface recombination velocity of CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xin-Hao; Campbell, Calli M.; DiNezza, Michael J.; Liu, Shi; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2014-12-22

    The bulk Shockley-Read-Hall carrier lifetime of CdTe and interface recombination velocity at the CdTe/Mg{sub 0.24}Cd{sub 0.76}Te heterointerface are estimated to be around 0.5??s and (4.7??0.4)??10{sup 2?}cm/s, respectively, using time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Four CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DHs) with varying CdTe layer thicknesses were grown on nearly lattice-matched InSb (001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. The longest lifetime of 179?ns is observed in the DH with a 2??m thick CdTe layer. It is also shown that the photon recycling effect has a strong influence on the bulk radiative lifetime, and the reabsorption process affects the measured PL spectrum shape and intensity.

  10. Broadening of optical transitions in polycrystalline CdS and CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jian; Chen Jie; Collins, R. W.

    2010-11-01

    The dielectric functions {epsilon} of polycrystalline CdS and CdTe thin films sputter deposited onto Si wafers were measured from 0.75 to 6.5 eV by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Differences in {epsilon} due to processing variations are well understood using an excited carrier scattering model. For each sample, a carrier mean free path {lambda} is defined that is found to be inversely proportional to the broadening of each of the band structure critical points (CPs) deduced from {epsilon}. The rate at which broadening occurs with {lambda}{sup -1} is different for each CP, enabling a carrier group speed {upsilon}{sub g} to be identified for the CP. With the database for {upsilon}{sub g}, {epsilon} can be analyzed to evaluate the quality of materials used in CdS/CdTe photovoltaic heterojunctions.

  11. Photoluminescence studies of type-II CdSe/CdTe superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jingjing; Johnson, Shane R.; Wang Shumin; Ding Ding; Ning Cunzheng; Zhang Yonghang; Yin Leijun; Skromme, B. J.; Liu Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K.

    2012-08-06

    CdSe/CdTe type-II superlattices grown on GaSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy are studied using time-resolved and steady-state photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at 10 K. The relatively long carrier lifetime of 188 ns observed in time-resolved PL measurements shows good material quality. The steady-state PL peak position exhibits a blue shift with increasing excess carrier concentration. Self-consistent solutions of the Schroedinger and Poisson equations show that this effect can be explained by band bending as a result of the spatial separation of electrons and holes, which is critical confirmation of a strong type-II band edge alignment between CdSe and CdTe.

  12. Interface requirements to couple thermal-hydraulic codes to severe accident codes: ATHLET-CD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trambauer, K.

    1997-07-01

    The system code ATHLET-CD is being developed by GRS in cooperation with IKE and IPSN. Its field of application comprises the whole spectrum of leaks and large breaks, as well as operational and abnormal transients for LWRs and VVERs. At present the analyses cover the in-vessel thermal-hydraulics, the early phases of core degradation, as well as fission products and aerosol release from the core and their transport in the Reactor Coolant System. The aim of the code development is to extend the simulation of core degradation up to failure of the reactor pressure vessel and to cover all physically reasonable accident sequences for western and eastern LWRs including RMBKs. The ATHLET-CD structure is highly modular in order to include a manifold spectrum of models and to offer an optimum basis for further development. The code consists of four general modules to describe the reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulics, the core degradation, the fission product core release, and fission product and aerosol transport. Each general module consists of some basic modules which correspond to the process to be simulated or to its specific purpose. Besides the code structure based on the physical modelling, the code follows four strictly separated steps during the course of a calculation: (1) input of structure, geometrical data, initial and boundary condition, (2) initialization of derived quantities, (3) steady state calculation or input of restart data, and (4) transient calculation. In this paper, the transient solution method is briefly presented and the coupling methods are discussed. Three aspects have to be considered for the coupling of different modules in one code system. First is the conservation of masses and energy in the different subsystems as there are fluid, structures, and fission products and aerosols. Second is the convergence of the numerical solution and stability of the calculation. The third aspect is related to the code performance, and running time.

  13. TASMANIAN Sparse Grids Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-20

    Sparse Grids are the family of methods of choice for multidimensional integration and interpolation in low to moderate number of dimensions. The method is to select extend a one dimensional set of abscissas, weights and basis functions by taking a subset of all possible tensor products. The module provides the ability to create global and local approximations based on polynomials and wavelets. The software has three components, a library, a wrapper for the library thatmore » provides a command line interface via text files ad a MATLAB interface via the command line tool.« less

  14. TASMANIAN Sparse Grids Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    and Drayton Munster, Miroslav Stoyanov

    2013-09-20

    Sparse Grids are the family of methods of choice for multidimensional integration and interpolation in low to moderate number of dimensions. The method is to select extend a one dimensional set of abscissas, weights and basis functions by taking a subset of all possible tensor products. The module provides the ability to create global and local approximations based on polynomials and wavelets. The software has three components, a library, a wrapper for the library that provides a command line interface via text files ad a MATLAB interface via the command line tool.

  15. Buckeye Water C&D District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buckeye Water C&D District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Buckeye Water C&D District Place: Arizona Phone Number: 623-386-2196 Website: www.bwcdd.com Outage Hotline: Upper...

  16. Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet Models: TIF and TPV Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet Models: TIF and TPV Presentation given at the ...

  17. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Armenia (CD-ROM)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resource Atlas of Armenia (CD-ROM) http:www.nrel.govdocsfy03osti33877CD.zip (ZIP 31.9 MB) NRELCD-500-33877 July 2003 Instructions: The URL above links to a zipped archive...

  18. Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF I-II) (Post CD...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF I-II) (Post CD-4), EERE, Aug 2011 Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF I-II) (Post CD-4), EERE, Aug 2011 PDF icon 000521 & ...

  19. Buckeye Water C&D District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buckeye Water C&D District (Redirected from Buckeye Irrigation District) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Buckeye Water C&D District Place: Arizona Phone Number: 623-386-2196...

  20. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  1. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  2. CD Label and Package Templates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications, Exhibits, & Logos » Templates » CD Label and Package Templates CD Label and Package Templates The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has developed templates for CD labels and CD packages. These can be used for all EERE products. Both templates are available as EPS files, which can be downloaded and edited in a graphics package like Adobe Illustrator. You are not required to use these templates for your EERE products. These templates were designed to allow

  3. Photovoltaic module and module arrays (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  4. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear ...

  5. CdSe/CdTe type-II superlattices grown on GaSb (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jingjing; Liu Shi; Wang Shumin; Ding Ding; Johnson, Shane R.; Zhang Yonghang; Liu Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K.; Smith, David J.

    2012-03-19

    CdSe/CdTe superlattices are grown on GaSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction measurements and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images indicate high crystalline quality. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show the effective bandgap varies with the superlattice layer thicknesses and confirm the CdSe/CdTe heterostructure has a type-II band edge alignment. The valence band offset between unstrained CdTe and CdSe is determined as 0.63 {+-} 0.06 eV by fitting the measured PL peak positions using the envelope function approximation and the Kronig-Penney model. These results suggest that CdSe/CdTe superlattices are promising candidates for multi-junction solar cells and other optoelectronic devices based on GaSb substrates.

  6. The role of oxygen in CdS/CdTe solar cells deposited by close-spaced sublimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D.H.; Levi, D.H.; Matson, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    The presence of oxygen during close-spaced sublimation (CSS) of CdTe has been previously reported to be essential for high-efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cells because it increases the acceptor density in the absorber. The authors find that the presence of oxygen during CSS increases the nucleation site density of CdTe, thus decreasing pinhole density and grain size. Photoluminescence showed that oxygen decreases material quality in the bulk of the CdTe film, but positively impacts the critical CdS/CdTe interface. Through device characterization the authors were unable to verify an increase in acceptor density with increased oxygen. These results, along with the achievement of high-efficiency cells (13% AM1.5) without the use of oxygen, led the authors to conclude that the use of oxygen during CSS deposition of CdTe can be useful but is not essential.

  7. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liang-shi

    2003-09-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  8. Modulated preheating and isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enqvist, Kari; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: stanislav.rusak@helsinki.fi

    2013-03-01

    We consider a model of preheating where the coupling of the inflaton to the preheat field is modulated by an additional scalar field which is light during inflation. We establish that such a model produces the observed curvature perturbation analogously to the modulated reheating scenario. The contribution of modulated preheating to the power spectrum and to non-Gaussianity can however be significantly larger compared to modulated perturbative reheating. We also consider the implications of the current constraints on isocurvature perturbations in case where the modulating field is responsible for cold dark matter. We find that existing bounds on CDM isocurvature perturbations imply that modulated preheating is unlikely to give a dominant contribution to the curvature perturbation and that the same bounds suggest important constraints on non-Gaussianity and the amount of primordial gravitational waves.

  9. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Module 2- Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module defines and illustrates the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), WBS dictionary, Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) and Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM).

  11. module 4 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 HR5 TRANSITION BRIEFING PDF icon module 4 More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Rev5functionalaccountabilityimplementationplan..doc High Risk Plan Department of...

  12. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  13. Fortran 90 Source Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-01-13

    A major advance contained in the new Fortran 90 language standard is the ability to define new data types and the operators associated with them. Writing computer code to implement computations with real and complex three domensional vectors and dyadics is greatly simplified if the equations can be implemented directly, without the need to code the vector arithmetic explicitly. The Fortran 90 module VECTORS contains source code which defines new data types for real andmore » complex 3-dimensional vectors and dyadics, along with the common operations needed to work with these objects. Routines to allow convenient initalization and output of the new types are also included. in keeping with the philosophy of data abstraction, the details of the implementation of the data types are maintained private, and the functions and operators are made generic to simplify the combining of real, complex, single and double precision vectors and dyadics.« less

  14. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R. David; Goldner, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  15. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  16. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  17. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  18. Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Hsia, Alexander H.; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    Photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes at least one modulator section and differential drive circuitry. The at least one modulator section includes a P-type layer and an N-type layer forming a PN junction in the modulator section. The differential drive circuitry is electrically coupled to the P-type layer and the N-type layer of the at least one modulator section.

  19. Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H.C.; Rohatgi, A.; Jokerst, N.M.; Thomas, E.W.; Kamra, S.

    1996-07-01

    CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing a Au/Cu contact with Cu thickness in the range of 50 to 150A on polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass structures. The increase in Cu thickness improves ohmic contact and reduces series resistance (R{sub s}), but the excess Cu tends to diffuse into CdTe and lower shunt resistance (R{sub sh}) and cell performance. Light I-V and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were performed to understand the correlations between the Cu contact thickness, the extent of Cu incorporation in the CdTe cells, and its impact on the cell performance. The CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass, CdTe/CdS/GaAs, and CdTe/GaAs structures were prepared in an attempt to achieve CdTe films with different degrees of crystallinity and grain size. A large grain polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cell was obtained for the first time by selective etching the GaAs substrate coupled with the film transfer onto a glass substrate. SIMS measurement showed that poor crystallinity and smaller grain size of the CdTe film promotes Cu diffusion and decreases the cell performance. Therefore, grain boundaries are the main conduits for Cu migration and larger CdTe grain size or alternate method of contact formation can mitigate the adverse effect of Cu and improve the cell performance. 15 refs., 1 fig.,6 tabs.

  20. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Harper, Jason

    2014-06-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  1. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  2. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2016 (AEO2016). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  3. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2014 (AEO2014). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  4. Working with Modules within Perl and Python

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working with Modules within Perl and Python Working with Modules within Perl and Python It can often be convenient to work with the modules system from within perl or python scripts. You can do this! Using Modules within Python The EnvironmentModules python package gives access to the module system from within python. The EnvironmentModules python package has a single function: module. Using this function you can provide the same arguments you would to "module" on the command line. The

  5. Force Modulator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  6. Radiative lifetimes of zincblende CdSe/CdS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Ke; Martin, James E.; Shea-Rohwer, Lauren E.; Lu, Ping; Kelley, David F.

    2015-01-02

    Recent synthetic advances have made available very monodisperse zincblende CdSe/CdS quantum dots having near-unity photoluminescence quantum yields. Because of the absence of nonradiative decay pathways, accurate values of the radiative lifetimes can be obtained from time-resolved PL measurements. Radiative lifetimes can also be obtained from the Einstein relations, using the static absorption spectra and the relative thermal populations in the angular momentum sublevels. We found that one of the inputs into these calculations is the shell thickness, and it is useful to be able to determine shell thickness from spectroscopic measurements. We use an empirically corrected effective mass model to produce a “map” of exciton wavelength as a function of core size and shell thickness. These calculations use an elastic continuum model and the known lattice and elastic constants to include the effect of lattice strain on the band gap energy. The map is in agreement with the known CdSe sizing curve and with the shell thicknesses of zincblende core/shell particles obtained from TEM images. Furthermore, if selenium–sulfur diffusion is included and lattice strain is omitted from the calculation then the resulting map is appropriate for wurtzite CdSe/CdS quantum dots synthesized at high temperatures, and this map is very similar to one previously reported (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 14299). Radiative lifetimes determined from time-resolved measurements are compared to values obtained from the Einstein relations, and found to be in excellent agreement. For a specific core size (2.64 nm diameter, in the present case), radiative lifetimes are found to decrease with increasing shell thickness. Thus, this is similar to the size dependence of one-component CdSe quantum dots and in contrast to the size dependence in type-II quantum dots.

  7. Radiative lifetimes of zincblende CdSe/CdS quantum dots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gong, Ke; Martin, James E.; Shea-Rohwer, Lauren E.; Lu, Ping; Kelley, David F.

    2015-01-02

    Recent synthetic advances have made available very monodisperse zincblende CdSe/CdS quantum dots having near-unity photoluminescence quantum yields. Because of the absence of nonradiative decay pathways, accurate values of the radiative lifetimes can be obtained from time-resolved PL measurements. Radiative lifetimes can also be obtained from the Einstein relations, using the static absorption spectra and the relative thermal populations in the angular momentum sublevels. We found that one of the inputs into these calculations is the shell thickness, and it is useful to be able to determine shell thickness from spectroscopic measurements. We use an empirically corrected effective mass model tomore » produce a “map” of exciton wavelength as a function of core size and shell thickness. These calculations use an elastic continuum model and the known lattice and elastic constants to include the effect of lattice strain on the band gap energy. The map is in agreement with the known CdSe sizing curve and with the shell thicknesses of zincblende core/shell particles obtained from TEM images. Furthermore, if selenium–sulfur diffusion is included and lattice strain is omitted from the calculation then the resulting map is appropriate for wurtzite CdSe/CdS quantum dots synthesized at high temperatures, and this map is very similar to one previously reported (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 14299). Radiative lifetimes determined from time-resolved measurements are compared to values obtained from the Einstein relations, and found to be in excellent agreement. For a specific core size (2.64 nm diameter, in the present case), radiative lifetimes are found to decrease with increasing shell thickness. Thus, this is similar to the size dependence of one-component CdSe quantum dots and in contrast to the size dependence in type-II quantum dots.« less

  8. CD-1, Approve Alternative Selection and Cost Range

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CD-1 approval marks the completion of the project definition phase and the conceptual design. This is an iterative process to define, analyze, and refine project concepts and alternatives. This process uses a systems engineering methodology that integrates requirements analysis, risk identification and analysis, acquisition strategies, and concept exploration in order to evolve a cost-effective, preferred solution to meet a mission need (refer to DOE G 413.3-1 for more information). The recommended alternative should provide the essential functions and capabilities at an optimum life-cycle cost, consistent with required cost, scope, schedule, performance, and risk considerations. It should be reflected in the site’s long-range planning documents as well. Approval of CD-1 provides the authorization to begin the project Execution Phase and allows PED funds to be used. The requirements needed to attain CD-1 are listed below. The cost range provided at CD-1 is the preliminary estimate for the selected alternative. As CD-1 progresses to CD-2, the TPC will be refined and the TPC established at CD-2 may be higher than the range defined at CD-1, in which case the PME must be notified. The CD-1 cost range is not the PB cost. The PB against which project success is measured will be established at CD-2. The only exception is when a construction budget request is submitted in advance of an approved CD-2. In this circumstance, refer to Appendix A, Paragraph 4.c.(2). If the top end of the original approved CD-1 cost range grows by more than 50% as the project proceeds toward CD-2, the Program, in coordination with the PME, must reassess the alternative selection process. Upon completing the review, the PME must approve a revised CD-1 identifying the new or reaffirmed selected alternative and an updated CD-1 cost range. This new CD-1 information, to include the new CD-1 cost range and CD-1 approval date, will be reflected within PARS II and all subsequent PDSs and similar

  9. Core-shell ITO/ZnO/CdS/CdTe nanowire solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, B. L.; Phillips, L.; Major, J. D.; Durose, K.; Taylor, A. A.; Mendis, B. G.; Bowen, L.

    2014-02-03

    Radial p-n junction nanowire (NW) solar cells with high densities of CdTe NWs coated with indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/CdS triple shells were grown with excellent heterointerfaces. The optical reflectance of the devices was lower than for equivalent planar films by a factor of 100. The best efficiency for the NW solar cells was ??=?2.49%, with current transport being dominated by recombination, and the conversion efficiencies being limited by a back contact barrier (?{sub B}?=?0.52?eV) and low shunt resistances (R{sub SH}?

  10. OCGen Module Mooring Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2015-02-06

    Ocean Renewable Power Company's OCGen Module Mooring Project provided an extensive research, design, development, testing and data collection effort and analysis conducted with respect to a positively buoyant, submerged MHK device secured to the seabed using a tensioned mooring system. Different analytic tools were evaluated for their utility in the design of submerged systems and their moorings. Deployment and testing of a prototype OCGen® system provided significant data related to mooring line loads and system attitude and station keeping. Mooring line loads were measured in situ and reported against flow speeds. The Project made a significant step in the development of designs, methodologies and practices related to floating and mooring of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Importantly for Ocean Renewable Power Company, the Project provided a sound basis for advancing a technically and commercially viable OCGen® Power System. The OCGen® Power System is unique in the MHK industry and, in itself, offers distinct advantages of MHK devices that are secured to the seabed using fixed structural frames. Foremost among these advantages are capital and operating cost reductions and increased power extraction by allowing the device to be placed at the most energetic level of the water column.

  11. Common Geometry Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  12. Current enhancement of CdTe-based solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; More, Karren Leslie; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-07-30

    We report on the realization of CdTe solar cell photocurrent enhancement using an n-type CdSe heterojunction partner sputtered on commercial SnO2/SnO2:F coated soda-lime glass substrates. With high-temperature close-space sublimation CdTe deposition followed by CdCl2 activation, this thin-film stack allows for substantial interdiffusion at the CdSe/CdTe interface facilitating a CdSexTe1-x alloy formation. The bowing effect causes a reduced optical bandgap of the alloyed absorber layer and, therefore, leads to current enhancement in the long-wavelength region and a decrease in open-circuit voltage (VOC). To overcome the VOC loss and maintain a high short-circuit current (JSC), the CdTe cell configuration has been modified using combined CdS:O/CdSe window layers. The new device structure has demonstrated enhanced collection from both short-and long-wavelength regions as well as a VOC improvement. With an optimized synthesis process, a small-area cell using CdS:O/CdSe window layer showed an efficiency of 15.2% with a VOC of 831 mV, a JSC of 26.3 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 69.5%, measured under an AM1.5 illumination without antireflection coating. Furthermore, the results provide new directions for further improvement of CdTe-based solar cells.

