National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for modified mercalli intensity

  1. EIA Energy Efficiency-Residential Sector Energy Intensities,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Sector Energy Intensities RESIDENTIAL SECTOR ENERGY INTENSITIES: 1978-2005 Released Date: August 2004 Page Last Modified:June 2009 These tables provide estimates of...

  2. Modified cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Efficiency vs. Intensity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency improvements in processes and equipment and other explanatory factors can contribute to observed changes in energy intensity. Within the category "other explanatory factors" we can...

  4. Energy Intensity Indicators: Electricity Generation Energy Intensity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electricity Generation Energy Intensity Energy Intensity Indicators: Electricity Generation Energy Intensity A kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electric energy delivered to the final user has an energy equivalent to 3,412 British thermal units (Btu). Figure E1, below, tracks how much energy was used by the various categories of electricity generators to produce a kWh of electricity (i.e., the heat rate). As shown in the figure, in 1950, central power plants producing only

  5. Measuring Arithmetic Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » For Users » Application Performance » Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Arithmetic intensity is a measure of floating-point operations (FLOPs) performed by a given code (or code section) relative to the amount of memory accesses (Bytes) that are required to support those operations. It is most often defined as a FLOP per Byte ratio (F/B). This application note provides a methodology for determining arithmetic intensity using Intel's Software Development

  6. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  7. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  8. Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers

  9. Method of modifying a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renk, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM); Senft, Donna Cowell (Albuquerque, NM); Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G. (Columbus, OH); Thompson, Michael O. (Ithaca, NY); Grabowski, Kenneth S. (Alexandria, VA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  10. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry | Department of Energy Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry PDF icon eip_report.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy Technology

  11. Energy Intensity Indicators: Coverage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors—transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1. More detail for some of these sectors can be obtained by accessing the file "End-Use Sector Flowchart" below Figure 1.

  12. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  13. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  14. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  15. Modified Faraday cup

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Pleasanton, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  16. Modified Faraday cup

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  17. INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers February 19, 2016 - 11:53am Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Watch our CO2 drop dramatically compared to other countries in this interactive Curious about the total amount of carbon we emit into the atmosphere? Compare countries from around the globe using this tool. If

  18. Intensity Frontier Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettell S.; Rameika, R.; Tshirhart, B.

    2013-09-24

    The fundamental origin of flavor in the Standard Model (SM) remains a mystery. Despite the roughly eighty years since Rabi asked Who ordered that? upon learning of the discovery of the muon, we have not understood the reason that there are three generations or, more recently, why the quark and neutrino mixing matrices and masses are so different. The solution to the flavor problem would give profound insights into physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and tell us about the couplings and the mass scale at which the next level of insight can be found. The SM fails to explain all observed phenomena: new interactions and yet unseen particles must exist. They may manifest themselves by causing SM reactions to differ from often very precise predictions. The Intensity Frontier (1) explores these fundamental questions by searching for new physics in extremely rare processes or those forbidden in the SM. This often requires massive and/or extremely finely tuned detectors.

  19. Modified clay sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  20. Demoing the Modified TALON Robot

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A technician at Idaho National Laboratory demonstrates the modified TALON robot; which is being sent to assist emergency workers at Japan's Fukishima nuclear reactor.

  1. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  2. Data-Intensive Benchmarking Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-11-26

    The Data-Intensive Benchmark Suite is a set of programs written for the study of data-or storage-intensive science and engineering problems, The benchmark sets cover: general graph searching (basic and Hadoop Map/Reduce breadth-first search), genome sequence searching, HTTP request classification (basic and Hadoop Map/Reduce), low-level data communication, and storage device micro-beachmarking

  3. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  4. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  5. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  6. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  7. Grass Modified for Easier Bioprocessing - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grass Modified for Easier Bioprocessing Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Manufacturing paper and producing biofuels is difficult because the lignin in plant cell walls is tough to degrade. Current techniques are energy intensive and use harsh chemicals. In the case of biofuels, costly pretreatments are required to alter the lignin and help enzymes produce sugars for fermentation. Grass lignins contain large amounts of

  8. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahoon, Edgar B. (Shoreham, NY); Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Lindgvist, Ylva (Jarfalla, SE); Schneider, Gunter (Jarfalla, SE)

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  9. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahoon, Edgar B. (Shoreham, NY); Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Lindqvist, Ylva (Jarfalla, SE); Schneider, Gunter (Jarfalla, SE)

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  10. Energy Intensity Indicators: Overview of Concepts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Intensity Indicators website reports changes in energy intensity in the United States since 1970. The website discusses, and presents data for, energy intensity trends by major end-use...

  11. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  12. Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highlights Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights This page highlights the major changes in the overall energy intensity for the United States, as well as summarizing changes in ...

  13. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  14. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  15. Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period The Diffuse Shortwave IOP ran from September 23 to October 12, 2001. During this IOP, Joe Michalsky (The State University of New York-Albany) and Tom Stoffel (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) deployed approximately 15 radiometers of various designs and manufacturers on the SGP Radiometer Calibration Facility. The purpose was to compare the accuracy of the radiometers for diffuse shortwave measurements. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography

  16. Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled Several IOP projects have been scheduled for the SGP CART site this spring. These projects either have already begun or will begin shortly. Radiosondes The RS-90 Transition IOP is currently under way. The RS-90 model radiosonde is gradually replacing the older RS-80 model. Radiosondes are instrument packages attached to and launched by weather balloons. The instruments measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as the

  17. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  18. Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

  19. ARM - AIP1OGREN: AOS Intensive Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataAIP1OGREN: AOS Intensive Properties AIP1OGREN: AOS Intensive Properties The aip1ogren value-added product produces aerosol intensive properties from Aerosol Observing Station data. Information Last Updated: October 2008 General Description The aip1ogren value-added product (VAP) computes several aerosol intensive properties. It requires as input calibrated, corrected, aerosol extensive properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, primarily) from the Aerosol Observing Station (AOS).

  20. ARM - Campaign Instrument - psp-eppley-modified

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Modified Eppley PSP (PSP-EPPLEY-MODIFIED) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Diffuse Shortwave IOP...

  1. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  2. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cuvette (Patent) | SciTech Connect Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by

  3. Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research Benefits: Incorporates disposable, commercially available cuvettes Modifiable design Allows multiple experiments using a single solution Designed for interface with...

