National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for modular helium reactor

  1. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  2. Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor Fuel Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, D

    2002-12-02

    This document contains the workscope, schedule and cost for the technology development tasks needed to satisfy the fuel and fission product transport Design Data Needs (DDNs) for the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), operating in its role of transmuting transuranic (TRU) nuclides in spent fuel discharged from commercial light-water reactors (LWRs). In its application for transmutation, the GT-MHR is referred to as the Deep-Burn MHR (DB-MHR). This Fuel Development Plan (FDP) describes part of the overall program being undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), utilities, and industry to evaluate the use of the GT-MHR to transmute transuranic nuclides from spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Development Plan (FDP) includes the work on fuel necessary to support the design and licensing of the DB-MHR. The FDP is organized into ten sections. Section 1 provides a summary of the most important features of the plan, including cost and schedule information. Section 2 describes the DB-MHR concept, the features of its fuel and the plan to develop coated particle fuel for transmutation. Section 3 describes the knowledge base for fabrication of coated particles, the experience with irradiation performance of coated particle fuels, the database for fission product transport in HTGR cores, and describes test data and calculations for the performance of coated particle fuel while in a repository. Section 4 presents the fuel performance requirements in terms of as-manufactured quality and performance of the fuel coatings under irradiation and accident conditions. These requirements are provisional because the design of the DB-MHR is in an early stage. However, the requirements are presented in this preliminary form to guide the initial work on the fuel development. Section 4 also presents limits on the irradiation conditions to which the coated particle fuel can be subjected for the core design. These limits are based on past irradiation experience. Section 5 describes the Design Data Needs to: (1) fabricate the coated particle fuel, (2) predict its performance in the reactor core, (3) predict the radionuclide release rates from the reactor core, and (4) predict the performance of spent fuel in a geological repository. The heart of this fuel development plan is Section 6, which describes the development activities proposed to satisfy the DDNs presented in Section 5. The development scope is divided into Fuel Process Development, Fuel Materials Development, Fission Product Transport, and Spent Fuel Disposal. Section 7 describes the facilities to be used. Generally, this program will utilize existing facilities. While some facilities will need to be modified, there is no requirement for major new facilities. Section 8 states the Quality Assurance requirements that will be applied to the development activities. Section 9 presents detailed costs organized by WBS and spread over time. Section 10 presents a list of the types of deliverables that will be prepared in each of the WBS elements. Four Appendices contain supplementary information on: (a) design data needs, (b) the interface with the separations plant, (c) the detailed development schedule, and (d) the detailed cost estimate.

  3. Design of an Alternative Coolant Inlet Flow Configuaration for the Modular Helium Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SM Mohsin Reza; E. A. Harvego; Matt Richards; Arkal Shenoy; Kenneth Lee Peddicord

    2006-06-01

    The coolant outlet temperature for the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) was increased to improve the overall efficiency of nuclear hydrogen production using either thermochemical or high temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. The inlet temperature was also increased to keep about the same _T across the reactor core. Thermal hydraulic analyses of the current MHR design were performed with these updated temperatures to determine the impact of these highter temperatures on pressure drops, coolant flow rates and temperature profiles within the vessel and core regions. Due to these increased operating temperatures, the overall efficiency of hydrogen production processes increases but the steady state reactor vessel temperature is found to be well above the ASME code limits for current vessel materials. Using the RELAP5-3D/ATHENA computer code, an alternative configuration for the MHR coolant inlet flow path was evaluated in an attempt to reduce the reactor vessel temperatures. The coolant inlet flow was shifted from channel boxes located in the annular region between the reactor core barrel and the inner wall of the reactor vessel to a flow path through the outer permanent reflector. Considering the available thickness of graphite in the permanent outer reflector, the total flow area, the number of coolant holes and the coolant-hole diameter were varied to optimize the pressure drop, the coolant inlet velocity and the percentage of graphite removed from the core. The resulting thermal hydraulic analyses of the optimized design showed that peak vessel and fuel temperatures were within acceptable limits for both steady-state and transient operating conditions.

  4. SRS Small Modular Reactors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-05-21

    The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

  5. Assessment of passive decay heat removal in the General Atomics Modular Helium Reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocheme, Francois Guilhem

    2005-02-17

    /ATHENA. The MHR is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It is a prismatic core concept for New Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Very few reactors of that kind have been designed in the past. Furthermore, the MHR is supposed to be a highly passively safe concept...

  6. Modularity of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor for use by the commercial power industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanlon-Hyssong, Jaime E

    2008-01-01

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor is a small high temperature helium cooled reactor that is being considered for both electric power and hydrogen production. Pebble bed reactors are being developed in South Africa, China and ...

  7. Modularity Approach Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NED MPBR 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Turbine Hall Boundary Admin Training Control Bldg. · No Reprocessing · High Burnup >90,000 Mwd/MT · Direct Disposal of HLW · Process Heat Applications - Hydrogen · On--line Refueling #12;4/23/03 MIT NED MPBR Reference Plant Modular Pebble Bed Reactor Thermal Power

  8. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR.

  9. Energy Department Announces Small Modular Reactor Technology...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    today three public-private partnerships to develop deployment plans for small modular nuclear reactor (SMR) technologies at SRS facilities, near Aiken, South Carolina. As part...

  10. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview purposes and is a sampling of advanced SMR concepts, which will be considered as part of the current DOE SMR program but whose estimated deployment time is beyond CAP’s current investment time horizon. Attachment I is the public DOE statement describing the present approach of their SMR Program.

  11. Computational Analysis of Fluid Flow in Pebble Bed Modular Reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhir, Akshay

    2012-10-19

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a Generation IV reactor under consideration by Department of Energy and in the nuclear industry. There are two categories of HTGRs, namely, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and Prismatic reactor. Pebble...

  12. Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment.

  13. Small modular reactors (SMRs) such...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ARO), using soluble boron in the coolant for reactivity control. Conversely, boiling water reactors (BWRs) typically maneuver their control blades as often as every 2 GWdmtU...

  14. Small Modular Reactors (468th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, Robert

    2011-04-20

    With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

  15. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  16. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gougar, Hans D.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  17. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  18. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  19. Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor N A 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE INL developed a bench-scale, modular hybrid plasma system for gas-phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system...

  20. Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patent Search Success Stories News Events Find More Like This Return to Search Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods United States Patent Patent Number:...

  1. Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories News Events Return to Search Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods United States Patent Application ***...

  2. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  3. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

    1986-01-01

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  4. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, V.

    1984-06-13

    This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

  5. Small modular reactors (SMRs) such as the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performed Steven D. PainSmall modular reactors

  6. ASSESSMENT OF SMALL AND MODULAR REACTOR NUCLEAR FUEL COST 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pannier, Christopher 1992-

    2012-05-03

    INCAS INtegrated model for the Competitiveness Analysis of Small modular reactors LWR Light Water Reactor NEI Nuclear Energy Institute PWR Pressurized Water Reactor PHWR Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor SEMER Système d’Évaluation et de Modélisation... ...................................................... 27 8 LWR Fuel Cost ..................................................................................................... 28 9 SMR Fuel Cost ..................................................................................................... 29...

  7. Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-06-01

    Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

  8. Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polidoro, F.; Parozzi, F.; Fassnacht, F.; Kuett, M.; Englert, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO{sub 2} core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. In the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core.

  9. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation. Advanced fuel materials and fabrication costs have large uncertainties based on complexities of operation, such as contact-handled fuel fabrication versus remote handling, or commodity availability. Thus, this analytical work makes a good faith effort to quantify uncertainties and provide qualifiers, caveats, and explanations for the sources of these uncertainties. The overall result is that this work assembles the necessary information and establishes the foundation for future analyses using more precise data as nuclear technology advances.

  10. Evaluation of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, A.G.; Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. In this study, small coconut charcoal granules were utilized as the sorbent, and braze alloys and low temperature curing cements were used as the bonding agents for attachment to a copper support structure. Problems of scale-up of the bonding agent to a 40 cm diam panel were also investigated. Our results indicate that acceptable helium pumping performance of braze bonded and cement bonded charcoals can be achieved over the range of operating conditions expected in fusion reactors.

  11. Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

    2012-01-27

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

  12. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the analysis shows that the propagation of error method introduces essentially negligible error, especially when compared to the uncertainty associated with some of the estimates themselves. The results of these uncertainty analyses generally quantify and identify the sources of uncertainty in the overall cost estimation. The obvious generalization—that capital cost uncertainty is the main driver—can be shown to be an accurate generalization for the current state of reactor cost analysis. However, the detailed analysis on a component-by-component basis helps to demonstrate which components would benefit most from research and development to decrease the uncertainty, as well as which components would benefit from research and development to decrease the absolute cost.

  13. Development of a system model for advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a system model that can be used to analyze three advance small modular reactor (SMR) designs through their lifetime. Neutronics of these reactor designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX/6). The system models were developed in Matlab and Simulink. A major thrust of this research was the initial scoping analysis of Sandia's concept of a long-life fast reactor (LLFR). The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional light water reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs (e.g. high temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). The system model has subroutines for lifetime reactor feedback and operation calculations, thermal hydraulic effects, load demand changes and a simplified SCO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion.

  14. Hybrid energy systems (HESs) using small modular reactors (SMRs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bragg-Sitton

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, small modular reactors (SMRs) offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal ap plications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources.

  15. MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR PROJECT UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    includes the development of a fission gas release model, particle temperature distributions, internal conceptual design for a gas-cooled, modular, pebble bed reactor. Key technology areas associated particle pressure, migration of fission products, and chemical attack of fuel particle layers. · A balance

  16. Health Monitoring to Support Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) are based on advanced reactor concepts, some of which were promoted by the Generation IV International Forum, and are being considered for diverse missions including desalination of water, production of hydrogen, etc. While the existing fleet of commercial nuclear reactors provides baseload electricity, it is conceivable that aSMRs could be implemented for both baseload and load following applications. The effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on plant operations and maintenance (O&M) is not fully understood and limiting these costs will be essential to successful deployment of aSMRs. Integrated health monitoring concepts are proposed to support the safe and affordable operation of aSMRs over their lifetime by enabling management of significant in-vessel and in-containment active and passive components.

  17. Modular Pebble Bed Reactor March 22, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;"Naturally" Safe Fuel · Shut Off All Cooling · Withdraw All Control Rods · No Emergency Cooling · No Operator · No melt down · No significant radiation release in accident · Demonstrate with actual test of reactor #12

  18. Prismatic modular reactor analysis with melcor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen, Ni

    2009-05-15

    core reactor, was simulated with the complete model. MELCOR has been demonstrated to have the ability of modeling a prismatic core VHTR. The calculated outlet temperature and mass flow rate under normal operation correspond well to references. However...

  19. Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    For 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR · Modularity Design · Intermediate Heat Exchanger Design · Core Power Distribution Monitoring · Pebble Flow Burnup >90,000 Mwd/MT · Direct Disposal of HLW · Process Heat Applications - Hydrogen, water #12;Turbine

  20. On Enhancing Risk Monitors for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) can contribute to safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy production. However, the economics of AdvSMRs suffer from the loss of economy-of-scale for both construction and operation. The controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. These expenses could potentially be managed through optimized scheduling of O&M activities for components, reactor modules, power blocks, and the full plant. Accurate, real-time risk assessment with integrated health monitoring of key active components can support scheduling of both online and offline inspection and maintenance activities.

  1. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P.F. Peterson

    2010-09-20

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using factory prefabricated structural modules, for application to external event shell and base isolated structures.

  2. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

  3. Investigating the educational effectiveness of a science museum exhibit on small modular fusion reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batie, Margo Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Most people are unaware of the tremendous potential fusion reactors and smaller, more modular reactors possess. To inform them, a science exhibit was.constructed to investigate whether or not it would more effectively teach ...

  4. Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, C.L.,Jr.; Roberts, M.; Bull, N.D.; Holcomb, D.E.; Wood, R.T.

    2012-09-15

    Temperature is a key process variable at any nuclear power plant (NPP). The harsh reactor environment causes all sensor properties to drift over time. At the higher temperatures of advanced NPPs the drift occurs more rapidly. The allowable reactor operating temperature must be reduced by the amount of the potential measurement error to assure adequate margin to material damage. Johnson noise is a fundamental expression of temperature and as such is immune to drift in a sensor’s physical condition. In and near the core, only Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) and radiation pyrometry offer the possibility for long-term, high-accuracy temperature measurement due to their fundamental natures. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) place a higher value on long-term stability in their temperature measurements in that they produce less power per reactor core and thus cannot afford as much instrument recalibration labor as their larger brethren. The purpose of the current ORNL-led project, conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced SMR Research and Development (R&D) program, is to develop and demonstrate a drift free Johnson noise-based thermometer suitable for deployment near core in advanced SMR plants.

  5. Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton Jr, Charles L; Roberts, Michael; Bull, Nora D; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Temperature is a key process variable at any nuclear power plant (NPP). The harsh reactor environment causes all sensor properties to drift over time. At the higher temperatures of advanced NPPs the drift occurs more rapidly. The allowable reactor operating temperature must be reduced by the amount of the potential measurement error to assure adequate margin to material damage. Johnson noise is a fundamental expression of temperature and as such is immune to drift in a sensor s physical condition. In and near core, only Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) and radiation pyrometry offer the possibility for long-term, high-accuracy temperature measurement due to their fundamental natures. Small, Modular Reactors (SMRs) place a higher value on long-term stability in their temperature measurements in that they produce less power per reactor core and thus cannot afford as much instrument recalibration labor as their larger brethren. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a drift free Johnson noise-based thermometer suitable for deployment near core in advanced SMR plants.

  6. Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-10-01

    Commercial nuclear reactor projects in the U.S. have traditionally employed large light water reactors (LWR) to generate regional supplies of electricity. Although large LWRs have consistently dominated commercial nuclear markets both domestically and abroad, the concept of small modular reactors (SMRs) capable of producing between 30 MW(t) and 900 MW(t) to generating steam for electricity is not new. Nor is the idea of locating small nuclear reactors in close proximity to and in physical connection with industrial processes to provide a long-term source of thermal energy. Growing problems associated continued use of fossil fuels and enhancements in efficiency and safety because of recent advancements in reactor technology suggest that the likelihood of near-term SMR technology(s) deployment at multiple locations within the United States is growing. Many different types of SMR technology are viable for siting in the domestic commercial energy market. However, the potential application of a particular proprietary SMR design will vary according to the target heat end-use application and the site upon which it is proposed to be located. Reactor heat applications most commonly referenced in connection with the SMR market include electric power production, district heating, desalinization, and the supply of thermal energy to various processes that require high temperature over long time periods, or a combination thereof. Indeed, the modular construction, reliability and long operational life purported to be associated with some SMR concepts now being discussed may offer flexibility and benefits no other technology can offer. Effective siting is one of the many early challenges that face a proposed SMR installation project. Site-specific factors dealing with support to facility construction and operation, risks to the plant and the surrounding area, and the consequences subsequent to those risks must be fully identified, analyzed, and possibly mitigated before a license will be granted to construct and operate a nuclear facility. Examples of significant site-related concerns include area geotechnical and geological hazard properties, local climatology and meteorology, water resource availability, the vulnerability of surrounding populations and the environmental to adverse effects in the unlikely event of radionuclide release, the socioeconomic impacts of SMR plant installation and the effects it has on aesthetics, proximity to energy use customers, the topography and area infrastructure that affect plant constructability and security, and concerns related to the transport, installation, operation and decommissioning of major plant components.

  7. An Overview of the Safety Case for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Several small modular reactor (SMR) designs emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s in response to lessons learned from the many technical and operational challenges of the large Generation II light-water reactors. After the accident at the Three Mile Island plant in 1979, an ensuing reactor redesign effort spawned the term inherently safe designs, which later evolved into passively safe terminology. Several new designs were engineered to be deliberately small in order to fully exploit the benefits of passive safety. Today, new SMR designs are emerging with a similar philosophy of offering highly robust and resilient designs with increased safety margins. Additionally, because these contemporary designs are being developed subsequent to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, they incorporate a number of intrinsic design features to further strengthen their safety and security. Several SMR designs are being developed in the United States spanning the full spectrum of reactor technologies, including water-, gas-, and liquid-metal-cooled ones. Despite a number of design differences, most of these designs share a common set of design principles to enhance plant safety and robustness, such as eliminating plant design vulnerabilities where possible, reducing accident probabilities, and mitigating accident consequences. An important consequence of the added resilience provided by these design approaches is that the individual reactor units and the entire plant should be able to survive a broader range of extreme conditions. This will enable them to not only ensure the safety of the general public but also help protect the investment of the owner and continued availability of the power-generating asset. Examples of typical SMR design features and their implications for improved plant safety are given for specific SMR designs being developed in the United States.

  8. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  9. The design of a reduced diameter Pebble Bed Modular Reactor for reactor pressure vessel transport by railcar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everson, Matthew S

    2009-01-01

    Many desirable locations for Pebble Bed Modular Reactors are currently out of consideration as construction sites for current designs due to limitations on the mode of transportation for large RPVs. In particular, the ...

  10. Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Power Conversion System for the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Power Conversion System for the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor August 31, 2003 Certified by Ronald G. Ballinger Professor of Nuclear Engineering and Materials Science;2 #12;Design, Analysis, and Optimization of the Power Conversion System for the Modular Pebble Bed

  11. Design, analysis and optimization of the power conversion system for the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunyun, 1968-

    2003-01-01

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a GenIV nuclear system. The availability of controllable ...

  12. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Steven Prescott; Tony Koonce

    2014-04-01

    A key area of the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) strategy is the development of methodologies and tools that will be used to predict the safety, security, safeguards, performance, and deployment viability of SMRs. The goal of the SMR PRA activity will be to develop quantitative methods and tools and the associated analysis framework for assessing a variety of risks. Development and implementation of SMR-focused safety assessment methods may require new analytic methods or adaptation of traditional methods to the advanced design and operational features of SMRs. We will need to move beyond the current limitations such as static, logic-based models in order to provide more integrated, scenario-based models based upon predictive modeling which are tied to causal factors. The development of SMR-specific safety models for margin determination will provide a safety case that describes potential accidents, design options (including postulated controls), and supports licensing activities by providing a technical basis for the safety envelope. This report documents the progress that was made to implement the PRA framework, specifically by way of demonstration of an advanced 3D approach to representing, quantifying and understanding flooding risks to a nuclear power plant.

  13. Journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 39, No. 11, p. 11691181 (November 2002) Conceptual Design of a Modular Island Core Fast Breeder Reactor "RAPID-M"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    and accepted September 10, 2002) A metal fueled modular island core sodium cooled fast breeder reactor concept Design of a Modular Island Core Fast Breeder Reactor "RAPID-M" Mitsuru KAMBE Central Research Institute type reactors, performance, sodium cooled reactor, modular island core, inherent safety, in- tegrated

  14. Modularity in design of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berte, Marc Vincent, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    The future of new nuclear power plant construction will depend in large part on the ability of designers to reduce capital, operations, and maintenance costs. One of the methods proposed, is to enhance the modularity of ...

  15. SASSI Methodology-Based Sensitivity Studies for Deeply Embedded Structures, Such As Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SASSI Methodology-Based Sensitivity Studies for Deeply Embedded Structures, Such As Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) Dr. Dan M. Ghiocel Ghiocel Predictive Technologies Inc. http://www.ghiocel-tech.com 2014 DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Meeting Germantown, MD, October 21-22, 2014

  16. Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and demonstration of innovative reactor technologies and concepts JohnKelly-SEABSMRBriefingJuly202011final.pdf More Documents & Publications Before the Senate...

  17. Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Grandy, Jon D.; Detering, Brent A.

    2010-06-22

    A device, method and system for generating a plasma is disclosed wherein an electrical arc is established and the movement of the electrical arc is selectively controlled. In one example, modular units are coupled to one another to collectively define a chamber. Each modular unit may include an electrode and a cathode spaced apart and configured to generate an arc therebetween. A device, such as a magnetic or electromagnetic device, may be used to selectively control the movement of the arc about a longitudinal axis of the chamber. The arcs of individual modules may be individually controlled so as to exhibit similar or dissimilar motions about the longitudinal axis of the chamber. In another embodiment, an inlet structure may be used to selectively define the flow path of matter introduced into the chamber such that it travels in a substantially circular or helical path within the chamber.

  18. Progress Towards Prognostic Health Management of Passive Components in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Prowant, Matthew S.

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are two key national energy priorities. The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) is expected to support these objectives by developing technologies that improve the reliability, sustain safety, and improve affordability of new reactors. Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Prognostic health management (PHM) systems can benefit both the safety and economics of deploying AdvSMRs and can play an essential role in managing the inspection and maintenance of passive components in AdvSMR systems. This paper describes progress on development of a prototypic PHM system for AdvSMR passive components, with thermal creep chosen as the target degradation mechanism.

  19. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety Basis and Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti; Jim Kinsey; Dave Alberstein

    2014-01-01

    Various international efforts are underway to assess the safety of advanced nuclear reactor designs. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recently held its first Consultancy Meeting on a new cooperative research program on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety. Furthermore, the Generation IV International Forum Reactor Safety Working Group has recently developed a methodology, called the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology, for use in Generation IV advanced reactor technology development, design, and design review. A risk and safety assessment white paper is under development with respect to the Very High Temperature Reactor to pilot the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology and to demonstrate its validity and feasibility. To support such efforts, this information paper on the modular HTGR safety basis and approach has been prepared. The paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach. The paper gives those involved in the assessment of advanced reactor designs an opportunity to assess an advanced design that has already received extensive review by regulatory authorities and to judge the utility of recently proposed new methods for advanced reactor safety assessment such as the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology.

  20. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  1. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  2. Advanced Modularity Design for The MIT Pebble Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be economically built and operated. One of the major impediments to new nuclear construction is the capital costs small size the capital cost per kilowatt is likely to be large if traditional construction approaches Reactor 1. Introduction The capital cost of new nuclear plants is the most significant reason for the lack

  3. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, R. J.; Omitaomu, O. A.