  13. Working with Modules within Perl and Python

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working with Modules within Perl and Python Working with Modules within Perl and Python It can often be convenient to work with the modules system from within perl or python...

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - FinalModule8.ppt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prepared by: Booz Allen Hamilton Module 8: Government Required Reports Welcome to Module ... Prepared by: Booz Allen Hamilton Review of Previous Modules In the previous seven modules, ...

  15. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  16. The role of intrahepatic CD3 +/CD4 −/CD8 − double negative T (DN T) cells in enhanced acetaminophen toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getachew, Yonas; Cusimano, Frank A.; James, Laura P.; Thiele, Dwain L.

    2014-10-15

    The role of the immune system, specifically NK, NKT and CD3 cells, in acetaminophen (APAP) induced liver injury remains inconsistently defined. In the present study, wild type (C57BL/6J) mice and granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice were treated with acetaminophen to assess the role of the immune system in acute liver injury. Doses of acetaminophen that induced sub lethal liver injury in wild type mice unexpectedly produced fatal hepatotoxicity in granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice. Analysis revealed that GrB −/− mice had an increased population of intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), and CD8 (−) lymphocytes expressing the CD69 activation marker and Fas ligand. Depletion of these cells in the GrB −/− and wild type mice made them less susceptible to APAP injury, while depletion of NK1.1 (+) cells or both CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T cells failed to provide the same hepatoprotection. Transfer of the GrB −/− IHLs further exacerbated liver injury and increased mortality in wild type mice but not in LRP/LPR mice, lacking fas expression. Conclusions: Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by the presence of activated, FasL expressing intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), CD8 (−), NK1.1 (−) T cells. Depletion of these cells from GrB −/− mice and wild type mice greatly reduces mortality and improves the course of liver injury recovery. - Highlights: • Intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHLs) from GrB −/− mice harbor activated DNT cells. • IHLs from GrB −/− mice exhibit enhanced Fas ligand expression. • Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by activated, FasL expressing DNT cells.

  17. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe sub 2 solar cell modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanbery, B.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{ge}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  18. Development of CdS/CdTe Tin Film Devices for St. Gobain Coated Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-317

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T.

    2012-04-01

    Research performed at NREL to produce CdS/CdTe devices on St. Gobain coated-glass material to establish a baseline CdS/CdTe device process and determine baseline device performance parameters on St. Gobain material. Performance of these baseline devices compared to similar devices produced by applying the established baseline CdS/CdTe process on alternative St. Gobain coated-glass materials.

  19. Ubbink Solar Modules BV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Modules BV Place: Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 50933 Product: German manufacturer of PV modules, main customer was Ecostream that has agreed to purchase...

  20. Village Hydro Technology Module | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydro Technology Module Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Village Hydro Technology Module AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus...

  1. Lateral electrodeposition of compositionally modulated metal layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearne, Sean J

    2014-03-25

    A method for making a laterally modulated metallic structure that is compositionally modulated in the lateral direction with respect to a substrate.

  2. Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.

    2008-12-01

    Study of PV module encapsulation materials, processing, and testing shows that overall module reliability is determined by all component materials and processing factors.

  3. Biomass Energy Technology Module | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Module Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Energy Technology Module AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area:...

  4. Wind Energy Technology Module | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Module Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Wind Energy Technology Module AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area:...

  5. Module 6 - Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices. In addition, this module will outline forecasting tools such as ...

  6. Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation) Pern, J. 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ENCAPSULATION; PROCESSING; RELIABILITY; TESTING PV; MODULE...

  7. Photovoltaic Energy Technology Module | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Module Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaic Energy Technology Module AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus...

  8. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kempe, M.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Jordan, D.; Miller, D. C.; Silverman, T. J.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  9. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  10. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  11. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  12. DOE CD-4 Review of the MINERvA Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE CD-4 Review of the MINERvA Project Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A May 12, 2010 | Overview | CD-4 Documentation| Other Documents| Overview of Charge and Experiment MINERvA Overview (2.2 MB pdf) Review Agenda (all times EDT) (pdf) Review Charge (pdf) Review Presentation by MINERvA Project (DRAFT until the week of May 12) (docdb page) Required CD-4 Documentation CD-4 Document Checklist (pdf) Technical Requirements Completion Document (pdf) Quality Assurance Plan (pdf) Safety Documentation Hazard

  13. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  14. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  15. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  16. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  17. Laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity. It is known in the prior art to utilize a PZT (piezoelectric transducer) element in combination with a mirror to change the cavity length of a laser cavity (which changes the laser frequency). Using a PZT element to drive the mirror directly is adequate at frequencies below 10 kHz. However, in high frequency applications (100 kHz and higher) PZT elements alone do not provide a sufficient change in the cavity length. The present invention utilizes an ultrasonic concentrator with a PZT element and mirror to provide modulation of the laser cavity. With an ultrasonic concentrator, the mirror element at the end of a laser cavity can move at larger amplitudes and higher frequencies.

  18. Module and/or Cell Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reporting Companies, total number of: 59 Employment, full-time equivalent employees: 10,628 Module and/or Cell Manufacturing 26 Module or System Design 20 Prototype Module Development 15 Prototype Systems Development 8 Wholesale Distribution 30 Retail Distribution 12 Installations 9 Other 5 90-100% 43 50-89% 4 10-49% 6 Less than 10% 6 Crystalline Silicon: Single-Crystal Modules 12 Crystalline Silicon: Cast Modules 8 Thin-Film: Amorphous Silicon Modules 3 Thin-Film: Other Modules 2 Concentrators

  19. U.S. Team Green Building Challenge (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-09-01

    Mini-CD with copies of U.S. Team materials handed out at the International Green Building Challenge conference in Oslo, Norway in September 2002. CD contents contains map of U.S., project brochures, project posters, and GBTool spreadsheets.

  20. Strain-dependent photoluminescence behavior in three geometries of CdSe/CdS nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Charina L; Koski, Kristie J; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2009-05-26

    In recent years, a new generation of quantum confined colloidal semiconductor structures has emerged, with more complex shapes than simple quantum dots1, 2. These include nanorods3 and tetrapods4. Beyond shape, it is also now possible to spatially vary the electron and hole potentials within these nanoparticles by varying the composition. Examples of these new structures include seeded dots, rods, and tetrapods, which contain a CdSe core embedded within a CdS shell5, 6. These structures may have many uses beyond those envisioned for simple quantum dots, which are frequently employed in luminescent applications7. This paper is concerned with changes in the optoelectronic properties of tetrapods when the arms are bent. We demonstrate that seeded tetrapods can serve as an optical strain gauge, capable of measuring forces on the order of nanonewtons. We anticipate that a nanocrystal strain gauge with optical readout will be useful for applications ranging from sensitive optomechanical devices to biological force investigations.

  1. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P.; Dugan, Larry M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  2. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  3. Compact nanomechanical plasmonic phase modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, B. S.; Haftel, M. I.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Lopez, D.; Blumberg, G.; Aksyuk, V. A.

    2015-03-30

    Highly confined optical energy in plasmonic devices is advancing miniaturization in photonics. However, for mode sizes approaching ≈10 nm, the energy increasingly shifts into the metal, raising losses and hindering active phase modulation. Here, we propose a nanoelectromechanical phase-modulation principle exploiting the extraordinarily strong dependence of the phase velocity of metal–insulator–metal gap plasmons on dynamically variable gap size. We experimentally demonstrate a 23-μm-long non-resonant modulator having a 1.5π rad range, with 1.7 dB excess loss at 780 nm. Analysis shows that by simultaneously decreasing the gap, length and width, an ultracompact-footprint π rad phase modulator can be realized. This is achieved without incurring the extra loss expected for plasmons confined in a decreasing gap, because the increasing phase-modulation strength from a narrowing gap offsets rising propagation losses. Such small, high-density electrically controllable components may find applications in optical switch fabrics and reconfigurable plasmonic optics.

  4. Native defects in MBE-grown CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Makosa, Andrzej; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Kolkovsky, Valery; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2013-12-04

    Deep-level traps in both n- and p-type CdTe layers, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates, have been investigated by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Four of the traps revealed in the DLTS spectra, which displayed exponential kinetics for capture of charge carriers into the trap states, have been assigned to native point defects: Cd interstitial, Cd vacancy, Te antisite defect and a complex formed of the Te antisite and Cd vacancy. Three further traps, displaying logarithmic capture kinetics, have been ascribed to electron states of treading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the substrate and propagated through the CdTe layer.

  5. Modeling Cd partitioning in oxic lake sediments and Cd concentrations in a freshwater bivalve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, A.

    1994-12-31

    The author measured cadmium concentrations in the biotic (soft tissues of a freshwater bivalve) and abiotic (oxic sediments and overlying water, diagenetic iron and manganese oxides) compartments of a large number of lakes. The lakes encompass a large range in pH and in Cd concentrations, and are distributed over a geographical area of about 350,000 km{sup 2}. The distribution of Cd between the sediments and the overlying water can be described by sorption to a limited number of sedimentary phases; apparent binding constants of Cd to these phases can be determined from in situ measurements. This approach is somewhat similar to that of ``Trace Metal Equilibrium Partitioning`` which has been considered by the US EPA for the development of sediment quality criteria. The author shows that the binding constants, together with the abundance of the sorbing phases, total sedimentary cadmium concentration and water pH, can be used to predict successfully cadmium accumulation in the freshwater bivalve.

  6. The CD36, CLA-1(CD36L1), and LIMPII (CD36L2) gene family: Cellular distribution, chromosomal location, and genetic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvo, D.; Vega, M.A.; Dopazo, J.

    1995-01-01

    CD36, CLA-1, and LIMPII are single polypeptide membrane glycoproteins, and the genes encoding them constitute a recently described gene family. In the present paper, a cDNA encoding the human lysosomal membrane protein LIMPII was used to determine its expression pattern in cells of various lineages. Like CLA-1, and in contrast with the restricted expression of CD36, the expression of LIMPII is widespread. Mapping of the human LIMPII and CLA-1 genes (gene symbols CD36L2 and CD36L1, respectively) to specific chromosomes revealed that CLA-1, LIMPII, and CD36 do not form a gene cluster, but are found dispersed on chromosomes 12, 4, and 7, respectively. These data, together with the phylogenetic analysis carried out for the members of this family, indicate that the LIMPII, CIA-1, and CD36 genes diverged early in evolution from an ancestor gene, possibly before the divergence between the arthropods and the vertebrates. 48 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  8. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  9. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  10. Optical-Fiber-Based, Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectrometer for Thin-Film Absorber Characterization and Analysis of TRPL Data for CdS/CdTe Interface: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuciauskas, D.; Duenow, J. N.; Kanevce, A.; Li, J. V.; Young, M. R.; Dippo, P.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the design of a time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectrometer for rapid semiconductor absorber characterization. Simplicity and flexibility is achieved by using single optical fiber to deliver laser pulses and to collect photoluminescence. We apply TRPL for characterization of CdS/CdTe absorbers after deposition, CdCl2 treatment, Cu doping, and back contact formation. Data suggest this method could be applied in various stages of PV device processing. Finally, we show how to analyze TRPL data for CdS/CdTe absorbers by considering laser light absorption depth and intermixing at CdS/CdTe interface.

  11. APT mass spectrometry and SEM data for CdTe solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Chen; Paudel, Naba R.; Yan, Yanfa; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-16

    Atom probe tomography (APT) data acquired from a CAMECA LEAP 4000 XHR for the CdS/CdTe interface for a non-CdCl2 treated CdTe solar cell as well as the mass spectrum of an APT data set including a GB in a CdCl2-treated CdTe solar cell are presented. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data showing the evolution of sample preparation for APT and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) electron beam induced current (EBIC) are also presented. As a result, these data show mass spectrometry peak decomposition of Cu and Te within an APT dataset, the CdS/CdTe interface of an untreated CdTe solar cell, preparationmore » of APT needles from the CdS/CdTe interface in superstrate grown CdTe solar cells, and the preparation of a cross-sectional STEM EBIC sample.« less

  12. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  13. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  14. Programmable multi-chip module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-03-02

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  15. CdSe self-assembled quantum dots with ZnCdMgSe barriers emitting throughout the visible spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Paz, M. Noemi; Zhou Xuecong; Munoz, Martin; Lu Hong; Sohel, Mohammad; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jean-Mary, Fleumingue; Akins, Daniel L.

    2004-12-27

    Self-assembled quantum dots of CdSe with ZnCdMgSe barriers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates. The optical and microstructural properties were investigated using photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Control and reproducibility of the quantum dot (QD) size leading to light emission throughout the entire visible spectrum range has been obtained by varying the CdSe deposition time. Longer CdSe deposition times result in a redshift of the PL peaks as a consequence of an increase of QD size. AFM studies demonstrate the presence of QDs in uncapped structures. A comparison of this QD system with CdSe/ZnSe shows that not only the strain but also the chemical properties of the system play an important role in QD formation.

  16. Pressure-dependent Optical Behaviors of Colloidal CdSe Nanoplatelets...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dependent Optical Behaviors of Colloidal CdSe Nanoplatelets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-dependent Optical Behaviors of Colloidal CdSe Nanoplatelets Authors: ...

  17. Effect of Morphology of CdS thin film on the Photocatalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, A.; Ishiyama, T.; Takahashi, H.; Sato, Y.; Jeyadevan, B.; Tohji, K.

    2007-03-20

    Photocatalytic activity of the CdS thin film depended very much on the film density, adhesion between the CdS and substrate, and whether effective electron path existed or not. We have proposed the formation of a bridging layer of Cd metal to improve the film density, adhesivity and the electron conduction path. Here, we report the results of the study undertaken to develop CdS/Cd (dendrite)/Ti film with enhanced photocatalytic property to decompose hydrogen sulphide. CdS/Cd (dendrite)/Ti photocatalyst showed the highest photocatalytic activity and photocurrent, which was 1.4 times higher than the traditional CdS/Ti photocatalyst.

  18. A Comparison of Key PV Backsheet and Module Properties from Fielded Module

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exposures and Accelerated Test Conditions | Department of Energy A Comparison of Key PV Backsheet and Module Properties from Fielded Module Exposures and Accelerated Test Conditions A Comparison of Key PV Backsheet and Module Properties from Fielded Module Exposures and Accelerated Test Conditions Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps5_dupont_gambogi.pdf (781.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda for the PV Module

  19. PROJECT PROFILE: From Modules to Atoms: Increasing Reliability/Stability of Commercially Relevant Photovoltaic Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While there are statistical studies and macroscopic descriptions of module-level degradation, there is a lack of understanding of the structural, chemical, and electrical properties at the microscopic scale of how these processes occur and how to reduce or eliminate them. The project will study reliability-related defects in major photovoltaic (PV) technologies that include silicon (Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS). Researchers will use imaging and microscopy characterization tools along with multi-physics modeling to derive the causes of power-limiting defects that are responsible for potential-induced degradation in Si, metastability and transient degradations in CdTe, and increased degradation due to reverse-bias breakdown in CIGS.

  20. WRAP module 1 treatment plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This document provides the methodology to treat waste in the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions or the Waste Isolation and Pilot Plant waste acceptance criteria. This includes Low-Level Mixed Waste, Transuranic Waste, and Transuranic Mixed Waste.

  1. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  2. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  3. Scale-Up of World Record 16.5% CdTe Cell Design for a 50 MWp Production Facility: September 27, 2007 - March 26, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, F. H.

    2011-05-01

    This final report covers progress made on subcontract NAT-7-77015-07 by PrimeStar Solar Inc. for the 18 month period from September 27, 2007 through March 26, 2009. The project objectives were to accelerate the commercialization of the world record 16.5% efficiency cadmium telluride photovoltaic technology. This was done by developing high performance 6"x6" prototype mini-modules and by designing and commissioning a pilot line for manufacturing of commercial sized 60cmx120cm modules. This subcontract aligns with the SAI program by accelerating the development of high efficiency low cost CdTe solar PV module manufacturing. This will contribute to the goal of PV grid parity by 2015. Progress with the deliverables and milestones in this subcontract constitutes progress towards the KPP and milestone objectives for the SAI program.

  4. Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-11

    Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.

  5. Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-03-12

    An impurity reaction-diffusion model is applied to Cu defects and related intrinsic defects in polycrystalline CdTe for a better understanding of Cu’s role in the cell level reliability of CdTe PV devices. The simulation yields transient Cu distributions in polycrystalline CdTe during solar cell processing and stressing. Preliminary results for Cu migration using available diffusivity and solubility data show that Cu accumulates near the back contact, a phenomena that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing or stress conditions.

  6. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  7. Phase stability in the Cd-Mg system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asta, M.; McCormack, R.; de Fontaine, D.

    1993-12-31

    This paper reports on results of a theoretical study of solid-state phase equilibria and short-range order in Cd-Mg alloys. Results of first-principles linear muffin-tin orbital method total-energy calculations for seven hcp-based superstructures have been combined with cluster-variation-method calculations of thermodynamic properties in order to compute the Cd-Mg phase diagram. Effect on the calculated phase diagram of contributions to the alloy free energy arising from atomic vibrations and structural relaxations are assessed using available experimental information for ordered and disordered alloys in the Cd-Mg system.

  8. A CdTe position sensitive detector for a hard X- and gamma-ray wide field camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroli, E.; Cesare, G. de; Donati, A.; Dusi, W.; Landini, G.; Stephen, J.B.; Perotti, F.

    1998-12-31

    An important region of the electromagnetic spectrum for astrophysics is the hard X- and gamma ray band between 10 keV and a few MeV, where several processes occur in a wide variety of objects and with different spatial distribution and time scales. In order to fulfill the observational requirements in this energy range and taking into account the opportunities given by small/medium size missions (e.g., on the ISS), the authors have proposed a compact, wide field camera based on a thick (1 cm) position sensitive CdTe detector (PSD). The detector is made of an array of 128x96 CdTe microspectrometers with a pixel size of 2x2 mm{sup 2}. The basic element of the PSD is the linear module that is an independent detection unit with 32 CdTe crystals and monolithic front-electronics (ASIC) supported by a thin (300 {micro}m) ceramic layer. The expected performance of the PSD over the operative energy range and some of the required ASIC functionality are presented and discussed.

  9. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, R.E. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.