  4. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for testing each rheology modifier, hence based on the changes in rheology for a given rheology modifier, rheology modifiers were either dropped or added between simulants. Three rheology modifiers were used on all simulants. The results from this testing indicate that citric acid or polycarboxylate based rheology modifiers are the most effective in reducing the yield stress, by as much as 70% at the higher rheology modifier additions and were effective on most of the tested simulants. These rheology modifiers are organic, hence the can also be used as reductants in melter operations. The most effective non-organic rheology modifiers, sodium metasilicate reduced the yield stress by 10%. It is recommended that both citric acid and commercially available polycarboxylate rheology modifiers be further investigated. Different molecular weight polycarboxylates and different types of polycarboxylates used in other industries must be considered. These polycarboxylates are extensively utilized in the cement, ceramic, and water treatment processes, hence readily available. Future work on DWPF melter feeds involving rheology modifiers should include, assuming the present method of processing sludge through DPWF does not change, is: (1) Investigate the use of polycarboxylate in various processes and procure polycarboxylates for testing. Limit rheology modifier selection and future testing between four and eight different types. (2) Test rheology modifiers on at least two different chemical types or bounding DWPF SME product simulants. Test to include the impact of boiling and the effectiveness in reducing water content via rheology versus weight percent curves. (3) Based on selected modifiers, perform testing on actual radioactive melter feed based on results from simulant testing.

  5. Energy Intensity Indicators Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Intensity Indicators Data Energy Intensity Indicators Data The files listed below contain energy intensity data and documentation that supports the information presented on this website. The files are in Microsoft® Excel® format (2007 and later versions). Package icon Entire Set File Economywide File Transportation Sector File Industrial Sector File Residential Buildings Sector File Commercial Buildings Sector File Electricity Sector More Documents & Publications Home Performance

  6. Energy Intensity Indicators | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Data & Tools » Energy Intensity Indicators Energy Intensity Indicators Energy efficiency is a vital part of the nation's energy strategy and has been since the first oil crisis in 1973. As part of a national priority for improving energy efficiency, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has established a national system of indicators to track changes in the energy intensity of our economy and economic sectors over time. This system of

  7. Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Session 9 Energy Efficiency: Measuring Gains and Quantifying Opportunities April 7, 2010 2010 Energy Conference Washington, DC Steve Wade, Economist Efficiency and Intensity in the ...

  8. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  9. Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class...

  10. Guidance Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan Agreements Entered into by an Energy Services Company Under a Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract Guidance Regarding...

  11. Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-7237 Fax: (202) 586-0018 URL: http:www.eia.govemeumecsmecs91intensitymecs1b.html File Last Modified: May 25, 1996 If you are having any technical problems with this...

  12. Use of modified smooth exterior scaling method as an absorbing potential and its application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalita, Dhruba J.; Gupta, Ashish K.

    2011-03-07

    Here, we propose a new complex path to achieve better absorption during the propagation of a wavepacket. In the proposed modified smooth exterior scaling (SES) method, scaling function, {theta}(x), has been chosen as a real function rather than complex (as used in a conventional smooth exterior scaling method). It greatly reduces the artificial reflections from the boundary edges. This modified SES method is applied to study the multiphoton dissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +} in intense laser field. The resonance states are calculated accurately.

  13. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  14. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  15. Description of Energy Intensity Tables (12)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables There are 12 data tables used as references for this report. Specifically, these tables are categorized as tables 1 and 2 present...

  16. Applications in Data-Intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Anuj R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.; Chavarra-Miranda, Daniel; Choudhury, Sutanay; Gorton, Ian; Gracio, Deborah K.; Halter, Todd D.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Johnson, John R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Macduff, Matt C.; Marquez, Andres; Monroe, Matthew E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Pike, William A.; Scherrer, Chad; Villa, Oreste; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Whitney, Paul D.; Zuljevic, Nino

    2010-04-01

    This book chapter, to be published in Advances in Computers, Volume 78, in 2010 describes applications of data intensive computing (DIC). This is an invited chapter resulting from a previous publication on DIC. This work summarizes efforts coming out of the PNNL's Data Intensive Computing Initiative. Advances in technology have empowered individuals with the ability to generate digital content with mouse clicks and voice commands. Digital pictures, emails, text messages, home videos, audio, and webpages are common examples of digital content that are generated on a regular basis. Data intensive computing facilitates human understanding of complex problems. Data-intensive applications provide timely and meaningful analytical results in response to exponentially growing data complexity and associated analysis requirements through the development of new classes of software, algorithms, and hardware.

  17. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn more at betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program (Better Plants) is a voluntary energy efficiency leadership initiative for U.S. manufacturers. The program encourages companies to commit to reduce the energy intensity of their U.S. manufacturing operations, usually by 25% over a 10-year period. Companies joining Better Plants are recognized by DOE for their

  18. Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial Source Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption Figure C1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) commercial building floor space, 2) energy use based on source energy consumption, 3) energy intensity, and 4) the year-to-year influence of weather. Activity: Since 1970, the quantity of commercial floor space has nearly doubled, with about half of that increase occurring after 1985. There

  19. Energy Intensity Indicators: Residential Source Energy Consumption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Residential Source Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Residential Source Energy Consumption Figure R1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) the number of U.S. households, 2) the average size of those housing units, 3) residential source energy consumption, 4) energy intensity, and 5) an overall structural component that represents "other explanatory factors." Activity: Since 1970, the number of household (occupied

  20. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Transportation Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining both passenger and freight segments of this sector. The specific energy intensity indicators for passenger and freight can be obtained from the links, passenger transportation, or freight transportation. For further detail within the transportation sector, download the appropriate Trend Data worksheet

  1. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Lakewood, CO); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Golden, CO); Myers, Andrew William (Arvada, CO); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Boulder, CO); Elliott, Brian John (Superior, CO); Kreutzer, Cory (Brighton, CO); Wilson, Carolina (Arvada, CO); Meiser, Manfred (Aurora, CO)

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  2. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  3. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH); Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  4. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not appreciably change the pH of the waste; Organics are typically reductants and could impact glass REDOX if not accounted for in the reductant addition calculations; Stability of the modifiers in a caustic, radioactive environment is not known, but some of the modifiers tested were specifically designed to withstand caustic conditions; These acids will add to the total organic carbon content of the wastes. Radiolytic decomposition of the acids could result in organic and hydrogen gas generation. These potential impacts must be addressed in future studies with simulants representative of real waste and finally with tests using actual waste based on the rheology differences seen between SRS simulants and actual waste. The only non-organic modifier evaluated was sodium metasilicate. Further evaluation of this modifier is recommended if a reducing modifier is a concern.