    2014-08-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

  4. Small Modular Reactor Report (SEAB) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuilding K-25 cleanup at theProjects |Reactor

  5. Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor for Low Cost Bulk Production of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong

    2011-12-01

    INL developed a bench scale modular hybrid plasma system for gas phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was being optimized for WO3 nanoparticles production and scale model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development many modifications had been done to the system to resolve technical issues that had surfaced and also to improve the performance. All project tasks had been completed except 2 optimization subtasks. These 2 subtasks, a 4-hour and an 8-hour continuous powder production runs at 1 lb/hr powder feeding rate, were unable to complete due to technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run had been attempted twice and both times the run was terminated prematurely. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the technical issues. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components had been completed at the end of the project life. However, not enough resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable delta-Al2O3 from pure alpha-phase large Al2O3 powder. The formation of delta-Al2O3 was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973-1073 K, and delta-Al2O3 is very difficult to synthesize as a single phase. Besides the specific temperature window to form this phase, this meta-stable phase may have been stabilized by nanoparticle size formed in a high temperature plasma process. This technology may possess the capability to produce unusual meta-stable nanophase materials that would be otherwise difficult to produce by conventional methods. A 300 kW INL modular hybrid plasma pilot scale model reactor had been projected using the experimental data from PPG Industries 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. The projected size of the INL 300 kW pilot model reactor would be about 15% that of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. Including the safety net factor the projected INL pilot reactor size would be 25-30% of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma pilot reactor. Due to the modularity of the INL plasma reactor and the energy cascading effect from the upstream plasma to the downstream plasma the energy utilization is more efficient in material processing. It is envisioning that the material through put range for the INL pilot reactor would be comparable to the PPG 300 kW pilot reactor but the energy consumption would be lower. The INL hybrid plasma technology is rather close to being optimized for scaling to a pilot system. More near term development work is still needed to complete the process optimization before pilot scaling.

  6. Update on Small Modular Reactors Dynamics System Modeling Tool -- Molten Salt Cooled Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Richard Edward; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Fugate, David L.; Qualls, A L.; Borum, Robert C.; Chaleff, Ethan S.; Rogerson, Doug W.; Batteh, John J.; Tiller, Michael M.

    2014-08-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the third year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor SMR models, ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technical area, and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the Modular Dynamic SIMulation (MoDSIM) tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the program, (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using existing geometry and thermal-hydraulic data, (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models, and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  8. Pebble bed modular reactor safeguards: developing new approaches and implementing safeguards by design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durst, Philip [INL; Bean, Robert [INL

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) does not fit or seem appropriate to the IAEA safeguards approach under the categories of light water reactor (LWR), on-load refueled reactor (OLR, i.e. CANDU), or Other (prismatic HTGR) because the fuel is in a bulk form, rather than discrete items. Because the nuclear fuel is a collection of nuclear material inserted in tennis-ball sized spheres containing structural and moderating material and a PBMR core will contain a bulk load on the order of 500,000 spheres, it could be classified as a 'Bulk-Fuel Reactor.' Hence, the IAEA should develop unique safeguards criteria. In a multi-lab DOE study, it was found that an optimized blend of: (i) developing techniques to verify the plutonium content in spent fuel pebbles, (ii) improving burn-up computer codes for PBMR spent fuel to provide better understanding of the core and spent fuel makeup, and (iii) utilizing bulk verification techniques for PBMR spent fuel storage bins should be combined with the historic IAEA and South African approaches of containment and surveillance to verify and maintain continuity of knowledge of PBMR fuel. For all of these techniques to work the design of the reactor will need to accommodate safeguards and material accountancy measures to a far greater extent than has thus far been the case. The implementation of Safeguards-by-Design as the PBMR design progresses provides an approach to meets these safeguards and accountancy needs.

  9. Improvements of fuel failure detection in boiling water reactors using helium measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J. O.

    2012-07-01

    To certify a continuous and safe operation of a boiling water reactor, careful surveillance of fuel integrity is of high importance. The detection of fuel failures can be performed by off-line gamma spectroscopy of off-gas samples and/or by on-line nuclide specific monitoring of gamma emitting noble gases. To establish the location of a leaking fuel rod, power suppression testing can be used. The accuracy of power suppression testing is dependent on the information of the delay time and the spreading of the released fission gases through the systems before reaching the sampling point. This paper presents a method to improve the accuracy of power suppression testing by determining the delay time and gas spreading profile. To estimate the delay time and examine the spreading of the gas in case of a fuel failure, helium was injected in the feed water system at Forsmark 3 nuclear power plant. The measurements were performed by using a helium detector system based on a mass spectrometer installed in the off-gas system. The helium detection system and the results of the experiment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  10. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  11. Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T. J. [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The cost of nuclear power is a straightforward yet complicated topic. It is straightforward in that the cost of nuclear power is a function of the cost to build the nuclear power plant, the cost to operate and maintain it, and the cost to provide fuel for it. It is complicated in that some of those costs are not necessarily known, introducing uncertainty into the analysis. For large light water reactor (LWR)-based nuclear power plants, the uncertainty is mainly contained within the cost of construction. The typical costs of operations and maintenance (O&M), as well as fuel, are well known based on the current fleet of LWRs. However, the last currently operating reactor to come online was Watts Bar 1 in May 1996; thus, the expected construction costs for gigawatt (GW)-class reactors in the United States are based on information nearly two decades old. Extrapolating construction, O&M, and fuel costs from GW-class LWRs to LWR-based small modular reactors (SMRs) introduces even more complication. The per-installed-kilowatt construction costs for SMRs are likely to be higher than those for the GW-class reactors based on the property of the economy of scale. Generally speaking, the economy of scale is the tendency for overall costs to increase slower than the overall production capacity. For power plants, this means that doubling the power production capacity would be expected to cost less than twice as much. Applying this property in the opposite direction, halving the power production capacity would be expected to cost more than half as much. This can potentially make the SMRs less competitive in the electricity market against the GW-class reactors, as well as against other power sources such as natural gas and subsidized renewables. One factor that can potentially aid the SMRs in achieving economic competitiveness is an economy of numbers, as opposed to the economy of scale, associated with learning curves. The basic concept of the learning curve is that the more a new process is repeated, the more efficient the process can be made. Assuming that efficiency directly relates to cost means that the more a new process is repeated successfully and efficiently, the less costly the process can be made. This factor ties directly into the factory fabrication and modularization aspect of the SMR paradigm—manufacturing serial, standardized, identical components for use in nuclear power plants can allow the SMR industry to use the learning curves to predict and optimize deployment costs.

  12. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  13. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

  14. A Framework to Expand and Advance Probabilistic Risk Assessment to Support Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Robert Nourgaliev; Cherie Phelan; Diego Mandelli; Kellie Kvarfordt; Robert Youngblood

    2012-09-01

    During the early development of nuclear power plants, researchers and engineers focused on many aspects of plant operation, two of which were getting the newly-found technology to work and minimizing the likelihood of perceived accidents through redundancy and diversity. As time, and our experience, has progressed, the realization of plant operational risk/reliability has entered into the design, operation, and regulation of these plants. But, to date, we have only dabbled at the surface of risk and reliability technologies. For the next generation of small modular reactors (SMRs), it is imperative that these technologies evolve into an accepted, encompassing, validated, and integral part of the plant in order to reduce costs and to demonstrate safe operation. Further, while it is presumed that safety margins are substantial for proposed SMR designs, the depiction and demonstration of these margins needs to be better understood in order to optimize the licensing process.

  15. Reactor Technology | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor Technology Advanced Reactor Concepts Advanced Instrumentation & Controls Light Water Reactor Sustainability Safety and Regulatory Technology Small Modular Reactors Nuclear...

  16. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different requirements, including the need to operate in different coolant environments, higher operating temperatures, and longer operating cycles between planned refueling and maintenance outages. These features, along with the relative lack of operating experience for some of the proposed advanced designs, may limit the ability to estimate event probability and component POF with a high degree of certainty. Incorporating real-time estimates of component POF may compensate for a relative lack of established knowledge about the long-term component behavior and improve operational and maintenance planning and optimization. The particular eccentricities of advanced reactors and small modular reactors provide unique challenges and needs for advanced instrumentation, control, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) techniques such as enhanced risk monitors (ERM) in aSMRs. Several features of aSMR designs increase the need for accurate characterization of the real-time risk during operation and maintenance activities. A number of technical gaps in realizing ERM exist, and these gaps are largely independent of the specific reactor technology. As a result, the development of a framework for ERM would enable greater situational awareness regardless of the specific class of reactor technology. A set of research tasks are identified in a preliminary research plan to enable the development, testing, and demonstration of such a framework. Although some aspects of aSMRs, such as specific operational characteristics, will vary and are not now completely defined, the proposed framework is expected to be relevant regardless of such uncertainty. The development of an ERM framework will provide one of the key technical developments necessary to ensure the economic viability of aSMRs.

  17. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor balance of plant and supporting systems design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Memmott, M. J.; Stansbury, C.; Taylor, C.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the second in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses, in particular, upon the supporting systems and the balance of plant (BOP) designs of the Westinghouse SMR. Several Westinghouse SMR systems are classified as safety, and are critical to the safe operation of the Westinghouse SMR. These include the protection and monitoring system (PMS), the passive core cooling system (PXS), and the spent fuel cooling system (SFS) including pools, valves, and piping. The Westinghouse SMR safety related systems include the instrumentation and controls (I and C) as well as redundant and physically separated safety trains with batteries, electrical systems, and switch gears. Several other incorporated systems are non-safety related, but provide functions for plant operations including defense-in-depth functions. These include the chemical volume control system (CVS), heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems, component cooling water system (CCS), normal residual heat removal system (RNS) and service water system (SWS). The integrated performance of the safety-related and non-safety related systems ensures the safe and efficient operation of the Westinghouse SMR through various conditions and transients. The turbine island consists of the turbine, electric generator, feedwater and steam systems, moisture separation systems, and the condensers. The BOP is designed to minimize assembly time, shipping challenges, and on-site testing requirements for all structures, systems, and components. (authors)

  18. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

  19. Small Modular Reactor: First of a Kind (FOAK) and Nth of a Kind (NOAK) Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauren M. Boldon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-08-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) refer to any reactor design in which the electricity generated is less than 300 MWe. Often medium sized reactors with power less than 700 MWe are also grouped into this category. Internationally, the development of a variety of designs for SMRs is booming with many designs approaching maturity and even in or nearing the licensing stage. It is for this reason that a generalized yet comprehensive economic model for first of a kind (FOAK) through nth of a kind (NOAK) SMRs based upon rated power, plant configuration, and the fiscal environment was developed. In the model, a particular project’s feasibility is assessed with regards to market conditions and by commonly utilized capital budgeting techniques, such as the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback, and more importantly, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for comparison to other energy production technologies. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing debt, equity, interest rate, and conditions on the LCOE. The economic model is primarily applied to the near future water cooled SMR designs in the United States. Other gas cooled and liquid metal cooled SMR designs have been briefly outlined in terms of how the economic model would change. FOAK and NOAK SMR costs were determined for a site containing seven 180 MWe water cooled SMRs and compared to a site containing one 1260 MWe reactor. With an equal share of debt and equity and a 10% cost of debt and equity, the LCOE was determined to be $79 $84/MWh and $80/MWh for the SMR and large reactor sites, respectively. With a cost of equity of 15%, the SMR LCOE increased substantially to $103 $109/MWh. Finally, an increase in the equity share to 70% at the 15% cost of equity resulted in an even higher LCOE, demonstrating the large variation in results due to financial and market factors. The NPV and IRR both decreased with increasing LCOE. Unless the price of electricity increases along with the LCOE, the projects may become unprofitable. This is the case at the LCOE of $103 $109/MW, in which the NPV became negative. The IRR increased with increasing electricity price. Three cases, electric only base, storage—compressed air energy storage or pumped hydro, and hydrogen production, were performed incorporating SMRs into a nuclear wind natural gas hybrid energy system for the New York West Central region. The operational costs for three cases were calculated as $27/MWh, $25/MWh, and $28/MWh, respectively. A 3% increase in profits was demonstrated for the storage case over the electric only base case.

  20. Incorporating Equipment Condition Assessment in Risk Monitors for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can complement the current fleet of large light-water reactors in the USA for baseload and peak demand power production and process heat applications (e.g., water desalination, shale oil extraction, hydrogen production). The day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance (O&M); however, the effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on O&M is not fully understood. These costs could potentially be reduced by optimized scheduling, with risk-informed scheduling of maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a “living” probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), which reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant and combine event probabilities with population-based probability of failure (POF) for key components. “Risk monitors” extend the PRA by incorporating the actual and dynamic plant configuration (equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions, etc.) into risk assessment. In fact, PRAs are more integrated into plant management in today’s nuclear power plants than at any other time in the history of nuclear power. However, population-based POF curves are still used to populate fault trees; this approach neglects the time-varying condition of equipment that is relied on during standard and non-standard configurations. Equipment condition monitoring techniques can be used to estimate the component POF. Incorporating this unit-specific estimate of POF in the risk monitor can provide a more accurate estimate of risk in different operating and maintenance configurations. This enhanced risk assessment will be especially important for aSMRs that have advanced component designs, which don’t have an available operating history to draw from, and often use passive design features, which present challenges to PRA. This paper presents the requirements and technical gaps for developing a framework to integrate unit-specific estimates of POF into risk monitors, resulting in enhanced risk monitors that support optimized operation and maintenance of aSMRs.

  1. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, R. J. [ORNL; Mays, G. T. [ORNL; Omitaomu, O. A. [ORNL; Poore, W. P. [ORNL

    2013-12-30

    Beginning in late 2008, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) responded to ongoing internal and external studies addressing key questions related to our national electrical energy supply. This effort has led to the development and refinement of Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion (OR-SAGE), a tool to support power plant siting evaluations. The objective in developing OR-SAGE was to use industry-accepted approaches and/or develop appropriate criteria for screening sites and employ an array of geographic information systems (GIS) data sources at ORNL to identify candidate areas for a power generation technology application. The basic premise requires the development of exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability criteria for evaluating sites for a given siting application, such as siting small modular reactors (SMRs). For specific applications of the tool, it is necessary to develop site selection and evaluation criteria (SSEC) that encompass a number of key benchmarks that essentially form the site environmental characterization for that application. These SSEC might include population density, seismic activity, proximity to water sources, proximity to hazardous facilities, avoidance of protected lands and floodplains, susceptibility to landslide hazards, and others.

  2. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  3. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed integral system scaling analysis, design parameters were obtained and designs of the compact modular 200 MWe SBWR and the full size 1200 MWe SBWR were developed. These reactors are provided with passive safety systems. A new passive vacuum breaker check valve was designed to replace the mechanical vacuum beaker check valve. The new vacuum breaker check valve was based on a hydrostatic head, and was fail safe. The performance of this new valve was evaluated both by the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5 and by the experiments in a scaled SBWR facility, PUMA. In the core neutronic design a core depletion model was implemented to PARCS code. A lattice design for the SBWR fuel assemblies was performed. Design improvements were made to the neutronics/thermal-hydraulics models of SBWR-200 and SBWR-1200, and design analyses of these reactors were performed. The design base accident analysis and evaluation of all the passive safety systems were completed as scheduled in tasks 4 and 5. Initial conditions for the small break loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) and large break LOCA using REALP5 code were obtained. Small and large break LOCA tests were performed and the data was analyzed. An anticipated transient with scram was simulated using the RELAP5 code for SBWR-200. The transient considered was an accidental closure of the main steam isolation valve (MSIV), which was considered to be the most significant transient. The evaluation of the RELAP5 code against experimental data for SBWR-1200 was completed. In task 6, the instability analysis for the three SBWR designs (SBWR-1200, SBWR-600 and SBWR-200) were simulated for start-up transients and the results were similar. Neither the geysering instability, nor the loop type instability was predicted by RAMONA-4B in the startup simulation following the recommended procedure by GE. The density wave oscillation was not observed at all because the power level used in the simulation was not high enough. A study was made of the potential instabilities by imposing an unrealistically high power ramp in a short time period, as suggested by GE. RAMON

  4. Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards (ISOSS) into the design of small modular reactors : a handbook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Bobby D.; Mendez, Carmen Margarita [Sociotecnia Solutions] [Sociotecnia Solutions

    2013-10-01

    The existing regulatory environment for nuclear reactors impacts both the facility design and the cost of operations once the facility is built. Delaying the consideration of regulatory requirements until late in the facility design - or worse, until after construction has begun - can result in costly retrofitting as well as increased operational costs to fulfill safety, security, safeguards, and emergency readiness requirements. Considering the scale and scope, as well as the latest design trends in the next generation of nuclear facilities, there is an opportunity to evaluate the regulatory requirements and optimize the design process for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), as compared to current Light Water Reactors (LWRs). To this end, Sandia has embarked on an initiative to evaluate the interactions of regulations and operations as an approach to optimizing the design of SMR facilities, supporting operational efficiencies, as well as regulatory requirements. The early stages of this initiative consider two focus areas. The first focus area, reported by LaChance, et al. (2007), identifies the regulatory requirements established for the current fleet of LWR facilities regarding Safety, Security, Operations, Safeguards, and Emergency Planning, and evaluates the technical bases for these requirements. The second focus area, developed in this report, documents the foundations for an innovative approach that supports a design framework for SMR facilities that incorporates the regulatory environment, as well as the continued operation of the facility, into the early design stages, eliminating the need for costly retrofitting and additional operating personnel to fulfill regulatory requirements. The work considers a technique known as Integrated Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (ISOSS) (Darby, et al., 2007). In coordination with the best practices of industrial operations, the goal of this effort is to develop a design framework that outlines how ISOSS requirements can be incorporated into the pre-conceptual through early facility design stages, seeking a cost-effective design that meets both operational efficiencies and the regulatory environment. The larger scope of the project, i.e., in future stages, includes the identification of potentially conflicting requirements identified by the ISOSS framework, including an analysis of how regulatory requirements may be changed to account for the intrinsic features of SMRs.

  5. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor passive safety system response to postulated events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M. C.; Wright, R. F. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 600 Cranberry Woods Drive (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor. This paper is part of a series of four describing the design and safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. This paper focuses in particular upon the passive safety features and the safety system response of the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR design incorporates many features to minimize the effects of, and in some cases eliminates the possibility of postulated accidents. The small size of the reactor and the low power density limits the potential consequences of an accident relative to a large plant. The integral design eliminates large loop piping, which significantly reduces the flow area of postulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The Westinghouse SMR containment is a high-pressure, compact design that normally operates at a partial vacuum. This facilitates heat removal from the containment during LOCA events. The containment is submerged in water which also aides the heat removal and provides an additional radionuclide filter. The Westinghouse SMR safety system design is passive, is based largely on the passive safety systems used in the AP1000{sup R} reactor, and provides mitigation of all design basis accidents without the need for AC electrical power for a period of seven days. Frequent faults, such as reactivity insertion events and loss of power events, are protected by first shutting down the nuclear reaction by inserting control rods, then providing cold, borated water through a passive, buoyancy-driven flow. Decay heat removal is provided using a layered approach that includes the passive removal of heat by the steam drum and independent passive heat removal system that transfers heat from the primary system to the environment. Less frequent faults such as loss of coolant accidents are mitigated by passive injection of a large quantity of water that is readily available inside containment. An automatic depressurization system is used to reduce the reactor pressure in a controlled manner to facilitate the passive injection. Long-term decay heat removal is accomplished using the passive heat removal systems augmented by heat transfer through the containment vessel to the environment. The passive injection systems are designed so that the fuel remains covered and effectively cooled throughout the event. Like during the frequent faults, the passive systems provide effective cooling without the need for ac power for seven days following the accident. Connections are available to add additional water to indefinitely cool the plant. The response of the safety systems of the Westinghouse SMR to various initiating faults has been examined. Among them, two accidents; an extended station blackout event, and a LOCA event have been evaluated to demonstrate how the plant will remain safe in the unlikely event that either should occur. (authors)

  6. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lechtenberg, T.A.; Stevenson, R.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1980-05-01

    Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900.

  7. Helium generation in fusion reactor materials. Progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneff, D W; Farrar, H IV

    1981-01-14

    Helium analyses have been initiated for the helium accumulation dosimetry materials irradiated in the neutron characterization experiment at RTNS-II. Analyses of the separated isotopes of molybdenum irradiated in the RTNS-I, RTNS-II, and Be(d,n) neutron fields are in progress. The emphasis during the present period was on improving the gas mass spectrometer sensitivity for these samples.

  8. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each mechanism, but that some are more applicable to the AdvSMR domain. The two mechanisms that consistently improve performance in laboratory studies are operator initiated adaptive automation based on hierarchical task delegation and the Electroencephalogram(EEG) –based measure of engagement. Current EEG methods are intrusive and require intensive analysis; therefore it is not recommended for an AdvSMR control rooms at this time. Researchers also discuss limitations in the existing empirical literature and make recommendations for further research.

  9. MIT Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR) A Summary of Research Activities and Accomplishments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanza · Martin Bazant (Math) #12;#12;#12;#12;Our Vision for 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Air Ingress · Balance of Plant Design · Modularity Design · Intermediate Heat Exchanger Design · Core Power Distribution Monitoring · Pebble Flow Experiments · Non-Proliferation · Safeguards · Waste

  10. Magnitude and reactivity consequences of moisture ingress into the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, O.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Inadvertent admission of moisture into the primary system of a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moisture-ingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. The rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size compared with safety valve capacity and reliability and less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions.

  11. Probabilistic accident analysis of the Pebble Bed modular Reactor for use with risk informed regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savkina, Marina D., 1973-

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges to the successful deployment of new nuclear plants in the United States is the regulatory process, which is largely based on water-reactor technology. While ongoing and expected efforts to license ...

  12. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, Randy; Mays, Gary T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Poore III, Willis P

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  13. Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor Design and Commercialization Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor Design and Commercialization...

  14. Design modification for the modular helium reactor for higher temperature operation and reliability studies for nuclear hydrogen production processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reza, S.M. Mohsin

    2009-05-15

    Approved by: Chair of Committee, Kenneth L. Peddicord Committee Members, Marvin L. Adams William H. Marlow Karl T. Hartwig Edwin A. Harvego Head of Department, William E. Burchill May 2007 Major Subject: Nuclear... with the Idaho National Laboratory and General Atomics for my research. It was a great learning experience for me to work on this project with Dr. Peddicord and under the arrangements he made for me. I would like to thank Marvin L. Adams, William H. Marlow...

  15. Annular core for Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, R.F.; Baxter, A.M.; Stansfield, O.M.; Vollman, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    The active core of the 350 MW(t) MHTGR is annular in configuration, shaped to provide a large external surface-to-volume ratio for the transport of heat radially to the reactor vessel in case of a loss of coolant flow. For a given fuel temperature limit, the annular core provides approximately 40% greater power output over a typical cylindrical configuration. The reactor core is made up of columns of hexagonal blocks, each 793-mm high and 360-mm wide. The active core is 3.5 m in o.d., 1.65 m in i.d., and 7.93-m tall. Fuel elements contain TRISO-coated microspheres of 19.8% enriched uranium oxycarbide and of fertile thorium oxide. The core is controlled by 30 control rods which enter the inner and outer side reflectors from above.