    1994-10-11

    An interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams in the form of illumination bar to the lasing zone of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier. The preferred interface module includes an optical fiber array having a plurality of optical fibers arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source, and their proximal ends delivered into a relay structure. The proximal ends of the optical fibers are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array delivered from the optical fiber array is acted upon by an optical element array to produce an illumination bar which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window. The illumination bar is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout. 5 figs.

  10. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, Jr., Ronald E.; Johnson, Steve A.

    1994-01-01

    An interface module (10) for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams (36) in the form of illumination bar (54) to the lasing zone (18) of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier (12). The preferred interface module (10) includes an optical fiber array (30) having a plurality of optical fibers (38) arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends (44) receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source (46), and their proximal ends (4) delivered into a relay structure (3). The proximal ends (42) of the optical fibers (38) are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array (36) delivered from the optical fiber array (30) is acted upon by an optical element array (34) to produce an illumination bar (54) which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window (18). The illumination bar (54) is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout.

  11. Compensation of flare-induced CD changes EUVL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkholm, John E. (Pleasanton, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Gullikson, Eric M. (Oakland, CA); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA)

    2004-11-09

    A method for compensating for flare-induced critical dimensions (CD) changes in photolithography. Changes in the flare level results in undesirable CD changes. The method when used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography essentially eliminates the unwanted CD changes. The method is based on the recognition that the intrinsic level of flare for an EUV camera (the flare level for an isolated sub-resolution opaque dot in a bright field mask) is essentially constant over the image field. The method involves calculating the flare and its variation over the area of a patterned mask that will be imaged and then using mask biasing to largely eliminate the CD variations that the flare and its variations would otherwise cause. This method would be difficult to apply to optical or DUV lithography since the intrinsic flare for those lithographies is not constant over the image field.

  12. Modeling Copper Diffusion in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Guo, Da; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-06

    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystalline, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately

  13. Extracting Cu Diffusion Parameters in Polycrystalline CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Guo, Da; Dragica, Vasileska; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-06-13

    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystal-line, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately.

  14. CdTe Solar Cells: The Role of Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-06

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  15. Optical Properties of CdSe Nanoparticle Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, T; Gerion, D; Zaitseva, N; Krol, D M; Leon, F R

    2003-11-24

    We report on three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of micron-size faceted crystals precipitated from solutions of CdSe nanocrystals. Such crystals have previously been suggested to be superlattices of CdSe quantum dots [1,2]. Possible applications for these materials include their use in optical and optoelectronic devices. The micron-size crystals were grown by slow evaporation from toluene solutions of CdSe nanocrystals in the range of 3-6 nm, produced by traditional wet-chemistry techniques. By using a confocal microscope with laser illumination, three-dimensional raster-scanning and synchronized hyper-spectral detection, we have generated spatial profiles of the fluorescence emission intensity and spectrum. The fluorescence data of the micro-crystals were compared with spectra of individual nanocrystals obtained from the same solution. The results do not support the assertion that these microcrystals consist of CdSe superlattices.

  16. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  17. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  18. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  19. Substrate CdTe Efficiency Improvements - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate CdTe Efficiency Improvements National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-28PCT Application as-published (984 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Thin film solar cells have been the focus of many research facilities in recent years that are working to decrease manufacturing costs and increase cell efficiency. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been well recognized as a promising photovoltaic material for thin film solar cells

  20. Tunable Surface Plasmon Infrared Modulator - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Industries Infrared Modulator IR Counter Measures Photonic Circuitry Metamaterials Chemical Sensing Variable Attenuation Patents and Patent Applications ID Number...

  1. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  2. Module 6- Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices.

  3. Seeding Coherent Radiation Sources with Sawtooth Modulation ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HARMONICS; INSTABILITY; MODULATION; PERFORMANCE; PHASE SPACE; POLARIZATION; RADIATION SOURCES; SATURATION; SEEDS; WAVE FORMS; WAVELENGTHS Accelerators,ACCPHY, SYNCHRAD, XFEL

  4. Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Presented at the PV Module ...

  5. Project Execution Plan Review Module (RM) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Review Module (RM) Project Execution Plan Review Module (RM) The Project Execution Plan (PEP) Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in...

  6. Overview of the PV Module Model in PVWatts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, B.

    2010-09-22

    Overview of the PV module model. PVWatts module power estimates were compared with those using the Sandia model for three modules and data sets.

  7. High-quality CdTe films from nanoparticle precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, D.L.; Pehnt, M.; Urgiles, E.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the authors demonstrate that nanoparticulate precursors coupled with spray deposition offers an attractive route into electronic materials with improved smoothness, density, and lower processing temperatures. Employing a metathesis approach, cadmium iodide was reacted with sodium telluride in methanol solvent, resulting in the formation of soluble NaI and insoluble CdTe nanoparticles. After appropriate chemical workup, methanol-capped CdTe colloids were isolated. CdTe thin film formation was achieved by spray depositing the nanoparticle colloids (25-75 {Angstrom} diameter) onto substrates at elevated temperatures (T = 280-440{degrees}C) with no further thermal treatment. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cubic CdTe phase formation was observed by XRD, with a contaminant oxide phase also detected. XPS analysis showed that CdTe films produced by this one-step method contained no Na or C and substantial O. AFM gave CdTe grain sizes of {approx}0.1-0.3 {mu}m for film sprayed at 400{degrees}C. A layer-by-layer film growth mechanism proposed for the one-step spray deposition of nanoparticle precursors will be discussed.

  8. A Stability of LCLS Linac Modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, F.-J.; Krasnykh, A.; Morris, B.; Nguyen, M.; /SLAC

    2012-06-13

    Information concerning to a stability of LCLS RF linac modulators is allocated in this paper. In general a 'pulse-to-pulse' modulator stability (and RF phase as well) is acceptable for the LCLS commission and FEL programs. Further modulator stability improvements are possible and approaches are discussed based on our experimental results.

  9. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  10. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  11. Solid-state membrane module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  12. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  13. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhichao; Benavides, Pahola T.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cronauer, Donald C.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  14. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature ... These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix ...

  15. Effect of nanoscale tin-dioxide layers on the efficiency of CdS/CdTe-based film solar elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khrypunov, G. S. Pirohov, O. V.; Gorstka, T. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Kovtun, N. A.

    2015-03-15

    Comparative investigations of the output parameters and optical diode characteristics of ITO/CdS/CdTe/Cu/Au and SnO{sub 2}: F/CdS/CdTe/Cu/Au film solar cells are carried out with the aim of optimizing the design of the front electrodes. It is established that the high voltage and large filling factor of the solar elements with SnO{sub 2}: F films are caused by a lower diode saturation current density and series resistance due to the stability of the crystal structure and electrical properties of these films against chloride treatment of the base layer during device fabrication. At the same time, solar elements with an ITO front electrode exhibit a higher short-circuit current density due to the larger average light transmittance of the ITO layers. The use of nanoscale SnO{sub 2} layers in the ITO front contacts allows the efficiency of the CdS/CdTe-based solar elements to be enhanced to 11.4% on account of stabilization of the crystal structure and electrical properties of the ITO films and a possible reduction in the cadmium-sulphide-layer thickness without shunting the device structure.

  16. Argonne's SpEC Module | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SpEC Module Share Topic Energy Energy efficiency Vehicles

  17. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mthethwa, T.P.; Moloto, M.J.; De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P.

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: {yields} TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. {yields} The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. {yields} The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. {yields} Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the

  18. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, F.-G.; Holm, O.; Berger, W.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Clusters the Cell Adhesion Molecule CD44 and Assembles a Specific CD44-Ezrin Heterocomplex, as Revealed by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khajeh, Jahan Ali; Ju, Jeong Ho; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Stanley, Christopher B.; Do, Changwoo; Heller, William T.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Callaway, David J.E.; Bu, Zimei

    2015-01-08

    The cell adhesion molecule CD44 regulates diverse cellular functions, including cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, cell motility, migration, differentiation, and growth. In cells, CD44 co-localizes with the membrane-cytoskeleton adapter protein Ezrin, which links the CD44 assembled receptor signaling complexes to the cytoskeletal actin and organizes the spatial and temporal localization of signaling events. Here we report that the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 (CD44ct) is largely disordered and adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which prevents CD44ct from binding directly to activated Ezrin in solution. Binding to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphlate (PIP2) disrupts autoinhibition in CD44ct, and activates CD44ct to associate with Ezrin. Further, using contrast variation small angle neutron scattering, we show that PIP2 mediates the assembly of a specific hetero-tetramer complex of CD44ct with Ezrin. This study reveals a novel autoregulation mechanism in the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 and the role of PIP2 in mediating the assembly of multimeric CD44ct-Ezrin complexes. We hypothesize that polyvalent electrostatic interactions are responsible for the assembly of multimeric PIP2-CD44-Ezrin complexes.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Clusters the Cell Adhesion Molecule CD44 and Assembles a Specific CD44-Ezrin Heterocomplex, as Revealed by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khajeh, Jahan Ali; Ju, Jeong Ho; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Stanley, Christopher B.; Do, Changwoo; Heller, William T.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Callaway, David J.E.; Bu, Zimei

    2015-01-08

    The cell adhesion molecule CD44 regulates diverse cellular functions, including cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, cell motility, migration, differentiation, and growth. In cells, CD44 co-localizes with the membrane-cytoskeleton adapter protein Ezrin, which links the CD44 assembled receptor signaling complexes to the cytoskeletal actin and organizes the spatial and temporal localization of signaling events. Here we report that the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 (CD44ct) is largely disordered and adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which prevents CD44ct from binding directly to activated Ezrin in solution. Binding to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphlate (PIP2) disrupts autoinhibition in CD44ct, and activates CD44ct to associate with Ezrin.more » Further, using contrast variation small angle neutron scattering, we show that PIP2 mediates the assembly of a specific hetero-tetramer complex of CD44ct with Ezrin. This study reveals a novel autoregulation mechanism in the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 and the role of PIP2 in mediating the assembly of multimeric CD44ct-Ezrin complexes. We hypothesize that polyvalent electrostatic interactions are responsible for the assembly of multimeric PIP2-CD44-Ezrin complexes.« less

  1. Effects of Cu Diffusion from ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contacts on Carrier Lifetime of CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M. R.; Johnston, S.; Dhere, R. G.; Duda, A.

    2008-05-01

    We study the performance of CdS/CdTe thin film PV devices processed with a ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact to investigate how carrier lifetime in the CdTe layer is affected by Cu diffusion from the contact.

  2. Electrostatically actuatable light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    The electrostatically actuatable light modulator utilizes an opaque substrate plate patterned with an array of aperture cells, the cells comprised of physically positionable dielectric shutters and electrostatic actuators. With incorporation of a light source and a viewing screen, a projection display system is effected. Inclusion of a color filter array aligned with the aperture cells accomplishes a color display. The system is realized in terms of a silicon based manufacturing technology allowing fabrication of a high resolution capability in a physically small device which with the utilization of included magnification optics allows both large and small projection displays.

  3. CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy with a CdTe submonolayer stressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedova, I. V. Lyublinskaya, O. G.; Sorokin, S. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Toropov, A. A.; Donatini, F.; Dang, Si Le; Ivanov, S. V.

    2007-11-15

    A procedure for formation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in a ZnSe matrix is suggested. The procedure is based on the introduction of a CdTe submonolayer stressor deposited on the matrix surface just before deposition of the material of the QDs. (For CdTe/ZnSe structure, the relative lattice mismatch is {delta}a/a {approx} 14%.) The stressor forms small strained islands at the ZnSe surface, thus producing local fields of high elastic stresses controlling the process of the self-assembling of the QDs. According to the data of transmission electron microscopy, this procedure allows a considerable increase in the surface density of QDs, with a certain decrease in their lateral dimensions (down to 4.5 {+-} 1.5 nm). In the photoluminescence spectra, a noticeable ({approx}150 meV) shift of the peak to longer wavelengths from the position of the reference CdSe/ZnSe QD structure is observed. The shift is due to some transformation of the morphology of the QDs and an increase in the Cd content in the QDs. Comprehensive studies of the nanostructures by recording and analyzing the excitation spectra of photoluminescence, the time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, and the cathodoluminescence spectra show that the emission spectra involve two types of optical transitions, namely, the type-I transitions in the CdSeTe/ZnSe QDs and the type-II transitions caused mainly by the low cadmium content (Zn,Cd)(Se,Te)/ZnSe layer formed between the QDs.

  4. Highly Sensitive Electro-Optic Modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVore, Peter S

    2015-10-26

    There are very important diagnostic and communication applications that receive faint electrical signals to be transmitted over long distances for capture. Optical links reduce bandwidth and distance restrictions of metal transmission lines; however, such signals are only weakly imprinted onto the optical carrier, resulting in low fidelity transmission. Increasing signal fidelity often necessitates insertion of radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers before the electro-optic modulator, but (especially at high frequencies) RF amplification results in large irreversible distortions. We have investigated the feasibility of a Sensitive and Linear Modulation by Optical Nonlinearity (SALMON) modulator to supersede RF-amplified modulators. SALMON uses cross-phase modulation, a manifestation of the Kerr effect, to enhance the modulation depth of an RF-modulated optical wave. This ultrafast process has the potential to result in less irreversible distortions as compared to a RF-amplified modulator due to the broadband nature of the Kerr effect. Here, we prove that a SALMON modulator is a feasible alternative to an RFamplified modulator, by demonstrating a sensitivity enhancement factor greater than 20 and significantly reduced distortion.

  5. In-Line Thermoelectric Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    1998-07-28

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

  6. Smart Fan Modules And System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  7. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  8. Binary module test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

  9. Resetting the Defect Chemistry in CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, Wyatt K.; Burst, James; Albin, David; Colegrove, Eric; Moseley, John; Duenow, Joel; Farrell, Stuart; Moutinho, Helio; Reese, Matt; Johnston, Steve; Barnes, Teresa; Perkins, Craig; Guthrey, Harvey; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2015-06-14

    CdTe cell efficiencies have increased from 17% to 21% in the past three years and now rival polycrystalline Si [1]. Research is now targeting 25% to displace Si, attain costs less than 40 cents/W, and reach grid parity. Recent efficiency gains have come largely from greater photocurrent. There is still headroom to lower costs and improve performance by increasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor. Record-efficiency CdTe cells have been limited to Voc <; 880 mV, whereas GaAs can attain Voc of 1.10 V with a slightly smaller bandgap [2,3]. To overcome this barrier, we seek to understand and increase lifetime and carrier concentration in CdTe. In polycrystalline structures, lifetime can be limited by interface and grain-boundary recombination, and attaining high carrier concentration is complicated by morphology.

  10. Electrochemical solar cells using CdSe thin film electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xu-Rui; Tien, H.Ti.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical photocells consisting of a CdSe thin film anode and a Pt cathode immersed in 1M Na/sub 2/S-NaOH-S solution have been studied. CdSe thin films were formed on Ti, Cr, Mo, SnO/sub 2/, glassy carbon, and graphite substrates by coating an aqueous mixture of CdSe, ZnCl/sub 2/, and surfactant, subsequently sintering at 400/sup 0/-500/sup 0/C in air. The current-voltage (I-V) relations, output power efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and short-circuit current were measured. Seven percent power conversion efficiency was obtained at 20 mW/cm/sup 2/ light intensity after photoetching. The monochromatic I-V curves were analyzed.

  11. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  12. C.D. Howe Institute | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C.D. Howe Institute C.D. Howe Institute October 21, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Acting Deputy Secretary Kupfer Thank you very much. It's a pleasure to be here. I want to congratulate the C. D. Howe Institute on its 50th anniversary-a half century of thoughtful public policy debates on the issues of greatest interest and concern to the Canadian people. In our increasingly interconnected world-the dialogue you foster also helps to inform the larger global debate on these issues.

  13. An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Docherty, Callum J.; Stranks, Samuel D.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Joyce, Hannah J.; Herz, Laura M.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2014-05-28

    We demonstrate ultrafast modulation of terahertz radiation by unaligned optically pumped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Photoexcitation by an ultrafast optical pump pulse induces transient terahertz absorption in nanowires aligned parallel to the optical pump. By controlling the polarisation of the optical pump, we show that terahertz polarisation and modulation can be tuned, allowing sub-picosecond modulation of terahertz radiation. Such speeds suggest potential for semiconductor nanowire devices in terahertz communication technologies.

  14. Alternative Energy Sources - An Interdisciplinary Module for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Alternative Energy Sources - An ... Energy Basics, Wind Energy, Solar Summary Find activities focused on renewable energy ...

  15. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  16. Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Center - Presentation by Exergy Partners Corp., June 2011 Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center - ...

  17. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Outdoor Module Current...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of prototype concentrator modules and cells mounted in a 2-axis tracker; translation equations, stability and performance of concentrator Up to 10 samples at a time;...

  18. Electrochemically-Modulated Separation and Mass Spectrometric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrochemically-modulated separations (EMS) are a straightforward means of isolating and pre-concentrating elements for on-line mass spectrometric analysis. Elements are ...

  19. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L.; Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  20. Optical sensing based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckley, Steven G.; Gharavi, Mohammadreza; Borchers; Marco

    2011-06-28

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy measurements to optically monitor gas media such as gases in gas combustion chambers.

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: Support of International Photovoltaic Module...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This project supports the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's involvement in the Photovoltaic (PV) Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) to develop the international test ...

  2. Module Encapsulation Materials, Processing and Testing (Presentation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ENCAPSULATION; PROCESSING; RELIABILITY; TESTING PV; MODULE ENCAPSULATION; ...

  3. PV Cell and Module Calibrations at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, Keith

    2012-10-22

    NREL has equipment to measure any conceivable cell or module technology. The lack of standards for low concentration modules complicates matters. Spectrally adjustable simulators are critical for more than three junctions. NREL's 10-channel fiber optic simulator has shown that the light can be set for each junction within 1% of what it would be under the reference spectrum for up to a five-junction cell. Uncertainty in module simulators dominated by spatial nonuniformity for calibration labs. Manufacturers can mitigate this error by using matched reference modules instead of cells.

  4. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  5. Module 5- EVMS Concepts and Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module outlines the criteria needed for implementing Earned Value management, the basic Earned Value terminology, and the different methods used to calculate Earned Value.

  6. Photoluminescence study of the substitution of Cd by Zn during the growth by atomic layer epitaxy of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernndez-Caldern, I.; Salcedo-Reyes, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the substitution of Cd atoms by Zn atoms during the growth of alternate ZnSe and CdSe compound monolayers (ML) by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) as a function of substrate temperature. Samples contained two quantum wells (QWs), each one made of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers with total thickness of 12 ML but different growth parameters. The QWs were studied by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We show that the Cd content of underlying CdSe layers is affected by the exposure of the quantum well film to the Zn flux during the growth of ZnSe monolayers. The amount of Cd of the quantum well film decreases with higher exposures to the Zn flux. A brief discussion about the difficulties to grow the Zn{sub 0.5}Cd{sub 0.5}Se ordered alloy (CuAu-I type) by ALE is presented.