  5. What is Data-Intensive Science?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-06-03

    What is Data Intensive Science? Today we are living in a digital world, where scientists often no longer interact directly with the physical object of their research, but do so via digitally captured, reduced, calibrated, analyzed, synthesized and, at times, visualized data. Advances in experimental and computational technologies have lead to an exponential growth in the volumes, variety and complexity of this data and while the deluge is not happening everywhere in an absolute sense, it is in a relative one. Science today is data intensive. Data intensive science has the potential to transform not only how we do science, but how quickly we can translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, decisions and ultimately economic success. Critically, data intensive science touches some of the most important challenges we are facing. Consider a few of the grand challenges outlined by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering: make solar energy economical, provide energy from fusion, develop carbon sequestration methods, advance health informatics, engineer better medicines, secure cyberspace, and engineer the tools of scientific discovery. Arguably, meeting any of these challenges requires the collaborative effort of trans-disciplinary teams, but also significant contributions from enabling data intensive technologies. Indeed for many of them, advances in data intensive research will be the single most important factor in developing successful and timely solutions. Simple extrapolations of how we currently interact with and utilize data and knowledge are not sufficient to meet this need. Given the importance of these challenges, a new, bold vision for the role of data in science, and indeed how research will be conducted in a data intensive environment is evolving.

  6. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

  7. Off-site Intensive Operational Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 ARM Participating in Off-site Intensive Operational Period The ARM Program is playing a role in the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) intensive operational period (IOP), under way through July in South Florida. The objective of CRYSTAL-FACE is to investigate the physical properties and formation processes of tropical cirrus clouds. The ARM Program has deployed a suite of ground-based instruments in Florida for CRYSTAL-FACE

  8. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  9. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  10. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  11. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  12. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators for Major Sectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors—transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1.

  13. Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Source Energy Consumption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Industrial Source Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Source Energy Consumption The industrial sector comprises manufacturing and other nonmanufacturing industries not included in transportation or services. Manufacturing includes 18 industry sectors, generally defined at the three-digit level of the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS). The nonmanufacturing sectors are agriculture, forestry and fisheries, mining, and

  14. A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new design for a disposable and modifiable...

  15. Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in...

  16. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density Prev Next Title: Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high...

  17. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  18. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1998-10-20

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 67 figs.

  19. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    1997-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  20. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    1998-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  1. 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December 10 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments)...

  2. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  3. The High Intensity Horizon at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschirhart, R.S.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Fermilab's high intensity horizon is 'Project-X' which is a US led initiative with strong international participation that aims to realize a next generation proton source that will dramatically extend the reach of Intensity Frontier research. The Project-X research program includes world leading sensitivity in long-baseline and short-baseline neutrino experiments, a rich program of ultra-rare muon and kaon decays, opportunities for next-generation electric dipole moment experiments and other nuclear/particle physics probes, and a platform to investigate technologies for next generation energy applications. A wide range of R&D activities has supported mission critical accelerator subsystems, such as high-gradient superconducting RF accelerating structures, efficient RF power systems, cryo-modules and cryogenic refrigeration plants, advanced beam diagnostics and instrumentation, high-power targetry, as well as the related infrastructure and civil construction preparing for a construction start of a staged program as early as 2017.

  4. combines high intensity and short pulse duration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combines high intensity and short pulse duration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  5. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  6. Correlated-Intensity velocimeter for Arbitrary Reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Luo, Shengnian (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Arlington, VA); Paul, Stephen F. (West Orange, NJ)

    2008-11-11

    A velocimetry apparatus and method comprising splitting incoming reflected laser light and directing the laser light into first and second arms, filtering the laser light with passband filters in the first and second arms, one having a positive passband slope and the other having a negative passband slope, and detecting the filtered laser light via light intensity detectors following the passband filters in the first and second arms

  7. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-09-15

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output plane to determine whether a particular target is present in the field of view. Preferably, a temporal pattern is imaged in the output plane with a optical detector having a plurality of pixels and a correlation coefficient for each pixel is determined by accumulating the intensity and intensity-square of each pixel. The orbiting of the constant response caused by the filter rotation is also preferably eliminated either by the use of two orthogonal mirrors pivoted correspondingly to the rotation of the filter or the attaching of a refracting wedge to the filter to remove the offset angle. Detection is preferably performed of the temporal pattern in the output plane at a plurality of different angles with angular separation sufficient to decorrelate successive frames. 1 fig.

  8. Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.

    2014-04-15

    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range.

  9. High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the second highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. Both HIDs and LEDs can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when they replace incandescent lighting. In a high-intensity discharge lamp, electricity arcs between two electrodes, creating an intensely bright light. Mercury, sodium, or metal halide gas acts as the

  10. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Assistance » Better Plants » Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance The Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance for the Better Buildings, Better Plants Program helps companies meet the program's reporting requirements by describing the steps necessary to develop an energy consumption and energy intensity baseline and calculating consumption and intensity changes over time. Most of the calculation steps described

  11. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  12. COLLIMATION OPTIMIZATION IN HIGH INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CATALAN-LASHERAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    In high intensity proton rings, collimation is needed in order to maintain reasonable levels of residual activation and allow hands-on maintenance. Small acceptance to emittance ratio and restrained longitudinal space become important restrictions when dealing with low energy rings. The constraints and specifications when designing a collimation system for this type of machine will be reviewed. The SNS accumulator ring will serve as an examples long which we will illustrate the optimization path. Experimental studies of collimation with 1.3 GeV proton beams are currently under way in the U-70 machine in Protvino. The first results will be presented.

  13. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",10.89145253,10.73335719,10.63428655,10.48440125,10.33479508,10.20669515,10.06546105,9.94541493,9.822393757,9.707148466,9.595465524,9.499032573,9.390723436,9.29474735,9.185496812,9.096176848,9.007677565,8.928276581 "AEO

  14. Theoretical priors on modified growth parametrisations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yong-Seon; Hollenstein, Lukas; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Lukas.Hollenstein@unige.ch E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    Next generation surveys will observe the large-scale structure of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. This will enable us to test the relationships between matter over-densities, the curvature perturbation and the Newtonian potential. Any large-distance modification of gravity or exotic nature of dark energy modifies these relationships as compared to those predicted in the standard smooth dark energy model based on General Relativity. In linear theory of structure growth such modifications are often parameterised by virtue of two functions of space and time that enter the relation of the curvature perturbation to, first, the matter over- density, and second, the Newtonian potential. We investigate the predictions for these functions in Brans-Dicke theory, clustering dark energy models and interacting dark energy models. We find that each theory has a distinct path in the parameter space of modified growth. Understanding these theoretical priors on the parameterisations of modified growth is essential to reveal the nature of cosmic acceleration with the help of upcoming observations of structure formation.

  15. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  16. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, Walter P. (Hudson, MA); Keeffe, William M. (Rockport, MA); Liebermann, Richard W. (Danvers, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  17. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Watkins, Thomas R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Burchell, Timothy D; Rosseel, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  18. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2002-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  19. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2001-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  20. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2003-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  1. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  2. V-127: Samba Bug Lets Remote Authenticated Users Modify Files...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: Samba Bug Lets Remote Authenticated Users Modify Files V-127: Samba Bug Lets Remote Authenticated Users Modify Files April 5, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was...