  16. INEEL/EXT-01-01623 MODULAR PEBBLE-BED REACTOR PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Particle Batch Failure Probabilities Using an Integral Formulation 14 2.1.2 Fission Gas Release, CO Production and Fission Product Chemistry 15 2.1.2.1 Fission Gas and CO Release Model 15 2.1.2.2 Fission-AC07-99ID13727 #12;ii #12;iii Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Gas Reactor Fuel Performance

  17. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  18. Technical Readiness and Gaps Analysis of Commercial Optical Materials and Measurement Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Qiao, Hong; Andersen, Eric S.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Cannon, Bret D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Mendoza, Albert; Sheen, David M.

    2013-08-06

    This report intends to support Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap and industry stakeholders by evaluating optical-based instrumentation and control (I&C) concepts for advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. These advanced designs will require innovative thinking in terms of engineering approaches, materials integration, and I&C concepts to realize their eventual viability and deployability. The primary goals of this report include: 1. Establish preliminary I&C needs, performance requirements, and possible gaps for AdvSMR designs based on best available published design data. 2. Document commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) optical sensors, components, and materials in terms of their technical readiness to support essential AdvSMR in-vessel I&C systems. 3. Identify technology gaps by comparing the in-vessel monitoring requirements and environmental constraints to COTS optical sensor and materials performance specifications. 4. Outline a future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program plan that addresses these gaps and develops optical-based I&C systems that enhance the viability of future AdvSMR designs. The development of clean, affordable, safe, and proliferation-resistant nuclear power is a key goal that is documented in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. This roadmap outlines RD&D activities intended to overcome technical, economic, and other barriers, which currently limit advances in nuclear energy. These activities will ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable component to this nation’s energy security.

  19. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and potential synergies with other national laboratory and university partners.

  20. Plant Design and Cost Estimation of a Natural Circulation Lead-Bismuth Reactor with Helium Power Conversion Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D.

    The analysis of an indirect helium power conversion system with lead-bismuth natural circulation primary system has been performed. The work of this report is focused on 1) identifying the allowable design region for the ...

  1. Small Modular Reactors - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment Top Scientific ImpactTechnologies |SiteSitesmr Small

  2. Evaluation of the applicability of existing nuclear power plant regulatory requirements in the U.S. to advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Middleton, Bobby D.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Baum, Gregory A.

    2013-05-01

    The current wave of small modular reactor (SMR) designs all have the goal of reducing the cost of management and operations. By optimizing the system, the goal is to make these power plants safer, cheaper to operate and maintain, and more secure. In particular, the reduction in plant staffing can result in significant cost savings. The introduction of advanced reactor designs and increased use of advanced automation technologies in existing nuclear power plants will likely change the roles, responsibilities, composition, and size of the crews required to control plant operations. Similarly, certain security staffing requirements for traditional operational nuclear power plants may not be appropriate or necessary for SMRs due to the simpler, safer and more automated design characteristics of SMRs. As a first step in a process to identify where regulatory requirements may be met with reduced staffing and therefore lower cost, this report identifies the regulatory requirements and associated guidance utilized in the licensing of existing reactors. The potential applicability of these regulations to advanced SMR designs is identified taking into account the unique features of these types of reactors.

  3. U.S. Department Of Energy Advanced Small Modular Reactor R&D Program: Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of modern ICHMI technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, several DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements within their respective research portfolios. This paper describes current ICHMI research in support of advanced small modular reactors. The objectives that can be achieved through execution of the defined RD&D are to provide optimal technical solutions to critical ICHMI issues, resolve technology gaps arising from the unique measurement and control characteristics of advanced reactor concepts, provide demonstration of needed technologies and methodologies in the nuclear power application domain, mature emerging technologies to facilitate commercialization, and establish necessary technical evidence and application experience to enable timely and predictable licensing. 1 Introduction Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of m

  4. Experimental and Computational Study of a Scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaghetto, Rodolfo

    2013-11-25

    ), producing fission power in a circulating molten salt fuel mixture with an epithermal-spectrum reactor and a full actinide recycling fuel cycle. 7 Figure 4. Generation IV Nuclear Systems [7] (1: GFR; 2: VHTR; 3: SCWR; 4: SFR; 5: LFR; 6: MSR... Of Energy GFR Gas-cooled Fast Reactor GT-MHR Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor HS Heat Structure IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency ID Inner Diameter INL Idaho National Laboratory IRUG International RELAP5 Users Group L Length LFR Lead...

  5. HTGR (High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) ingress analysis using MINET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Yang, J.W.; Kroeger, P.G.; Mallen, A.N.; Aronson, A.L.

    1989-04-01

    Modeling of water/steam ingress into the primary (helium) cooling circuit of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is described. This modeling was implemented in the MINET Code, which is a program for analyzing transients in intricate fluid flow and heat transfer networks. Results from the simulation of a water ingress event postulated for the Modular HTGR are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. A 48-month extended fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erighin, M. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, 109 Ramsey Place, Lynchburg, VA 24502 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small, rail-shippable pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and an electric power output of 150 MW, which is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height, but otherwise standard, PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array on a 21.5 cm inter-assembly pitch. The B and W mPower core design and cycle management plan, which were performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, follow the pattern of a typical nuclear reactor fuel cycle design and analysis performed by most nuclear fuel management organizations, such as fuel vendors and utilities. However, B and W is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for four years of continuous power operations without refueling and without the hurdles of chemical shim. (authors)

  7. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  8. An extended conventional fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarangella, M. J. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, 109 Ramsey Place, Lynchburg, VA 24502 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and a thermal output of about 500 MW; it is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array. The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for a four-year cycle based on its presumed attractiveness to potential customers. This option is a once-through fuel cycle in which the entire core is discharged and replaced after four years. In addition, a conventional fuel utilization strategy, employing a periodic partial reload and shuffle, was developed as an alternative to the four-year once-through fuel cycle. This study, which was performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, is a typical multi-cycle projection analysis of the type performed by most fuel management organizations such as fuel vendors and utilities. In the industry, the results of such projections are used by the financial arms of these organizations to assist in making long-term decisions. In the case of the B and W mPower reactor, this analysis demonstrates flexibility for customers who consider the once-through fuel cycle unacceptable from a fuel utilization standpoint. As expected, when compared to the once-through concept, reloads of the B and W mPower reactor will achieve higher batch average discharge exposure, will have adequate shut-down margin, and will have a relatively flat hot excess reactivity trend at the expense of slightly increased peaking. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, Randy J.; Omitaomu, Olufemi A.

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  10. Three-dimensional neutronics optimization of helium-cooled blanket for multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FDS-MFX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, J.; Yuan, B.; Jin, M.; Wang, M.; Long, P.; Hu, L.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional neutronics optimization calculations were performed to analyse the parameters of Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) and maximum average Power Density (PDmax) in a helium-cooled multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor named FDS (Fusion-Driven hybrid System)-MFX (Multi-Functional experimental) blanket. Three-stage tests will be carried out successively, in which the tritium breeding blanket, uranium-fueled blanket and spent-fuel-fueled blanket will be utilized respectively. In this contribution, the most significant and main goal of the FDS-MFX blanket is to achieve the PDmax of about 100 MW/m3 with self-sustaining tritium (TBR {>=} 1.05) based on the second-stage test with uranium-fueled blanket to check and validate the demonstrator reactor blanket relevant technologies based on the viable fusion and fission technologies. Four different enriched uranium materials were taken into account to evaluate PDmax in subcritical blanket: (i) natural uranium, (ii) 3.2% enriched uranium, (iii) 19.75% enriched uranium, and (iv) 64.4% enriched uranium carbide. These calculations and analyses were performed using a home-developed code VisualBUS and Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (HENDL). The results showed that the performance of the blanket loaded with 64.4% enriched uranium was the most attractive and it could be promising to effectively obtain tritium self-sufficiency (TBR-1.05) and a high maximum average power density ({approx}100 MW/m{sup 3}) when the blanket was loaded with the mass of {sup 235}U about 1 ton. (authors)

  11. Studies Related to the Oregon State University High Temperature Test Facility: Scaling, the Validation Matrix, and Similarities to the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard R. Schultz; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; William T. Taitano; James R. Wolf; Glenn E. McCreery

    2010-09-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5 year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant project. Because the NRC interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC). Since DOE has incorporated the HTTF as an ingredient in the NGNP thermal-fluids validation program, several important outcomes should be noted: 1. The reference prismatic reactor design, that serves as the basis for scaling the HTTF, became the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR has also been chosen as the reference design for all of the other NGNP thermal-fluid experiments. 2. The NGNP validation matrix is being planned using the same scaling strategy that has been implemented to design the HTTF, i.e., the hierarchical two-tiered scaling methodology developed by Zuber in 1991. Using this approach a preliminary validation matrix has been designed that integrates the HTTF experiments with the other experiments planned for the NGNP thermal-fluids verification and validation project. 3. Initial analyses showed that the inherent power capability of the OSU infrastructure, which only allowed a total operational facility power capability of 0.6 MW, is inadequate to permit steady-state operation at reasonable conditions. 4. To enable the HTTF to operate at a more representative steady-state conditions, DOE recently allocated funding via a DOE subcontract to HTTF to permit an OSU infrastructure upgrade such that 2.2 MW will become available for HTTF experiments. 5. Analyses have been performed to study the relationship between HTTF and MHTGR via the hierarchical two-tiered scaling methodology which has been used successfully in the past, e.g., APEX facility scaling to the Westinghouse AP600 plant. These analyses have focused on the relationship between key variables that will be measured in the HTTF to the counterpart variables in the MHTGR with a focus on natural circulation, using nitrogen as a working fluid, and core heat transfer. 6. Both RELAP5-3D and computational fluid dynamics (CD-Adapco’s STAR-CCM+) numerical models of the MHTGR and the HTTF have been constructed and analyses are underway to study the relationship between the reference reactor and the HTTF. The HTTF is presently being designed. It has ¼-scaling relationship to the MHTGR in both the height and the diameter. Decisions have been made to design the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) simulation as a boundary condition for the HTTF to ensure that (a) the boundary condition is well defined and (b) the boundary condition can be modified easily to achieve the desired heat transfer sink for HTTF experimental operations.

  12. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  13. Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

    2014-11-01

    The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

  14. Reactor Engineering Design | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor Engineering Design The Reactor Engineering Design Key Technology will focus on control of chemical reactions with unprecedented precision in increasingly modular and...

  15. Fuel Development For Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. K. Meyer

    2006-06-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [ ]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is a dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the U.S. and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic ‘honeycomb’ structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  16. Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarlat, Raluca Olga

    2012-01-01

    safety design criteria separate effects test steam generators small modular reactor San Onofre Nuclear

  17. Comments on: Small Modular Reactors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode ClusterProteinReactions | Argonne

  18. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Pharis E. [Williams Research, P.O. Box 554, Los Alamos, NM87544 (United States)

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  19. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-12-15

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  20. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  1. Modular robot

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  2. Modular robot

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrante, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  3. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

  4. Portable modular detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  5. A vectorized heat transfer model for solid reactor cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rider, W.J.; Cappiello, M.W.; Liles, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The new generation of nuclear reactors includes designs that are significantly different from light water reactors. Among these new reactor designs is the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). In addition, nuclear thermal rockets share a number of similarities with terrestrial HTGRs and would be amenable to similar types of analyses. In these reactors, the heat transfer in the solid core mass is of primary interest in design and safety assessment. One significant safety feature of these reactors is the capability to withstand a loss of pressure and forced cooling in the primary system and still maintain peak fuel temperatures below the safe threshold for retaining the fission products. To accurately assess the performance of gas-cooled reactors during these types of transients, a Helium/Hydrogen Cooled Reactor Analysis (HERA) computer code has been developed. HERA has the ability to model arbitrary geometries in three dimensions, which allows the user to easily analyze reactor cores constructed of prismatic graphite elements. The code accounts for heat generation in the fuel, control rods and other structures; conduction and radiation across gaps; convection to the coolant; and a variety of boundary conditions. The numerical solution scheme has been optimized for vector computers, making long transient analyses economical. Time integration is either explicit or implicit, which allows the use of the model to accurately calculate both short- or long-term transients with an efficient use of computer time. Both the basic spatial and temporal integration schemes have been benchmarked against analytical solutions. Also, HERA has been used to analyze a depressurized loss of forced cooling transient in a HTGR with a very detailed three-dimensional input model. The results compare favorably with other means of analysis and provide further validation of the models and methods. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

    2011-08-01

    The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work summarized in this report, namely the development of guidance to support the consideration of MC&A in the design of both pebble-bed and prismatic-fueled HTGRs. The objective is to identify and incorporate design features into the facility design that will cost effectively aid in making MC&A more effective and efficient, with minimum impact on operations. The theft of nuclear material is addressed through both MC&A and physical protection, while the threat of sabotage is addressed principally through physical protection.

  7. Measurement of Temperature Profile in the Reactor Cavity Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhashimi, Tariq Yaqoob Sayed

    2014-12-02

    -cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) based on General Electric Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design to study the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the upper plenum. The facility consists of four vertical parallel riser ducts...

  8. SEAB Subcommittee on Small Modular Reactors (SMR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A WholesaleRetrofitElectricalDepartment2-E WholesaleSEAB

  9. Small Modular Nuclear Reactors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesAVideo »ServicesShale GasPrograms:Deployment

  10. Modular tokamak magnetic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Tien-Fang (Wayland, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

  11. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  12. Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

  13. Helium cooled Flibe blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.

    1984-10-01

    The blanket design uses a pressure vessel to contain the 50 atmosphere helium gas. Helium cools the first wall and blanket internals. The internals consist of a bed of beryllium balls nominally 1 cm diameter in which neutrons are multiplied and later captured, breeding adequate (even excess) amounts of tritium and releasing energy in exothermic nuclear reactions. Tritium is bred in the molten flibe salt which flows slowly (0.1m/sec) in steel tubes. The salt is kept reducing by periodic reacting with beryllium so the tritium will be in the T/sub 2/ form, however with somewhat enhanced corrosion rate the salt could be kept oxidizing in which case the tritium would be in the TF form. To prevent the tritium from permitting too much into the helium stream, a tungsten coating on the inside of the tubes is proposed. Tritium is removed from the salt and helium by processing both. Because the solubility of tritium in Flibe is so low, there will be a strong driving force for tritium permeation and this places a great burden on a high integrity tungsten permeation barrier. The tritium in the helium is prevented from permeating excessively into the steam system by jacketing the steel steam generator tubes with a 1 mm aluminum jacket. Clearly, tritium containment and barrier development are the most important feasibility issues for this design.

  14. Modular optical detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  15. Photoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Wang, Chia C.; Poisson, Lionel; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    correlated with production of the largest helium droplets.production Our experiments show that the photoionization of large helium

  16. Small Modular Nuclear Reactors: Parametric Modeling of Integrated Reactor

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergy Small Column Ion ExchangeofofVessel

  17. Small Modular Nuclear Reactors: Parametric Modeling of Integrated Reactor

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergy Small Column Ion

  18. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with hot pre-injected helium. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: yaoz@me.queensu.ca; Daymond, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kirk, Marquis A. [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400?°C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400?°C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400?°C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to the grain boundaries. A “bubble-void” transformation was observed after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to high dose (5.4?dpa) in samples containing 1000 appm and 5000 appm helium. Cavity distribution was found to be consistent with in-reactor neutron irradiation induced cavity microstructures. This implies that the distribution of helium is greatly dependent on the injection temperature, and helium pre-injection at high temperature is preferred for simulating the migration of the transmutation produced helium.

  19. A Multi-Modular Neutronically Coupled Power Generation System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Vishal

    2012-07-16

    EOL End of life HT-IMMTR High Temperature Integrated Multi-Modular Thermal Reactor HTGR High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor LWR Light water reactor LOCA Loss of coolant accident LOFA Loss of ow accident MOL Middle of life MWth Megawatts Thermal... upwards of 45%. In comparison, LWR water rankine cycles have e ciencies of about 33%, meaning the ScCO2 brayton cycle could be much more economical than an LWR rankine cycle. 1.4 Design Objectives The system is intended for use either autonomously...

  20. Modular Coil Sys Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Modular Coil Sys Requirements BSPEC140101 Conductor Specification CSPEC1420301 Winding Form Specification CSPEC1410313 Mod Coil Asm Specification CSPEC1420501 Coil TypeAB Winding Pack SE142A019R0 Coil Asm SE141058R3 Pol Break Shim Asm SE141078R2A EM/Struct Analysis of Coil and Shell CALC1400100 Mod

  1. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1985-09-30

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

  2. NGNP Project Regulatory Gap Analysis for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Moe

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project Regulatory Gap Analysis (RGA) for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) was conducted to evaluate existing regulatory requirements and guidance against the design characteristics specific to a generic modular HTGR. This final report presents results and identifies regulatory gaps concerning current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements that apply to the modular HTGR design concept. This report contains appendices that highlight important HTGR licensing issues that were found during the RGA study. The information contained in this report will be used to further efforts in reconciling HTGR-related gaps in the NRC licensing structure, which has to date largely focused on light water reactor technology.

  3. High Efficiency Modular Chemical Processes (HEMCP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE High Efficiency Modular Chemical Processes (HEMCP) Modular Process Intensification Framework for R&D Targets Advanced Manufacturing Office...

  4. Pellet charge exchange helium measurement using neutral particle analyzer in large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozaki, T.; Goncharov, P.; Veshchev, E.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H. [High Energy Particle Group, Wave Heating Group and LHD Experimental Group, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takase, Y.; Ohsako, T. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    It is very important to investigate the confinement of {alpha} particles, which will be produced by nuclear reactions in ITER and fusion reactors. The pellet charge exchange (PCX) measurement is one of the most powerful methods because it can directly provide the profile of the {alpha} particle energy spectra in a plasma. In the large helical device, PCX using tracer encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) has been tried in many hydrogen and helium plasmas, including helium accelerated by using the cyclotron resonance heating. In the PCX, we use the compact neutral particle analyzer without simultaneous mass separation ability. The helium particle measurement can be achieved by the application of voltage in the condenser plate. The scattering of hydrogen particle is carefully considered during the estimation of the helium amount. The radial helium profiles can also be obtained by comparing four TESPEL injection shots with/without higher harmonic fast wave heating and at applied plate voltages for He or H, respectively.

  5. Modular Quantum Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orfeu Bertolami; Ricardo Schiappa

    1999-04-30

    We study solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation corresponding to an S-modular invariant N=1 supergravity model and a closed homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The issues of inflation and of the cosmological constant problem are addressed with the help of the relevant wave functions. We find that topological type inflation is consistent from the quantum mechanical point of view and that a solution for the cosmological constant problem along the lines of the strong CP problem naturally arises.

  6. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  7. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  8. Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, Sydney J; Wilson Jr, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR layout (prismatic core version), where its inlet coolant enters the reactor vessel at the bottom, traversing up the sides to the top plenum, down-flow through an annular core, and exiting from the lower plenum (hot duct). This research provided NRC staff with (a) insights and knowledge about the control and protection systems for the NGNP and VHTR, (b) information on the technologies/approaches under consideration for use in the reactor and process heat applications, (c) guidelines for the design of highly integrated control rooms, (d) consideration for modeling of control and protection system designs for VHTR, and (e) input for developing the bases for possible new regulatory guidance to assist in the review of an NGNP license application. This NRC project also evaluated reactor and process heat application plant simulation models employed in the protection and control system designs for various plant operational modes and accidents, including providing information about the models themselves, and the appropriateness of the application of the models for control and protection system studies. A companion project for the NRC focused on the potential for new instrumentation that would be unique to modular HTGRs, as compared to light-water reactors (LWRs), due to both the higher temperature ranges and the inherent safety features.

  9. PEBBLE-BED NUCLEAR REACTOR SYSTEM PHYSICS AND FUEL UTILIZATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ryan 1989-

    2011-04-20

    The Generation IV Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PMBR) design may be used for electricity production, co-generation applications (industrial heat, hydrogen production, desalination, etc.), and could potentially eliminate some high level nuclear wastes...

  10. PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY MEASUREMENTS IN A REPRESENTATIVE GAS-COOLED PRISMATIC REACTOR CORE MODEL: FLOW IN THE COOLANT CHANNELS AND INTERSTITIAL BYPASS GAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Conder; Richard Skifton; Ralph Budwig

    2012-11-01

    Core bypass flow is one of the key issues with the prismatic Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor, and it refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial, non-cooling passages between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. To determine the bypass flow, a double scale representative model was manufactured and installed in the Matched Index-of-Refraction flow facility; after which, stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the flow field within. PIV images were analyzed to produce vector maps, and flow rates were calculated by numerically integrating over the velocity field. It was found that the bypass flow varied between 6.9-15.8% for channel Reynolds numbers of 1,746 and 4,618. The results were compared to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) pre-test simulations. When compared to these pretest calculations, the CFD analysis appeared to under predict the flow through the gap.

  11. SCHE Helium bottles and associated isolation valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-21

    These gas bottles and associated valves provide the safety grade helium source for emergency MCO purge.

  12. Emergent spacetime from modular motives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolf Schimmrigk

    2008-12-23

    The program of constructing spacetime geometry from string theoretic modular forms is extended to Calabi-Yau varieties of dimensions two, three, and four, as well as higher rank motives. Modular forms on the worldsheet can be constructed from the geometry of spacetime by computing the L-functions associated to omega motives of Calabi-Yau varieties, generated by their holomorphic $n-$forms via Galois representations. The modular forms that emerge from the omega motive and other motives of the intermediate cohomology are related to characters of the underlying rational conformal field theory. The converse problem of constructing space from string theory proceeds in the class of diagonal theories by determining the motives associated to modular forms in the category of motives with complex multiplication. The emerging picture indicates that the L-function can be interpreted as a map from the geometric category of motives to the category of conformal field theories on the worldsheet.

  13. Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1982-04-01

    A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  14. Full-scale model of UCN source with superfluid helium at 8th International Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    leader: Anatoli Serebrov UCN group leader: Arcady Zakharov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute #12;Major. Precooling process investigation 3. Operational process simulation (reactor heat load simulation) 4. Liquid helium temperature vs. heat load measurement 5. Maximum heat load test 6. Control equipment test 7. 3He

  15. Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics You are accessing...