  7. Growth, steady-state, and time-resolved photoluminescence study of CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures on InSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiNezza, Michael J.; Liu, Shi; Kirk, Alexander P.; Zhang, Yong-Hang; School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 ; Zhao, Xin-Hao; School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287

    2013-11-04

    CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DHs) are grown on InSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy and reveal strong photoluminescence with over double the intensity of a GaAs/AlGaAs DH with an identical layer structure design grown on GaAs. Time-resolved photoluminescence of the CdTe/MgCdTe DH gives a Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime of 86 ns, which is more than one order of magnitude longer than that of typical polycrystalline CdTe films. These findings indicate that monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe DHs effectively reduce surface recombination, have limited nonradiative interface recombination, and are promising for solar cells that could reach power conversion efficiencies similar to that of GaAs.

  8. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  9. Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, T.

    2013-08-01

    NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.

  10. Seeded Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Nano-Heterostructures with Rod and Tetrapod Morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talapin, Dmitri; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Nelson, James H.; Shevchenko, Elena V.; Aloni, Shaul; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-08-09

    We have demonstrated that seeded growth of nanocrystals offers a convenient way to design nanoheterostructures with complex shapes and morphologies by changing the crystalline structure of the seed. By using Use nanocrystals with wurtzite and zinc blende structure as seeds for growth of US nanorods, we synthesized CdSe/CdS heterostructure nanorods and nanotetrapods, respectively. Both of these structures showed excellent luminescentproperties, combining high photoluminescence efficiency (similar to 80 and similar to 50percent for nanorods and nanotetrapods, correspondingly), giant extinction coefficients (similar to 2 x 10(7) and similar to 1.5 x 10(8) M-1 cm (-1) at 350 nm for nanorods and nanotetrapods, correspondingly), and efficient energy transfer from the US arms into the emitting CdSe Core.

  11. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorenko, Y. G. Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2015-10-28

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe.

  12. Strain-Dependent Photoluminescence Behavior of CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals with Spherical, Linear, and Branched Topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-08-13

    The photoluminescence of CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots, nanorods, and tetrapods is investigated as a function of applied hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure. The optoelectronic properties of all three nanocrystal morphologies are affected by strain. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the unique morphology of a tetrapod is highly sensitive to non-isotropic stress environments. Seeded tetrapods can thereby serve as an optical strain gauge, capable of measuring forces on the order of nanonewtons. We anticipate that a nanocrystal strain gauge with optical readout will be useful for applications ranging from sensitive optomechanical devices to investigations of biomechanical processes.

  13. CALIBRATION OF PHOTOELASTIC MODULATORS IN THE VACUUM UV.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OAKBERG, T.C.; TRUNK, J.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2000-02-15

    Measurements of circular dichroism (CD) in the UV and vacuum UV have used photoelastic modulators (PEMs) for high sensitivity (to about 10{sup -6}). While a simple technique for wavelength calibration of the PEMs has been used with good results, several features of these calibration curves have not been understood. The authors have calibrated a calcium fluoride PEM and a lithium fluoride PEM using the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a light source. These experiments showed calibration graphs that are linear bit do not pass through the graph origin. A second ''multiple pass'' experiment with laser light of a single wavelength, performed on the calcium fluoride PEM, demonstrates the linearity of the PEM electronics. This implies that the calibration behavior results from intrinsic physical properties of the PEM optical element material. An algorithm for generating calibration curves for calcium fluoride and lithium fluoride PEMs has been developed. The calibration curves for circular dichroism measurement for the two PEMs investigated in this study are given as examples.

  14. Initial results of the CD-1 reliable multicast experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, D.; Stead, R.; Coan, B.; Burns, J. E.; Shah, N.; Kyriakopoulos, N.

    2000-09-29

    During the past year, an experiment has been underway to test use of reliable multicast capabilities for transmission of continuous data in the Global Communication Infrastructure. For the experiment a version of the CD-1 protocol was multicast enabled. The experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of transmitting data in a multicast mode over the GCI. In the case of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty the sender could be the station and the receivers the International Data Center (IDC) and one or more National Data Centers (NDC). The potential advantages of multicasting include (a) the timely receipt of the data by the IDC and the host NDC and (b) the simultaneous availability of the raw station data at, at least, two locations. The latter, by introducing redundant data paths, decreases the probability of loss of station data due to a potential failure of a single data receiver. This experiment is only one element of a needed more thorough assessment of the reliability and cost-effectiveness of introducing redundancies in the data transmission paths and the data sinks of the IMS. The next stage of the multicast experiment planned is installation of the multicast-enabled CD-1 software at the GERES IMS station, at the German NDC and at the IDC for further experiments with actual IMS station data. This stage of the experiment is waiting on installation of a GCI link to the German NDC. Negotiations regarding price for this installation have been on going between the Global Communication Infrastructure (GCI) contractor and the German NDC with no resolution. Current development of the CD-x protocol is proceeding in two complementary directions. Along with the work on a multicast enabled version of CD-1 there is also work to develop CD-1.1, which will add end-to-end reliability to the CD-1 protocol among other things. A possible future activity would be to combine the reliable multicast and the end-to-end reliability mechanisms into one CD-x protocol version.

  15. Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

  16. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; ,

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  17. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  18. The effects of high temperature processing on the structural and optical properties of oxygenated CdS window layers in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Grice, Corey R.; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-07-28

    High efficiency CdTe solar cells typically use oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) window layers. We synthesize CdS:O window layers at room temperature (RT) and 270 °C using reactive sputtering. The band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at RT increase when O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios in the deposition chamber increase. On the other hand, the band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at 270 °C decrease as the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios increase. Interestingly, however, our high temperature closed-space sublimation (CSS) processed CdTe solar cells using CdS:O window layers deposited at RT and 270 °C exhibit very similar cell performance, including similar short-circuit current densities. To understand the underlying reasons, CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C are annealed at temperatures that simulate the CSS process of CdTe deposition. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy characterization of the annealed films reveals that the CdS:O films deposited at RT undergo grain regrowth and/or crystallization and exhibit reduced band gaps after the annealing. Our results suggest that CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C should exhibit similar optical properties after the deposition of CdTe layers, explaining the similar cell performance.

  19. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  20. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  1. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  2. Comparison of Module Performance Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KROPOSKI,B.; MARION,W.; KING,DAVID L.; BOYSON,WILLIAM EARL; KRATOCHVIL,JAY A.

    2000-10-03

    The rating and modeling of photovoltaic PW module performance has been of concern to manufacturers and system designers for over 20 years. Both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed methodologies to predict module and array performance under actual operating conditions. This paper compares the two methods of determining the performance of PV modules, The methods translate module performance to actual or reference conditions using slightly different approaches. The accuracy of both methods is compared for both hourly, daily, and annual energy production over a year of data recorded at NREL in Golden, CO. The comparison of the two methods will be presented for five different PV module technologies.

  3. McMullen Valley Water C&D Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    McMullen Valley Water C&D Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name: McMullen Valley Water C&D Dist Place: Arizona Phone Number: 99-928-859-3647 Website: www.harcuvarco.com Outage...

  4. Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe quantum dots for improved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe quantum dots for improved solar cell performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe ...

  5. Pressure-induced Phase Transition in Thiol-capped CdTe Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, F; Zaug, J; Young, C; Zhang, J Z

    2006-11-29

    Phase transitions for CdTe nanoparticles (NPs) under high pressure up to 37.0 GPa have been studied using fluorescence measurements. The phase transition from cinnarbar to rocksalt phase has been observed in CdTe NPs solution at 5.8 GPa, which is much higher than the phase transition pressure of bulk CdTe (3.8 GPa) and that of CdTe NPs in solid form (0.8 GPa). CdTe NPs solution therefore shows elevated phase transition pressure and enhanced stability against pressure compared with bulk CdTe and CdTe NPs in solid forms. The enhanced stability of CdTe NPs solution has been attributed to possible shape change in the phase transition and/or inhomogeneous strains in nanoparticle solutions.

  6. C-340 Complex D&D Final Lessons Learned (Post CD-4), Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C-340 Complex D&D Final Lessons Learned (Post CD-4), Environmental Management Cleanup, Sep 2011 C-340 Complex D&D Final Lessons Learned (Post CD-4), Environmental Management ...

  7. Super-Poissonian Statistics of Photon Emission from Single CdSe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Super-Poissonian Statistics of Photon Emission from Single CdSe-CdS Core-Shell Nanocrystals Coupled to Metal Nanostructures Authors: Park, Young-Shin ; Ghosh, Yagnaseni ; ...

  8. Current enhancement of CdTe-based solar cells (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Current enhancement of CdTe-based solar cells This content will become publicly available on July 30, 2016 Prev Next Title: Current enhancement of CdTe-based solar cells We ...

  9. Current enhancement of CdTe-based solar cells (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CdTe-based solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 30, 2016 Title: Current enhancement of CdTe-based solar cells We ...

  10. T-685: Cisco Warranty CD May Load Malware From a Remote Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Cisco Warranty CD May Load Malware From a Remote Site T-685: Cisco Warranty CD May Load Malware From a Remote Site August 5, 2011 - 3:26pm Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was...

  11. Module 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control Module 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control This module focuses on integrated baseline reviews (IBR) and change control. This module outlines the objective and responsibility of an integrated baseline review. Additionally, this module will discuss the change control process required for implementing earned value. Begin Module >> (418.59

  12. Fabrication and Physics of CdTe Devices by Sputtering: Final Report, 1 March 2005 - 30 November 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.; Collins, R.; Karpov, V.; Giolando, D.

    2009-04-01

    Work to understand CdS/CdTe solar cell device physics; increase magnetron sputtering rate (while keeping high device quality); reduce thickness of CdTe layers (while keeping voltage and fill factor).

  13. Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 1 (CD-1) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Template for briefing Critical Decisions to the ESAAB and/or PMRC July 2015 Template (6.63 MB) Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM Newsletter Forms and Templates More Documents & Publications Critical Decision 3 (CD-3) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template DOE Project Management Risk Committee (PMRC) SOP Critical Decision 0 (CD-0

  14. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  15. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  16. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J.

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  17. Optical and structural properties of sputtered CdS films for thin film solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Donguk; Park, Young; Kim, Minha; Choi, Youngkwan; Park, Yong Seob; Lee, Jaehyoeng

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Photo current–voltage curves (a) and the quantum efficiency (QE) (b) for the solar cell with CdS film grown at 300 °C. - Highlights: • CdS thin films were grown by a RF magnetron sputtering method. • Influence of growth temperature on the properties of CdS films was investigated. • At higher T{sub g}, the crystallinity of the films improved and the grains enlarged. • CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at 300 °C. - Abstract: CdS thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at various temperatures. The effects of growth temperature on crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. As the growth temperature was increased, the crystallinity of the sputtered CdS films was improved and the grains were enlarged. The characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell appeared to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature of the CdS films. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at a growth temperature of 300 °C.

  18. Cross-Sectional Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Effects of Etching and Back-Contact Processes; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C.-S.; Gessert, T. A.; Duda, A. M.; Young, M.; Metzger, W. K.; Li, X.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of the etching processes using bromine and nitric-phosphoric acid solutions, as well as of Cu, in the bulk electrical conductivity of CdTe/CdS solar cells using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). Although the etching process can create a conductive layer on the surface of the CdTe, the layer is very shallow. In contrast, the addition of a thin layer of Cu to the surface creates a conductive layer inside the CdTe that is not uniform in depth, is concentrated at grains boundaries, and may short circuit the device if the CdTe is too thin. The etching process facilitates the Cu diffusion and results in thicker conductive layers. The existence of this inhomogeneous conductive layer directly affects the current transport and is probably the reason for needing thick CdTe in these devices.

  19. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis ... a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. ...

  20. Intersubband absorption in CdSe/Zn{sub x}Cd{sub y}Mg{sub 1-x-y}Se self-assembled quantum dot multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, A.; Lu, H.; Charles, W.; Yokomizo, I.; Tamargo, M. C.; Franz, K. J.; Gmachl, C.; Zhang, S. K.; Zhou, X.; Alfano, R. R.; Liu, H. C.

    2007-02-12

    The authors report the observation of intersubband absorption in multilayers of CdSe/Zn{sub x}Cd{sub y}Mg{sub 1-x-y}Se self-assembled quantum dots. The samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates. For samples with the CdSe dot layers doped with Cl and with the deposited CdSe equivalent layer thickness between 5.2 and 6.9 ML, peak absorption between 2.5 and 3.5 {mu}m was observed. These materials are promising for intersubband devices operating in the mid- and near-infrared ranges.

  1. Manufacturing Process Optimization to Improve Stability, Yield and Efficiency of CdS/CdTe PV Devices: Final Report, December 2004 - January 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampath, W. S.; Enzenroth, A.; Barth, K.

    2009-03-01

    The research by Colorado State University advances the understanding of device stability, efficiency, and process yield for CdTe PV devices.

  2. Skew chicane based betatron eigenmode exchange module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David

    2010-12-28

    A skewed chicane eigenmode exchange module (SCEEM) that combines in a single beamline segment the separate functionalities of a skew quad eigenmode exchange module and a magnetic chicane. This module allows the exchange of independent betatron eigenmodes, alters electron beam orbit geometry, and provides longitudinal parameter control with dispersion management in a single beamline segment with stable betatron behavior. It thus reduces the spatial requirements for multiple beam dynamic functions, reduces required component counts and thus reduces costs, and allows the use of more compact accelerator configurations than prior art design methods.

  3. Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-03-25

    Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

  4. Ensuring Quality of PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Sample, T.; Yamamichi, M.; Kondo, M.; Doi, T.; Otani, K.; Amano, J.

    2011-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) customers need to have confidence in the PV modules they purchase. Currently, no test can quantify a module's lifetime with confidence, but stress tests are routinely used to differentiate PV product designs. We suggest that the industry would be strengthened by using the wisdom of the community to develop a single set of tests that will help customers quantify confidence in PV products. This paper evaluates the need for quality assurance (QA) standards and suggests a path for creating these. Two types of standards are needed: 1) QA of the module design and 2) QA of the manufacturing process.

  5. PROJECT PROFILE: Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module Power Output

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Higher temperatures of photovoltaic (PV) modules are causing lower than projected module performance. For example, a free-standing Si PV module has 0.4% decrease in efficiency per degree Celsius. Reducing the module temperature to near ambient levels will increase yearly energy output by 8%. This project will enable lower operating temperatures for modules, resulting in higher module power output and lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE).

  6. Hazardous waste site characterization (on cd-rom). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    Site characterization is one facet of hazardous waste site investigations. Environmental scientists and engineers within and outside the regulated community are becoming overwhelmed by the increasing number of guidance manuals, directives, documents and software products relating to the characterization of hazardous waste sites. People in the private sector, academia, and government are looking for convenient, definitive sources for this information. This CD-ROM combines into a single source a collection of useful references. The CD-ROM contains over 3,200 pages of EPA`s RCRA and Superfund Directives and Manuals that may be searched by key words or printed. It also contains a compilation of EPA-developed computer programs and documents to aid environmental professionals in the characterization of hazardous waste sites.

  7. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  8. Deformation potentials of CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-06-02

    The size dependent deformation potentials of CdSe quantum dots are studied by first principle and semi-empirical pseudopotentials calculations. They find that the amplitude of the quantum dot deformation potential is only slightly larger than the bulk value, and this increase is mostly caused by the off {Lambda} point deformation potentials in the bulk, which are larger in amplitude than the {Lambda} point deformation potential.

  9. Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-emission-factors-defo Cost: Free Language: English Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation Screenshot Logo: Module: Emission...

  10. DOE Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) Tutorial Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) Tutorial Modules Available DOE Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) Tutorial Modules Available April 7, 2016 - 2:48pm ...

  11. General Renewable Energy Technology Module | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Module Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: General Renewable Energy Technology Module AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy...

  12. APT Target-Blanket Module - Fabrication and Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: APT Target-Blanket Module - Fabrication and Characterization of Prototypical Assemblies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: APT Target-Blanket Module - ...

  13. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium ...

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - FinalModule7.ppt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control Prepared by: Module 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control 1 Prepared by: Booz Allen Hamilton Module 7: Integrated ...

  15. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression ...

  16. Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Researchers at the ... terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. ...

  17. V-043: Perl Locale::Maketext Module '_compile()' Multiple Code...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    V-043: Perl Locale::Maketext Module 'compile()' Multiple Code Injection Vulnerabilities ... Arbitrary Code and View Arbitrary Files V-002: EMC NetWorker Module for Microsoft ...

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: 2,816,911 Higher temperatures of photovoltaic (PV) modules are causing lower than projected module performance. ...

  19. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Preprint Timothy J. ... Partial shade stress test for thin-film photovoltaic modules Timothy J Silverman , ...

  20. Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for Rating System Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for ...

  1. NREL: Performance and Reliability R&D - PV Module Reliability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance Reliability R&D Photovoltaics Research Performance Reliability R and D Printable Version PV Module Reliability Workshop NREL hosts an annual Photovoltaic Module...

  2. Module 1 - Introduction to Earned Value | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and defines the framework necessary for proper Earned Value management implementation. ... Module 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control Module 8 - Reporting

  3. Module: Activity Data for Deforestation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-activity-data-defores Cost: Free Language: English Module: Activity Data for Deforestation Screenshot Logo: Module:...

  4. Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime and Degradation Science Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime and Degradation Science ...

  5. NREL: Performance and Reliability R&D - PV Module Reliability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV Module Reliability Workshop NREL hosts an annual Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) so that solar technology experts can share information leading to the ...

  6. Environmental awareness -- An interactive multimedia CD-ROM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntelmann, A.; Petruk, M.W.

    1998-07-01

    As corporations move to new and innovative ways of structuring high-performance work teams, effective training is being recognized as a key to insuring success. Time and scheduling constraints tend to limit the effectiveness of traditional approaches to training. This has led Edmonton Power Inc. to explore the use of CD-ROM based multimedia as a means of delivering individualized instruction in an effective and timely manner. This session will demonstrate a multimedia CD-ROM based course on Environmental Awareness designed for workers in the electrical utilities industry. The objective of the course is to make workers aware of their roles and responsibilities with respect to their impact on the environment. This session will also describe the instructional design strategy underlying this approach to training and will present some preliminary findings with respect to the effectiveness of this approach. Individuals who are interested in improving the effectiveness of their environmental training program as well as individuals who are interested in understanding the strengths of multimedia CD-ROM based training will find this session useful and informative.

  7. Cadmium sulfate and CdTe-quantum dots alter DNA repair in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Song; Cai, Qingsong; Chibli, Hicham; Allagadda, Vinay; Nadeau, Jay L.; Mayer, Gregory D.