  3. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    lighting intensities per lighted square foot-hour (Figure 23). * Food service and health care buildings had the highest water-heating intensities per square foot--more than...

  4. Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Many water-intensive processes beyond the Federal Energy Management Program's best management practices (BMPs) for water efficiency are in place at federal facilities, including laundry equipment, vehicle wash systems, evaporative coolers, and water softening systems. When assessing facility water use, it is important to identify and analyze all water-intensive processes for potential

  5. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Across U.S. Industry | Department of Energy Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry PDF icon eip_report_pg9.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy Technology Solutions Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private

  6. SYNCHROTRONS AND ACCUMULATORS FOR HIGH INTENSITY PROTONS: ISSUES AND EXPERIENCES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI,J.

    2000-06-30

    This paper summarizes physical and engineering issues of high-intensity synchrotrons and accumulators, and discusses future applications and outlook.

  7. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi{sub 2} heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} for structural integrity. 7 figs.

  8. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Mitchell K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Akinc, Mufit (Ames, IA)

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi.sub.2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 for structural integrity.

  9. COLLOQUIUM: In Silico Plasmas Under Extreme Intensities | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab May 12, 2015, 4:15pm to 6:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: In Silico Plasmas Under Extreme Intensities Professor Luis Silva, Department of Physics Instituto Superior Técnico Intense laser and particle beams can be focused down to intensities in excess of 10^23 W/cm^2. Similar intensities are also present in extreme astrophysical scenarios. Under these conditions, the interaction of these intense beams and fields with plasmas is very rich, permeated by collective

  10. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  11. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  12. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-12-19

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a months worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a months worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

  13. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  14. Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babain, V.; Smirnov, I.; Alyapyshev, M.; Todd, T.A.; Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S.; Paulenova, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of radionuclide group separation using the modified UNEX solvent [HCCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide), TBDPA (tetrabutyl-diamide of dipicolinic acid), PEG in FS-1 3 (phenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfone)] is being investigated. Individual strip products, including a) actinides and lanthanides, b) strontium, and c) cesium, can be obtained by selective stripping from UNEX solvent. Such partitioning will make it possible to transform the Cs/Sr product into the most stable matrices for long-term storage and to further process the actinide/lanthanide product for recycling to a nuclear reactor. (authors)

  15. Geology and ground shaking: The April 25--26, 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquake sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moley, K.; Dengler, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The authors present a simplified geologic map of Humboldt and Del Norte Counties, California and compare it to Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) produced by the April 25, 1992 M[sub S] = 7.1, and April 26 Ms = 6.6, and Ms = 6.7 Cape Mendocino earthquakes. The generalized geology was compiled from California Division of Mines and Geology Regional Geology Maps, and area geologic mapping by the USGS and Humboldt State University. Six rock/sediment groups are distinguished by considering lithology, consolidation, compaction, bedding orientation and degree of shearing: (1) landslides and glacial deposits; (2) bay muds and fill, alluvium, lake deposits and beach sand; (3) quaternary marine and non-marine deposits; (4) unstable bedrock; (5) moderately stable bedrock; (6) intrusions. Intensity values for the Saturday earthquake were calculated from over 2,000 surveys to individuals and businesses in the northcoast area by an algorithm based on a weighted sum of survey responses. Numerical data was compiled for over 100 locations in the region. The intensity VIII and greater zone encompassed an area of about 500 km[sup 2] including the communities of Petrolia, Ferndale and Rio Dell. Ground motion generally decays with distance in a roughly radial pattern. A different approach was taken to estimate the pattern of shaking in the two Sunday earthquakes. These earthquakes occurred when most respondents were sleeping and their perception of ground motion was likely to be affected.

  16. NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program DOE Researchers Eligible to Apply for Resources, Expertise April 12, 2012 magic-hour-panorama.jpg NERSC's new data-intensive science pilot program is aimed at helping scientists capture, analyze and store the increasing stream of scientific data coming out of experiments, simulations and instruments, such as the Advanced Light Source (domed building in photo) at Berkeley Lab. Department of

  17. Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction Map of Southeastern U.S. with Mississippi highlighted The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO; formerly the Industrial Technologies Program) has developed multiple resources and a best practices suite of tools to help industrial manufacturers reduce their energy intensity. AMO adopted the Energy Policy Act of 2005 objective

  18. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier NuMI Horn 1 at MI8. NuMI Horn 1 at MI8. Intensity Frontier Particle physics experiments at the Intensity Frontier explore fundamental particles and forces of nature using intense particle beams and highly sensitive detectors. One of the ways that researchers search for signals of new physics is to observe rarely interacting particles, such as neutrinos, and their corresponding antimatter particles. Some of these experiments search for evidence of the process theorists hypothesize

  19. Eight Projects Selected for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eight Projects Selected for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Eight Projects Selected for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program April 30, 2012 by Francesca Verdier Eight projects have been selected to participate in NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program. They will help us investigate new data methods and understand their usefulness to scientists using NERSC resources. The selected projects are: High Throughput Computational Screening of Energy Materials, with PI

  20. Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry July 17, 2015 - 12:55pm Addthis Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry Emiley Mallory Emiley Mallory Communications Specialist, Weatherization Assistance Program John Coggin John Coggin Communications Specialist, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs What are the key facts? The Colorado Energy Office implemented a Dairy and

  1. Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (34) Machinery (35) El. Equip.(36) Instruments (38) Misc. (39) Appendices Survey Design Quality of Data Sector Description Nonobservation Errors Glossary Intensity Sites...

  2. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intensities The purpose of this section is to provide information on how energy was used for space conditioning--heating, cooling, and ventilation--in commercial...

  3. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  4. Table C10. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per Square Foot (kWh)","per...

  5. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control Authors: Brown, Bruce C. ; Adamson, Philip ; Capista, David ; Chou, Weiren ; Kourbanis, Ioanis ; ...

  6. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source:...

  7. Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion Inventors..--.. James M. Mitrani, Igor D, Kaganovich, Ronald C, Davidson. A two...

  8. Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones To incorporate the effects of tropical cyclone (TC)-induced upper ocean ...

  9. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers PDF icon biomass-firedboilers.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Intensity Particle and Photon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Intensity Particle and Photon Beams History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory studies is instrumental in the progress of...

  11. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1989 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Full Report Tables National estimates and analysis of energy consumption by fuel (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district...

  12. China-Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intensity Reduction Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name China-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance...

  13. ARM AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP A. S. Koontz and C. J. Flynn Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, and P....