  16. High Temperature Gas Reactors Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heat Exchanger Design · Core Power Distribution Monitoring · Pebble Flow Experiments · Non Reactors #12;GT-MHR Module General Arrangement #12;GT-MHR Combines Meltdown-Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas MWt and 600 MWt Cores #12;GT-MHR Flow Schematic #12;Flow through Power Conversion Vessel #12;Modular

  17. Crystal orientation effects on helium ion depth distributions and adatom formation processes in plasma-facing tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, Karl D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996–2300 (United States); Wirth, Brian D., E-mail: bdwirth@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996–2300 (United States); P.O. Box 2008, MS-6003, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831–6003 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    We present atomistic simulations that show the effect of surface orientation on helium depth distributions and surface feature formation as a result of low-energy helium plasma exposure. We find a pronounced effect of surface orientation on the initial depth of implanted helium ions, as well as a difference in reflection and helium retention across different surface orientations. Our results indicate that single helium interstitials are sufficient to induce the formation of adatom/substitutional helium pairs under certain highly corrugated tungsten surfaces, such as (1 1 1)-orientations, leading to the formation of a relatively concentrated layer of immobile helium immediately below the surface. The energies involved for helium-induced adatom formation on (1 1 1) and (2 1 1) surfaces are exoergic for even a single adatom very close to the surface, while (0 0 1) and (0 1 1) surfaces require two or even three helium atoms in a cluster before a substitutional helium cluster and adatom will form with reasonable probability. This phenomenon results in much higher initial helium retention during helium plasma exposure to (1 1 1) and (2 1 1) tungsten surfaces than is observed for (0 0 1) or (0 1 1) surfaces and is much higher than can be attributed to differences in the initial depth distributions alone. The layer thus formed may serve as nucleation sites for further bubble formation and growth or as a source of material embrittlement or fatigue, which may have implications for the formation of tungsten “fuzz” in plasma-facing divertors for magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors and/or the lifetime of such divertors.

  18. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyaya, Belle; Hines, J. Wesley; Damiano, Brian; Mehta, Chaitanya; Collins, Price; Lish, Matthew; Cady, Brian; Lollar, Victor; de Wet, Dane; Bayram, Duygu

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on plant parameters and the pump electrical signatures. Additionally, the reactor simulation is being used to generate normal operation data and data with instrumentation faults and process anomalies. A frequency controller was interfaced with the motor power supply in order to vary the electrical supply frequency. The experimental flow control loop was used to generate operational data under varying motor performance characteristics. Coolant leakage events were simulated by varying the bypass loop flow rate. The accuracy of motor power calculation was improved by incorporating the power factor, computed from motor current and voltage in each phase of the induction motor.- A variety of experimental runs were made for steady-state and transient pump operating conditions. Process, vibration, and electrical signatures were measured using a submersible pump with variable supply frequency. High correlation was seen between motor current and pump discharge pressure signal; similar high correlation was exhibited between pump motor power and flow rate. Wide-band analysis indicated high coherence (in the frequency domain) between motor current and vibration signals. - Wide-band operational data from a PWR were acquired from AMS Corporation and used to develop time-series models, and to estimate signal spectrum and sensor time constant. All the data were from different pressure transmitters in the system, including primary and secondary loops. These signals were pre-processed using the wavelet transform for filtering both low-frequency and high-frequency bands. This technique of signal pre-processing provides minimum distortion of the data, and results in a more optimal estimation of time constants of plant sensors using time-series modeling techniques.

  19. The cosmic production of Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raul Jimenez; Chris Flynn; James MacDonald; Brad K. Gibson

    2003-03-07

    We estimate the cosmic production rate of helium relative to metals ($\\Delta Y/\\Delta Z$) using K dwarf stars in the Hipparcos catalog with accurate spectroscopic metallicities. The best fitting value is $\\Delta Y/\\Delta Z=2.1 \\pm 0.4$ at the 68% confidence level. Our derived value agrees with determinations from HII regions and with theoretical predictions from stellar yields with standard assumptions for the initial mass function. The amount of helium in stars determines how long they live and therefore how fast they will enrich the insterstellar medium with fresh material.

  20. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  1. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  2. Modular multivariable control improves hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia, T.L.; Lefkowitz, I. [ControlSoft, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Tamas, P.D. [Marathon Oil Co., Robinson, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Modular multivariable control (MMC), a system of interconnected, single process variable controllers, can be a user-friendly, reliable and cost-effective alternative to centralized, large-scale multivariable control packages. MMC properties and features derive directly from the properties of the coordinated controller which, in turn, is based on internal model control technology. MMC was applied to a hydrocracking unit involving two process variables and three controller outputs. The paper describes modular multivariable control, MMC properties, tuning considerations, application at the DCS level, constraints handling, and process application and results.

  3. Modularity in Distributed Feature Composition Pamela Zave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    , there is an abundance of experi- ence to draw upon. DFC was designed to support modular development of features; Section is an adaptation of the pipes-and-filters architectural style to telecommunication applications. This kind is an overview of pipes-and-filters modularity as realized in DFC. The benefit of feature modularity comes

  4. Preliminary Study of Bypass Flow in Prismatic Core of Very High Temperature Reactor Using Small-Scale Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanjanakijkasem, Worasit 1975-

    2012-11-29

    energy are: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR); lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR); molten salt reactor (MSR); sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR); supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR); and very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) [3]. These reactor...-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a once-through uranium fuel cycle [4]. The reactor core can be either a prismatic block or a pebble-bed core. The VHTR system is designed to be a...

  5. Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor Chris H. Rycroft,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor Chris H. Rycroft,1 Gary S. Grest,2 James February 2006; published 24 August 2006 Pebble-bed nuclear reactor technology, which is currently being States, the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor MPBR 4,8 is a candidate for the next generation nuclear plant

  6. Modified GR and Helium Nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Al-Rawaf

    2006-06-12

    We show that a previously proposed cosmological model based on general relativity with non vanishing divergence for the energy-momentum tensor is consistent with the observed values for the nucleosynthesis of helium for some values of the arbitrary parameter $\\alpha$ presented in this model. Further more values of $\\alpha$ can be accommodated if we adopt the Randall-Sundrum single brane model.

  7. Two low-cost, modular sub-? test cryostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerst, J. D.; Kaluzny, J. A. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Two general-purpose liquid helium (LHe) test cryostats have been developed in support of a major upgrade to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The cryostats are capable of sustained operation below 1.8 K and currently support tests of prototype superconducting rf (srf) cavities for the APS Upgrade’s Short Pulse X-ray (SPX) initiative. To save cost, two existing test vessels were reconditioned: one “bucket dewar” supporting bare cavity tests and one shielded vacuum vessel with an integral LHe reservoir for jacketed/dressed cavity tests. A new feedbox containing a heat exchanger and associated valves was also designed and fabricated to support either cryostat. The resulting modular design permits tests on a wide variety of srf cavities in various states of completion, minimizing cost and maximizing use of the hardware. Together with a dedicated vacuum pump, control system, and helium supply via storage dewar or cryoplant, these cryostats are vital to the srf cavity development effort within the APS Upgrade.

  8. Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

    2009-05-01

    The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

  9. Spectral Modular Exponentiation Gokay Saldamli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    and exponentiation based on a new reduction oper- ation are proposed (Section 2). These methods work com- pletely to meet the asymptotic crossover of Sch¨onhage-Strassen, assuming the reduction has a constant cost describe a new method to perform the modular expo- nentiation operation, i.e., the computation of c = me

  10. High Temperature Gas Reactors The Next Generation ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    %) · Microsphere Coated Particle Fuel #12;3 History of Gas Reactors in US · Peach Bottom (40 MWe) 1967-1974 - First MWD/kg Disadvantages · Poor History in US · Little Helium Turbine Experience · US Technology Water Africa - 250 MWth Pebble - 2006 · Russia - 290 MWe - Pu Burner Prismatic 2007 (GA, Framatome, DOE, etc

  11. Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

    2013-05-31

    The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture toughness, creep rupture, and fatigue. Although there are some studies on the effects of impurities in helium coolant on creep rupture and fatigue strength, very little is known about their effects on creep crack initiation and crack growth rate at elevated temperatures.

  12. Modular HTGR Safety Basis and Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Hicks

    2011-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) capable of producing electricity and/or high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) process, as recommended in the NGNP Licensing Strategy - A Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy [DOE/NRC 2008]. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy for licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This information paper is one in a series of submittals that address key generic issues of the priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements. This information paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach with the NRC staff and public stakeholders. The NGNP project does not expect to receive comments on this information paper because other white papers are addressing key generic issues of the priority licensing topics in greater detail.

  13. The Epoch of Helium Reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron Sokasian; Tom Abel; Lars. E. Hernquist

    2001-12-14

    We study the reionization of Helium II by quasars using a numerical approach that combines 3D radiative transfer calculations with cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Sources producing the ionizing radiation are selected according to an empirical quasar luminosity function and are assigned luminosities according to their intrinsic masses. We present models in which these parameters are varied and examine characteristics of the resultant reionization process that distinguish the various cases. In addition, we extract artificial spectra from the simulations and quantify statistical properties of the spectral features in each model. We find that the most important factor affecting the evolution of He II reionization is the cumulative number of ionizing photons that are produced by the sources. Comparisons between He II opacities measured observationally and those obtained by our analysis reveal that the available ranges in plausible values for the parameters provide enough leeway to provide a satisfactory match. However, one property common to all our calculations is that the epoch of Helium II reionization must have occurred at a redshift between 3 < z < 4. If so, future observational programs will be able to directly trace the details of the ionization history of helium and probe the low density phase of the intergalactic medium during this phase of the evolution of the Universe.

  14. Mock Modular Mathieu Moonshine Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda C. N. Cheng; Xi Dong; John F. R. Duncan; Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Timm Wrase

    2015-08-10

    We construct super vertex operator algebras which lead to modules for moonshine relations connecting the four smaller sporadic simple Mathieu groups with distinguished mock modular forms. Starting with an orbifold of a free fermion theory, any subgroup of Co_0 that fixes a 3-dimensional subspace of its unique non-trivial 24-dimensional representation commutes with a certain N=4 superconformal algebra. Similarly, any subgroup of Co_0 that fixes a 2-dimensional subspace of the 24-dimensional representation commutes with a certain N=2 superconformal algebra. Through the decomposition of the corresponding twined partition functions into characters of the N=4 (resp. N=2) superconformal algebra, we arrive at mock modular forms which coincide with the graded characters of an infinite-dimensional Z-graded module for the corresponding group. The Mathieu groups are singled out amongst various other possibilities by the moonshine property: requiring the corresponding weak Jacobi forms to have certain asymptotic behaviour near cusps. Our constructions constitute the first examples of explicitly realized modules underlying moonshine phenomena relating mock modular forms to sporadic simple groups. Modules for other groups, including the sporadic groups of McLaughlin and Higman--Sims, are also discussed.

  15. LANL researchers simulate helium bubble behavior in fusion reactors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask2 J.N.open to badge holders

  16. Energy, helium, and the future: II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, M.C.; Hammel, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of helium as a critical resource material has been recognized specifically by the scientific community and more generally by the 1960 Congressional mandate to institute a long-range conservation program. A major study mandated by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 resulted in the publication in 1975 of the document, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, ERDA-13. This document contained a comprehensive review and analysis relating to helium resources and present and future supply/demand relationships with particular emphasis upon those helium-dependent energy-related technologies projected to be implemented in the post-2000 year time period, e.g., fusion. An updated overview of the helium situation as it exists today is presented. Since publication of ERDA-13, important changes in the data base underlying that document have occurred. The data have since been reexamined, revised, and new information included. Potential supplies of helium from both conventional and unconventional natural gas resources, projected supply/demand relationships to the year 2030 based upon a given power-generation scenario, projected helium demand for specific energy-related technologies, and the supply options (national and international) available to meet that demand are discussed. An updated review will be given of the energy requirements for the extraction of helium from natural gas as they relate to the concentration of helium. A discussion is given concerning the technical and economic feasibility of several methods available both now and conceptually possible, to extract helium from helium-lean natural gas, the atmosphere, and outer space. Finally, a brief review is given of the 1980 Congressional activities with respect to the introduction and possible passage of new helium conservation legislation.

  17. Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics Chirica...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F. A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a...

  18. Rank-finiteness for modular categories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Bruillard; Siu-Hung Ng; Eric C. Rowell; Zhenghan Wang

    2015-05-27

    We prove a rank-finiteness conjecture for modular categories: up to equivalence, there are only finitely many modular categories of any fixed rank. Our technical advance is a generalization of the Cauchy theorem in group theory to the context of spherical fusion categories. For a modular category $\\mathcal{C}$ with $N=ord(T)$, the order of the modular $T$-matrix, the Cauchy theorem says that the set of primes dividing the global quantum dimension $D^2$ in the Dedekind domain $\\mathbb{Z}[e^{\\frac{2\\pi i}{N}}]$ is identical to that of $N$.

  19. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSof 2005 atHouse Environmental1-01 EvaluationOE-2: 2015-1

  20. Electricity Generating Portfolios with Small Modular Reactors | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMS Monthly Review EVMSand Transcript |Federal

  1. Small Modular Reactors, National Security and Clean Energy: A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and proliferation." http:mediacentral.princeton.eduid07bhf9ilf Contact Information Coordinator(s): Carol Ann Austin caustin@pppl.gov Host(s): Dr. Adam B. Cohen acohen@pppl.gov...

  2. Performance and Safety Analysis of a Generic Small Modular Reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitcher, Evans Damenortey, 1987-

    2012-11-07

    a fuel assembly position, each white square 150 200 250 300 350 400 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Act iv e F uel Leng th Number of Assemblies Number of Assemblies required for the core 17 representing water filled positions... performance criteria of the mPower SMR from B&W. The Monte Carlo codes MCNP5/MCNPX are used to model the core. Fuel enrichment, core inventory, core size are all variables optimized to meet the set goals of core lifetime and fuel utilization (burnup...

  3. Economic Analysis of the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of scale vs. productivity #12;MPBR Cost Estimate · Capital cost · O&M cost · Fuel cost · Decommissioning cost #12;Capital Cost · Cost savings come from: ­ more factory fabrication, less site work ­ learning effect from 1st to 10th unit ­ natural safety features ­ shorter construction time · Total capital cost

  4. Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques V Hugo

    2014-10-01

    This book chapter describes the considerations for the selection of advanced human–system interfaces (HSIs) for the new generation of nuclear power plants. The chapter discusses the technologies that will be needed to support highly automated nuclear power plants, while minimising demands for numbers of operational staff, reducing human error and improving plant efficiency and safety. Special attention is paid to the selection and deployment of advanced technologies in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chapter closes with an examination of how technologies are likely to develop over the next 10–15 years and how this will affect design choices for the nuclear industry.

  5. Benefits of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And StatisticsProgram ManagerCorridor6 Audit Report: WR-B-00-06B l u e RPersistent,Benefits of

  6. Partnerships Help Advance Small Modular Reactor Technology | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidential PermitDAYS - WE NEED A CHANGEof The Department of

  7. Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORSSeries)SupportedDavidA - LReport) |

  8. Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solidSwitchgrass and Miscanthus x GiganteusReport) | SciTech

  9. Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeepDecemberCornstalksAmerica

  10. Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EV Everywhere|Muscle Car |EcoCAR: The

  11. Electricity Generating Portfolios with Small Modular Reactors | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilof Energy 2ofU.S. Department ofEnergyof

  12. Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Board -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergy Small Column Ion| Department ofDeputy

  13. Energy Department Announces Small Modular Reactor Technology Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWind Projects | DepartmentRoofs, and Heating and Coolingat

  14. Low energy electron-enhanced etching of Si(100) in hydrogen/helium direct-current plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dove, Patricia M.

    Low energy electron-enhanced etching of Si(100) in hydrogen/helium direct-current plasma H. P, and high-density plasma in which energy of the incident ions is reduced;2,3 however, damage problems remain of a dc plasma reactor, and thus receives a large flux of low-energy electrons and hydrogen molecules

  15. Update; Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenkamp, R.D.; Brunings, J.E. ); Guenther, E. ); Hren, R. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel during the 3-year period extending from January 1985 to December 1987 as one element in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Program. In January 1988, the team was expanded to include Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., and the concept development was extended under DOE's Program for Improvement in Advanced Modular LMR Design. The SAFR plant concept employs a 450-MWe pool-type liquid metal cooled reactor as its basic module. The reactor assembly module is a standardized shop-fabricated unit that can be shipped to the plant site by barge for installation. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and reduces the plant construction schedule. Reactor modules can be used individually or in multiples at a given site to supply the needed generating capacity.

  16. Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility...

  17. A hybrid network architecture for modular data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radhakrishnan, Sivasankar

    2010-01-01

    Part-time Optics in Data Centers. In ACM SIGCOMM ’10. [WLLStructure for Modular Data Center Interconnection. In ACMArchitecture for Modular Data Centers A thesis submitted in

  18. An inverse of the modular invariant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semjon Adlaj

    2011-10-14

    During the last few years of his life, Ramanujan had adamantly tried to invert the modular invariant. Subsequent efforts failed until May 30, 2011 when an explicit closed formula for an inverse was presented at the CCRAS (Moscow, Russia). This very formula, along with some special values of the modular invariant, is given in this paper.

  19. Modularity of Termination Using Dependency Pairs ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Modularity of Termination Using Dependency Pairs ? Thomas Arts 1 and J¨urgen Giesl 2 1 Computer@informatik.tu­darmstadt.de Abstract. The framework of dependency pairs allows automated ter­ mination and innermost termination proofs of this framework in order to prove termination in a modular way. Our mod­ ularity results significantly increase

  20. On the Generator of Massive Modular Groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timor Saffary

    2006-01-19

    The purpose of this paper is to shed more light on the transition from the known massless modular action to the wanted massive one in the case of forward light cones and double cones. The infinitesimal generator of the massive modular automorphism group is investigated, in particular, some assumptions on its structure are verified explicitly for two concrete examples.

  1. Efficient Software Implementations of Modular Exponentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    1 Efficient Software Implementations of Modular Exponentiation Shay Gueron 1, 2 1 Department on the workloads of SSL/TLS servers, and therefore their software implementations on general purpose processors attacks. Together, these lead to an efficient software implementation of 512-bit modular exponentiation

  2. HELIUM COMPRESSOR MONITORING SYSTEM Donna Kubik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HELIUM COMPRESSOR MONITORING SYSTEM Donna Kubik Arecibo Observatory #12;1 CONTENTS 1. Design goals for Phaseloss Detection Lambda +15V Power Supply Distribution Remote Control of 120VC to Compressor Monitoring System Fiber and Network Connections #12;3 1. Design goals Helium refrigerators cool the cryogenically

  3. Helium on Venus: Implications for uranium and thorium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Mcelroy, MB

    1983-01-01

    Implications for Uranium and Thorium Abstract. Helium isa wide range of uranium and thorium abundances. simi· lar toof crustal uranium and thorium. Studies of helium in Earth's

  4. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    larger when it bursts, creating more surface debris. The colors indicate helium atoms (blue) and tungsten atoms (red). The Science When simulated helium (He) bubbles grow quickly,...

  5. Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Shropshire

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

  6. Thermal hydraulic design of a 2400 MW t?h? direct supercritical CO?-cooled fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, Michael A. (Michael Alexander)

    2006-01-01

    The gas cooled fast reactor (GFR) has received new attention as one of the basic concepts selected by the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) for further investigation. Currently, the reference GFR is a helium-cooled ...

  7. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  8. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  9. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  10. XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

    2009-01-01

    The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

  11. Sonic helium detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years.

  12. Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Gilbert; S. L. Dudarev; D. Nguyen-Manh; S. Zheng; L. W. Packer; J. -Ch. Sublet

    2013-11-20

    In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant compared to a previous study, while at the same time indicating that helium embrittlement remains one of the most significant factors controlling the structural integrity of fusion power plant components.

  13. First-principles calculations of the stability and incorporation of helium, xenon and krypton in uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Beeler; B. Good; S. Rashkeev; M. Baskes; M. Okuniewski

    2012-06-01

    While metallic fuels have a long history of reactor use, their fundamental physical and thermodynamic properties are not well understood. Many metallic nuclear fuels are body-centered cubic alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, creating fission product gases such as helium, xenon and krypton. In this paper, helium, xenon, and krypton point defects are investigated in the a and ? phases of metallic uranium using first principles calculations. A density functional theory (DFT) framework is utilized with projector augmented-wave (PAW) pseudopotentials. Formation and incorporation energies of He, Xe, and Kr are calculated at various defect positions for the prediction of fission gas behavior in uranium. In most cases, defect energies follow a size effect, with helium incorporation and formation energies being the smallest. The most likely position for the larger Xe and Kr atoms in uranium is the substitutional site. Helium atoms are likely to be found in a wide variety of defect positions due to the comparable formation energies of all defect configurations analyzed. This is the first detailed study of the stability and incorporation of fission gases in uranium.

  14. Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

  15. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Roger B. (Penn Twp., PA); Fero, Arnold H. (New Kensington, PA); Sejvar, James (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  16. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

    1997-12-16

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

  17. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with cold pre-injected helium. I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen Daymond, Mark R.; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2014-03-14

    In order to understand radiation damage in the nickel based superalloy Inconel X-750 in thermal reactors, where (n, ?) transmutation reaction also occurred in addition to fast neutron induced atomic displacement, heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with pre-injected helium was performed under in-situ observations of an intermediate voltage electron microscope at Argonne National Laboratory. By comparing to our previous studies using 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} irradiation solely, the pre-injected helium was found to be essential in cavity nucleation. Cavities started to be visible after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to 2.7 dpa at ?200?°C in samples containing 200 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm helium, respectively, but not at lower temperatures. The cavity growth was observed during the continuous irradiation. Cavity formation appeared along with a reduced number density of stacking fault tetrahedra, vacancy type defects. With higher pre-injected helium amount, a higher density of smaller cavities was observed. This is considered to be the result of local trapping effect of helium which disperses vacancies. The average cavity size increases with increasing irradiation temperatures; the density reduced; and the distribution of cavities became heterogeneous at elevated temperatures. In contrast to previous characterization of in-reactor neutron irradiated Inconel X-750, no obvious cavity sink to grain boundaries and phase boundaries was found even at high doses and elevated temperatures. MC-type carbides were observed as strong sources for agglomeration of cavities due to their enhanced trapping strength of helium and vacancies.

  18. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on modest'' extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  19. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  20. Characteristics of irradiation creep in the first wall of a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coghlan, W.A.; Mansur, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    A number of significant differences in the irradiation environment of a fusion reactor are expected with respect to the fission reactor irradiation environment. These differences are expected to affect the characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor. Special conditions of importance are identified as the (1) large number of defects produced per pka, (2) high helium production rate, (3) cyclic operation, (4) unique stress histories, and (5) low temperature operations. Existing experimental data from the fission reactor environment is analyzed to shed light on irradiation creep under fusion conditions. Theoretical considerations are used to deduce additional characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor environment for which no experimental data are available.