    2013-10-15

    Increasing use of quantum dots (QDs) makes it necessary to evaluate their toxicological impacts on aquatic organisms, since their contamination of surface water is inevitable. This study compares the genotoxic effects of ionic Cd versus CdTe nanocrystals in zebrafish hepatocytes. After 24 h of CdSO{sub 4} or CdTe QD exposure, zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells showed a decreased number of viable cells, an accumulation of Cd, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and an induction of DNA strand breaks. Measured levels of stress defense and DNA repair genes were elevated in both cases. However, removal of bulky DNA adducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs. The adverse effects caused by acute exposure of CdTe QDs might be mediated through differing mechanisms than those resulting from ionic cadmium toxicity, and studying the effects of metallic components may be not enough to explain QD toxicities in aquatic organisms. - Highlights: Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs lead to cell death and Cd accumulation. Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce cellular ROS generation and DNA strand breaks. Both CdSO{sub 4} and CdTe QDs induce the expressions of stress defense and DNA repair genes. NER repair capacity was inhibited with CdSO{sub 4} but not with CdTe QDs.

  8. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  9. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-03-24

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste.

  10. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2012-08-07

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  11. DETECTOR FOR MODULATED AND UNMODULATED SIGNALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, H.H.; Webber, G.H.

    1959-08-25

    An r-f signal-detecting device is described, which is embodied in a compact coaxial circuit principally comprising a detecting crystal diode and a modulating crystal diode connected in parallel. Incoming modulated r-f signals are demodulated by the detecting crystal diode to furnish an audio input to an audio amplifier. The detecting diode will not, however, produce an audio signal from an unmodulated r-f signal. In order that unmodulated signals may be detected, such incoming signals have a locally produced audio signal superimposed on them at the modulating crystal diode and then the"induced or artificially modulated" signal is reflected toward the detecting diode which in the process of demodulation produces an audio signal for the audio amplifier.

  12. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2014-02-18

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  13. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2013-05-28

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  14. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2012-09-04

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures to be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  15. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2014-06-10

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  16. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  17. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  18. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  19. ZnMgO by APCVD Enabling High-Performance Mid-bandgap CIGS on Polyimide Modules: October 2009--October 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, L.

    2011-04-01

    This Pre-Incubator project was designed to increase the 'real world' CIGS based photovoltaic module performance and decrease the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of systems utilizing those modules compared to our traditional CIGS based photovoltaic modules. This was enabled by a) increasing the CIGS bandgap and b) developing better matched device finishing layers to the mid-bandgap CIGS based photovoltaics; including window and buffer layers (and eventually the TCO). Incremental progress in the novel device performance was demonstrated throughout the program, and ultimately achieved performance results that exceeded the milestones ahead of schedule. Metal-oxide buffer layer devices with mid-bandgap CIGS alloys on polyimide substrates were produced with efficiencies of over 12%. Corresponding mid-bandgap devices with CdS buffers produced over 13% efficient devices. Furthermore, no obvious degradation in the device performance has been observed to date, after proper storage ambient of the different types of unencapsulated devices were identified.

  20. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  1. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace067_goodson_2012_o.pdf (5.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  2. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace067_goodson_2011_o.pdf (1.89 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application

  3. Process of making solar cell module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  4. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study February 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other

  5. WUFI Basement Module | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WUFI Basement Module WUFI Basement Module WUFI is a menu-driven PC program which allows realistic calculation of the transient coupled one-dimensional heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components exposed to natural weather. Click the image to see an animated version of the software. WUFI is a menu-driven PC program which allows realistic calculation of the transient coupled one-dimensional heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components exposed to natural

  6. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  7. Nuclear modules of ITER tokamak systems code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Finn, P.; Hassanein, A.; Willms, S.; Barr, W.; Bushigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Haines, J.

    1987-10-01

    Nuclear modules were developed to model various reactor components in the ITER systems code. Several design options and cost algorithms are included for each component. The first wall, blanket and shield modules calculate the beryllium zone thickness, the disruptions results, the nuclear responses in different components including the toroidal field coils. Tungsten shield/water coolant/steel structure and steel shield/water coolant are the shield options for the inboard and outboard sections of the reactor. Lithium nitrate dissolved in the water coolant with a variable beryllium zone thickness in the outboard section of the reactor provides the tritium breeding capability. The reactor vault module defines the thickness of the reactor wall and the roof based on the dose equivalent during operation including skyshine contribution. The impurity control module provides the design parameters for the divertor including plate design, heat load, erosion rate, tritium permeation through the plate material to the coolant, plasma contamination by sputtered impurities, and plate lifetime. Several materials: Be, C, V, Mo, and W can be used for the divertor plate to cover a range of plasma edge temperatures. The tritium module calculates tritium and deuterium flow rates for the reactor plant. The tritium inventory in the fuelers, neutral beams, vacuum pumps, impurity control, first wall, and blanket is calculated. Tritium requirements are provided for different operating conditions. The nuclear models are summarized in this paper including the different design options and key analyses of each module. 39 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  9. Two high-field thermodynamically stable conductivity states in photoconductive CdS, one n-type and one p-type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Böer, Karl W.

    2015-08-28

    Photoconductive CdS is known to be n-type and develops high-field domains in the range of negative differential conductivities. These domains have been extensively discussed, and when remaining attached to the electrodes have been renamed Böer domains (a broader definition suggested earlier is misleading) [K. Thiessen, Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2775 (2011)]. They are occurring at high applied voltage in a range at which the current becomes highly non-ohmic that is conventionally described as N-shaped when the conductance decreases with increasing bias or as S-shaped when the current starts to increase again. In this paper only such cases will be discussed in which the current stays below significant Joule heating (no current channel formation), and only for stationary electrode-attached high-field domains. These are the cathode-attached domains that are maintained by field-quenching and are thermodynamically stable. Their finding is summarized in the first segment of this paper. When the applied voltage is increased, an anode-attached hyper-high-field domain develops that is stabilized by a hole blocking anode and will be analyzed in more detail below. It will be shown that they are a thermodynamically stable p-type photoconductive state of CdS. These two new states can be used to determine the carrier densities and mobilities as function of the field and the effective work function in dependence of the spectral distribution of the optical excitation. In a thin slab adjacent to a blocking cathode, the quasi-Fermi levels are spread to a precise amount and are kept there in the entire high-field region. This opens the opportunity to analyze with small modulation of the excitation the trap transition coefficients near these quasi-Fermi levels separately, without broadening interference from other signals. This has already resulted in the discovery of an unusually sharp electron quenching level when the CdS was in a p-type state with an anode adjacent domain. It is

  10. Chemically deposited CdS by an ammonia-free process for solar cells window layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochoa-Landin, R.; Sastre-Hernandez, J.; Vigil-Galan, O.; Ramirez-Bon, R.

    2010-02-15

    Chemically deposited CdS window layers were studied on two different transparent conductive substrates, namely indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO), to determine the influence of their properties on CdS/CdTe solar cells performance. Three types of CdS films obtained from different chemical bath deposition (CBD) processes were studied. The three CBD processes employed sodium citrate as the complexing agent in partial or full substitution of ammonia. The CdS films were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical transmission spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. CdS/CdTe devices were completed by depositing 3 {mu}m thick CdTe absorbent layers by means of the close-spaced vapor transport technique (CSVT). Evaporated Cu-Au was used as the back contact in all the solar cells. Dark and under illumination J-V characteristic and quantum efficiency measurements were done on the CdS/CdTe devices to determine their conversion efficiency and spectral response. The efficiency of the cells depended on the window layer and on the transparent contact with values between 5.7% and 8.7%. (author)

  11. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

    2012-05-25

    We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta₂O₅ film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta₂O₅ films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta₂O₅ interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta₂O₅ interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

  12. Single, stretched membrane, structural module experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes tests done on stretched-membrane heliostats used to reflect solar radiation onto a central receiver. The tests were used to validate prior analysis and mathematical models developed to describe module performance. The modules tested were three meters in diameter and had reflective polymer film laminated to the membrane. The frames were supported at three points equally spaced around the ring. Three modules were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended at the bottom support, two were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended from the upper mounts, and one was rigidly attached with its weight suspended at the bottom mount. By varying the membrane tension we could simulate a uniform wind loading normal to the mirror's surface. A video camera 15+ meters away from the mirror recorded the virtual image of a target grid as reflected by the mirrors' surface. The image was digitized and stored on a microcomputer. Using the law of reflection and analytic geometry, we computed the surface slopes of a sampling of points on the surface. The dominant module response was consistent with prior SERI analyses. The simple analytical model is quite adequate for designing and sizing single-membrane modules if the initial imperfections and their amplification are appropriately controlled. To avoid potential problems resulting from the fundamentally n = 2 deformation phenomena, we advise using either relatively stiffer ring frames or more than three support points.

  13. Three dimensional, multi-chip module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Petersen, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow "dummy chips" are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned o the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.

  14. Three dimensional, multi-chip module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Petersen, R.W.

    1993-08-31

    A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow dummy chips'' are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned on the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.

  15. Photovoltaic (PV) Module Level Remote Safety Disconnect - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Photovoltaic (PV) Module Level Remote Safety Disconnect National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Figure 1: System configuration of emergency module-level disconnect using module-level &lsquo;Isolation Detection Units&rsquo; (IDU).<br /> Figure 1: System configuration of emergency module-level disconnect using module-level 'Isolation Detection Units' (IDU). Technology Marketing Summary The ability to

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: From Modules to Atoms: Increasing Reliability...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The project will study reliability-related defects in major photovoltaic (PV) technologies that include silicon (Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium selenide ...

  17. First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ji -Hui; Yin, Wan -Jian; Park, Ji -Sang; Metzger, Wyatt; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-01-25

    In this study, Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance ptype doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu willmore » prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.« less

  18. Elastic and surface energies: Two key parameters for CdSe quantum dot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin, Ivan-Christophe; Andre, Regis; Bougerol, Catherine; Aichele, Thomas; Tatarenko, Serge

    2006-06-05

    The two-dimensional-three-dimensional transition of a strained CdSe layer on (001) ZnSe induced by the use of amorphous selenium is studied. To precisely control the thickness of the CdSe layer, atomic layer epitaxy growth mode is used. Atomic force microscopy and reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements reveal the formation of CdSe islands when 3 ML (monolayers) of CdSe, corresponding to the critical thickness, are deposited. When only 2.5 ML of CdSe are deposited another relaxation mechanism is observed, leading to the appearance of strong undulations on the surface. For a 3 ML thick CdSe layer, transmission electron microscopy images indicate that the formation of the islands occurs only after the amorphous selenium desorption.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe quantum dots for improved solar cell performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Qilin; Wang, Wenyong E-mail: jtang2@uwyo.edu; Tang, Jinke E-mail: jtang2@uwyo.edu; Sabio, Erwin M.

    2014-05-05

    In this work, we demonstrate (1) a facile method to prepare Mn doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} photoanodes by pulsed laser deposition and (2) improved device performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells of the Mn doped QDs (CdSe:Mn) compared to the undoped QDs (CdSe). The band diagram of photoanode Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and sensitizer CdSe:Mn QD is proposed based on the incident-photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) data. Mn-modified band structure leads to absorption at longer wavelengths than the undoped CdSe QDs, which is due to the exchange splitting of the CdSe:Mn conduction band by the Mn dopant. Three-fold increase in the IPCE efficiency has also been observed for the Mn doped samples.

  20. Development of Fuel Shuffling Module for PHISICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Mabe; Andrea Alfonsi; Cristian Rabiti; Aaron Epiney; Michael Lineberry

    2013-06-01

    PHISICS (Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for the INL Code System) [4] code toolkit has been in development at the Idaho National Laboratory. This package is intended to provide a modern analysis tool for reactor physics investigation. It is designed with the mindset to maximize accuracy for a given availability of computational resources and to give state of the art tools to the modern nuclear engineer. This is obtained by implementing several different algorithms and meshing approaches among which the user will be able to choose, in order to optimize his computational resources and accuracy needs. The software is completely modular in order to simplify the independent development of modules by different teams and future maintenance. The package is coupled with the thermo-hydraulic code RELAP5-3D [3]. In the following the structure of the different PHISICS modules is briefly recalled, focusing on the new shuffling module (SHUFFLE), object of this paper.

  1. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  2. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab; Vlahinos, Andreas; Bharathan, Desikan

    2007-03-13

    A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening in the plate. The assembly includes power modules mounted on the circuit substrate on a surface opposite the bonding layer. The power modules are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  3. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2008-09-02

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  4. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2009-02-24

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  5. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Grace , Li; Bo

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  6. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  7. License Structure for Multi-Module Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Hicks

    2010-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is intended to be the prototype for multi-module commercial high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) for process heat and/or electricity generation. Part of the objectives of the project are to establish the conditions that would govern or enhance the design, licensing, construction and operation of numerous, modular nuclear plants, particularly suited for industrial applications or that could reduce the risk of such projects. A determination is desired regarding whether a multi-module reactor plant can be licensed with a single Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review, hearing, and safety evaluation report. If it is determined that a multi-modular reactor plant can be licensed under a single review/hearing process, the structure and the duration of the license for each module will also need to be determined. The purpose of this paper is to describe for the NRC the NGNP position on these two issues and obtain either NRC general concurrence or comments on the approach to these issues. While the current NGNP planning provides for only a single reactor module, the project is intended to provide the basis and establish a licensing framework that can be used by future commercial HTGRs and other reactor designs, including a variety of small modular reactor technologies, with configurations reflecting design standardization of multi-module plants. Therefore, it is important to identify a path for addressing these modular reactor plant issues so that the resolution can be factored into the NGNP Project planning. The NGNP position is that a single combined license (COL) application can be submitted for a multi-modular reactor facility, the COL application can undergo a single NRC review/hearing process, and each module should be issued a separate license.

  8. Structural and compositional dependence of the CdTexSe1-x alloy layer photoactivity in CdTe-based solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Paudel, Naba; Ng, Amy; More, Karren; Leonard, Donovan; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-07-27

    The published external quantum efficiency data of the world-record CdTe solar cell suggests that the device uses bandgap engineering, most likely with a CdTexSe1₋x alloy layer to increase the short-circuit current and overall device efficiency. Here atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy and electron beam-induced current are used to clarify the dependence of Se content on the photoactive properties of CdTexSe1₋x alloy layers in bandgap-graded CdTe solar cells. Four solar cells were prepared with 50, 100, 200 and 400 nm-thick CdSe layers to reveal the formation, growth, composition, structure and photoactivity of the CdTexSe1₋x alloy with respect to the degreemore » of Se diffusion. Finally, the results show that the CdTexSe1₋x layer photoactivity is highly dependent on the crystalline structure of the alloy (zincblende versus wurtzite), which is also dependent on the Se and Te concentrations.« less

  9. High Efficiency Single Crystal CdTe Solar Cells: November 19, 2009 - January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, M.; Gilmore, A.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the program was to develop single crystal CdTe-based top cells grown on Si solar cells as a platform for the subsequent manufacture of high efficiency tandem cells for CPV applications. The keys to both the single junction and the tandem junction cell architectures are the ability to grow high quality single-crystal CdTe and CdZnTe layers on p-type Si substrates, to dope the CdTe and CdZnTe controllably, both n and p-type, and to make low resistance ohmic front and back contacts. EPIR demonstrated the consistent MBE growth of CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si having high crystalline quality despite very large lattice mismatches; epitaxial CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si consistently showed state-of-the-art electron mobilities and good hole mobilities; bulk minority carrier recombination lifetimes of unintentionally p-doped CdTe and CdZnTe grown by MBE on Si were demonstrated to be consistently of order 100 ns or longer; desired n- and p-doping levels were achieved; solar cell series specific resistances <10 ?-cm2 were achieved; A single-junction solar cell having a state-of-the-art value of Voc and a unverified 16.4% efficiency was fabricated from CdZnTe having a 1.80 eV bandgap, ideal for the top junction in a tandem cell with a Si bottom junction.

  10. Purification of CdZnTe by Electromigration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.; Kim, Sangsu; Hong, Jinki; Lee, Jinseo; Hong, Taekwon; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; James, R. B.

    2015-04-14

    Electro-migration of ionized/electrically active impurities in CdZnTe (CZT) was successfully demonstrated at elevated temperature with an electric field of 20 V/mm. Copper, which exists in positively charged states, electro-migrated at a speed of 15 lm/h in an electric field of 20 V/mm. A notable variation in impurity concentration along the growth direction with the segregation tendency of the impurities was observed in an electro-migrated CZT boule. Notably, both Ga and Fe, which exist in positively charged states, exhibited the opposite distribution to that of their segregation tendency in Cd(Zn)Te. Furthermore, a CZT detector fabricated from the middle portion of the electromigrated CZT boule showed an improved mobility-lifetime product of 0.91 10-2 cm2 /V, compared to that of 1.4 10-3 cm2 /V, observed in an as-grown (non-electro-migrated) CZT detector. The optimum radiation detector material would have minimum concentration of deep traps required for compensation.

  11. Optical phonons in PbTe/CdTe multilayer heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikova, N. N.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Kucherenko, I. V.; Karczewski, G.; Aleshchenko, Yu. A.; Muratov, A. V.; Zavaritskaya, T. N.; Melnik, N. N.

    2015-05-15

    The infrared reflection spectra of PbTe/CdTe multilayer nanostructures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are measured in the frequency range of 20–5000 cm{sup −1} at room temperature. The thicknesses and high-frequency dielectric constants of the PbTe and CdTe layers and the frequencies of the transverse optical (TO) phonons in these structures are determined from dispersion analysis of the spectra. It is found that the samples under study are characterized by two TO phonon frequencies, equal to 28 and 47 cm{sup −1}. The first frequency is close to that of TO phonons in bulk PbTe, and the second is assigned to the optical mode in structurally distorted interface layers. The Raman-scattering spectra upon excitation with the radiation of an Ar{sup +} laser at 514.5 nm are measured at room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The weak line at 106 cm{sup −1} observed in these spectra is attributed to longitudinal optical phonons in the interface layers.

  12. Purification of CdZnTe by Electromigration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, K.; Kim, Sangsu; Hong, Jinki; Lee, Jinseo; Hong, Taekwon; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; James, R. B.