  14. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Shepherd, Jason F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-02-20

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet extraction. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of determining a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, generating nodes for merging, and merging the nodes to delete the sheet of hexahedral mesh elements and modify the volume mesh.

  15. System Configured For Applying Multiple Modifying Agents To A Substrate.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  16. System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2003-11-25

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  17. Webinar: Genetically Modified Algae: A Risk-Benefit Assessment | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Webinar: Genetically Modified Algae: A Risk-Benefit Assessment Webinar: Genetically Modified Algae: A Risk-Benefit Assessment Genetically Modified (GM) Algae: A Risk-Benefit Assessment PDF icon gm_algae_webinar_october_2014 More Documents & Publications National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts Synopsis (NAABB) Final Report National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts Synopsis (NAABB) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program: 2002

  18. Highly Charged Ion (HCI) Modified Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomeroy, J. M.; Grube, H. [Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 100 Bureau Dr., MS 8423, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8423 (United States)

    2009-03-10

    The neutralization energy carried by highly charged ions (HCIs) provides an alternative method for localizing energy on a target's surface, producing features and modifying surfaces with fluences and kinetic energy damage that are negligible compared to singly ionized atoms. Since each HCI can deposit an enormous amount of energy into a small volume of the surface (e.g., Xe{sup 44+} delivers 51 keV of neutralization energy per HCI), each individual HCI's interaction with the target can produce a nanoscale feature. Many studies of HCI-surface features have characterized some basic principles of this unique ion-surface interaction, but the activity reported here has been focused on studying ensembles of HCI features in ultra-thin insulating films by fabricating multi-layer tunnel junction devices. The ultra-thin insulating barriers allow current to flow by tunneling, providing a very sensitive means of detecting changes in the barrier due to highly charged ion irradiation and, conversely, HCI modification provides a method of finely tuning the transparency of the tunnel junctions that spans several orders of magnitude for devices produced from a single process recipe. Systematic variation of junction bias, temperature, magnetic field and other parameters provides determination of the transport mechanism, defect densities, and magnetic properties of these nano-features and this novel approach to device fabrication.

  19. Calibration of a Modified Californium Shuffler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Armstrong, F.; Oldham, R.; Ceo, R.; Williams, N.

    1995-06-01

    A californium shuffler originally designed to assay hollow cylindrical pieces of UA1 has been modified to assay solid cylinders. Calibration standards were characterized via chemical analysis of the molten UA1 taken during casting of the standards. The melt samples yielded much more reliable characterization data than drill samples taken from standards after the standards had solidified. By normalizing one well-characterized calibration curve to several standards at different enrichments, a relatively small number of standards was required to develop an enrichment-dependent calibration. The precision of this shuffler is 0.65%, and the typical random and systematic uncertainties are 0.53% and 0.73%, respectively, for a six minute assay of an ingot containing approximately 700 grams of {sup 235}U. This paper will discuss (1) the discrepancies encountered when UA1 standards were characterized via melt samples versus drill samples, (2) a calibration methodology employing a small number of standards, and (3) a comparison of results from a previously unused shuffler with an existing shuffler. A small number of UA1 standards have been characterized using samples from the homogeneous molten state and have yielded enrichment-dependent and enrichment-independent calibration curves on two different shufflers.

  20. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Shepherd, Jason F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-08-29

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED ALUMINUM ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE ...

  2. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier...

  3. Comment on ''Modifying the variational principle in theaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comment on ''Modifying the variational principle in the action-integral-functional derivation of time-dependent density-functional theory'' Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  4. Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Introduction Rankeda EI Numbers of Total Inputs of Energy SIC Codeb Intensity for 1985c Intensity for 1994c 29 18.11 25.85 26 17.82 17.71 33 19.57 16.27 32 14.75 14.69 28 11.09...

  5. A Comprehensive System of U.S. Energy Intensity Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2011 relative to a 1985 base year.

  6. Perihelion precession for modified Newtonian gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Hans-Juergen

    2008-07-15

    We calculate the perihelion precession {delta} for nearly circular orbits in a central potential V(r). Differently from other approaches to this problem, we do not assume that the potential is close to the Newtonian one. The main idea in the deduction is to apply the underlying symmetries of the system to show that {delta} must be a function of r{center_dot}V{sup ''}(r)/V{sup '}(r) and to use the transformation behavior of {delta} in a rotating system of reference. This is equivalent to say that the effective potential can be written in a one-parameter set of possibilities as the sum of centrifugal potential and potential of the central force. We get the following universal formula valid for V{sup '}(r)>0 reading {delta}(r)=2{pi}{center_dot}[(1/{radical}(3+r{center_dot}V{sup ''}(r)/V{sup '}(r)))-1]. It has to be read as follows: a circular orbit at this value r exists and is stable if and only if this {delta} is well-defined as real; and if this is the case, then the angular difference from one perihelion to the next one for nearly circular orbits at this r is exactly 2{pi}+{delta}(r). Then we apply this result to examples of recent interest like modified Newtonian gravity and linearized fourth-order gravity. In the second part of the paper, we generalize this universal formula to static spherically symmetric space-times ds{sup 2}=-e{sup 2{lambda}}{sup (r)}dt{sup 2}+e{sup 2{mu}}{sup (r)}dr{sup 2}+r{sup 2}d{omega}{sup 2}; for orbits near r it reads {delta}=2{pi}{center_dot}[(e{sup {mu}}{sup (r)}/{radical}(3-2r{center_dot}{lambda}{sup '}(r)+r{center_dot}{lambda}{sup ''}(r)/{lambda}{sup '}(r)))-1] and can be applied to a large class of theories. For the Schwarzschild black hole with mass parameter m>0 it leads to {delta}=2{pi}{center_dot}[(1/{radical}(1-(6m/r)))-1], a surprisingly unknown formula. It represents a strict result and is applicable for all values r>6m and is in good agreement with the fact that stable circular orbits exist for r>6m only. For r>>m, one can develop in powers of m and get the well-known approximation {delta}{approx_equal}(6{pi}m/r)

  7. Practical transverse matching of a high intensity SNS linac (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Practical transverse matching of a high intensity SNS linac Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Practical transverse matching of a high intensity SNS linac It is important to accomplish adequate matching for a high intensity linear accelerator such as the SNS linac to minimize the mismatch and potential beam loss. In the early stage of the SNS linac design, there was a discussion over whether to match the core or to match the tail. A study shows that the

  8. Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator* (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator* Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator* For a high intensity beam, the 4\nu=1 resonance of a linear accelerator is manifested through the octupolar term of space charge potential when the depressed phase advance \sigma is close to and below 90 but no resonance effect is observed when \sigma just above 90 . To verify that this is a

  9. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier | MINERvA In this Section: Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT MicroBooNE MINERvA MINOS NOvA LBNF/DUNE Cosmic Frontier Proposed Projects and Experiments MINERvA MINERvA Intensity Frontier MINERvA MINERvA is a neutrino-scattering experiment that uses the NuMI beamline at Fermilab to search for low-energy neutrino interactions. It is designed to study neutrino-nucleus interactions with unprecedented detail. The number of neutrinos that

  10. Channeling of intense laser beams in underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feit, M.D.; Garrison, J.C.; Rubenchik, A.M.