  1. A New Architecture for Man: The Modular, Prefabricated Buildings of Ernest J. Kump, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Hilp on a modular plan, a prefabricated house design forPark houses were a system of nested prefabricated modular

  2. A TAXONOMY OF MODULAR GRIME IN DESIGN PATTERNS Travis Steven Schanz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    A TAXONOMY OF MODULAR GRIME IN DESIGN PATTERNS by Travis Steven Schanz A thesis submitted .......................................................................................21 3. MODULAR GRIME TAXONOMY .........................

  3. MODULAR MAGIC SUDOKU JOHN LORCH AND ELLEN WELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorch, John D.

    MODULAR MAGIC SUDOKU JOHN LORCH AND ELLEN WELD Abstract. A modular magic sudoku solution. 05B15. 1 #12;2 JOHN LORCH AND ELLEN WELD sudoku solution in (1) and the solution x2 given in Section

  4. A Compact Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.P. Ku; the ARIES-CS Team

    2003-10-20

    We report the progress made in assessing the potential of compact, quasi-axisymmetric stellarators as power-producing reactors. Using an aspect ratio A=4.5 configuration derived from NCSX and optimized with respect to the quasi-axisymmetry and MHD stability in the linear regime as an example, we show that a reactor of 1 GW(e) maybe realizable with a major radius *8 m. This is significantly smaller than the designs of stellarator reactors attempted before. We further show the design of modular coils and discuss the optimization of coil aspect ratios in order to accommodate the blanket for tritium breeding and radiation shielding for coil protection. In addition, we discuss the effects of coil aspect ratio on the peak magnetic field in the coils.

  5. Helium 'balloons' offer new path to control complex materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Morgan McCorkle Communications and Media Relations 865.574.7308 Helium 'balloons' offer new path to control complex materials Inserting helium atoms (visualized as a red balloon)...

  6. Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Presentation from the 34th Tritium...

  7. Trace Detection of Metastable Helium Molecules in Superfluid Helium by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. N. McKinsey; W. H. Lippincott; J. Nikkel; W. Rellergert

    2005-03-11

    We describe an approach to detecting ionizing radiation that combines the special properties of superfluid helium with the sensitivity of quantum optics techniques. Ionization in liquid helium results in the copious production of metastable helium molecules, which can be detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Each molecule can be probed many times using a cycling transition, resulting in the detection of individual molecules with high signal to noise. This technique could be used to detect neutrinos, weakly interacting massive particles, and ultracold neutrons, and to image superfluid flow in liquid He-4.

  8. Aalborg Universitet Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Chengxi., Vasquez, J. C., & Dragicevic, T. (2014). Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 04, 2015 #12;Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters ­ Invited

  9. A Modular Control System for Remote Subsea Eric Stephen Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    A Modular Control System for Remote Subsea Equipment by Eric Stephen Smith Bachelor of Science the undersigned committee hereby approve the attached thesis A Modular Control System for Remote Subsea Equipment and Environmental Systems #12;iv Abstract Title: A Modular Control System for Remote Subsea Equipment Author: Eric

  10. Radiogenic Source Identification for the Helium Production-Diffusion ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-10-17

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Key words: Inverse source problem, production-diffusion equation, Tikhonov regularization. 1 Introduction. Helium isotopes are used ...

  11. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-05-01

    Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. This paper reviews the experimental apparatus and procedures, presents a sample of the data set, and reviews the INL Standard Problem. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal undeveloped, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and presentations that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet conditions are also presented.

  12. Helium-3 in Planetary Nebulae Bob Rood (UVa),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    the VLA · We probably have found helium-3 in NGC7009 using the GBT and may have a second detection in NGCHelium-3 in Planetary Nebulae Bob Rood (UVa), Tom Bania (BU), Dana Balser (NRAO), Miller Goss (NRAO, lags, and amplitudes #12;Helium-3 Conclusions · We have found helium-3 in another PN, J320, using

  13. Spectroscopy of He 2 Floating on the Liquid Helium Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northby, Jan A.

    Spectroscopy of He 2 Floating on the Liquid Helium Surface Chih-Ching Hu, Raghuram Petluri, Jan A helium molecules produced in electron bombarded helium nanodroplets subsequently are detached by infrared highly sensitive detection of the absorption spectrum. Recent experiments utilize a new tunable infrared

  14. Reactor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  15. 1 INTRODUCTION The modular finitedifference groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Thomas F.

    1 INTRODUCTION The modular finite­difference ground­water flow model (MODFLOW) developed by the U­dimensional ground­water systems (McDonald & Harbaugh, 1988, Harbaugh & McDonald, 1996). MOC3D is a solute is optimal for advection­ dominated systems, which are typical of many field problems involving ground­water

  16. Improved Modular Termination Proofs Using Dependency Pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Middeldorp, Aart

    Improved Modular Termination Proofs Using Dependency Pairs Ren´e Thiemann, J¨urgen Giesl, Peter) termination proofs of term rewrite systems (TRSs). For any TRS, it generates inequality constraints that have to be satisfied by well-founded orders. However, proving innermost termination is considerably easier than

  17. Improved Modular Termination Proofs Using Dependency Pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Improved Modular Termination Proofs Using Dependency Pairs Renâ??e Thiemann, JË?urgen Giesl, Peter) termination proofs of term rewrite systems (TRSs). For any TRS, it generates inequality constraints that have to be satisfied by well­founded orders. However, proving innermost termination is considerably easier than

  18. Design Considerations for Economically Competitive Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao

    2009-05-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phénix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design.

  19. A novel scheme to handle highly pulsed loads with a standard helium refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slack, D.S.

    1993-06-30

    Helium refrigerator performance degrades rapidly when it has to handle a varying or pulsed heat load. A novel scheme is presented to handle highly pulsed 4.5 K cryogenic loads with a standard helium refrigerator by isolating it from these pulses. The scheme uses a relatively simple arrangement of control valves, heat exchangers, and a storage dewar. Applications include pulsed tokamak machines such as TPX (Tokamak Physics Experiment) and ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). For example, the TPX (currently in the conceptual design phase in a DoE contract) requires an average 4.5 K refrigerator capacity of about 10 kW; however, pulsed loads caused by eddy current and nuclear heating will exceed 100 kW. The scheme presented here provides a method for handling these pulsed loads. Because of the simple and proven nature of the components involved and the thermodynamic properties of the helium, the system could be implemented for projects such as TPX or ITER with little or no development.

  20. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  1. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  2. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  3. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  4. Modular multiplication operator and quantized baker's maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakshminarayan, Arul [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The modular multiplication operator, a central subroutine in Shor's factoring algorithm, is shown to be a coherent superposition of two quantum baker's maps when the multiplier is 2. The classical limit of the maps being completely chaotic, it is shown that there exist perturbations that push the modular multiplication operator into regimes of generic quantum chaos with spectral fluctuations that are those of random matrices. For the initial state of relevance to Shor's algorithm we study fidelity decay due to phase and bit-flip errors in a single qubit and show exponential decay with shoulders at multiples or half-multiples of the order. A simple model is used to gain some understanding of this behavior.

  5. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  6. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  7. Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J. (11908 Ibex Ave., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1996-12-03

    Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

  8. Neutronic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  9. Modular Dynamical Semigroups for Quantum Dissipative Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Taj; Hans Christian Öttinger

    2015-03-10

    We introduce a class of Markovian quantum master equations, able to describe the dissipative dynamics of a quantum system weakly coupled to one or several heat baths. The dissipative structure is driven by an entropic operator, the so called modular Hamiltonian, which makes it nonlinear. The generated Modular Dynamical Semigroup (MDS) is not, in general, a Quantum Dynamical Semigroup (QDS), whose dynamics is of the popular Lindblad type. The MDS has a robust thermodynamic structure, which guarantees for the positivity of the time evolved state, the correct steady state properties, the positivity of the entropy production, a positive Onsager matrix and Onsager symmetry relations (arising from Green-Kubo formulas). We show that the celebrated Davies generator, obtained through the Born and the secular approximations, generates a MDS. By unravelling the modular structure of the former, we provide a different and genuinely nonlinear MDS, not of QDS type, which is free from the severe spectral restrictions of the Davies generator, while still being supported by a weak coupling limit argument. With respect to the latter, the present work is a substantial extension of \\cite{Ottinger2011_GEO,Ottinger2010_TLS_DHO}

  10. In situ controlled modification of the helium density in single helium-filled nanobubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, M.-L. Pailloux, F.; Alix, K.; Mauchamp, V.; Pizzagalli, L.; Couillard, M.; Botton, G. A.

    2014-03-28

    We demonstrate that the helium density and corresponding pressure can be modified in single nano-scale bubbles embedded in semiconductors by using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope as a multifunctional probe: the measurement probe for imaging and chemical analysis and the irradiation source to modify concomitantly the pressure in a controllable way by fine tuning of the electron beam parameters. The control of the detrapping rate is achieved by varying the experimental conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms are discussed; our experimental observations suggest that the helium detrapping from bubbles could be interpreted in terms of direct ballistic collisions, leading to the ejection of the helium atoms from the bubble.

  11. Mantle helium along the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, Los Angeles basin, California-A leaking paleo-subduction zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boles, J. R; Garven, G.; Camacho, H.; Lupton, J. E

    2015-01-01

    4 + 4 ]. The total helium production term J tot (reactiveal. [1997], the total helium production term J tot (reactive= radiogenic helium production rate from the crust (~

  12. MODELING SPACE-TIME DEPENDENT HELIUM BUBBLE EVOLUTION IN TUNGSTEN ARMOR UNDER IFE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    dependent Helium transport in finite geometries, including the simultaneous transient production of defects of Helium bubbles. I. INTRODUCTION Helium production and helium bubble evolution in neutronMODELING SPACE-TIME DEPENDENT HELIUM BUBBLE EVOLUTION IN TUNGSTEN ARMOR UNDER IFE CONDITIONS Qiyang

  13. Design of the Helium Purifier for IHEP-ADS Helium Purification System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianqin, Zhang; Zhuo, Zhang; Rui, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Helium Purification System is an important sub-system in the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System of the Institute of High Energy Physics(IHEP ADS). The purifier is designed to work at the temperature of 77K. The purifier will work in a flow rate of 5g/s at 20MPa in continuous operation of 12 hours. The oil and moisture are removed by coalescing filters and a dryer, while nitrogen and oxygen are condensed by a phase separator and then adsorbed in several activated carbon adsorption cylinders. After purification, the purified helium has an impurity content of less than 5ppm.

  14. New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    behavior of complex multisegmented mooring systems-a critical component of both wave energy conversion and floating offshore wind systems. The new FAST modularization...

  15. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with...

  16. Micro-Modular Biopower System for Cooling, Heating and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    This Congressionally-mandated project seeks to test a micro-modular biopower system for use on the Mount Wachusett Community College (MWCC) campus.

  17. Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumdar, Mainak

    Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model. Keywords: Software reliability; Modular Operational Tests; Sample Size Determination; Mathematical Programming #12;Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

  18. Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Email Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Applications: Portal monitoring Nuclear energy safety and monitoring Nuclear non-proliferation Benefits: Drop-in...

  19. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, S.

    2010-01-01

    helium concentrations in the well fluid samples recovered during SAFOD drilling project were very small (very close to the GC detection

  20. Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluid as it flows eastward over the caldera. Decreasing Hecondensible-gas ( HeCO2) ratios accompanying this trend suggest that CO2 addition andor preferential helium...

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Program to Measure the Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor Lower Plenum for Validation of CFD Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-09-01

    The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet velocity profiles is also presented.

  2. Helium-3 and Helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Leemans, W P; Bulanov, S V; Margarone, D; Korn, G; Haberer, T

    2015-01-01

    The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (Magnetic Vortex Acceleration and hole-boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration) of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He3 ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He4 with the ...

  3. Universal molecule injector in liquid helium: Pulsed cryogenic doped helium droplet source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    for the injection of atomic impurities in bulk helium.1 The electrostatically driven injection of ions,12 injection of ions with subsequent neutralization,13 and in situ laser ablation,14,15 direct coupling of discharged gas flow to the liquid,16 are examples. These methods have succeeded mainly in the injection of atomic

  4. THE CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A DOUBLE ACTING BELLOWS LIQUID HELIUM PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    ACTING BELLOWS LIQUID HELIUM PUMP A. Burns, M. A. Green, R.ACTING BELLOWS LIQUID HELIUM PUMP W.A. Burns, M.A. Green,bellows liquid helium pump built and tested at the Lawrence

  5. The components for a quantum computer based on surface state electrons on liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naberhuis, Brian Patrick

    2007-01-01

    explanation of no detection events after helium was added toOnce helium was introduced to the cell, electron detectionDetection In their original paper on electrons on helium

  6. Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition in Helium Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnolet, Glenn; MCQUEENEY, DF; REPPY, JD.

    1989-01-01

    , Cornell University, Ithaca, Xetv York 14853 (Received 4 November 1988) The superAuid response of helium Alms with transition temperatures ranging from 70 mK to 0.5 K has been studied using a torsional oscillator technique. A detailed analysis... with the dynamic theory reveal nonuniversal behavior as a function of coverage. INTRODUCTION The superAuid phase transition in thin He films on planar surfaces is generally acknowledged to be a realiza- tion of a Kosterlitz-Thouless' (KT) two-dimensional (2D...

  7. Thermo-Mechanical Pumps for Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, G.; Schumann, B.; Stangl, R.; Binneberg, A.; Wobst, E. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Hauptbereich Kaelte- und Tieftemperaturtechnik, Bertolt-Brecht-Allee 20, Dresden, D-01219 (Germany)

    2004-06-23

    In Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02) experiment a large scale superconducting magnet separates charged particles coming from cosmic radiation. Two thermo-mechanical pumps (TMP), operating by use of the Fountain-effect, will be used to supply the current leads and the magnet coil after quench with superfluid helium. These TMP are currently under development at ILK Dresden. Due to the applications the TMP are required to pump a mass flow of 0.2 g/s. After introduction into the basic principles essential for TMP function, we report on the development and tests of the TMP for AMS-02.

  8. Polarized Helium to Image the Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leduc, M; Leduc, Mich\\`{e}le; Nacher, Pierre-Jean

    2006-01-01

    The main findings of the european PHIL project (Polarised Helium to Image the Lung) are reported. State of the art optical pumping techniques for polarising ^3He gas are described. MRI methodological improvements allow dynamical ventilation images with a good resolution, ultimately limited by gas diffusion. Diffusion imaging appears as a robust method of lung diagnosis. A discussion of the potential advantage of low field MRI is presented. Selected PHIL results for emphysema are given, with the perspectives that this joint work opens up for the future of respiratory medicine.

  9. Production of thorium-229 using helium nuclei

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Garland, Marc Alan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A method for producing .sup.229Th includes the steps of providing .sup.226Ra as a target material, and bombarding the target material with alpha particles, helium-3, or neutrons to form .sup.229Th. When neutrons are used, the neutrons preferably include an epithermal neutron flux of at least 1.times.10.sup.13 n s.sup.-1cm.sup.-2. .sup.228Ra can also be bombarded with thermal and/or energetic neutrons to result in a neutron capture reaction to form .sup.229Th. Using .sup.230Th as a target material, .sup.229Th can be formed using neutron, gamma ray, proton or deuteron bombardment.

  10. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-01-01

    while modular system cooling kW/ton value exhibited aback into the modular cooling system and passed through thethe ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal.

  11. Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-01-01

    by the passive modular cooling system; and P hydraulic isthe ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal.modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly

  12. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang T.

    2009-01-01

    overhead cooling system Cooling system. The cooling systemTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF MODULAR, SCALABLE COOLING SYSTEMS ANDmodular, scalable cooling systems and servers 3.1 Modular,

  13. Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulanovsky, Levy (Westmont, IL)

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

  14. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-09-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  15. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-12-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  16. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, , J.M.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  17. Modular Coil Design for the Ultra-low Aspect Ratio Quasi-axially Symmetric Stellarator MHH2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku LP, the ARIES-CS Team

    2005-09-27

    A family of two field-period quasi-axisymmetric stellarators generally known as MHH2 with aspect ratios of only {approx}2.5 was found. These configurations have low field ripples and excellent confinement of {alpha} particles. This discovery raises the hope that a compact stellarator reactor may eventually be designed with the property of tokamak transport and stellarator stability. In this paper we demonstrate that smooth modular coils may be designed for this family of configurations that not only yield plasmas with good physics properties but also possess engineering properties desirable for compact power producing reactors. We show designs featuring 16 modular coils with ratios of major radius to minimum coil-plasma separation {approx}5.5, major radius to minimum coil-coil separation {approx}10 and the maximum field in coil bodies to the field on axis {approx}2 for 0.2 m{sup 2} conductors. These coils is expected to allow plasmas operated at 5% {beta} with {alpha} energy loss < 10% for a reactor of major radius <9 m at 5 T.

  18. Compilation as Metacomputation: Binding Time Separation in Modular Compilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamin, Sam

    Compilation as Metacomputation: Binding Time Separation in Modular Compilers (Extended Abstract­ ings. Metacomputation­style specification lends itself to semantics­directed compilation, which we demonstrate by creating a modular compiler for a higher­order, imperative, Algol­like language. Keywords

  19. Montgomery Modular Multiplication on ARM-NEON Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Montgomery Modular Multiplication on ARM-NEON Revisited Hwajeong Seo1 , Zhe Liu2 , Johann Großsch-based cryptosystems. The increased prevalence of SIMD-type instructions in commodity processors (e.g. Intel SSE, ARM modular multiplication on ARM-NEON platforms. Detailed benchmarking results obtained on an ARM Cortex-A9

  20. An Integrated, Modular Framework for Computer Vision and Cognitive Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Förster, Alexander

    on perception has been an active component of developing artificial vision (or computer vision) systemsAn Integrated, Modular Framework for Computer Vision and Cognitive Robotics Research (icVision) J an easy-to-use, modular framework for performing computer vision related tasks in support of cognitive

  1. Modularity for Java and How OSGi Can Help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modularity for Java and How OSGi Can Help DECOR October 28th , 2004 Richard S. Hall #12;Software environment #12;Focus of my research Popularized by Java because of its simple dynamic code loading mechanisms of modularity mechanism The Java world has many frameworks and systems reinventing this wheel e.g., component

  2. Modular Quantum Memories Using Passive Linear Optics and Coherent Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modular Quantum Memories Using Passive Linear Optics and Coherent Feedback Hendra I. Nurdin photon pulsed optical field has a conceptually simple modular realization using only passive linear optics and coherent feedback. We exploit the idea that two decaying optical cavities can be coupled

  3. VMCrypt -Modular Software Architecture for Scalable Secure Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    VMCrypt - Modular Software Architecture for Scalable Secure Computation Lior Malka Jonathan Katz on efficiency and automation aspects of secure computation, in this paper we focus on software modularity software also introduces a new technique for parallel evaluation of garbled circuits. The software

  4. Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgas, John

    Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum John C. Georgas intervention that cen- ters on the widespread infusion of design learning throughout the curriculum using: An emphasis on broadly infusing design learning through the curriculum using modular design challenges

  5. Modular Termination of Basic Narrowing and Equational Unification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escobar, Santiago

    constraint solving [4, 5], partial evaluation [6], and model checking [17], among others. TerminationModular Termination of Basic Narrowing and Equational Unification Mar´ia Alpuente Santiago Escobar steps to a set of unblocked (or basic) positions. In this work, we study the modularity of termination

  6. Structure of processes in flow reactor and closed reactor: Flow reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Structure of processes in flow reactor and closed reactor: Flow reactor Closed reactor Active Zone -- chemical quasi- equilibria, similarity principles and macroscopic kinetics", in: Lectures on Plasma Physics

  7. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  8. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. D. Grigoriev; O. Zimmer; T. Ziman; A. D. Grigoriev

    2015-09-21

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyse the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time constant of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed one hour, and rapidly increasing with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the scheme of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved access to short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron beta-decay experiments. We also sketch new experimental concepts for level population and trapping of UCNs above a flat horizontal mirror.

  9. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, P D; Ziman, T; Grigoriev, A D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyse the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time constant of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed one hour, and rapidly increasing with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the scheme of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved access to short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron beta-decay experiments. We also sketch new ex...

  10. HELIUM LIQUEFIER SYSTEM REPORT Undergraduate Student: Fernanda Cavalcante da Silva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    - renewable resources such as oil, once released into the atmosphere it travels up into the upper part researchers and laboratories are motivated to make helium recycling a relevant project in their facilities and is refrigerated to produce a pure liquid helium product stream. Currently, several industries are specialized

  11. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  12. Study of Impurity-Helium Condensates Formed by Multishell Nanoclusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Shun

    2014-12-17

    . Impurity-helium condensates (IHCs) containing nitrogen and krypton atoms immersed in super fluid 4He have been studied via a CW electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. It was found that the addition of krypton atoms to the nitrogen-helium gas mixture used...

  13. First Epoch Observations of 3-Helium with the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    First Epoch Observations of 3-Helium with the Green Bank Telescope THOMAS M. BANIA Institute #12;3-Helium Experiment Status GBT now fully operational for 3-He First GBT 3-He epoch complete-He detection for the PN J320 (see Balser et al. poster) NAIC Arecibo Observatory 305 m observations

  14. RECENT ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    509 RECENT ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM 1 C. JOHANNES Service de Recherches Appliquées, L boiling, forced convection heat transfer. Relations between critical nucleate flux and some parameters confronted with the problem of calculating the heat transfer from the helium to the superconducting material

  15. Multi-reactor power system configurations for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, J.A.

    1991-09-01

    A modular, multi-reactor power system and vehicle configuration for piloted nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions to Mars is presented. Such a design could provide enhanced system and mission reliability, allowing a comfortable safety margin for early manned flights, and would allow a range of piloted and cargo missions to be performed with a single power system design. Early use of common power modules for cargo missions would also provide progressive flight experience and validation of standardized systems for use in later piloted applications. System and mission analysis are presented to compare single and multi-reactor configurations for piloted Mars missions. A conceptual design for the Hydra modular multi-reactor NEP vehicle is presented.

  16. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handren, R.T.