    2015-04-14

    Electro-migration of ionized/electrically active impurities in CdZnTe (CZT) was successfully demonstrated at elevated temperature with an electric field of 20 V/mm. Copper, which exists in positively charged states, electro-migrated at a speed of 15 lm/h in an electric field of 20 V/mm. A notable variation in impurity concentration along the growth direction with the segregation tendency of the impurities was observed in an electro-migrated CZT boule. Notably, both Ga and Fe, which exist in positively charged states, exhibited the opposite distribution to that of their segregation tendency in Cd(Zn)Te. Furthermore, a CZT detector fabricated from the middle portion of themore » electromigrated CZT boule showed an improved mobility-lifetime product of 0.91 10-2 cm2 /V, compared to that of 1.4 10-3 cm2 /V, observed in an as-grown (non-electro-migrated) CZT detector. The optimum radiation detector material would have minimum concentration of deep traps required for compensation.« less

  13. Request for Information on Photovoltaic Module Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requests feedback from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on issues related to photovoltaic (PV) module recycling technology. SunShot intends to understand the current state of recycling technology and the areas of research that could lead to impactful recycling technologies to support the developing PV industry. The intent of this request for information is to generate discussion related to planning for the end of life of photovoltaic modules and to create a list of high impact research topics in photovoltaics recycling.

  14. Soliton dynamics in modulated Bessel photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruelas, Adrian; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Gutierrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2010-12-15

    We address the existence and the controlled stability of two-dimensional solitons in modulated Bessel lattices (MBL) induced by a superposition of nondiffracting Bessel beams. We show that variation of the modulation parameter of the lattice and the initial transverse momentum of the soliton significantly modify the behavior of the solitons. We find that, under suitable and well-identified conditions, solitons propagating in the MBL exhibit six regimes of transverse mobility: stationary, oscillatory, rotating, unbounded or escape, transitional, and unstable. These results report propagating solitons that can develop these dynamics of transverse motion.

  15. Ponderomotive Forces On Waves In Modulated Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodin, I.Y; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-28

    Nonlinear interactions of waves via instantaneous cross-phase modulation can be cast in the same way as ponderomotive wave-particle interactions in high-frequency electromagnetic fi eld. The ponderomotive effect arises when rays of a probe wave scatter off perturbations of the underlying medium produced by a second, modulation wave, much like charged particles scatter off a quasiperiodic field. Parallels with the point-particle dynamics, which itself is generalized by this theory, lead to new methods of wave manipulation, including asymmetric barriers for light.

  16. DOE CD-1/2/3a Review of the MINERvA Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CD-2 Documentation Detailed Resource Loaded Schedule Microsoft Project File (mpp) Gantt Chart (pdf) Critical Path (pdf) Costs Note: unless otherwise indicated, the costs in...

  17. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  18. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent and efficiency in CdTe solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cells The local collection characteristics of grain interiors and grain boundaries in thin film CdTe polycrystalline solar cells are investigated using scanning photocurrent...

  19. Critical Decision 2 (CD-2) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 2 (CD-2) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Critical Decision 2 (CD-2) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Template for briefing Critical Decisions to the ESAAB and/or PMRC July 2015 Template (526.5 KB) Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM Newsletter Forms and Templates More Documents & Publications Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template DOE Project Management Risk Committee (PMRC) SOP Critical Decision 2 (CD-2) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template CD-2,

  20. Critical Decision 3 (CD-3) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 3 (CD-3) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Critical Decision 3 (CD-3) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Template for briefing Critical Decisions to the ESAAB and/or PMRC July 2015 Template (2.97 MB) Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM Newsletter Forms and Templates More Documents & Publications Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Critical Decision 0 (CD-0) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template DOE Project Management Risk Committee (PMRC) SOP

  1. White luminescence from CdS nanocrystals under the blue light excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Xiaosong Li, Lan; Li, Mengzhen; Xu, Jianping; Hong, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Trap-rich CdS nanocrystals were synthesized by employing CdSt{sub 2} and sulfur as precursors via thermal decomposition. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize structure, morphology and luminescence properties of CdS nanocrystals (NCs). CdS NCs have a broad emission across 500–700 nm under the excitation of blue light with 460 nm, consequently, white light can be produced by mixing broad emission from CdS NCs excited by blue light, with the remaining blue light. In addition, the broad emission generation is closely and inseparably related to surface defects. Moreover, LaMer model was used to explain the phenomenon that the intensity of the trap emission gradually decreases as the reaction time increases in contrast with that of the band-edge emission. - Graphical abstract: Trap-rich CdS nanocrystals were synthesized. Furthermore, white light is produced by mixing broad emission across 500–700 nm from CdS NCs excited by blue light, in combination with the remaining blue light. - Highlights: • Trap-rich CdS nanocrystals were synthesized. • CdS NCs have a broad emission across 500–700 nm under the excitation of blue light. • White light can be produced by mixing broad emission with the remaining blue light.

  2. Characterization and Analysis of CIGS and CdTE Solar Cells: December 2004 - July 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here embodies a device-physics approach based on careful measurement and interpretation of data from CIGS and CdTe solar cells.

  3. Analysis of Surface Chemistry and Detector Performance of Chemically Process CdZnTe crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOSSAIN A.; Yang, G.; Sutton, J.; Zergaw, T.; Babalola, O. S.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda. ZG. S.; Gul, R.; Roy, U. N., and James, R. B.

    2015-10-05

    The goal is to produce non-conductive smooth surfaces for fabricating low-noise and high-efficiency CdZnTe devices.

  4. CYP2E1-dependent and leptin-mediated hepatic CD57 expression on CD8 + T cells aid progression of environment-linked nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Chanda, Anindya; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Michelotti, Gregory; Manautou, Jose; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Environmental toxins induce a novel CYP2E1/leptin signaling axis in liver. This in turn activates a poorly characterized innate immune response that contributes to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression. To identify the relevant subsets of T-lymphocytes in CYP2E1-dependent, environment-linked NASH, we utilized a model of diet induced obese (DIO) mice that are chronically exposed to bromodichloromethane. Mice deficient in CYP2E1, leptin (ob/ob mice), or both T and B cells (Pfp/Rag2 double knockout (KO) mice) were used to delineate the role of each of these factors in metabolic oxidative stress-induced T cell activation. Results revealed that elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, tyrosyl radical formation, mitochondrial tyrosine nitration and hepatic leptin as a consequence of metabolic oxidative stress caused increased levels of hepatic CD57, a marker of peripheral blood lymphocytes including NKT cells. CD8 + CD57 + cytotoxic T cells but not CD4 + CD57 + cells were significantly decreased in mice lacking CYP2E1 and leptin. There was a significant increase in the levels of T cell cytokines IL-2, IL-1?, and IFN-? in bromodichloromethane exposed DIO mice but not in mice that lacked CYP2E1, leptin or T and B cells. Apoptosis as evidenced by TUNEL assay and levels of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly lower in leptin and Pfp/Rag2 KO mice and highly correlated with protection from NASH. The results described above suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress-induced leptin mediated CD8 + CD57 + T cells play an important role in the development of NASH. It also provides a novel insight of immune dysregulation and may be a key biomarker in NASH. - Highlights: Metabolic oxidative stress caused increased levels of hepatic CD57 expression. CD8+ CD57+ cytotoxic T cells were decreased in mice lacking CYP2E1 and leptin. There was a significant increase in T cell cytokines in toxin-treated mice. Apoptosis was significantly lower in leptin and Pfp/Rag2 KO mice

  5. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  6. Highly Emissive Multiexcitons in Steady-State Photoluminescence of Individual Giant CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Htoon, Han; Malko, Anton V.; Bussian, David A.; Vela, Javier; Chen, Yongfen; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2010-06-01

    The development of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) with suppressed nonradiative Auger recombination has been an important goal in colloidal nanostructure research motivated by the needs of prospective applications in lasing devices, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells. Here, we conduct single-nanocrystal spectroscopic studies of recently developed core-shell NQDs (so-called giant NQDs) that comprise a small CdSe core surrounded by a 16-monolayer-thick CdS shell. Using both continuous-wave and pulsed excitation, we observe strong emission features due both to neutral and charged biexcitons, as well as multiexcitons of higher order. The development of pronounced multiexcitonic peaks in steady-state photoluminescence of individual nanocrystals, as well as continuous growth of the emission intensity in the range of high pump levels, point toward a significant suppression of nonradiative Auger decay that normally renders multiexcitons nonemissive. The unusually high multiexciton emission efficiencies in these systems open interesting opportunities for studies of multiexciton phenomena using well-established methods of single-dot spectroscopy, as well as new exciting prospects for applications, that have previously been hampered by nonradiative Auger decay.

  7. Light modulated electron beam driven radiofrequency emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1979-10-10

    The disclosure relates to a light modulated electron beam-driven radiofrequency emitter. Pulses of light impinge on a photoemissive device which generates an electron beam having the pulse characteristics of the light. The electron beam is accelerated through a radiofrequency resonator which produces radiofrequency emission in accordance with the electron, hence, the light pulses.

  8. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  9. Light modulated switches and radio frequency emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon T.; Tallerico, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a light modulated electron beam driven radiofrequency emitter. Pulses of light impinge on a photoemissive device which generates an electron beam having the pulse characteristics of the light. The electron beam is accelerated through a radiofrequency resonator which produces radiofrequency emission in accordance with the electron, hence, the light pulses.

  10. Dark-matter harmonics beyond annual modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu

    2013-11-01

    The count rate at dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. We show that higher-frequency modulations, including daily modulation, are also present and in some cases are nearly as strong as the annual modulation. These higher-order modes are particularly relevant if (i) the dark matter is light, O(10) GeV, (ii) the scattering is inelastic, or (iii) velocity substructure is present; for these cases, the higher-frequency modes are potentially observable at current and ton-scale detectors. We derive simple expressions for the harmonic modes as functions of the astrophysical and geophysical parameters describing the Earth's orbit, using an updated expression for the Earth's velocity that corrects a common error in the literature. For an isotropic halo velocity distribution, certain ratios of the modes are approximately constant as a function of nuclear recoil energy. Anisotropic distributions can also leave observable features in the harmonic spectrum. Consequently, the higher-order harmonic modes are a powerful tool for identifying a potential signal from interactions with the Galactic dark-matter halo.

  11. WRAP Module 1 waste characterization plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this document is to present the characterization methodology for waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility. The scope of this document includes all solid low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), mixed waste (MW), and dangerous waste. This document is not meant to be all-inclusive of the waste processed or generated within WRAP Module 1, but to present a methodology for characterization. As other streams are identified, the method of characterization will be consistent with the other streams identified in this plan. The WRAP Module 1 facility is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The facility`s function is two-fold. The first is to verify/characterize, treat and repackage contact handled (CH) waste currently in retrievable storage in the LLW Burial Grounds, Hanford Central Waste Complex, and the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF). The second is to verify newly generated CH TRU waste and LLW, including MW. The WRAP Module 1 facility provides NDE and NDA of the waste for both drums and boxes. The NDE is used to identify the physical contents of the waste containers to support waste characterization and processing, verification, or certification. The NDA results determine the radioactive content and distribution of the waste.

  12. Heat exchanger module for stirling engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darche, M. J. P.; Carlquist, S.

    1985-02-12

    The invention relates to Stirling engines and provides a modular assembly composed of a cylinder head, a heater, a regenerator, a cooler and a cold duct, and making it possible by mounting a plurality of identical modules on an engine assembly to construct a multi-cylinder double acting Stirling engine of the indirect heating type.

  13. Optical wavelength modulation in free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabe, R.M.; Wong, R.K.; Colson, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    An attribute of the free electron laser (FEL) is the continuous tunability of the optical wavelength by modulation of the electron beam energy. The variation of the wavelength and power of the optical beam is studied as a function of FEL operating parameters. These results will be applied to the Stanford SCA FEL and Boeing FEL.

  14. Dual modulation laser line-locking technique for wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bomse, David S.; Hovde, D. Christian; Silver, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for dual modulation of an optical spectroscopy laser. Demodulation is accomplished in a manner resulting in measurement of absorbance of a gas species, as well as stabilization of laser wavelength and baseline noise reduction.

  15. Ambient CdCl{sub 2} treatment on CdS buffer layer for improved performance of Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liang; Luo, Miao; Qin, Sikai; Liu, Xinsheng; Chen, Jie; Yang, Bo; Leng, Meiying; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2015-10-05

    Antimony selenide (Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) is appealing as a promising light absorber because of its intrinsically benign grain boundaries, suitable band gap (∼1.1 eV), strong absorption coefficient, and relatively environmentally friendly constituents. Recently, we achieved a certified 5.6% efficiency Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin film solar cell with the assistance of ambient CdCl{sub 2} treatment on the CdS buffer layer. Here, we focused on investigating the underlying mechanism from a combined materials and device physics perspective applying current density-voltage (J-V) fitting analysis, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence, and UV–Vis transmission spectroscopy. Our results indicated that ambient CdCl{sub 2} treatment on CdS film not only improved CdS grain size and quality, but also incorporated Cl and more O into the film, both of which can significantly improve the heterojunction quality and device performance of CdS/Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} solar cells.

  16. Ion-beam treatment to prepare surfaces of p-CdTe films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A.

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a p-CdTe layer and outer contact layers by ion beam processing comprising: a) placing a CdS/CdTe device into a chamber and evacuating the chamber; b) orienting the p-CdTe side of the CdS/CdTe layer so that it faces apparatus capable of generating Ar atoms and ions of preferred energy and directionality; c) introducing Ar and igniting the area of apparatus capable of generating Ar atoms and ions of preferred energy and directionality in a manner so that during ion exposure, the source-to-substrate distance is maintained such that it is less than the mean-free path or diffusion length of the Ar atoms and ions at the vacuum pressure; d) allowing exposure of the p-CdTe side of the device to said ion beam for a period less than about 5 minutes; and e) imparting movement to the substrate to control the real uniformity of the ion-beam exposure on the p-CdTe side of the device.

  17. Ligand-Mediated Modification of the Electronic Structure of CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jonathan R.; Whitley, Heather D.; Meulenberg, Robert W.; Wolcott, Abraham; Zhang, Jin Z.; Prendergast, Peter; Lovingood, Derek D.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Schwegler, Eric; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buuren, Tony W.

    2012-05-18

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio modeling of the experimental spectra have been used to investigate the effects of surface passivation on the unoccupied electronic states of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Significant differences are observed in the unoccupied electronic structure of the CdSe QDs, which are shown to arise from variations in specific ligand-surface bonding interactions.

  18. Oxygen Incorporation During Fabrication of Substrate CdTe Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Kuciauskas, D.; Li, J. V.; Pankow, J. W.; DeHart, C. M.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated in the nonstandard substrate configuration have attracted increasing interest because of their potential compatibility with flexible substrates such as metal foils and polymer films. This compatibility could lead to the suitability of CdTe for roll-to-roll processing and building-integrated PV. Currently, however, the efficiencies of substrate CdTe devices reported in the literature are significantly lower ({approx}6%-8%) than those of high-performance superstrate devices ({approx}17%) because of significantly lower open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). In our recent device development efforts, we have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. Here, we investigate how oxygen incorporation in the CdTe deposition, CdCl2 heat treatment, CdS deposition, and post-deposition heat treatment affect device characteristics through their effects on the junction. By adjusting whether oxygen is incorporated during these processing steps, we have achieved Voc values greater than 860 mV and efficiencies greater than 10%.

  19. Raising the Bar for Quality PV Modules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Raising the Bar for Quality PV Modules Raising the Bar for Quality PV Modules October 30, 2014 - 4:58pm Addthis As photovoltaics (PV) markets expand across the United States the...

  20. 70005 MODULE AT-- U-X ASSY - Sh

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 MODULE AT-- U-X ASSY MODULE U-X ASS'Y 1:10 1 6 RSF RSF RSF 70005 21607 - 21607 - - - INITIAL ISSUE - - WEIGHT: 3081 LBS FRONT (UPSTREAM SIDE) Parts List ITEM NO. QTY...

  1. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from ...

  2. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH ...

  3. Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Wednesday, 29 November 2006 00:00 Researchers at ...

  4. Module-Integrated Power Converters Based on Universal Dock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Patrick; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-03-13

    Solar power installations using alternating current photovoltaic (ACPV) modules have significant cost and performance advantages over systems using conventional solar modules and string inverters. ACPV modules have improved energy harvest due to module-level power point tracking and redundancy. More importantly, ACPV modules are easier and cheaper to install, lowering the total installed cost, indirect costs, and barriers to market entry. Furthermore, ACPV modules have communications and data logging capability, yielding module-level telemetry data that is useful in site diagnostics and other data applications. The products of these efforts were threefold. First, an advanced microinverter power topology was developed, modeled, simulated, and tested. Second, new microinverter enclosure concepts were developed and tested. Third, a new ACPV module prototype was constructed, combining the power topology and the enclosure concepts. SolarBridge filed for patents in each of these areas and is transitioning the project from a concept phase to full development.

  5. SolarBridge Technologies: Helping Solar Modules Speak the Language...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SolarBridge Technologies: Helping Solar Modules Speak the Language of the Energy Grid SolarBridge Technologies: Helping Solar Modules Speak the Language of the Energy Grid June 5, ...

  6. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  7. Method and apparatus of highly linear optical modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRose, Christopher; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-05-03

    In a new optical intensity modulator, a nonlinear change in refractive index is used to balance the nonlinearities in the optical transfer function in a way that leads to highly linear optical intensity modulation.

  8. Surface Plasmon Excitation via Au Nanoparticles in CdSe Semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Konda, R. B.; Mundle, R.; Mustafa, H.; Bamiduro, O.; Roy, U. N.; Cui, Y.; Burger, A.

    2008-10-23

    We present experimental evidence for the large Raman and photoluminescence enhancement in CdSe semiconductor films grown on Si and glass substrates due to excitation of surface plasmon resonances in proximate gold metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of CdSe film. Heterojunction diodes containing n-CdSe on p-Si semiconductor were fabricated and the surface of the diodes was in situ coated with Au nanoparticles using the ultra-high vacuum pulsed-laser deposition technique. A significant enhancement of the photocurrent was obtained in CdSe/p-Si containing Au nanoparticles on the surface compared to CdSe/p-Si due to the enhanced photo-absorption within the semiconductor by the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance. These observations suggest a variety of approaches for improving the performance of devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaic, and related devices, including biosensors.

  9. Charge transfer and mobility enhancement at CdO/SnTe heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishitani, Junichi; Yu, Kin Man; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2014-09-29

    We report a study of the effects of charge transfer on electrical properties of CdO/SnTe heterostructures. A series of structures with variable SnTe thicknesses were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Because of an extreme type III band offset with the valence band edge of SnTe located at 1.5?eV above the conduction band edge of CdO, a large charge transfer is expected at the interface of the CdO/SnTe heterostructure. The electrical properties of the heterostructures are analyzed using a multilayer charge transport model. The analysis indicates a large 4-fold enhancement of the CdO electron mobility at the interface with SnTe. The mobility enhancement is attributed to reduction of the charge center scattering through neutralization of the donor-like defects responsible for the Fermi level pinning at the CdO/SnTe interface.