    1997-09-01

    A hydrodynamic simulation is used to show that intense laser pulses propagating in underdense plasmas create stable, long-lived, and completely evacuated channels. At low intensities, I=10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, self focusing seriously distorts the temporal envelope of the pulse, but channeling still occurs. At high intensities, I=10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, channeling can proceed over many diffraction lengths with significant distortion restricted to the leading edge of the pulse. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    as buildings of the 1980's. In this section, intensities are based upon the entire building stock, not just those buildings using a particular fuel for a given end use. This...

  12. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility ... 6th International Particle Accelerator Conference. Richmond, Virginia, USA, 3-8 May 2015.

  13. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Further insight with ...

  14. Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape Home Author: H. Yu, R. Bellair, R. M. Kannan, S. L....

  15. Energy Intensity Indicators: Caveats and Cautions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Caveats and Cautions Energy Intensity Indicators: Caveats and Cautions This website contains a diverse collection of indicators that track changes in energy intensity at the national and end-use sector levels (after taking into account other explanatory factors). Indicators are based on readily available and publicly accessible data, although some of this data has been interpolated between published years, or extrapolated beyond the last published year. To help facilitate the appropriate

  16. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data The files listed below contain energy intensity data and documentation that supports the information presented on this website. The files are in Microsoft® Excel® format (2007 and later versions) and are available to view and/or download. The entire set of files is also available for download as a zipped* (compressed) file. Economywide Transportation Sector Industrial Sector Residential Buildings Sector Commercial Buildings Sector Electricity

  17. ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched

  18. Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    impact on tropical cyclones (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones To incorporate the effects of tropical cyclone (TC)-induced upper ocean mixing and sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on TC intensification, a vertical average of temperature down to a

  19. Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    linear accelerators (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity linear accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity linear accelerators Authors: Jeon, Dong-O Publication Date: 2016-01-12 OSTI Identifier: 1235762 Grant/Contract Number: AC05-00OR22725 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Physical Review Accelerators and Beams Additional Journal

  20. Electron dynamics in intense laser fields with Bohmian trajectories |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Electron dynamics in intense laser fields with Bohmian trajectories Wednesday, March 2, 2016 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Hossein Z. Jooya, University of Kansas Program Description The electron quantum dynamics of atomic hydrogen under intense laser fields is investigated by means of the De Broglie-Bohm framework of Bohmian mechanics. This method is used to explore the sub-cycle multiphoton ionization dynamics of the

  1. Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape | Energy Frontier Research Centers Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape Home Author: H. Yu, R. Bellair, R. M. Kannan, S. L. Brock Year: 2008 Abstract: The effect of primary particle shape on the porosity, mechanical strength, and luminescence intensity of metal chalcogenide aerogels was probed by comparison of CdSe aerogels prepared from spherical and

  2. Intensity Frontier| U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intensity Frontier High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments Cosmic Frontier Theoretical and Computational Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator R&D Stewardship Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees Community Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Terminology and Definitions Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions The Energy Intensity Indicators website uses the following terms with their associated definitions. The terms related to various definitions of energy are discussed first. Three separate definitions of energy are used in the system of indicators: 1) delivered, 2) source, and 3) source, adjusted for electricity generation efficiency change. These definitions are discussed below. Delivered energy is the

  4. Idaho Application for Permit to Construct Modify or Maintain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Construct Modify or Maintain an Injection Well - Form 42-39-1 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Idaho...

  5. Guidance Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan Agreements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Entered into by an Energy Services Company Under a Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract | Department of Energy Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan Agreements Entered into by an Energy Services Company Under a Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract Guidance Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan Agreements Entered into by an Energy Services Company Under a Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract Document addresses potential refinancing,

  6. Modified Theoretical Minimum Emittance Lattice for an Electron Storage Ring

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with Extreme-Low Emittance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Modified Theoretical Minimum Emittance Lattice for an Electron Storage Ring with Extreme-Low Emittance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Theoretical Minimum Emittance Lattice for an Electron Storage Ring with Extreme-Low Emittance Authors: Jiao, Yi ; Cai, Yunhai ; Chao, Alexander Wu ; /SLAC Publication Date: 2013-06-04 OSTI Identifier: 1082826 Report Number(s): SLAC-REPRINT-2013-081 DOE Contract Number:

  7. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461 Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati - The Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a modification to a task order to Aspen Resources Limited, Inc. of Boulder, Colorado for support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. The modification increased the value

  8. Degradative and Morphological Characterization of POSS Modified Nanohybrid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polyurethane Elastomers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Degradative and Morphological Characterization of POSS Modified Nanohybrid Polyurethane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Degradative and Morphological Characterization of POSS Modified Nanohybrid Polyurethane Elastomers Authors: Lewicki, J P ; Pielichowski, K ; Jancia, M ; Hebda, E ; Albo, R F ; Maxwell, R S Publication Date: 2014-02-06 OSTI Identifier: 1144750 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-649713 DOE Contract

  9. First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques Authors: Fang, H

  10. Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Guided by the recent experimental confirmation of the validity of the Effective Momentum Approximation (EMA) in quasi-elastic scattering off nuclei, we have re-examined the extraction of the Longitudinal and Transverse Response Functions in medium-weight and heavy

  11. Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy

  12. Guidance Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan Agreements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Entered into by an Energy Services Company Under a Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract | Department of Energy Guidance Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan Agreements Entered into by an Energy Services Company Under a Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract Guidance Regarding Refinancing, Restructuring, or Modifying Loan Agreements Entered into by an Energy Services Company Under a Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract Document addresses potential

  13. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  14. DOE Announces Webinars on Genetically Modified Algae, NREL's Fuel Cell

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contaminant Database, and More | Department of Energy Genetically Modified Algae, NREL's Fuel Cell Contaminant Database, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Genetically Modified Algae, NREL's Fuel Cell Contaminant Database, and More May 22, 2014 - 12:57pm Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is

  15. Collaborative, Data-Intensive Science Key to Science & Commerce Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-05-28

    This article coincides with the release of "Data-Intensive Science," co-edited by Dr. Kerstin Kleese van Dam. In the piece, Dr. Kleese van Dam explains how data-intensive science has the potential to transform not only how we do science but how quickly we can translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, decisions and, ultimately, economic success. In the article, she states it is clear that nations that can most effectively transform tons of scientific data into actionable knowledge are going to be the leaders in the future of science and commerce and how creating the required new insights for complex challenges cannot be done without effective collaboration. Because many science domains already are unable to explore all of the data they collect (or which is relevant to their research), progress in collaborative, data-intensive science is crucial toward unlocking the potential of big data.