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest has been the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility has been built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a >90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities ({approximately}3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory`s safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  17. Metastring Theory and Modular Space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Freidel; Robert G. Leigh; Djordje Minic

    2015-02-27

    String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an {\\it a priori} space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This \\hlt{metastring theory} is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a \\hlt{modular space-time}. This concept embodies the standard tenets of quantum theory and implements in a precise way a notion of {relative locality}. The usual string backgrounds (non-compact space-time along with some toroidally compactified spatial directions) are obtained from modular space-time by a limiting procedure that can be thought of as a correspondence limit.

  18. Multi-Applications Small Light Water Reactor - NERI Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Michale Modro; James E. Fisher; Kevan D. Weaver; Jose N. Reyes, Jr.; John T. Groome; Pierre Babka; Thomas M. Carlson

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle.

  19. Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

  20. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  1. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  2. Harmonic oscillator model for the helium atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A harmonic oscillator model in four dimensions is presented for the helium atom to estimate the distance to the inner and outer electron from the nucleus, the angle between electrons and the energy levels. The method is algebraic and is not based on the choice of correct trial wave function. Three harmonic oscillators and thus three quantum numbers are sufficient to describe the two-electron system. We derive a simple formula for the energy in the general case and in the special case of the Wannier Ridge. For a set of quantum numbers the distance to the electrons and the angle between the electrons are uniquely determined as the intersection between three surfaces. We show that the excited states converge either towards ionization thresholds or towards extreme parallel or antiparallel states and provide an estimate of the ground state energy.

  3. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  4. Alternative Passive Decay-Heat Systems for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a low-pressure, liquid-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The high-temperature (950 deg C) variant is defined as the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR). The AHTR has the same safety goals and uses the same graphite-matrix coated particle fuel as do modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the large AHTR power output [2400 to 4000 MW(t)] implies the need for a different type of passive decay-heat removal system. Because the AHTR is a low-pressure, liquid-cooled reactor like sodium-cooled reactors, similar types of decay-heat-removal systems can be used. Three classes of passive decay heat removal systems have been identified: the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system which is similar to that proposed for the General Electric S-PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor; the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system, which is similar to that used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II; and a new pool reactor auxiliary cooling system. These options are described and compared. (author)

  5. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  6. Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moyer, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

  7. Dynamics on modular networks with heterogeneous correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnik, Sergey [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland) [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland); Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom) [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Department of Mathematics, Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3250 (United States) [Department of Mathematics, Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3250 (United States); Institute for Advanced Materials, Nanoscience and Technology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3216 (United States); Gleeson, James P. [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland)] [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    We develop a new ensemble of modular random graphs in which degree-degree correlations can be different in each module, and the inter-module connections are defined by the joint degree-degree distribution of nodes for each pair of modules. We present an analytical approach that allows one to analyze several types of binary dynamics operating on such networks, and we illustrate our approach using bond percolation, site percolation, and the Watts threshold model. The new network ensemble generalizes existing models (e.g., the well-known configuration model and Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi networks) by allowing a heterogeneous distribution of degree-degree correlations across modules, which is important for the consideration of nonidentical interacting networks.

  8. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

  9. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  10. Tensile and fracture properties of EBR-II-irradiated V-15Cr-5Ti containing helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Horak, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The alloy V-15Cr-5Ti was cyclotron-implanted with 80 appM He and subsequently irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) to 30 dpa. The same alloy was also irradiated in the 10, 20, and 30% cold-worked conditions. Irradiation temperatures ranged from 400 to 700/sup 0/C. No significant effects of helium on mechanical properties were found in this temperature range although the neutron irradiation shifted the temperature of transition from cleavage to ductile fracture to about 625/sup 0/C. Ten percent cold work was found to have a beneficial effect in reducing the tendency for cleavage fracture following irradiation, but high levels (20%) were observed to reduce ductility. Still higher levels (30%) improved ductility by inducing recovery during the elevated-temperature irradiation. Swelling was found to be negligible, but precipitates - titanium oxides or carbonitrides - contained substantial cavities.

  11. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  12. The Requirements for Collision Data on the Species Helium, Beryllium and Boron in Magnetic Confinement Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Requirements for Collision Data on the Species Helium, Beryllium and Boron in Magnetic Confinement Fusion

  13. Reactor safety method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vachon, Lawrence J. (Clairton, PA)

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  14. Nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  15. Master thesis Modular mechanical engineering design tool (30hp) Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    Master thesis ­ Modular mechanical engineering design tool (30hp. Thesis description In this thesis, the students have the opportunity to develop-time. The thesis will be run in parallel with a customer order on a customized version

  16. Modular ‘Click-in-Emulsion’ Bone-Targeted Nanogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Daniel A.

    A new class of nanogel demonstrates modular biodistribution and affinity for bone. Nanogels, ~70 nm in diameter and synthesized via an astoichiometric click-chemistry in-emulsion method, controllably display residual, free ...

  17. Modularity and Commonality Research: Past Developments and Future Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fixson, Sebastian K.

    2007-04-20

    Research on modularity and commonality has grown substantially over the past 15 years. Searching 36 journals over more than the past 35 years, I identify over 160 references in the engineering and management literature ...

  18. Constant-Optimized Quantum Circuits for Modular Multiplication and Exponentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor L. Markov; Mehdi Saeedi

    2015-04-02

    Reversible circuits for modular multiplication $Cx$%$M$ with $xmodular exponentiation in Shor's quantum number-factoring algorithm. However, existing generic constructions focus on asymptotic gate count and circuit depth rather than actual values, producing fairly large circuits not optimized for specific $C$ and $M$ values. In this work, we develop such optimizations in a bottom-up fashion, starting with most convenient $C$ values. When zero-initialized ancilla registers are available, we reduce the search for compact circuits to a shortest-path problem. Some of our modular-multiplication circuits are asymptotically smaller than previous constructions, but worst-case bounds and average sizes remain $\\Theta(n^2)$. In the context of modular exponentiation, we offer several constant-factor improvements, as well as an improvement by a constant additive term that is significant for few-qubit circuits arising in ongoing laboratory experiments with Shor's algorithm.

  19. Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beldade, Patrícia

    Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings Patri´cia Beldade*, Kees Koops, and Paul selection, and thus, for adaptive evolution (14­16). One related issue to which evo-devo can contribute

  20. Task-dependent evolution of modularity in neural networks1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Marc

    the vertebrate brain is highly modular both in an anatomical and in a functional sense. It is important to stress to the fact that brains are structured, with cells, columns, layers, and regions which divide up the labour

  1. Scanning-helium-ion-beam lithography with hydrogen silsesquioxane resist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winston, Donald

    A scanning-helium-ion-beam microscope is now commercially available. This microscope can be used to perform lithography similar to, but of potentially higher resolution than, scanning electron-beam lithography. This article ...

  2. Underground helium travels to the Earth's surface via aquifers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tweet EmailPrint Before it can put the party in party balloons, helium is carried from deep within the Earth's crust to the surface via aquifers, according to new research...

  3. Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Trends Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Flow Of Mantle...

  4. Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    area which is several miles due west of the volcano is the locus of strong crustal uplift currently occurring at a rate of 4-5 cdyr (Wicks, et. al., 2001). Helium (&RA 7.44...

  5. Etching of Graphene Devices with a Helium Ion Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baugher, Britton W. H.

    We report on the etching of graphene devices with a helium ion beam, including in situ electrical measurement during lithography. The etching process can be used to nanostructure and electrically isolate different regions ...

  6. Trace determination of lead by helium-4 activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bernal, Maria E.

    1984-01-01

    TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Approved as to style and format by: Emile A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gerald A. Sc...

  7. A MODULAR ACTUATOR ARCHITECTURE FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Complexes perform numerous hazardous material handling operations within the confines of a glovebox. The DOE is continuing to seek more efficient and safer means of handling these materials inside gloveboxes rather than the conventional, labor-intensive method through lead lined gloves. The use of glovebox automation technology will also be critical to the DOE in its efforts to comply with its mandated ALARA principles in handling the hazardous materials associated with the cleanup process. Operations associated with materials processing in a glovebox are similar to many industrial tasks, but the unique glovebox environment and Plutonium material properties create a unique set of challenges for conventional automation machinery. Such properties include: Low to moderate levels of ionizing radiation, high abrasiveness, corrosiveness, pyrophoric tendencies, rapid dispersal and permeation of environment, diffuses quickly, and possible incompatible material interaction. The glovebox presents the following challenges: existing gloveboxes may not be readily altered or even modified at all, complex mechanical operations for maintenance and repair are difficult or impossible through gloves, failed equipment may not be removed easily or at all. If a broken piece of equipment cannot be bagged-out through a glove port (approximately 216 mm (8 1/2 inch) diameter) it must remain in place. Broken equipment obstructs further operations. If it renders the entire glovebox unusable, a significant volume of waste is generated and an expensive system must be disposed of and replaced. A moderate sized glovebox alone costs between $250,000 and $500,000 and an equipment malfunction, which penetrates the glovebox and exposes the room to Plutonium or other toxic materials, is catastrophic. In addition to the human exposure issues, cleanup can easily run into the millions of dollars. A solution to the issues described above is ARM Automation Inc.'s (ARM) modular robotic manipulator technology developed for DOE EM operations, which addresses many of the issues discussed in the previous section. This manipulator system has the capability of custom configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as materials repackaging. The modular nature and quick connects of this system simplify installations into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. In the field of automation and robotics, a very common element is one used to generate motion for precise positioning of loads. One example of such an automation component would be an individual joint within an industrial robotic manipulator. This component consists of a tightly integrated package containing an electric motor, gear train, output support bearings, position sensors, brake, servo-amplifier and communications controller. Within the context of this paper, this key building block is referred to as an actuator module. With regard to the needs of the EM, [8] and [9] have shown that while each focus area has unique requirements for robotic automation at a system or manipulator level, their requirements at the actuator level are very similar. Thereby, a modular approach to automation which utilizes a small set of versatile actuator modules can be used to construct a broad range of robotic systems and automation cells suited to EM applications. By providing a pre-engineered, pre-integrated motion system to different robotics users within the DOE, new automation systems can be more quickly created without extensive expertise in motion control or the expense of building custom equipment.

  8. Anti-helium from Dark Matter annihilations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cirelli; Nicolao Fornengo; Marco Taoso; Andrea Vittino

    2014-10-21

    Galactic Dark Matter (DM) annihilations can produce cosmic-ray anti-nuclei via the nuclear coalescence of the anti-protons and anti-neutrons originated directly from the annihilation process. Since anti-deuterons have been shown to offer a distinctive DM signal, with potentially good prospects of detection in large portions of the DM-particle parameter space, we explore here the production of heavier anti-nuclei, specifically anti-helium. Even more than for anti-deuterons, the DM-produced anti-He flux can be mostly prominent over the astrophysical anti-He background at low kinetic energies, typically below 3-5 GeV/n. However, the larger number of anti-nucleons involved in the formation process makes the anti-He flux extremely small. We therefore explore, for a few DM benchmark cases, whether the yield is sufficient to allow for anti-He detection in current-generation experiments, such as AMS-02. We account for the uncertainties due to the propagation in the Galaxy and to the uncertain details of the coalescence process, and we consider the constraints already imposed by anti-proton searches. We find that only for very optimistic configurations it might be possible to achieve detection with current generation detectors. We estimate that, in more realistic configurations, an increase in experimental sensitivity at low-kinetic energies of about a factor of 500-1000 would allow to start probing DM through the rare cosmic anti-He production.

  9. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-03-15

    An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

  10. THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  11. Reactor Subsystem Simulation for Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; J. Michael Doster; Alan Rominger

    2012-09-01

    Preliminary system models have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory researchers and are currently being enhanced to assess integrated system performance given multiple sources (e.g., nuclear + wind) and multiple applications (i.e., electricity + process heat). Initial efforts to integrate a Fortran-based simulation of a small modular reactor (SMR) with the balance of plant model have been completed in FY12. This initial effort takes advantage of an existing SMR model developed at North Carolina State University to provide initial integrated system simulation for a relatively low cost. The SMR subsystem simulation details are discussed in this report.

  12. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

  13. Oxidation of PCEA nuclear graphite by low water concentrations in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; Mee, Robert; Wang, Peng; Romanova, Anna V; Burchell, Timothy D

    2014-10-01

    Accelerated oxidation tests were performed to determine kinetic parameters of the chronic oxidation reaction of PCEA graphite in contact with helium coolant containing low moisture concentrations in high temperature gas-cooled reactors. To the authors best knowledge such a study has not been done since the detailed analysis of reaction of H-451 graphite with steam [Velasquez, Hightower, Burnette, 1978]. Since that H-451 graphite is now unavailable, it is urgently needed to characterize chronic oxidation behavior of new graphite grades under qualification for gas-cooled reactors. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism of carbon oxidation by water results in a non-linear reaction rate expression, with at least six different parameters. They were determined in accelerated oxidation experiments that covered a large range of temperatures (800 to 1100 oC), and partial pressures of water (15 to 850 Pa) and hydrogen (30 to 150 Pa) and used graphite specimens thin enough (4 mm) in order to avoid diffusion effects. Data analysis employed a statistical method based on multiple likelihood estimation of parameters and simultaneous fitting of non-linear equations. The results show significant material-specific differences between graphite grades PCEA and H-451 which were attributed to microstructural dissimilarity of the two materials. It is concluded that kinetic data cannot be transferred from one graphite grade to another.

  14. Attrition reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxvile, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  15. Attrition reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  16. Patent: Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall Reactor for DeepK.alpha. X-rayinertialfor

  17. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need for detailed design of new power converters for each new application or installation. One set of modules and controllers can be pre-developed and the only design question would be how many modules need to be in series or parallel for the specific power requirement. Then, a designer can put the modules together and add the intelligent reconfigurable controller. The controller determines how many modules are connected, but it might also ask for user input for the specific application during setup. The modules include protection against faults and can reset it, if necessary. In case of a power device failure, the controller reconfigures itself to continue limited operation until repair which might be as simple as taking the faulty module out and inserting a new module. The result is cost savings in design, maintenance, repair, and a grid that is more reliable and available. This concept would be a perfect fit for the recently announced funding opportunity announcement (DE-FOA-0000653) on Plug and Play Photovoltaics.

  18. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  19. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  20. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  1. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Burnup concept for a long-life fast reactor core using MCNPX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a reactor design with a burnup concept for a long-life fast reactor core that was evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). The current trend in advanced reactor design is the concept of a small modular reactor (SMR). However, very few of the SMR designs attempt to substantially increase the lifetime of a reactor core, especially without zone loading, fuel reshuffling, or other artificial mechanisms in the core that %E2%80%9Cflatten%E2%80%9D the power profile, including non-uniform cooling, non-uniform moderation, or strategic poison placement. Historically, the limitations of computing capabilities have prevented acceptable margins in the temporal component of the spatial excess reactivity in a reactor design, due primarily to the error in burnup calculations. This research was performed as an initial scoping analysis into the concept of a long-life fast reactor. It can be shown that a long-life fast reactor concept can be modeled using MCNPX to predict burnup and neutronics behavior. The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional Light Water Reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs. For the purpose of this study, a single core design was investigated: a relatively small reactor core, yielding a medium amount of power (~200 to 400 MWth). The results of this scoping analysis were successful in providing a preliminary reactor design involving metal U-235/U-238 fuel with HT-9 fuel cladding and sodium coolant at a 20% volume fraction.

  4. A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for use on other extraterrestrial surfaces.

  5. What exactly is Product Modularity? The answer depends on who you ask

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fixson, Sebastian K.

    2007-04-20

    'Product modularity' has recently experienced a significant increase in interest in the academic literature. While the concept of product modularity is used across a wide range of academic research areas, substantial ...

  6. Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Cornelius

    Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity PhD Thesis by Cornelius Weber, Berlin, July 31, 2000

  7. Concepts and technology development for the autonomous assembly and reconfiguration of modular space systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodgers, Lennon Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will present concepts of modular space systems, including definitions and specific examples of how modularity has been incorporated into past and present space missions. In addition, it will present two ...

  8. Effect of helium injection on diffusion dominated air ingress accidents in pebble bed reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yurko, Joseph Paul

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis was to validate the sustained counter air diffusion (SCAD) method at preventing natural circulation onset in diffusion dominated air ingress accidents. The analysis presented in this ...

  9. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.

  10. Reactor vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  11. Resilience of Networks Formed of Interdependent Modular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shekhtman, Louis; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Many infrastructure networks have a modular structure and are also interdependent. While significant research has explored the resilience of interdependent networks, there has been no analysis of the effects of modularity. Here we develop a theoretical framework for attacks on interdependent modular networks and support our results by simulations. We focus on the case where each network has the same number of communities and the dependency links are restricted to be between pairs of communities of different networks. This is very realistic for infrastructure across cities. Each city has its own infrastructures and different infrastructures are dependent within the city. However, each infrastructure is connected within and between cities. For example, a power grid will connect many cities as will a communication network, yet a power station and communication tower that are interdependent will likely be in the same city. It has been shown that single networks are very susceptible to the failure of the interconn...

  12. Two phase coexistence for the hydrogen-helium mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We use our newly constructed quantum Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo algorithm to perform computer experiments for the two phase coexistence of a hydrogen-helium mixture. Our results are in quantitative agreement with the experimental results of C. M. Sneed, W. B. Streett, R. E. Sonntag, and G. J. Van Wylen. The difference between our results and the experimental ones is in all cases less than 15% relative to the experiment, reducing to less than 5% in the low helium concentration phase. At the gravitational inversion between the vapor and the liquid phase, at low temperatures and high pressures, the quantum effects become relevant. At extremely low temperature and pressure the first component to show superfluidity is the helium in the vapor phase.

  13. Controlled Chemistry Helium High Temperature Materials Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard N. WRight

    2005-08-01

    A system to test aging and environmental effects in flowing helium with impurity content representative of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) has been designed and assembled. The system will be used to expose microstructure analysis coupons and mechanical test specimens for up to 5,000 hours in helium containing potentially oxidizing or carburizing impurities controlled to parts per million levels. Impurity levels in the flowing helium are controlled through a feedback mechanism based on gas chromatography measurements of the gas chemistry at the inlet and exit from a high temperature retort containing the test materials. Initial testing will focus on determining the nature and extent of combined aging and environmental effects on microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of alloys proposed for structural applications in the NGNP, including Inconel 617 and Haynes 230.

  14. Fast production of Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouton, Q; Hoendervanger, A L; Nogrette, F; Aspect, A; Westbrook, C I; Clément, D

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable Helium-4 atoms using a hybrid approach, consisting of a magnetic quadrupole and a crossed optical dipole trap. In our setup we cross the phase transition with 2x10^6 atoms, and we obtain pure condensates of 5x10^5 atoms in the optical trap. This novel approach to cooling Helium-4 provides enhanced cycle stability, large optical access to the atoms and results in production of a condensate every 6 seconds - a factor 3 faster than the state-of-the-art. This speed-up will dramatically reduce the data acquisition time needed for the measurement of many particle correlations, made possible by the ability of metastable Helium to be detected individually.

  15. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  16. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  17. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  18. Business Case for Small Modular Reactors Report on Findings | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics AndBerylliumDepartmentResolutionCamberley Homes | DepartmentDepartmentBuildingsofEnergy

  19. Assessment of Materials Issues for Light-Water Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, David; Lunceford, Wayne; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Catalan, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective of this report is to evaluate materials degradation issue unique to the operational environments of LWSMR. Concerns for specific primary system components and materials are identified based on the review of design information shared by mPower and NuScale. Direct comparisons are made to materials issues recognized for advanced large PWRs and research activities are recommended as needed. The issues identified are intended to improve the capability of industry to evaluate the significance of any degradation that might occur during long-term LWSMR operation and by extension affect the importance of future supporting R&D.

  20. Used nuclear fuel storage options including implications of small modular reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinton, Samuel O. (Samuel Otis)

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses two aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle system with significant policy implications. The first is the preferred option for used fuel storage based on economics: local, regional or national storage. The ...

  1. Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    reducing both capital costs and construction times. SMR designs also have built-in passive safety systems that use the natural circulation of air, water and steam to maintain...

  2. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, Randy; Copinger, Donald A; Mays, Gary T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Poore III, Willis P

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  3. ANALYSIS OF SEPCTRUM CHOICES FOR SMALL MODULAR REACTORS-PERFORMANCE AND DEVELOPMENT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kafle, Nischal

    2011-04-26

    Using Models. Centurion. Retrieved July 26, 2010, from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Nuclear Engineering: http://web.bgu.ac.il/Eng/engn/nuclear/research/NucEnergy/GCR.htm 29 World Nuclear Association, 2011, March 2. Small Nuclear Power...

  4. Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-03-01

    This report documents the efforts to perform dynamic model validation on the Eastern Interconnection (EI) by modeling governor deadband. An on-peak EI dynamic model is modified to represent governor deadband characteristics. Simulation results are compared with synchrophasor measurements collected by the Frequency Monitoring Network (FNET/GridEye). The comparison shows that by modeling governor deadband the simulated frequency response can closely align with the actual system response.

  5. Preliminary Development of a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.; Moses, Rebecca J.; Flanagan, George F.

    2014-10-01

    In summary, this preliminary WBS serves as an initial basis for the capital cost component of the economic analysis of SMRs. This preliminary WBS comes from the known WBS for existing, large nuclear power plants and develops the methodology for accounting for the anticipated differences between the current large plants and the projected SMR designs.

  6. Small Modular Reactors and U.S. Clean Energy Sources for Electricity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 »DigitalanDepartment of EnergySmall Fuel

  7. Secretary Chu Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProjectData DashboardSolarEfficiency Improvements | DepartmentDepartment

  8. First Step to Spur U.S. Manufacturing of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPP |Department of Energy

  9. Small Modular Reactors - Key to Future Nuclear Power Generation in the U.S.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergy Small Column Ion| Department of

  10. Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1Research andAdministration'sDepartmentPartnershipsSecretary|

  11. Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronicConservation-Agreement SignMaterialsDrop-in

  12. Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofof EnergyPlants"OEEnergyMaterialsInvestments

  13. Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie Pezzullo OfficeDepartmentEnergy Technology |

  14. Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers atDay 12:was createdNobel ISOWHO WE ARE|

  15. Small Modular Reactors, National Security and Clean Energy: A U.S. National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performed Steven

  16. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanstraelen, G.F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a 0'' to 1'' transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  17. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanstraelen, Guy F. (DeSoto, TX)

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a "0" to "1" transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  18. Non-Sticking of Helium Buffer Gas to Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, James F E

    2014-01-01

    Lifetimes of complexes formed during helium-hydrocarbon collisions at low temperature are estimated for symmetric top hydrocarbons. The lifetimes are obtained using a density-of-states approach. In general the lifetimes are less than 10-100 ns, and are found to decrease with increasing hydrocarbon size. This suggests that clustering will not limit precision spectroscopy in helium buffer gas experiments. Lifetimes are computed for noble-gas benzene collisions and are found to be in reasonable agreement with lifetimes obtained from classical trajectories as reported by Cui {\\it et al}.