  10. Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Younghun; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Seungju; Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-02

    CdTe thin films grown on bi-layer graphene were demonstrated by using the close-spaced sublimation method, where CdTe was selectively grown on the graphene. The density of the CdTe domains was increased with increasing the number of the defective sites in the graphene, which was controlled by the duration of UV exposure. The CdTe growth rate on the bi-layer graphene electrodes was 400?nm/min with a bandgap energy of 1.451.49?eV. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction technique were used to confirm the high quality of the CdTe thin films grown on the graphene electrodes.

  11. Module Embedded Microinverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy Module Embedded Microinverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System Module Embedded Microinverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System GE logo.png -- This project is inactive -- This project is developing and demonstrating a cost-reduction approach for an alternating-current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) module that is driven by innovations in microinverter design, module integration and packaging, and integration with a new intelligent

  12. Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Wednesday, 29 November 2006 00:00 Researchers at the ALS have demonstrated a new method to generate tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. Interaction of the ALS electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse as they co-propagate through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: Performance Models and Standards for Bifacial PV Module

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy Performance Models and Standards for Bifacial PV Module Technologies PROJECT PROFILE: Performance Models and Standards for Bifacial PV Module Technologies Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM Amount Awarded: $3,000,000 Bifacial PV modules absorb sunlight and produce electricity from both the front and back sides of the module and can take advantage of light reflected from a

  14. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013 Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013 February 26-27, 2013 The Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop was held in Golden, Colorado, on Feb. 26-27, 2013. The objective was to share information to improve PV module reliability because such improvements reduce the cost of solar electricity and give investors confidence in the technology. NREL led the workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy

  15. Code division multiple access signaling for modulated reflector technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briles, Scott D.

    2012-05-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing code division multiple access in modulated reflectance transmissions comprises the steps of generating a phase-modulated reflectance data bit stream; modifying the modulated reflectance data bit stream; providing the modified modulated reflectance data bit stream to a switch that connects an antenna to an infinite impedance in the event a "+1" is to be sent, or connects the antenna to ground in the event a "0" or a "-1" is to be sent.

  16. Multidimensional signal modulation and/or demodulation for data communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-03-04

    Systems and methods are described for multidimensional signal modulation and/or demodulation for data communications. A method includes modulating a carrier signal in a first domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread; modulating the carrier signal in a second domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread; and modulating the carrier signal in a third domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread.

  17. DOE Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) Tutorial Modules

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Available | Department of Energy DOE Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) Tutorial Modules Available DOE Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) Tutorial Modules Available April 7, 2016 - 2:48pm Addthis DOE Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) Tutorial Modules Available The DOE Technical Standards Policy & Procedures (TSPP) tutorial modules are intended to assist and outline the processes for initiating, developing, coordinating, and maintaining DOE

  18. Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Degradation Science | Department of Energy Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime and Degradation Science Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime and Degradation Science Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps2_casewestern_bruckman.pdf (6.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Literature Review of the Effects of UV Exposure on PV Modules Failure Rates from Certification Testing to UL

  19. Integrated Modules for Bioassay (IMBA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Modules for Bioassay (IMBA) Integrated Modules for Bioassay (IMBA) Current Central Registry Toolbox Version(s): IMBA ExpertTM USDOE Edition version 4.0.28 Code Owner: UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) Description: IMBA ExpertTM (IX) software suite comprises a series of independent modules (referred to as sub-modules) that implement the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66, Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) and the ICRP Publications 30 (series),

  20. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of hydrogenated chromium-doped CdO films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakhel, A.A.; Hamad, H.

    2013-12-15

    Cadmium oxide thin films doped with different amounts of chromium and annealed in hydrogen atmosphere have been grown on glass substrates by means of physical vapour deposition (PVD) method. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the prepared Cr-doped CdO (CdO:Cr–H) films were systematically studied. The structural investigations show that the incorporated Cr ions mainly occupied locations in interstitial positions of CdO lattice. The bandgap engineer by Cr incorporation and hydrogenation were studied. The variations of the electrical parameters of CdO:Cr–H films with Cr incorporation and hydrogenation were investigated. It was established that among the investigated samples, the largest mobility and conductivity were measured with 1.5%:Cr–H film. Therefore, hydrogenated CdO:Cr films can be effectively used in different applications of near infrared-transparent-conducting-oxide (NIR-TCO). - Graphical abstract: Optoelectronic properties of synthesised chromium-doped CdO thin films. It was established that the largest mobility (53.4 cm{sup 2}/V.s) and conductivity (2136.8 S/cm) were measured in 1.5%:Cr–H doped CdO film. Therefore, such films can be effectively used in near infrared-transparent-conducting-oxide (NIR-TCO). - Highlights: • The properties of CdO films annealed in H{sub 2} gas were systematically studied. • Cr{sup 3+} ions most likely occupied interstitial locations in CdO lattice and as donors. • Improvement of conductivity parameters with Cr doping and H annealing. • Bandgap narrowing observed with Cd-doping.

  1. Rolling in the modulated reheating scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Erickcek, Adrienne L. E-mail: takeshi@cita.utoronto.ca

    2014-01-01

    In the modulated reheating scenario, the field that drives inflation has a spatially varying decay rate, and the resulting inhomogeneous reheating process generates adiabatic perturbations. We examine the statistical properties of the density perturbations generated in this scenario. Unlike earlier analyses, we include the dynamics of the field that determines the inflaton decay rate. We show that the dynamics of this modulus field can significantly alter the amplitude of the power spectrum and the bispectrum, even if the modulus field has a simple potential and its effective mass is smaller than the Hubble rate. In some cases, the evolution of the modulus amplifies the non-Gaussianity of the perturbations to levels that are excluded by recent observations of the cosmic microwave background. Therefore, a proper treatment of the modulus dynamics is required to accurately calculate the statistical properties of the perturbations generated by modulated reheating.

  2. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  3. High-speed photonic modulator designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRose, Christopher; Zortman, William A

    2015-02-03

    An optical device includes a microdisk optical resonator element. The microdisk resonator element is formed on a substrate and has upper and lower portions respectively distal and proximal the substrate. An arcuate semiconductor contact region partially surrounds the microdisk resonator element. A first modulator electrode is centrally formed on the upper portion of the microdisk resonator element, and a second modulator electrode is formed on the arcuate contact region. A laminar semiconductor region smaller in thickness than the microdisk resonator element separates the arcuate contact region from the microdisk resonator element and is formed on the substrate so as to electrically connect the arcuate contact region to the lower portion of the microdisk resonator element.

  4. Results from the Second International Module Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rummel, S.; Anderberg, A.; Emery, K.

    2005-11-01

    The peak-watt rating is a primary indicator of PV performance. The peak power rating is the maximum electrical power that is produced when the PV device is continuously illuminated at 1000 Wm/sup-2/ total irradiance under International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 60904-2 reference spectrum, and 25 deg C cell temperature. Most manufacturers trace their peak-watt rating through calibrations performed at recognized terrestrial calibration facilities. Manufacturers typically perform intercomparisons among a set of their modules internally with other plants and among. Sometimes they have the same module measured at different calibration facilities to determine the differences in calibration. This intercomparison was to mimic this procedure and supply new thin film samples along with samples that could pose other problems. These intercomparisons sample the laboratories' everyday procedures better than a formal intercomparison where the laboratories' best procedures and data scrutiny are used.

  5. Hot gas cross flow filtering module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lippert, Thomas E.; Ciliberti, David F.

    1988-01-01

    A filter module for use in filtering particulates from a high temperature gas has a central gas duct and at least one horizontally extending support mount affixed to the duct. The support mount supports a filter element thereon and has a chamber therein, which communicates with an inner space of the duct through an opening in the wall of the duct, and which communicates with the clean gas face of the filter element. The filter element is secured to the support mount over an opening in the top wall of the support mount, with releasable securement provided to enable replacement of the filter element when desired. Ceramic springs may be used in connection with the filter module either to secure a filter element to a support mount or to prevent delamination of the filter element during blowback.

  6. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  7. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Global Activity Module Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the World Energy Projection Plus (WEPS ) Global Activity Module (GAM) used to develop the International Energy Outlook for 2013 (IEO2013). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code.

  8. Alternative Energy Sources -- An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education | Department of Energy - An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Alternative Energy Sources -- An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Find activities focused on renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. lesson302.pdf (735.79 KB) More Documents & Publications Alternative Energy Sources - An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Alternative Energy Sources

  9. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  10. Allosteric Modulation of DNA by Small Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Allosteric Modulation of DNA by Small Molecules Signals originating at the cell surface are conveyed by a complex system of interconnected signaling pathways to the nucleus. They converge at transcription factors, which in turn regulate the transcription of sets of genes that result in the gene expression. Many human diseases are caused by dysregulated gene expression and the oversupply of transcription factors may be required for the growth and metastatic behavior of human cancers. Cell

  11. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  12. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    www.eia.gov Joe Benneche July 31, 2012, Washington, DC Major assumption changes for AEO2013 Oil and Gas Working Group Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module DRAFT WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE Overview 2 Joe Benneche, Washington, DC, July 31, 2012 * Replace regional natural gas wellhead price projections with regional spot price projections * Pricing of natural gas vehicles fuels (CNG and LNG) * Methodology for modeling exports of LNG * Assumptions on charges related

  13. Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall; David R. , Fox; Joe

    2007-04-03

    A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

  14. Size and Temperature Dependence of Electron Transfer between CdSe Quantum Dots and a TiO 2 Nanobelt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tafen, De Nyago; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2015-02-24

    Understanding charge transfer reactions between quantum dots (QD) and metal oxides is fundamental for improving photocatalytic, photovoltaic and electronic devices. The complexity of these processes makes it difficult to find an optimum QD size with rapid charge injection and low recombination. We combine time-domain density functional theory with nonadiabatic molecular dynamics to investigate the size and temperature dependence of the experimentally studied electron transfer and charge recombination at CdSe QD-TiO2 nanobelt (NB) interfaces. The electron injection rate shows strong dependence on the QD size, increasing for small QDs. The rate exhibits Arrhenius temperature dependence, with the activation energy of themore » order of millielectronvolts. The charge recombination process occurs due to coupling of the electronic subsystem to vibrational modes of the TiO2 NB. Inelastic electron-phonon scattering happens on a picosecond time scale, with strong dependence on the QD size. Our simulations demonstrate that the electron-hole recombination rate decreases significantly as the QD size increases, in excellent agreement with experiments. The temperature dependence of the charge recombination rates can be successfully modeled within the framework of the Marcus theory through optimization of the electronic coupling and the reorganization energy. Our simulations indicate that by varying the QD size, one can modulate the photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination, fundamental aspects of the design principles for high efficiency devices.« less

  15. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab; Vlahinos, Andreas; Bharathan, Desikan

    2010-12-28

    A power module assembly (400) with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate (410) with passageways or openings (414) for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface (411) to an upper surface (412). A circuit substrate (420) is provided and positioned on the spreader plate (410) to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate (420) includes a bonding layer (422) configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer (422) may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface (412) of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening (414) in the plate. The assembly includes power modules (430) mounted on the circuit substrate (420) on a surface opposite the bonding layer (422). The power modules (430) are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  16. Designed TPR Modules as Novel Anticancer Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortajarena,A.; Yi, F.; Regan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Molecules specifically designed to modulate protein-protein interactions have tremendous potential as novel therapeutic agents. One important anticancer target is the chaperone Hsp90, whose activity is essential for the folding of many oncogenic proteins, including HER2, IGFIR, AKT, RAF-1, and FLT-3. Here we report the design and characterization of new tetratricopeptide repeat modules, which bind to the C-terminus of Hsp90 with higher affinity and with greater specificity than natural Hsp90-binding co-chaperones. Thus, when these modules are introduced into the cell, they out-compete endogenous co-chaperones for binding, thereby inhibiting Hsp90 function. The effect of Hsp90 inhibition in this fashion is dramatic; HER2 levels are substantially decreased and BT474 HER2 positive breast cancer cells are killed. Our designs thus provide new tools with which to dissect the mechanism of Hsp90-mediated protein folding and also open the door to the development of an entirely new class of anticancer agents.

  17. Solar module having reflector between cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kardauskas, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic module comprising an array of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells disposed in a planar and mutually spaced relationship between a light-transparent front cover member in sheet form and a back sheet structure is provided with a novel light-reflecting means disposed between adjacent cells for reflecting light falling in the areas between cells back toward said transparent cover member for further internal reflection onto the solar cells. The light-reflecting comprises a flexible plastic film that has been embossed so as to have a plurality of small V-shaped grooves in its front surface, and a thin light-reflecting coating on said front surface, the portions of said coating along the sides of said grooves forming light-reflecting facets, said grooves being formed so that said facets will reflect light impinging thereon back into said transparent cover sheet with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to said solar modules, thereby increasing the current output of the module.

  18. Determination of Thermoelectric Module Efficiency A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; McCarty, Robin; Salvador, James R.; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Konig, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of thermoelectrics (TE) for energy conversion is in the transition phase from laboratory research to device development. There is an increasing demand to accurately determine the module efficiency, especially for the power generation mode. For many thermoelectrics, the figure of merit, ZT, of the material sometimes cannot be fully realized at the device level. Reliable efficiency testing of thermoelectric modules is important to assess the device ZT and provide the end-users with realistic values on how much power can be generated under specific conditions. We conducted a general survey of efficiency testing devices and their performance. The results indicated the lack of industry standards and test procedures. This study included a commercial test system and several laboratory systems. Most systems are based on the heat flow meter method and some are based on the Harman method. They are usually reproducible in evaluating thermoelectric modules. However, cross-checking among different systems often showed large errors that are likely caused by unaccounted heat loss and thermal resistance. Efficiency testing is an important area for the thermoelectric community to focus on. A follow-up international standardization effort is planned.

  19. Development of an Outdoor Concentrating Photovoltaic Module Testbed, Module Handling and Testing Procedures, and Initial Energy Production Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the various aspects of setting up a CPV testbed and procedures for handling and testing CPV modules.

  20. scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script In some cases a script needs to load modules before the script can be executed, but it can often be inconvenient or impossible to provide wrapper scripts which load the needed modules. CGI scripts on the gpweb resources or in the NERSC portal environment which require the genepool-specific python/perl/R or databases configuration modules are a strong example of this. NERSC provides the

  1. Hail Impact Testing on Crystalline Si Modules with Flexible Packaging |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hail Impact Testing on Crystalline Si Modules with Flexible Packaging Hail Impact Testing on Crystalline Si Modules with Flexible Packaging Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps2_westpak_brown.pdf (785.64 KB) More Documents & Publications Test Procedure for UV Weathering Resistance of Backsheet The Acceleration of Degradation by HAST and Air-HAST in c-Si PV Modules Improved Reliability of PV Modules with

  2. Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

  3. Preparation and properties of evaporated CdTe films compared with single crystal CdTe. Progress report No. 2, February 1-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bube, R H

    1981-01-01

    The design, construction and testing of the hot-wall vacuum evaporation system is proceeding on schedule. The vacuum system, a Varian 3118 diffusion pump system, has been installed and tested. A calculation of the optimum possible efficiency for an n-p CdTe homojunction indicates a value of 14%. A complete background is given on the growth of over fifty CdTe single crystals at Stanford, the last four of which were grown as part of this program. Use of crystal regrowth and vibration during growth both increase crystal quality. Higher electrical activity of phosphorus acceptors in CdTe is achieved when 0.1% excess Te is used in place of 0.5% excess Te. Careful characterization of boules grown for this program are underway, using Hall effect or capacitance-voltage data on selected samples. Initial investigation of the properties of grain boundaries in p-type CdTe : P crystals indicates a grain boundary height of 0.44 eV unaffected by illumination. These results suggest that grain boundaries are more strongly pinned in p-type than in n-type CdTe.

  4. CdWO{sub 4} polymorphs: Selective preparation, electronic structures, and photocatalytic activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Tingjiang; Li, Liping; Tong, Wenming; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yunjian; Li, Guangshe

    2011-02-15

    This work explored the selective synthesis of polymorphs of CdWO{sub 4} in either tetragonal or monoclinic phase by optimizing the experimental parameters. Systematic characterization indicated that both polymorphs possessed similar spherical morphologies but different structural building blocks. Electronic structures calculations for both polymorphs demonstrated the same constructions of conduction band or valence band, while the conduction band widths of both polymorphs were quite different. Both CdWO{sub 4} polymorphs exhibited good photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation. When comparing to some other well-known tungstate oxide materials, the photocatalytic activity was found to follow such a consequence, monoclinic CdWO{sub 4{approx}}monoclinic ZnWO{sub 4}>tetragonal CdWO{sub 4}>tetragonal CaWO{sub 4}. The specific photocatalytic activity of monoclinic CdWO{sub 4} was even higher than that of commercial TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst (Degussa P25). The increased activity from the tetragonal CdWO{sub 4} to the monoclinic was consistent with the trend of the decreased symmetry, and this could be explained in terms of the geometric structures and electronic structures for both polymorphs. -- Graphical abstract: Monoclinic CdWO{sub 4} exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity than the tetragonal form owing to the lower symmetry, more distorted geometric structure, and the dispersive band configuration. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Polymorphs of CdWO{sub 4} in either tetragonal or monoclinic phase were selectively synthesized. > Both polymorphs possessed similar spherical morphologies, while the relevant structural building blocks were different. > Photocatalytic activities of CdWO{sub 4} polymorphs depended strongly on the symmetry, geometric structure, as well as band configuration.

  5. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles for photocatalytic application of methyleneblue degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthuraj, V.; Umadevi, M.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Kajamuhideen, M. S.

    2014-04-24

    CdS nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of cadmium acetate with thiourea in the presence and absence of methylene blue dye (MB). The nanoparticles were characterized by, XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis. XRD study shows the presence of hexagonal phase for the nanoparticles whereas in case of the bulk samples only the hexagonal phase is observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed a strong interaction of methyl groups with CdS nanoparticles. The degradation of methylene blue was analysed using UV-Vis absorbance spectrum. Thus the results authenticate that methylene blue dye influences the structural and optical properties of the CdS nanoparticles.

  6. An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Jing; Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q.; Sun, X. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; Lei, W.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.

    2009-04-13

    In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

  7. PVP capped CdS nanoparticles for UV-LED applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram, H.; Selvakumar, D.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-24

    Polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the nanoparticles are crystallized in cubic phase. The optical properties are characterized by UV-Vis absorption. The morphology of CdS nanoparticles are studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The thermal behavior of the as prepared nanoparticles has been examined by Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical absorption study of pvp capped CdS reveal a red shift confirms the UV-LED applications.

  8. CdTe portfolio offers commercial ready high efficiency solar - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search CdTe portfolio offers commercial ready high efficiency solar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication MktgSummary CdTe.pdf (117 KB) Schematic illustration of a typical CdTe superstrate thin-film PV device. In this design, the layers of the device are deposited onto a glass &quot;superstrate&quot; that allows sunlight to enter. The sunlight passes through the

  9. Chapter 1.19: Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Thin Film: CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews the history, development, and present processes used to fabricate thin-film, CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) devices. It is intended for readers who are generally familiar with the operation and material aspects of PV devices but desire a deeper understanding of the process sequences used in CdTe PV technology. The discussion identifies why certain processes may have commercial production advantages and how the various process steps can interact with each other to affect device performance and reliability. The chapter concludes with a discussion of considerations of large-area CdTe PV deployment including issues related to material availability and energy-payback time.