  16. Intense Muon Beams for Experiments at Project X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, C. Y. Yoshikawa, V.S. Kashikhin, D.V. Neuffer, J. Miller, R.A. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    A coherent approach for providing muon beams to several experiments for the intensity-frontier program at Project X is described. Concepts developed for the front end of a muon collider/neutrino factory facility, such as phase rotation and ionization cooling, are applied, but with significant differences. High-intensity experiments typically require high-duty-factor beams pulsed at a time interval commensurate with the muon lifetime. It is challenging to provide large RF voltages at high duty factor, especially in the presence of intense radiation and strong magnetic fields, which may preclude the use of superconducting RF cavities. As an alternative, cavities made of materials such as ultra-pure Al and Be, which become very good but not super conductors at cryogenic temperatures, can be used.

  17. Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

  18. Forward modeling of gyrosynchrotron intensity perturbations by sausage modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reznikova, V. E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Antolin, P.

    2014-04-20

    To determine the observable radio signatures of the fast sausage standing wave, we examine gyrosynchrotron (GS) emission modulation using a linear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and instrumental resolution on perturbations of the GS intensity are analyzed for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was unimportant. Our finding contradicts previous predictions made with simpler models: an in-phase variation of intensity between low (f < f {sub peak}) and high (f > f {sub peak}) frequencies is found for the low-density model and an anti-phase variation for the base model in the case of a viewing angle of 45. The spatially inhomogeneous character of the oscillating emission source and the spatial resolution of the model are found to have a significant effect on the resulting intensity.

  19. White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation Periods govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods 1998.08.03 - 1998.08.28 Lead Scientist : Warren Wiscombe For data sets, see below. Summary Wednesday, August 5, 1998: IOP Opening Activities: The IOP updates for the Shortwave/Aerosol/BDRF will be

  1. Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals Authors: Malko, Anton V. ; Park, Young-Shin ; Sampat,

  2. Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument Authors: Liang, T. ; /SLAC /Georgia Tech

  3. Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)

  4. Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing All logos June 16-18, 2014 Oakland City Center Conference Center 500 12th Street, Suite 105 Oakland, CA Directions and Site Brochure Held in conjunction with DOE HPC Operational Review (HPCOR) June 17-19, 2014 The Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing will bring together users and HPC center staff to discuss successes, failures, lessons learned, and the future of data-driven scientific discovery. There will also

  5. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-08-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

  6. Massive gravitational waves in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon E-mail: tymoon@inje.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    We consider the nondynamical Chern-Simons (nCS) modified gravity, which is regarded as a parity-odd theory of massive gravity in four dimensions. We first find polarization modes of gravitational waves for θ=x/μ in nCS modified gravity by using the Newman-Penrose formalism where the null complex tetrad is necessary to specify gravitational waves. We show that in the Newman–Penrose formalism, the number of polarization modes is one in addition to an unspecified Ψ{sub 4}, implying three degrees of freedom for θ=x/μ. This compares with two for a canonical embedding of θ=t/μ. Also, if one introduces the Ricci tensor formalism to describe a massive graviton arising from the nCS modified gravity, one finds one massive mode after making second-order wave equations, which is compared to five found from the parity-even Einstein–Weyl gravity.

  7. Method of detecting luminescent target ions with modified magnetic microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Kaminski, Michael D

    2014-05-13

    This invention provides methods of using modified magnetic microspheres to extract target ions from a sample in order to detect their presence in a microfluidic environment. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules on the surface that allow the target ions in the sample to form complexes with specific ligand molecules on the microsphere surface. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules that sequester the target ions from the sample, but specific ligand molecules in solution subsequently re-extract the target ions from the microspheres into the solution, where the complexes form independent of the microsphere surface. Once the complexes form, they are exposed to an excitation wavelength light source suitable for exciting the target ion to emit a luminescent signal pattern. Detection of the luminescent signal pattern allows for determination of the presence of the target ions in the sample.

  8. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-07-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH{sub 3}). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear.

  9. ANALYSIS OF OUT OF DATE MCU MODIFIER LOCATED IN SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.

    2014-10-22

    SRNL recently completed density measurements and chemical analyses on modifier samples stored in drums within SRNL. The modifier samples date back to 2008 and are in various quantities up to 40 gallons. Vendor information on the original samples indicates a shelf life of 5 years. There is interest in determining if samples that have been stored for more than the 5 year shelf life are still acceptable for use. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent component Cs-7SB [(2,2,3,3- tetraflouropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, CAS #308362-88-1] is used as a diluent modifier to increase extractant solubility and provide physical characteristics necessary for diluent trimming.

  10. The modified equation for spinless particles and superalgebra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J.; Rostami, M.; Sadeghi, Z.

    2013-09-15

    In this paper we consider modified wave equations for spinless particles in an external magnetic field. We consider 4-potentials which guarantee Lorentz' and Coulomb's conditions. The new variable for modified wave equation leads us to consider the associated Laguerre differential equation. We take advantage of the factorization method in Laguerre differential equation and solve the modified equation. In order to obtain the wave function, energy spectrum and its quantization, we will establish conditions for the orbital quantum number. We account such orbital quantum number and obtain the raising and lowering operators. If we want to have supersymmetry partners, we need to apply the shape invariance condition. This condition for the partner potential will help us find the limit of ? as ?=?(l)

  11. Explosive photodissociation of methane induced by ultrafast intense laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong Fanao; Luo Qi; Xu Huailiang; Sharifi, Mehdi; Song Di; Chin, See Leang

    2006-10-07

    A new type of molecular fragmentation induced by femtosecond intense laser at the intensity of 2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is reported. For the parent molecule of methane, ethylene, n-butane, and 1-butene, fluorescence from H (n=3{yields}2), CH (A {sup 2}{delta}, B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup -}, and C {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}{yields}X {sup 2}{pi}), or C{sub 2} (d {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}{yields}a {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}) is observed in the spectrum. It shows that the fragmentation is a universal property of neutral molecule in the intense laser field. Unlike breaking only one or two chemical bonds in conventional UV photodissociation, the fragmentation caused by the intense laser undergoes vigorous changes, breaking most of the bonds in the molecule, like an explosion. The fragments are neutral species and cannot be produced through Coulomb explosion of multiply charged ion. The laser power dependence of CH (A{yields}X) emission of methane on a log-log scale has a slope of 10{+-}1. The fragmentation is thus explained as multiple channel dissociation of the superexcited state of parent molecule, which is created by multiphoton excitation.