  19. Detection and Imaging of He_2 Molecules in Superfluid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Rellergert; S. B. Cahn; A. Garvan; J. C. Hanson; W. H. Lippincott; J. A. Nikkel; D. N. McKinsey

    2007-12-18

    We present data that show a cycling transition can be used to detect and image metastable He$_2$ triplet molecules in superfluid helium. We demonstrate that limitations on the cycling efficiency due to the vibrational structure of the molecule can be mitigated by the use of repumping lasers. Images of the molecules obtained using the method are also shown. This technique gives rise to a new kind of ionizing radiation detector. The use of He$_2$ triplet molecules as tracer particles in the superfluid promises to be a powerful tool for visualization of both quantum and classical turbulence in liquid helium.

  20. Surface Response of Tungsten to Helium and Hydrogen Plasma Flux as a Function of Temperature and Incident Kinetic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefta, Faiza

    2013-01-01

    fusion reaction and ion energies as reproduced from http://incident helium kinetic energy with and without equilibriummi- crostructure evolution in low energy helium irradiated

  1. The evolution of modularity in genome architecture John W. Pepper 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nehaniv, Chrystopher

    The evolution of modularity in genome architecture John W. Pepper 1 1 Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe phenomenon is modularity in genome architecture, in which genes with epistatic effects are co­ localized of genome modularity were investigated using a computational model, in which a population of individuals

  2. Statistical properties of inter-series mixing in helium: From integrability to chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttner, R; Gremaud, B.; Delande, D.; Domke, M.; Martins, M.; Schlachter, A.S.; Kaindl, G.

    2001-04-23

    The photoionization spectrum of helium near the double-ionization threshold shows structure which indicated a transition towards quantum chaos.

  3. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE HELIUM-COOLED DIVERTOR PLATE CONCEPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE HELIUM-COOLED DIVERTOR PLATE CONCEPT X.R. Wanga , S Consulting, Fliederweg 3, 76351 Linkenheim, Germany A helium-cooled plate-type divertor design concept has of the concept in the high heat flux zone. This paper describes the design optimization of the helium

  4. Constraining groundwater flow in the glacial drift and saginaw aquifers in the Michigan Basin through helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through helium concentrations and isotopic ratios T. WEN1 , M. C. CASTRO1 , C. M. HALL1 , D. L. PINTI2 that in situ production is negligible and that most He excesses have a source external to the aquifer Drift 14 C ages. Key words: 14 C ages, Groundwater flow, helium ages, helium fluxes, sedimentary basin

  5. Constraints on origin and evolution of Red Sea brines from helium and argon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    mantle production ratio. In the Kebrit Deep, located in the northern Red Sea, we found a helium excessConstraints on origin and evolution of Red Sea brines from helium and argon isotopes Gisela, the Discovery and the Kebrit Deep, were sampled and analyzed for helium and argon isotopes. We identified two

  6. A dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance Peter E. van Keken aY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Keken, Peter

    and helium released from the whole mantle convection models is smaller than the production ratioA dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance Peter E. van Keken aY *, Chris J; accepted 6 April 2001 Abstract The terrestrial heat^helium imbalance [O'Nions and Oxburgh, Nature 306 (1983

  7. Giant Helium Dimers Produced by Photoassociation of Ultracold Metastable Atoms J. Leonard,* M. Walhout,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen-Tannoudj, Claude

    Giant Helium Dimers Produced by Photoassociation of Ultracold Metastable Atoms J. Le´onard,* M long-range helium dimers by photoassociation of metastable helium atoms in a magnetically trapped ion production rates, which are usually high for He , we measure the tempera- ture increase

  8. Hydrogen Atom and Helium Ion Spatial and Momentum Distribution Functions Illustrate the Uncertainty Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    Hydrogen Atom and Helium Ion Spatial and Momentum Distribution Functions Illustrate for oneelectron species such as the hydrogen atom and the helium ion. The coordinate 1s wave function for the hydrogen atom (z=1) and helium ion (z=2) clearly illustrate the uncertainty principle. 0 2 4 6 r 2 1 r

  9. Photoelectron Imaging of Helium Droplets Darcy S. Peterka,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    crossed the helium droplet beam perpendicular to the axis of the electron detection system, comprisingPhotoelectron Imaging of Helium Droplets Darcy S. Peterka,1,2 Albrecht Lindinger,2 Lionel Poisson,1.40.­c, 33.20.Ni, 33.60.Cv, 33.80.Eh Helium nanodroplets have been shown to be a novel spectroscopic

  10. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  11. Heterogeneous cavitation in liquid helium 4 near a glass plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    amplitude of the density oscillation in the acoustic wave (or the pressure by using the equation of state knowledge of the acoustic waves we use, including the non-linear effects which affect their focusing4 of the reflection coefficient at the glass/helium interface, in the absence of acoustic wave. Finally, by measuring

  12. An investigation of thermally driven acoustical oscillations in helium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerst, J.D.

    1990-08-01

    The phenomenon of thermal-acoustic oscillation is seen to arise spontaneously in gas columns subjected to steep temperature gradients, particularly in tubes connecting liquid helium reservoirs with the ambient environment. This if often the arrangement for installed cryogenic instrumentation and is accompanied by undesirably large heat transfer rates to the cold region. Experimental data are collected and matched to theoretical predictions of oscillatory behavior; these results are in good agreement with the analytical model and with previously collected data. The present experiment places the open ends of oscillating tubes of the various lengths and cross sections in communication with flowing helium in the subcooled, 2-phase, or superheated state while the other ends are maintained at some controlled, elevated temperature. Assorted cold end conditions are achieved through adjustments to the Fermilab Tevatron satellite test refrigerator to which the test cryostat is connected. The warm, closed ends of the tubes are maintained by isothermal baths of liquid nitrogen, ice water, and boiling water. The method is contrasted to previous arrangements whereby tubes are run from room temperature into or adjacent to a stagnant pool of liquid helium. Additionally, the effect of pulsations in the flowing helium stream is explored through operation of the refrigerator's wet and dry expanders during data collection. These data confirm the theory to which try were compared and support its use in the design of cryogenic sensing lines for avoidance of thermoacoustic oscillation.

  13. NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But the low energy of the laser photons raises, which should be stronger the lower the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron? Further studies is equivalent to a `pole singularity' in the Green's function. Phil Anderson argues that in the strange metal

  14. METHODOLOGY Open Access Modular assembly of designer PUF proteins for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    METHODOLOGY Open Access Modular assembly of designer PUF proteins for specific post of the PUF domain assembly method for RBP engineering, we fused the PUF domain to a post and applied biology and medicine. Keywords: Protein engineering, RNA-binding protein, Post

  15. Contemporary Mathematics From Quantum Groups to Unitary Modular Tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowell, Eric C.

    . In this article, we take quantum group to mean the "classical" q-deformation of the universal enveloping algebra replaced by the more general framework of modular tensor categories (MTCs) by Turaev [T1] (building], advanced by Turaev and Wenzl in [TW2] and somewhat simplified by Blanchet and Beliakova in [BB]. However

  16. Adaptive Aggregation of Modular Control H. Chris Tseng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tsau Young

    Engineering and Computer Science University of California Berkeley, California 94720 C. W. Chi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of California Davis, California 95616 Modular methodology into modules. Some of the available approaches are listed below. Decentralized Approach: If a system is made up

  17. A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise E.

    A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis Kashan A. Shaikh*, Kee Suk for review November 15, 2004) Microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) systems based on a mod- ular (lead) at a sensitivity of 500 nM in microfluidic breadboard

  18. Series Input Modular Architecture for Driving Multiple LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regulation is provided using a prototype of the proposed system with four series buck- boost converter cells, zane}@colorado.edu Abstract ­ This paper introduces a modular power converter architecture based on series input connected converter cells with independent outputs that each drive a small series string

  19. Evolution of Neural Networks for Helicopter Control: Why Modularity Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Togelius, Julian

    Evolution of Neural Networks for Helicopter Control: Why Modularity Matters Renzo De Nardi, Julian helicopter flocking. A methodology is proposed in which neural network based controllers are evolved in a simulation using a dynamic model qualitatively similar to the physical helicopter. Several network

  20. Modularization of the DADAISM Ada Database System Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arthur M.

    implemen­ tation paradigm is necessary to handle the evolution of database systems over the next fewPage 1 Modularization of the DADAISM Ada Database System Architecture Arthur M. Keller Gio Wiederhold Stanford University Draft of May 21, 1991 Abstract. We describe a new database management system

  1. Modularization of the DADAISM Ada Database System Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arthur M.

    implemen- tation paradigm is necessary to handle the evolution of database systems over the next fewPage 1 Modularization of the DADAISM Ada Database System Architecture Arthur M. Keller Gio Wiederhold Stanford University Draft of May 21, 1991 Abstract. We describe a new database management system

  2. ON COMPLETE CONGRUENCE LATTICES OF COMPLETE MODULAR LATTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freese, Ralph S.

    ON COMPLETE CONGRUENCE LATTICES OF COMPLETE MODULAR LATTICES R. Freese, G. Gr¨atzer, and E. T of Sciences January 8, 1991 Abstract. The lattice of all complete congruence relations of a complete lattice is itself a complete lattice. In 1988, the second author announced the converse: every complete lattice L

  3. Modular container assembled from fiber reinforced thermoplastic sandwich panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Mathew William (Edgewood, NM); Kasoff, William Andrew (Albuquerque, NM); Mcculloch, Patrick Carl (Irvine, CA); Williams, Frederick Truman (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-25

    An improved, load bearing, modular design container structure assembled from thermoformed FRTP sandwich panels in which is utilized the unique core-skin edge configuration of the present invention in consideration of improved load bearing performance, improved useful load volume, reduced manufacturing costs, structural weight savings, impact and damage tolerance and repair and replace issues.

  4. Modular Arithmetic Implementation with the Residue Number System (RNS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sousa, Leonel

    Modular Arithmetic Implementation with the Residue Number System (RNS) Samuel Antão and Leonel are the addition/subtraction, multiplication and reduction as well as the conversion of Residue Number System (RNS discussed in the following. 1 RNS Forward/Reverse Conversions Forward conversion corresponds

  5. Computer Science at Kent On Modular Termination Proofs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Computer Science at Kent On Modular Termination Proofs Jonathan C. Martin and Andy King Technical by the Computing Laboratory, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF, UK. Abstract Reasoning about termination is a key issue in logic program development. One classic technique for proving termination is to construct

  6. A modular description for collimator EGS simulation tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanconelli, Nico

    A modular description for collimator EGS simulation tasks geometry in Alessandro Bevilacqua, Dante, Alessandro Riccardi Abstract-EGS is a very common Monte Carlo code, used in the simulation of Nuclear configuration and camera design in Single Photon Emission studies. Using the EGS code, users must define

  7. Modular Models of Intelligence -Review, Limitations and Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mali, Amol D.

    for Robotics I.I.T. Kanpur, India 208016 (amit@iitk.ac.in) Amol Dattatraya Mali Department of Elec. Engg-414-229-2769 (mali@miller.cs.uwm.edu) Abstract AI applications are increasingly moving to modular agents, i.e. sys

  8. Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precedents? Small number of private fusion companies starting up, filing patents and finding editions Lead author Grounded in DOE program #12;12/13/11 5 Path to market 'next step' Springer Energy Brief: 'Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power' Soliciting wider input from energy, business

  9. a Modular, Multi-Engine Simulator for Heterogeneous Swarm Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    ARGoS: a Modular, Multi-Engine Simulator for Heterogeneous Swarm Robotics Carlo Pinciroli, Vito, Gianni Di Caro, Frederick Ducatelle, Timothy Stirling§, ´Alvaro Guti´errez, Luca Maria Gambardella. A unique feature of ARGoS is the possibility to use multiple physics engines of different types

  10. A Fast Algorithm for Modular Reduction C. K. Koc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    produced by a carry save adder. Given the (n + k)-bit X and the n-bit M, the modular reduction algorithm to obtain efficient VLSI implementations of exponentiation cryptosystems. Key Words: Carry save adder, sign, the sign of a number may not be readily available. In particular, when the carry save addition technique

  11. Phoenix++: Modular MapReduce for Shared-Memory Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozyrakis, Christos

    Phoenix++: Modular MapReduce for Shared-Memory Systems Justin Talbot, Richard M. Yoo, and Christos This paper describes our rewrite of Phoenix, a MapReduce framework for shared-memory CMPs and SMPs. Despite successfully demonstrating the applicability of a MapReduce- style pipeline to shared-memory machines, Phoenix

  12. Helium isotopes: Lower geyser basin, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, B.M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Smith, S.P.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1987-11-10

    High /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios associated with the Yellowstone caldera reflect the presence of a magmatic helium component. This component is ultimately derived from a mantle plume capped by a cooling batholith underlying the caldera. In surface hot springs, fumaroles, etc., the /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio varies from approx.1 to 16 tims the air ratio. The variations are produced by varying degrees of dilution of the magmatic component with radiogenic helium. The radiogenic helium is crustal-derived and is thought to be scavenged from aquifers in which the hydrothermal fluids circulate. We determined the helium iosotopic composition in 12 different springs from the Lower Geyser Basin, a large hydrothermal basin with the caldera. The /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio was found to vary from approx.2.7 to 7.7 times the air ratio. The variations correlate with variations in water chemistry. Specifically, the /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio increased with total bicarbonate concentration. The dissolved bicarbonate is from gas-water-rock interactions involving CO/sub 2/ and Na silicates. The concentration of bicarbonate is a function of the availability of dissolved CO/sub 2/, which, in turn, is a function of deep boiling with phase separation prior to CO/sub 2/-bicarbonate conversion. The correlation of high /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios with high bicarbonate is interpreted as the result of deep dilution of a single thermal fluid with cooler water during ascent to the surface. The dilution and cooling deters deep boiling, and therefore both CO/sub 2/ and /sup 3/He are retained in the rising fluid. Fluids that are not diluted with boil to a greater extent, losing a large proportion of /sup 3/He, as well as CO/sub 2/, leaving a helium-poor residual fluid in which the isotopic composition of helium will be strongly affected by the addition of radiogenic helium.

  13. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  14. A feasibility study of reactor-based deep-burn concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.

    2005-09-16

    A systematic assessment of the General Atomics (GA) proposed Deep-Burn concept based on the Modular Helium-Cooled Reactor design (DB-MHR) has been performed. Preliminary benchmarking of deterministic physics codes was done by comparing code results to those from MONTEBURNS (MCNP-ORIGEN) calculations. Detailed fuel cycle analyses were performed in order to provide an independent evaluation of the physics and transmutation performance of the one-pass and two-pass concepts. Key performance parameters such as transuranic consumption, reactor performance, and spent fuel characteristics were analyzed. This effort has been undertaken in close collaborations with the General Atomics design team and Brookhaven National Laboratory evaluation team. The study was performed primarily for a 600 MWt reference DB-MHR design having a power density of 4.7 MW/m{sup 3}. Based on parametric and sensitivity study, it was determined that the maximum burnup (TRU consumption) can be obtained using optimum values of 200 {micro}m and 20% for the fuel kernel diameter and fuel packing fraction, respectively. These values were retained for most of the one-pass and two-pass design calculations; variation to the packing fraction was necessary for the second stage of the two-pass concept. Using a four-batch fuel management scheme for the one-pass DB-MHR core, it was possible to obtain a TRU consumption of 58% and a cycle length of 286 EFPD. By increasing the core power to 800 MWt and the power density to 6.2 MW/m{sup 3}, it was possible to increase the TRU consumption to 60%, although the cycle length decreased by {approx}64 days. The higher TRU consumption (burnup) is due to the reduction of the in-core decay of fissile Pu-241 to Am-241 relative to fission, arising from the higher power density (specific power), which made the fuel more reactivity over time. It was also found that the TRU consumption can be improved by utilizing axial fuel shuffling or by operating with lower material temperatures (colder core). Results also showed that the transmutation performance of the one-pass deep-burn concept is sensitive to the initial TRU vector, primarily because longer cooling time reduces the fissile content (Pu-241 specifically.) With a cooling time of 5 years, the TRU consumption increases to 67%, while conversely, with 20-year cooling the TRU consumption is about 58%. For the two-pass DB-MHR (TRU recycling option), a fuel packing fraction of about 30% is required in the second pass (the recycled TRU). It was found that using a heterogeneous core (homogeneous fuel element) concept, the TRU consumption is dependent on the cooling interval before the 2nd pass, again due to Pu-241 decay during the time lag between the first pass fuel discharge and the second pass fuel charge. With a cooling interval of 7 years (5 and 2 years before and after reprocessing) a TRU consumption of 55% is obtained. With an assumed ''no cooling'' interval, the TRU consumption is 63%. By using a cylindrical core to reduce neutron leakage, TRU consumption of the case with 7-year cooling interval increases to 58%. For a two-pass concept using a heterogeneous fuel element (and homogeneous core) with first and second pass volume ratio of 2:1, the TRU consumption is 62.4%. Finally, the repository loading benefits arising from the deep-burn and Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) concepts were estimated and compared, for the same initial TRU vector. The DB-MHR concept resulted in slightly higher TRU consumption and repository loading benefit compared to the IMF concept (58.1% versus 55.1% for TRU consumption and 2.0 versus 1.6 for estimated repository loading benefit).

  15. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  16. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  17. Tokamak reactor first wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creedon, R.L.; Levine, H.E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

    1984-11-20

    This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

  18. Modular cathode assemblies and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-12-02

    Modular cathode assemblies are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include a basket through which fluid electrolyte may pass and exchange charge with a material to be reduced in the basket. The basket can be divided into upper and lower sections to provide entry for the material. Example embodiment cathode assemblies may have any shape to permit modular placement at any position in reduction systems. Modular cathode assemblies include a cathode plate in the basket, to which unique and opposite electrical power may be supplied. Example embodiment modular cathode assemblies may have standardized electrical connectors. Modular cathode assemblies may be supported by a top plate of an electrolytic reduction system. Electrolytic oxide reduction systems are operated by positioning modular cathode and anode assemblies at desired positions, placing a material in the basket, and charging the modular assemblies to reduce the metal oxide.

  19. The DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti

    2010-09-01

    The high outlet temperatures and high thermal-energy conversion efficiency of modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) enable an efficient and cost effective integration of the reactor system with non-electricity generation applications, such as process heat and/or hydrogen production, for the many petrochemical and other industrial processes that require temperatures between 300°C and 900°C. The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the HTGR concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project as a transformative application of nuclear energy that will demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity, process heat, and hydrogen production, thereby reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and enhancing energy security. The objective of the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program is to qualify tristructural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program consists of five elements: fuel manufacture, fuel and materials irradiations, post-irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission-product transport and source term evaluation. An underlying theme for the fuel development work is the need to develop a more complete, fundamental understanding of the relationship between the fuel fabrication process and key fuel properties, the irradiation and accident safety performance of the fuel, and the release and transport of fission products in the NGNP primary coolant system. An overview of the program and recent progress is presented.

  20. High temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten James S.K.-L. Gibson a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (essentially helium ions) from the plasma as well as 14 MeV neutrons. While the rate of helium production dueHigh temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten James S.K.-L. Gibson a,n , Steve G Hardening a b s t r a c t Nanoindentation has been performed on tungsten, unimplanted and helium

  1. Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) was the first reactor built in the U.S. for peacetime atomic research following World War II.  Construction began in 1947 and the reactor started...

  2. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimummore »combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.« less

  3. Acoustical Properties of Superfluid Helium in Confined Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. E. Kekutia; N. D. Chkhaidze

    2006-04-07

    The problem studied in this paper is to obtain the equations describing sound propagation in a consolidated porous medium filled with superfluid, determine the elastic coefficients, appearing in the equations, in terms of physically measurable quantities, and calculate the propagation velocities of transverse and longitudinal waves at high and low oscillating frequencies. In general, the obtained equations describe all volume modes that can propagate in a porous medium saturated with superfluid for any values of the porosity and frequencies. The derived equations are applied to the most important particular case when the normal component of superfluid helium is locked inside a highly porous media (aerogel, Im-helium sample) by viscous forces. For this case the velocities of two longitudinal sound modes and transverse mode are calculated from the derived equations. There are established the coupling between temperature and pressure oscillations in these fast and slow modes.

  4. Experimental study of ultracold neutron production in pressurized superfluid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; J. Bossy; E. Farhi; M. Fertl; K. K. H. Leung; A. Rahli; T. Soldner; O. Zimmer

    2015-07-29

    We have investigated experimentally the pressure dependence of the production of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in superfluid helium in the range from saturated vapor pressure to 20bar. A neutron velocity selector allowed the separation of underlying single-phonon and multiphonon pro- cesses by varying the incident cold neutron (CN) wavelength in the range from 3.5 to 10{\\AA}. The predicted pressure dependence of UCN production derived from inelastic neutron scattering data was confirmed for the single-phonon excitation. For multiphonon based UCN production we found no significant dependence on pressure whereas calculations from inelastic neutron scattering data predict an increase of 43(6)% at 20bar relative to saturated vapor pressure. From our data we conclude that applying pressure to superfluid helium does not increase the overall UCN production rate at a typical CN guide.

  5. Experimental study of ultracold neutron production in pressurized superfluid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Farhi, E; Fertl, M; Leung, K K H; Rahli, A; Soldner, T; Zimmer, O

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated experimentally the pressure dependence of the production of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in superfluid helium in the range from saturated vapor pressure to 20bar. A neutron velocity selector allowed the separation of underlying single-phonon and multiphonon pro- cesses by varying the incident cold neutron (CN) wavelength in the range from 3.5 to 10{\\AA}. The predicted pressure dependence of UCN production derived from inelastic neutron scattering data was confirmed for the single-phonon excitation. For multiphonon based UCN production we found no significant dependence on pressure whereas calculations from inelastic neutron scattering data predict an increase of 43(6)% at 20bar relative to saturated vapor pressure. From our data we conclude that applying pressure to superfluid helium does not increase the overall UCN production rate at a typical CN guide.