  10. Graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cell and its enhancement with photo-induced doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Shisheng Chen, Hongsheng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shengjiao; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian

    2015-11-09

    We report a type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure, which can be improved by surface engineering as graphene is atomic thin. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the power conversion efficiency is increased from 2.08% to 3.10%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by field effect transport, Raman, photoluminescence, and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a feasible way of improving the performance of graphene/semiconductor heterostructure solar cells by combining one dimensional with two dimensional materials.

  11. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R.

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  12. HERA BEAM TAIL SHAPING BY TUNE MODULATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.

    2003-05-19

    To study CP violation, the HEM-B experiment uses an internal wire target in the transverse halo of the stored HERA proton beam. Operational experience shows that the resulting interaction rates are extremely sensitive to tiny orbit jitter amplitudes. Various methods have been studied to stabilize these interaction rates by increasing diffusion in the transverse proton beam tails without affecting the luminosity at the electron-proton collider experiments ZEUS and H1. Tune modulation was found to be a promising method for this task. Experiments performed in recent years will be reported.

  13. Processing incommensurately modulated protein diffraction data with Eval15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porta, Jason [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Lovelace, Jeffrey J. [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Borgstahl, Gloria E. O., E-mail: gborgstahl@unmc.edu [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Data processing of an incommensurately modulated profilinactin crystal is described. Recent challenges in biological X-ray crystallography include the processing of modulated diffraction data. A modulated crystal has lost its three-dimensional translational symmetry but retains long-range order that can be restored by refining a periodic modulation function. The presence of a crystal modulation is indicated by an X-ray diffraction pattern with periodic main reflections flanked by off-lattice satellite reflections. While the periodic main reflections can easily be indexed using three reciprocal-lattice vectors a*, b*, c*, the satellite reflections have a non-integral relationship to the main lattice and require a q vector for indexing. While methods for the processing of diffraction intensities from modulated small-molecule crystals are well developed, they have not been applied in protein crystallography. A recipe is presented here for processing incommensurately modulated data from a macromolecular crystal using the Eval program suite. The diffraction data are from an incommensurately modulated crystal of profilinactin with single-order satellites parallel to b*. The steps taken in this report can be used as a guide for protein crystallographers when encountering crystal modulations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the processing of data from an incommensurately modulated macromolecular crystal.

  14. SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF A MASSIVE cD GALAXY AT z = 1.096: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EARLY FORMATION AND LATE EVOLUTION OF cD GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, F. S.; Guo Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Yesuf, Hassen; Faber, S. M.; Cheung, Edmond; Cassata, P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Mao, Shude; Xia, X. Y.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We have made a serendipitous discovery of a massive ({approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) cD galaxy at z = 1.096 in a candidate-rich cluster in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) area of GOODS-South. This brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) is the most distant cD galaxy confirmed to date. Ultra-deep HST/WFC3 images reveal an extended envelope starting from {approx}10 kpc and reaching {approx}70 kpc in radius along the semimajor axis. The spectral energy distributions indicate that both its inner component and outer envelope are composed of an old, passively evolving (specific star formation rate <10{sup -4} Gyr{sup -1}) stellar population. The cD galaxy lies on the same mass-size relation as the bulk of quiescent galaxies at similar redshifts. The cD galaxy has a higher stellar mass surface density ({approx}M{sub *}/R{sub 50}{sup 2}) but a similar velocity dispersion ({approx}{radical}(M{sub *}/R{sub 50})) to those of more massive, nearby cDs. If the cD galaxy is one of the progenitors of today's more massive cDs, its size (R{sub 50}) and stellar mass have had to increase on average by factors of 3.4 {+-} 1.1 and 3.3 {+-} 1.3 over the past {approx}8 Gyr, respectively. Such increases in size and stellar mass without being accompanied by significant increases in velocity dispersion are consistent with evolutionary scenarios driven by both major and minor dissipationless (dry) mergers. If such cD envelopes originate from dry mergers, our discovery of even one example proves that some BCGs entered the dry merger phase at epochs earlier than z = 1. Our data match theoretical models which predict that the continuance of dry mergers at z < 1 can result in structures similar to those of massive cD galaxies seen today. Moreover, our discovery is a surprise given that the extreme depth of the HUDF is essential to reveal such an extended cD envelope at z > 1 and, yet, the HUDF covers only a minuscule region of sky ({approx}3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8

  15. Preparation and characterization of Chitosan/Konjac glucomannan/CdS nanocomposite film with low infrared emissivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Zhou, Yu-Ming; Sun, Yan-qing; Chen, Jing; Ye, Xiao-yun; Huang, Jing-yi

    2010-07-15

    Novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite films were prepared with Chitosan (CS), Konjac glucomannan (KGM) and CdS by one-step synthesis. As-prepared films were characterized by IR spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared emissometer (IR). The results indicated that grown CdS dendrites were formed with reaction time of 12 h for Cd{sup 2+} and CS/KGM, and were well dispersed in CS/KGM with an average diameter of 40 nm. The CS/KGM/CdS nanocomposite films had significantly low infrared emissivity. When the mole ratio of CdS to summation of CS and KGM construction units was 1.0 with CdS size of 10-20 nm, the film got the lowest infrared emissivity value of 0.011, which could be attributed to the strong synergism effect existing between CS/KGM and CdS dendrites.

  16. Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 Authors: Booth, C H ; Bauer, E D ; Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2014-06-12 OSTI Identifier: ...

  17. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay; Agarwal, Avinash

    2015-05-15

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag{sub 2}O or Ag{sub 2}S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration.

  18. Computational identification of single-layer CdO for electronic and optical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Hennig, Richard G., E-mail: rhennig@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-11-18

    The search for single-layer materials is an active research field. Using a first-principles design approach focusing on formation energy and bandgap, we search the family of II-VI oxides for metastable single-layer semiconductor materials. We discover a single-layer CdO phase that exhibits a small formation energy and a direct bandgap of 2.1?eV. The phonon spectrum confirms the dynamical stability of single-layer CdO. Calculations of the optical properties show a similar absorption to that of graphene. Estimates of the tunneling barrier of a graphene/CdO/graphene heterostructure reveal that CdO might be a potential dielectric for applications of graphene in electronic devices.

  19. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity κ value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of κ of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to κ, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric powermore » factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.« less

  20. Atomic-force microscopy and photoluminescence of nanostructured CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babentsov, V.; Sizov, F.; Franc, J.; Luchenko, A.; Svezhentsova, E. Tsybrii, Z.

    2013-09-15

    Low-dimensional CdTe nanorods with a diameter of 10-30 nm and a high aspect ratio that reaches 100 are studied. The nanorods are grown by the physical vapor transport method with the use of Bi precipitates on the substrates. In addition, thin films of closely packed CdTe nanorods with the transverse dimensions {approx}(100-200) nm are grown. Atomic-force microscopy shows that the cross sections of all of the nanorods were hexagonally shaped. By photoluminescence measurements, the inference about the wurtzite structure of CdTe is supported, and the structural quality, electron-phonon coupling, and defects are analyzed. On the basis of recent ab initio calculations, the nature of defects responsible for the formation of deep levels in the CdTe layers and bulk crystals are analyzed.

  1. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity κ value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of κ of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to κ, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric power factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.

  2. EMBODY(Environmental Modules Build System Software)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-02-09

    Embody (Environment Modules Build) is a software build tool with integrated support for the environment-modules package. The tool eases and automates the task of building and installing software packages from source or binary distributions, as well as the management of associated modulefiles. An administrator or software pool maintainer has to write a brief script for the installation process. These steps are usually described for manual execution, in a package's README or INSTALL file. It wouldmore » be up to the site administrator to work out a procedure to capture the steps taken. This tool: streamlines and codifies the installation tasks in a common framework; it provides a self-documenting and unified way for maintaining package installations; uses bash shell variables and functions for portability; keeps log files of the proceedings. It is similar in intent and function to other existing tools, such as RPM, but has several novel features tailored for High Performance Computing (HPC) software deployments. The design goal is simplicity and decoupling from RPM's dependencies and its database, which enables coexistence of several builds. Useful on HPC systems, new builds can be deployed centrally to shared file systems and without affecting running jobs.« less

  3. NREL Collaboration Boosts Potential for CdTe Solar Cells - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Collaboration Boosts Potential for CdTe Solar Cells February 29, 2016 A critical milestone has been reached in cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cell technology, helping pave the way for solar energy to directly compete with electricity generated by conventional energy sources. Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with researchers at Washington State University and the University of Tennessee to improve the maximum voltage

  4. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  5. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti; Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2?-, 3?-cyclic-nucleotide-3?-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase. The retina

  6. Targeting CD9 produces stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects predominantly in activated endothelial cells during angiogenesis: A novel antiangiogenic therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamisasanuki, Taro; Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 ; Tokushige, Saori; Terasaki, Hiroto; Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 ; Khai, Ngin Cin; Wang, Yuqing; Sakamoto, Taiji; Kosai, Ken-ichiro

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} CD9 plays stimulus-independent roles in angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression is effective in an angiogenic disease model. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression predominantly affects activated endothelial cells. {yields} CD9 is involved in endothelial cell proliferation, but not survival. {yields} CD9 is part of angiogenic machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. -- Abstract: The precise roles of tetraspanin CD9 are unclear. Here we show that CD9 plays a stimulus-independent role in angiogenesis and that inhibiting CD9 expression or function is a potential antiangiogenic therapy. Knocking down CD9 expression significantly inhibited in vitro endothelial cell migration and invasion induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Injecting CD9-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA-CD9) markedly inhibited HGF- or VEGF-induced subconjunctival angiogenesis in vivo. Both results revealed potent and stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects of targeting CD9. Furthermore, intravitreous injections of siRNA-CD9 or anti-CD9 antibodies were therapeutically effective for laser-induced retinal and choroidal neovascularization in mice, a representative ocular angiogenic disease model. In terms of the mechanism, growth factor receptor and downstream signaling activation were not affected, whereas abnormal localization of integrins and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed during angiogenesis, by knocking down CD9 expression. Notably, knocking down CD9 expression did not induce death and mildly inhibited proliferation of quiescent endothelial cells under conditions without an angiogenic stimulus. Thus, CD9 does not directly affect growth factor-induced signal transduction, which is required in angiogenesis and normal vasculature, but is part of the angiogenesis machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In conclusion, targeting CD9 produced stimulus

  7. Synthesis of uniform CdS nanowires in high yield and its single nanowire electrical property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Shancheng; Sun Litao; Qu Peng; Huang Ninping; Song Yinchen; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-10-15

    Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. Field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the CdS nanowires have diameter of about 26 nm and length up to several micrometres. High resolution TEM (HRTEM) study indicates the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The optical properties of the products were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra. The resistivity, electron concentration and electron mobility of single NW are calculated by fitting the symmetric I-V curves measured on single NW by the metal-semiconductor-metal model based on thermionic field emission theory. - Graphical abstract: Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. The reaction time is reduced to 2 h, comparing to other synthesis which needed long reaction time up to 12 h. In addition, the as-prepared CdS nanowires have more uniform diameter and high yield. More importantly, the I-V curve of present single CdS nanowire has a good symmetric characteristic as expected by the theory.

  8. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Yang, Ping; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2011-11-17

    The structural and electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots in toluene and drop-casted on Si wafer were investigated by in-situ micro X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy. The in-situ micro diffraction data show that the CdSe quantum dots capped with TOPO or hexadecylamine (HDA) in toluene exhibit predominantly wurtzite crystal structure, which undergoes a phase transformation to zinc blende crystal structure following drop casting on Si and this phase transition increases with decreasing the size of the CdSe quantum dots. Decreasing the size of quantum dots also increases the Se vacancies that facilitate the phase transformation. The X-ray photoelectron spectra show a systematic increase in the core level binding energies of Cd 3d and Se 3d, the band gap and the Cd/Se ratio as the size of the quantum dots decreases from 6.6nm to 2.1nm. This is attributed to the quantum confinement of CdSe crystallites by the capping ligands in toluene which increases with decreasing the size of the quantum dots. However, drop-casting quantum dots on Si alter the density and arrangement of capping ligands and solvent molecules on the quantum dots which causes significant phase transformation.

  9. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2} compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, N.; Liu, R.; Bai, S.; Shi, X. Chen, L.

    2014-04-28

    CuIn{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te{sub 2} materials (x?=?0, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1) are prepared using melting-annealing method and the highly densified bulk samples are obtained through Spark Plasma Sintering. The X-ray diffraction data confirm that nearly pure chalcopyrite structures are obtained in all the samples. Due to the substitution of Cd at In sites, the carrier concentration is greatly increased, leading to much enhanced electrical conductivity and power factor. The single parabolic band model is used to describe the electrical transport properties of CuInTe{sub 2} and the low temperature Hall mobility is also modeled. By combing theoretical model and experiment data, the optimum carrier concentration in CuInTe{sub 2} is proposed to explain the greatly enhanced power factors in the Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2}. In addition, the thermal conductivity is reduced by extra phonon scattering due to the atomic mass and radius fluctuations between Cd and In atoms. The maximum zTs are observed in CuIn{sub 0.98}Cd{sub 0.02}Te{sub 2} and CuIn{sub 0.9}Cd{sub 0.1}Te{sub 2} samples, which are improved by over 100% at room temperature and around 20% at 600?K.

  10. Scalable economic extracellular synthesis of CdS nanostructured particles by a non-pathogenic thermophile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Ji Won; Ivanov, Ilia N; Duty, Chad E; Love, Lonnie J; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Wang, Wei; Li, Dr. Yi-Liang; Madden, Andrew; Mosher, Jennifer J; Hu, Michael Z.; Suresh, Anil K; Rawn, Claudia J; Jung, Hyunsung; Lauf, Robert J; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    We report microbially facilitated synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanostructured particles (NP) using anaerobic, metal-reducing Thermoanaerobacter sp. The extracellular CdS crystallites were <10 nm in size with yields of ~3 g/L of growth medium/month with demonstrated reproducibility and scalability up to 24 L. During synthesis, Thermoanaerobacter cultures reduced thiosulfate and sulfite salts to H2S, which reacted with Cd2+ cations to produce thermodynamically favored NP in a single step at 65oC with catalytic nucleation on the cell surfaces. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of dry CdS NP revealed an exciton-dominated PL peak at 440 nm, having a narrow full width at half maximum of 10 nm. A PL spectrum of CdS NP produced by dissimilatory sulfur reducing bacteria was dominated by features associated with radiative exciton relaxation at the surface. High reproducibility of CdS NP PL features important for scale-up conditions was confirmed from test tubes to 24L batches at a small fraction of the manufacturing cost associated with conventional inorganic NP production processes.

  11. Support arrangement for core modules of nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1987-01-01

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  12. Support arrangements for core modules of nuclear reactors. [PWR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1983-11-03

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  13. A solar module fabrication process for HALE solar electric UAVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, P.G.; Aceves, R.C.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.; Sinton, R.A.; Glenn, G.S.

    1994-12-12

    We describe a fabrication process used to manufacture high power-to-weight-ratio flexible solar array modules for use on high-altitude-long-endurance (HALE) solar-electric unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). These modules have achieved power-to-weight ratios of 315 and 396 W/kg for 150{mu}m-thick monofacial and 110{mu}m-thick bifacial silicon solar cells, respectively. These calculations reflect average module efficiencies of 15.3% (150{mu}m) and 14.7% (110{mu}m) obtained from electrical tests performed by Spectrolab, Inc. under AMO global conditions at 25{degrees}C, and include weight contributions from all module components (solar cells, lamination material, bypass diodes, interconnect wires, and adhesive tape used to attach the modules to the wing). The fabrication, testing, and performance of 32 m{sup 2} of these modules will be described.

  14. Design specifications for manufacturability of MCM-C multichip modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, C.; Blazek, R.; Desch, J.; Elarton, J.; Kautz, D.; Markley, D.; Morgenstern, H.; Stewart, R.; Warner, L.

    1995-06-01

    The scope of this document is to establish design guidelines for electronic circuitry packaged as multichip modules of the ceramic substrate variety, although many of these guidelines are applicable to other types of multichip modules. The guidelines begin with prerequisite information which must be developed between customer and designer of the multichip module. The core of the guidelines focuses on the many considerations that must be addressed during the multichip module design. The guidelines conclude with the resulting deliverables from the design which satisfy customer requirements and/or support the multichip module fabrication and testing processes. Considerable supporting information, checklists, and design constraints are captured in specific appendices and used as reference information in the main body text. Finally some real examples of multichip module design are presented.

  15. Detection of lateral composition modulation by magnetoexciton spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.D.; Millunchick, J.M.; Follstaedt, D.; Lee, S.; Reno, J.; Twesten, R.D.; Zhang, Y.; Mascerenhas, A.

    1997-07-10

    An experimental signature for detecting spontaneous lateral composition modulation in a (InAs){sub n}/(GaAs){sub m} short period superlattice on an InP substrate based on magnetoexciton spectroscopy described. The authors find by aligning the magnetic field in three crystallographic directions, one parallel to and the other two perpendicular to the composition modulation direction, that the magnetoexciton shifts are anisotropic and are a good indicator for the presence of composition modulation.

  16. Integrated Microinverters for Enabling True ACPV Modules | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Integrated Microinverters for Enabling True ACPV Modules Integrated Microinverters for Enabling True ACPV Modules solarbridge logo2.jpg -- This project is inactive -- This project, led by SolarBridge Technologies, is developing an innovative alternating-current photovoltaic (ACPV) module that consists of an integrated "Universal PV-Dock" and a high-reliability, low-cost, high-efficiency microinverter to substantially reduce balance of system (BOS) costs in residential and

  17. Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Researchers at the ALS have demonstrated a new method to generate tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. Interaction of the ALS electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse as they co-propagate through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration as the laser pulse. This causes a

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Cell and Module Performance Characterization | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Cell and Module Performance Characterization PROJECT PROFILE: Cell and Module Performance Characterization Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $9,000,000 The project supports the cell and module measurement lab at NREL, which provides the only recognized, accredited efficiency measurements in the U.S. for the photovoltaic (PV) industry, and provides direct support to all SunShot

  19. PROJECT PROFILE: Support of International Photovoltaic Module Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) | Department of Energy Support of International Photovoltaic Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) PROJECT PROFILE: Support of International Photovoltaic Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $10,055,000 This project supports the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's involvement in the Photovoltaic (PV) Module

  20. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.