  6. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammers, Jürgen Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  7. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with ?3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  8. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study. Progress report, December 1, 1990--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on ``modest`` extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  9. Methane coupling by membrane reactor. First quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yi Hua

    1997-05-01

    The Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was studied by running the methane coupling reactions at different methane to oxygen ratios, temperatures and dilution gas flow rates. For methane to oxygen ratios less than 3, the C{sub 2} yield was almost the same; and C{sub 2} yield began to decrease as the methane to oxygen ratio was further increased. The optimal temperature observed was around 800{degrees}C, where the C{sub 2} yield reached a maximum value. Increasing the dilution gas (helium) flow rate resulted in higher C{sub 2} selectivity; however, after a certain dilution gas flow rate the C{sub 2} yield began to decrease due to a decrease in methane conversion as a result of the reduced contact time. The stability study of the catalyst showed that, after five successive run cycles, the C{sub 2} yield obtained decreased from 24% to 19% at 780 {degrees}C, and methane, oxygen and helium flow rates of 12.2, 4.1, and 44. 3 mm/min, respectively. XRD analysis showed that, after the reaction, the XRD peaks of the cristabolite and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} phases in the catalyst became smaller than those in the fresh catalyst, and that at least one new, unidentified phase was observed. Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was used as the methane oxidative coupling catalyst in a porous membrane reactor and its performance was compared with a packed reactor operated at similar conditions. Although the membrane reactor showed lower methane conversion at the same reaction conditions, it gave higher C{sub 2} selectivity and C{sub 2} yield at similar methane conversions.

  10. Evolution of Low-Mass Helium Stars in Semidetached Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. R. Yungelson

    2008-06-17

    We present results of a systematic investigation of the evolution of low-mass (0.35, 0.40, and 0.65 solar mass) helium donors in semidetached binaries with accretors - white dwarfs. In the initial models of evolutionary sequences abundance of helium in the center is between $\\simeq 0.1$ and 0.98. Results of computations may be applied to the study of the origin and evolutionary state of AM CVn stars. It is shown that the minimum orbital periods of the systems only weakly depend on the total mass of the system and evolutionary state of the donor at RLOF and are equal to 9-11 min. The scatter in the mass-exchange rates at a given orbital period in the range between period minimum and about 40 min. does not exceed $\\sim 2.5$. At orbital periods exceeding about 20 min. mass-losing stars are weakly degenerate homogeneous cooling objects and abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne in the matter lost by them depend on the extent of He-depletion at RLOF. For the systems which are currently considered as the most probable model candidates for AM CVn stars with helium donors these abundances are, approximately, Y$>$0.4, X_C$<$0.3, X_O$<$0.25, X_N$<$0.005. At orbital periods greater than about 40 min. the timescale of mass-loss begins to exceed thermal time-scale of the donors, the latter begin to contract, they become more degenerate and, apparently, "white-dwarf" and "helium-star" populations of AM CVn stars merge.

  11. Investigation of Cellular Interactions of Nanoparticles by Helium Ion Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Yumei; Tolic, Ana; Williams, Nolann G.; Orr, Galya

    2011-06-01

    The helium ion mircroscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5x FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  12. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  13. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency of 32768 Hz has been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 12 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 2 smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting o...

  15. UCN production by multiphonon processes in superfluid Helium under pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; K. H. Andersen; O. Zimmer

    2009-01-29

    Cold neutrons are converted to ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) by the excitation of a single phonon or multiphonons in superfluid helium. The dynamic scattering function S(q, omega) of the superfluid helium strongly depends on pressure, leading to a pressure- dependent differential UCN production rate. A phenomenological expression for the multiphonon part of the scattering function s(lambda) describing UCN production has been derived from inelastic neutron scattering data. When combined with the production rate from single phonon processes this allows us to calculate the UCN production for any incident neutron flux. For calculations of the UCN production from single phonon processes we propose to use the values for S*(SVP) = 0.118(8) and S*(20 bar) = 0.066(6). As an example we will calculate the expected UCN production rate at the cold neutron beam for fundamental physics PF1b at the Institut Laue Langevin. We conclude that UCN production in superfluid helium under pressure is not attractive.

  16. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  17. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Ronald J. (Pensacola, FL); Land, John T. (Pensacola, FL); Misvel, Michael C. (Pensacola, FL)

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  18. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  19. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  20. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Mitrovski, Svetlana M. (Urbana, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  1. Effect of Inter-Modular Connection on Fast Sparse Synchronization in Clustered Small-World Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    We consider a clustered network with small-world sub-networks of inhibitory fast spiking interneurons, and investigate the effect of inter-modular connection on emergence of fast sparsely synchronized rhythms by varying both the inter-modular coupling strength $J_{inter}$ and the average number of inter-modular links per interneuron $M_{syn}^{(inter)}$. In contrast to the case of non-clustered networks, two kinds of sparsely synchronized states such as modular and global synchronization are found. For the case of modular sparse synchronization, the population behavior reveals the modular structure, because the intra-modular dynamics of sub-networks make some mismatching. On the other hand, in the case of global sparse synchronization, the population behavior is globally identical, independently of the cluster structure, because the intra-modular dynamics of sub-networks make perfect matching. We introduce a realistic cross-correlation modularity measure, representing the matching-degree between the instantane...

  2. Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

  3. Reactor- Nuclear Science Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    A neutronic evaluation of two reactor benchmark problems was performed. The benchmark problems describe typical PWR uranium and plutonium (mixed oxide) fueled lattices. WIMSd4m, a neutron transport lattice code, was used to evaluate multigroup...

  4. P Reactor Grouting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Filling the P Reactor with grout. This seals the radioactive material and reduces the environmental footprint left from the Cold War. Project sponsored by the Recovery Act at the Savannah River Site.

  5. Hypothetical Reactor Accident Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POPULATIONS; IODINE 131; MELTDOWN; METEOROLOGY; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; P CODES; PWR TYPE REACTORS; RADIATION in a Typical BWR and in a typical PWR. Comparison with WASH-1400 by C F . Højerup 202 APPENDIX 3. Calculation

  6. Asteroseismic estimate of helium abundance of a solar analog binary system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Kuldeep; Antia, H. M.; Faria, João P.; Monteiro, Mário J. P. F. G.; Basu, Sarbani; Mazumdar, Anwesh; Appourchaux, Thierry; Chaplin, William J.; García, Rafael A.

    2014-08-01

    16 Cyg A and B are among the brightest stars observed by Kepler. What makes these stars more interesting is that they are solar analogs. 16 Cyg A and B exhibit solar-like oscillations. In this work we use oscillation frequencies obtained using 2.5 yr of Kepler data to determine the current helium abundance of these stars. For this we use the fact that the helium ionization zone leaves a signature on the oscillation frequencies and that this signature can be calibrated to determine the helium abundance of that layer. By calibrating the signature of the helium ionization zone against models of known helium abundance, the helium abundance in the envelope of 16 Cyg A is found to lie in the range of 0.231 to 0.251 and that of 16 Cyg B lies in the range of 0.218 to 0.266.

  7. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  8. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  9. A New Architecture for Man: The Modular, Prefabricated Buildings of Ernest J. Kump, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    on a modular plan, a prefabricated house design for theirPark houses were a system of nested prefabricated modularknown prefabricated design was the 1945 “Prebuilt House” in

  10. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Barbara J

    2009-01-01

    on the characteristics of cooling systems and servers Theraised, CRAH cooling system and the modular, scalableINFORMATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COOLING SYSTEMS AND

  11. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-11-24

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  12. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  13. The evolution of naked helium stars with a neutron-star companion in close binary systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols; G. J. Savonije; E. P. J. van den Heuvel

    2002-01-15

    The evolution of helium stars with masses of 1.5 - 6.7 M_sun in binary systems with a 1.4 M_sun neutron-star companion is presented. Such systems are assumed to be the remnants of Be/X-ray binaries with B-star masses in the range of 8 - 20 M_sun which underwent a case B or case C mass transfer and survived the common-envelope and spiral-in process. The orbital period is chosen such that the helium star fills its Roche lobe before the ignition of carbon in the centre. We distinguish case BA (in which mass transfer is initiated during helium core burning) from case BB (onset of Roche-lobe overflow occurs after helium core burning is terminated, but before the ignition of carbon). We found that the remnants of case BA mass transfer from 1.5 - 2.9 M_sun helium stars are heavy CO white dwarfs. This implies that a star initially as massive as 12 M_sun is able to become a white dwarf. CO white dwarfs are also produced from case BB mass transfer from 1.5 - 1.8 M_sun helium stars, while ONe white dwarfs are formed from 2.1 - 2.5 M_sun helium stars. Case BB mass transfer from more-massive helium stars with a neutron-star companion will produce a double neutron-star binary. We are able to distinguish the progenitors of type Ib supernovae (as the high-mass helium stars or systems in wide orbits) from those of type Ic supernovae (as the lower-mass helium stars or systems in close orbits). Finally, we derive a "zone of avoidance" in the helium star mass vs. initial orbital period diagram for producing neutron stars from helium stars.

  14. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750–800 °C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the cold side and 208–790 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic entrance region parameters, such as incremental pressure drop number, apparent Fanning friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct have been numerically estimated.

  15. IEEE/ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 3, JUNE 2007 317 A Modular and High-Precision Motion Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerbach, John M.

    IEEE/ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 3, JUNE 2007 317 A Modular and High- tegrated mechatronics, mechatronics system, modular controller, modular joint, motion control system, robot

  16. US ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield and blanket design activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, C.C.

    1988-08-01

    This paper summarizes nuclear-related work in support of the US effort for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Study. Primary tasks carried out during the past year include design improvements of the inboard shield developed for the TIBER concept, scoping studies of a variety of tritium breeding blanket options, development of necessary design guidelines and evaluation criteria for the blanket options, further safety considerations related to nuclear components, and issues regarding structural materials for an ITER device. The blanket concepts considered are the aqueous/Li salt solution, a water-cooled, solid breeder blanket, a helium-cooled, solid-breeder blanket, a blanket cooled by helium containing lithium-bearing particulates, and a blanket concept based on breeding tritium from He/sup 3/. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  17. Ultrafast dynamics in helium nanodroplets probed by femtosecond time-resolved EUV photoelectron imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornilov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    production of atomic 1s4p and 1s5p states, and an angular distribution that is similar to that of isolated helium

  18. Re-Condensation and Liquefaction of Helium and Hydrogen Using Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    a two-phase helium thermal siphon cooling system [3], wherethrough a hydrogen thermal siphon circuit [5]. It is hopedcondensing gravity thermal siphon circuit shown in FIGURE 1

  19. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  20. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1997-12-30

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

  1. Gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C. (Lemont, IL); Laug, Matthew T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, that are grouped in preselected different ratios one to the other and are then sealed as tags in different cladded nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Failure of the cladding of any fuel element allows fission gases generated in the reaction and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas held in the reactor over the fuel elements. The isotopes specifically are Ne.sup.20, Ne.sup.21 and Ne.sup.22 of neon and Ar.sup.36, Ar.sup.38 and Ar.sup.40 of argon, and the cover gas is helium. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between approximately 0.degree. and -25.degree. C. operable to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags and the second or tag recovery system bed is held between approximately -170.degree. and -185.degree. C. operable to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis further is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be specifically determined.

  2. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  3. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Helium Isotope Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan Cooke

    2015-10-09

    The conventional approach to search for departures from the standard model of physics during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis involves a careful, and subtle measurement of the mass fraction of baryons consisting of helium. Recent measurements of this quantity tentatively support new physics beyond the standard model but, historically, this method has suffered from hidden systematic uncertainties. In this letter, I show that a combined measurement of the primordial deuterium abundance and the primordial helium isotope ratio has the potential to provide a complementary and reliable probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Using the recent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance and assuming that the measured pre-solar 3He/4He meteoritic abundance reflects the primordial value, a bound can be placed on the effective number of neutrino species, Neff(BBN) = 3.01 (+0.95 -0.76, with 95 per cent confidence). Although this value of Neff supports the standard model, it is presently unclear if the pre-solar 3He/4He ratio reflects the primordial value. New astrophysical measurements of the helium isotope ratio in near-pristine environments, together with updated calculations and experimental values of several important nuclear reactions (some of which are already being attempted), will lead to much improved limits on possible departures from the standard model. To this end, I describe an analysis strategy to measure the 3He I flux emitted from nearby low metallicity H II regions. The proposed technique can be attempted with the next generation of large telescopes, and will be easier to realize in metal-poor H II regions with quiescent kinematics.

  4. A review of helium-hydrogen synergistic effects in radiation damage observed in fusion energy steels and an interaction model to guide future understanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marian, J; Marian, J; Hoang, T; Hoang, T; Fluss, M; Hsiung, LL

    2015-01-01

    damage and helium and hydrogen production in F/M steelsthe simultaneous production of helium and hydrogen at dosethe simultaneous production of helium and/or hydrogen over a

  5. Detecting Extra Dimension by Helium-like Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Xiao Liu; Xin-Hui Zhang; Yi-Shi Duan

    2007-11-26

    Considering that gravitational force might deviate from Newton's inverse-square law and become much stronger in small scale, we present a method to detect the possible existence of extra dimensions in the ADD model. By making use of an effective variational wave function, we obtain the nonrelativistic ground energy of a helium atom and its isoelectronic sequence. Based on these results, we calculate gravity correction of the ADD model. Our calculation may provide a rough estimation about the magnitude of the corresponding frequencies which could be measured in later experiments.

  6. Entanglement in helium atom confined in an impenetrable cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Przemyslaw Koscik; Jayanta K. Saha

    2015-05-24

    We explore ground-state entanglement properties of helium atom confined at the center of an impenetrable spherical cavity of varying radius by using explicitly correlated Hylleraas-type basis set. Results for the dependencies of the von Neumann and linear entanglement entropic measures on the cavity radius are discussed in details. Some highly accurate numerical results for the von Neumann and linear entropy are reported for the first time. It is found that the transition to the strong confinement regime is manifested by the entropies as an appearance of the inflection points on their variations.

  7. NUHOMS modular spent-fuel storage system: Performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strope, L.A.; McKinnon, M.A. ); Dyksterhouse, D.J.; McLean, J.C. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of a heat transfer and shielding performance evaluation of the NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS{reg sign}) System utilized by the Carolina Power and Light Co. (CP L) in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The ISFSI is located at CP L's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Plant (HBR) near Hartsville, South Carolina. The demonstration included testing of three modules, first with electric heaters and then with spent fuel. The results indicated that the system was conservatively designed, with all heat transfer and shielding design criteria easily met. 5 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport)Fermentative ActivitySciTech Connect Modular microfluidic

  9. Design and implementation of a relative state estimator for docking and formation control of modular autonomous spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoff, Nicholas R

    2007-01-01

    Modularity is a promising design concept for space systems. In a modular satellite, the individual subsystems would be broken down into physically distinct modules, which would then dynamically recombine into an aggregate ...

  10. Facility Configuration Study of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. L. Austad; L. E. Guillen; D. S. Ferguson; B. L. Blakely; D. M. Pace; D. Lopez; J. D. Zolynski; B. L. Cowley; V. J. Balls; E.A. Harvego, P.E.; C.W. McKnight, P.E.; R.S. Stewart; B.D. Christensen

    2008-04-01

    A test facility, referred to as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility or CTF, will be sited at Idaho National Laboratory for the purposes of supporting development of high temperature gas thermal-hydraulic technologies (helium, helium-Nitrogen, CO2, etc.) as applied in heat transport and heat transfer applications in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Such applications include, but are not limited to: primary coolant; secondary coolant; intermediate, secondary, and tertiary heat transfer; and demonstration of processes requiring high temperatures such as hydrogen production. The facility will initially support completion of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. It will secondarily be open for use by the full range of suppliers, end-users, facilitators, government laboratories, and others in the domestic and international community supporting the development and application of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor technology. This pre-conceptual facility configuration study, which forms the basis for a cost estimate to support CTF scoping and planning, accomplishes the following objectives: • Identifies pre-conceptual design requirements • Develops test loop equipment schematics and layout • Identifies space allocations for each of the facility functions, as required • Develops a pre-conceptual site layout including transportation, parking and support structures, and railway systems • Identifies pre-conceptual utility and support system needs • Establishes pre-conceptual electrical one-line drawings and schedule for development of power needs.

  11. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  12. Power Burst Facility (PBF) Reactor Reactor Decommissioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlinesPotentialReactor Decommissioning

  13. A Data-Centric Approach for Modular Assurance Gabriela F. Ciocarlie, Heidi Schubert and Rose Wahlin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Mark-Oliver

    A Data-Centric Approach for Modular Assurance Gabriela F. Ciocarlie, Heidi Schubert and Rose Wahlin this problem, by moving from a component-interaction model to a data-centric model. A data-centric system. This paper outlines a data-centric approach for modular assurance, and a specific instantiation of it, based

  14. FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF MODULAR FORMS ON G2 WEE TECK GAN, BENEDICT GROSS AND GORDAN SAVIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, Wee Teck

    FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF MODULAR FORMS ON G2 WEE TECK GAN, BENEDICT GROSS AND GORDAN SAVIN Abstract. We develop a theory of Fourier coefficients for modular forms on the split ex- ceptional group G2 on the group SL2(Z) is the wealth of information carried by the Fourier coefficients an(f), for n 0

  15. Minimal inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and finite groups of type A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minimal inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and finite The article is devoted to the classification of the minimal and minimal non- trivial inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and finite groups of type A and related locally

  16. Minimal inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and finite groups of type A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baranov, Alexander

    Minimal inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic to the classification of the minimal and minimal * *non- trivial inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and finite groups of type A and related locally finite groups. I* *t

  17. Minimal inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and nite groups of type A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baranov, Alexander

    Minimal inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and #12;nite The article is devoted to the classi#12;cation of the minimal and minimal non- trivial inductive systems of modular representations for naturally embedded algebraic and #12;nite groups of type A and related locally

  18. Integral Modular Categories and Integrality of Quantum Invariants at Roots of Unity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masbaum, Gregor

    Integral Modular Categories and Integrality of Quantum Invariants at Roots of Unity of Prime Order G. Masbaum H. Wenzl May 29, 1998 \\Lambda Abstract It is shown how to deduce integrality properties of quantum 3­manifold invari­ ants from the existence of integral subcategories of modular categories

  19. Generating Isolated Outputs in a Multilevel Modular Capacitor Clamped DC-DC Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    -dc converters based on inductive energy transfer method (IETM) such as buck, boost, and buck-boost converter967 Generating Isolated Outputs in a Multilevel Modular Capacitor Clamped DC-DC Converter (MMCCC clamped dc-dc converter. The multilevel modular capacitor clamped converter (MMCCC) has several key

  20. AGENT-BASED SIMULATION OF PRODUCT INNOVATION: MODULARITY, COMPLEXITY AND DIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 AGENT-BASED SIMULATION OF PRODUCT INNOVATION: MODULARITY, COMPLEXITY AND DIVERSITY S.H. CHEN The importance of modularity in product innovation is analyzed in this paper. Through simulations with an agent an agent-based model to simulate the evolution of product innovation by growing it from bottom up

  1. 766 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 47, NO. 7, JULY 1998 An RNS Montgomery Modular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornerup, Peter

    766 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 47, NO. 7, JULY 1998 An RNS Montgomery Modular--We present a new RNS modular multiplication for very large operands. The algorithm is based on Montgomery of the RNS system reasonably large and implementing the system on a ring of fairly simple processors

  2. Improving Modular Inversion in RNS using the Plus-Minus Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Improving Modular Inversion in RNS using the Plus-Minus Method Karim Bigou2,1 and Arnaud Tisserand3. The paper describes a new RNS modular inversion algorithm based on the extended Euclidean algorithm and the plus-minus trick. In our algorithm, comparisons over large RNS values are replaced by cheap

  3. AN RNS-BASED ARCHITECTURE TARGETING HARDWARE ACCELERATORS FOR MODULAR ARITHMETIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sousa, Leonel

    AN RNS-BASED ARCHITECTURE TARGETING HARDWARE ACCELERATORS FOR MODULAR ARITHMETIC Samuel Antão- rithms relying on modular arithmetic fully supported by the Residue Number System (RNS). The systematic to date. Index Terms-- Residue Number System (RNS), Modu- lar Arithmetic, Cryptography, Embedded Systems

  4. An RNS Montgomery Modular Multiplication Algorithm JeanClaude Bajard and LaurentStephane Didier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornerup, Peter

    An RNS Montgomery Modular Multiplication Algorithm Jean­Claude Bajard and Laurent­Stâ??ephane Didier. and Computer Science University of Odense, Denmark Abstract We present a new RNS modular multiplication, and is performed using a Residue Number System. By choosing the moduli of the RNS system reasonably large

  5. A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING, SIMULATION, AND ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING Students #12;2 A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING in Aeronautics and Astronautics #12;3 Abstract A space logistics modeling framework to support space exploration

  6. ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 1107 The interest in both modular simulation and alternative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a limited Modular HVAC Simulation and the Future Integration of Alternative Cooling Systems in a NewASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 1107 ABSTRACT The interest in both modular simulation and alternative. At the same time, the U.S. Department of Energy has released its new building energy simulation program

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Modular Resonant Switched Capacitors Equalizer for PV Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design and Evaluation of a Modular Resonant Switched Capacitors Equalizer for PV Panels Shmuel (Sam of shaded panels in a serially connected PV array. The proposed solution is based on a modular approach module was designed for 185W PV panels and was found to boost the maximum available power by about 50

  8. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  9. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Lazarus, Jonathan D. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extends from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  10. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  11. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  12. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  13. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  14. Fast quench reactor method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  15. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  16. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wade, Elman E. (Ruffs Dale, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  17. Fast quench reactor method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  18. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  19. Gettering of hydrogen and methane from a helium gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cárdenas, Rosa Elia; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172{sup ®} getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. The optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650?°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110?°C to remove the hydrogen. This approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  20. Improved modelling of helium and tritium production for spallation targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Leray; A. Boudard; J. Cugnon; J. C. David; A. Kelic-Heil; D. Mancusi; M. V. Ricciardi

    2009-12-11

    Reliable predictions of light charged particle production in spallation reactions are important to correctly assess gas production in spallation targets. In particular, the helium production yield is important for assessing damage in the window separating the accelerator vacuum from a spallation target, and tritium is a major contributor to the target radioactivity. Up to now, the models available in the MCNPX transport code, including the widely used default option Bertini-Dresner and the INCL4.2-ABLA combination of models, were not able to correctly predict light charged particle yields. The work done recently on both the intranuclear cascade model INCL4, in which cluster emission through a coalescence process has been introduced, and on the de-excitation model ABLA allows correcting these deficiencies. This paper shows that the coalescence emission plays an important role in the tritium and $^3He$ production and that the combination of the newly developed versions of the codes, INCL4.5-ABLA07, now lead to good predictions of both helium and tritium cross sections over a wide incident energy range. Comparisons with other available models are also presented.