  12. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  13. PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang; Daniel Chavarria

    2012-12-31

    The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

  14. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  15. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schamaun, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Donald C. (Los Alamos, NM); Potter, R. Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Joseph A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  16. High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIGS) Program Advisory Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIGS) Program Advisory Committee June 10-11, 2014, DFELL Conference Room PROGRAM The HIGS PAC will meet on June 10 - 11, 2014 on the campus of Duke University. The detailed schedule of the presentations will be posted two weeks prior to the PAC meeting. Tuesday June 10 th Wednesday June 11 th

  17. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    2014-11-06

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  18. PNNLs Data Intensive Computing research battles Homeland Security threats

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Thurman; Joe Kielman; Katherine Wolf; David Atkinson

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL's) approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architecture, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  19. Energy Intensity of Federal Buildings Slashed 25% in Past Decade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), which builds and manages federal buildings, recently announced that it cut federal energy spending by $65.5 million in fiscal year (FY) 2012 by reducing the energy use intensity levels in its buildings by nearly 25% since FY 2003.

  20. Simulation Needs and Priorities of the Fermilab Intensity Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvira, V. D.; Genser, K. L.; Hatcher, R.; Perdue, G.; Wenzel, H. J.; Yarba, J.

    2015-06-11

    Over a two-year period, the Physics and Detector Simulations (PDS) group of the Fermilab Scientific Computing Division (SCD), collected information from Fermilab Intensity Frontier experiments on their simulation needs and concerns. The process and results of these activities are documented here.

  1. PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  2. Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r?0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

  3. Miniature modified Faraday cup for micro electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA); Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Chris C. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-05-27

    A micro beam Faraday cup assembly includes a refractory metal layer with an odd number of thin, radially positioned traces in this refractory metal layer. Some of the radially positioned traces are located at the edge of the micro modified Faraday cup body and some of the radially positioned traces are located in the central portion of the micro modified Faraday cup body. Each set of traces is connected to a separate data acquisition channel to form multiple independent diagnostic networks. The data obtained from the two diagnostic networks are combined and inputted into a computed tomography algorithm to reconstruct the beam shape, size, and power density distribution.

  4. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental ...

  5. Structural resistance of chemically modified 1-D nanostructured titanates in inorganic acid environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, Bojan A.; Fredholm, Yann C.; Morgado, Edisson

    2010-10-15

    Sodium containing one-dimensional nanostructured layered titanates (1-D NSLT) were produced both from commercial anatase powder and Brazilian natural rutile mineral sands by alkali hydrothermal process. The 1-D NSLT were chemically modified with proton, cobalt or iron via ionic exchange and all products were additionally submitted to intensive inorganic acid aging (pH = 0.5) for 28 days. The morphology and crystal structure transformations of chemically modified 1-D NSLT were followed by transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that the original sodium rich 1-D NSLT and cobalt substituted 1-D NSLT were completely converted to rutile nanoparticles, while the protonated form was transformed in a 70%-30% (by weight) anatase-rutile nanoparticles mixture, very similar to that of the well-known TiO{sub 2}-photocatalyst P25 (Degussa). The iron substituted 1-D NSLT presented better acid resistance as 13% of the original structure and morphology remained, the rest being converted in rutile. A significant amount of remaining 1-D NSLT was also observed after the acid treatment of the product obtained from rutile sand. The results showed that phase transformation of NSLT into titanium dioxide polymorph in inorganic acid conditions were controllable by varying the exchanged cations. Finally, the possibility to transform, through acid aging, 1-D NSLT obtained from Brazilian natural rutile sand into TiO{sub 2}-polymorphs was demonstrated for the first time to the best of authors' knowledge, opening path for producing TiO{sub 2}-nanoproducts with different morphologies through a simple process and from a low cost precursor.

  6. Method of storing radioactive wastes using modified tobermorite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, Sridhar (State College, PA); Roy, Della M. (State College, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatable with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  7. Clinical Utility of the Modified Segmental Boost Technique for Treatment of the Pelvis and Inguinal Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, M.S.; Castrucci, W.A.; Ahmad, M.; Song, H.; Lund, M.W.; Mani, S.; Chamberlain, Daniel; Higgins, S.A.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Low-lying pelvic malignancies often require simultaneous radiation to pelvis and inguinal nodes. We previously reported improved homogeneity with the modified segmental boost technique (MSBT) compared to that with traditional methods, using phantom models. Here we report our institutional clinical experience with MSBT. Methods and Materials: MSBT patients from May 2001 to March 2007 were evaluated. Parameters analyzed included isocenter/multileaf collimation shifts, time per fraction (four fields), monitor units (MU)/fraction, femoral doses, maximal dose relative to body mass index, and inguinal node depth. In addition, a dosimetric comparison of the MSBT versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was conducted. Results: Of the 37 MSBT patients identified, 32 were evaluable. Port film adjustments were required in 6% of films. Median values for each analyzed parameter were as follows: MU/fraction, 298 (range, 226-348); delivery time, 4 minutes; inguinal depth, 4.5 cm; volume receiving 45 Gy (V45), 7%; V27.5, 87%; body mass index, 25 (range, 16.0-33.8). Inguinal dose was 100% in all cases; in-field inhomogeneity ranged from 111% to 118%. IMRT resulted in significantly decreased dose to normal tissue but required more time for treatment planning and a higher number of MUs (1,184 vs. 313 MU). Conclusions: In our clinical experience, the mono-isocentric MSBT provides a high degree of accuracy, improved homogeneity compared with traditional techniques, ease of simulation, treatment planning, treatment delivery, and acceptable femoral doses for pelvic/inguinal radiation fields requiring 45 to 50.4 Gy. In addition, the MSBT delivers a relatively uniform dose distribution throughout the treatment volume, despite varying body habitus. Clinical scenarios for the use of MSBT vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the utility of MSBT in the clinical setting.

  8. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  9. On the possibility of the generation of high harmonics with photon energies greater than 10 keV upon interaction of intense mid-IR radiation with neutral gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emelina, A S; Emelin, M Yu; Ryabikin, M Yu

    2014-05-30

    Based on the analytical quantum-mechanical description in the framework of the modified strong-field approximation, we have investigated high harmonic generation of mid-IR laser radiation in neutral gases taking into account the depletion of bound atomic levels of the working medium and the electron magnetic drift in a high-intensity laser field. The possibility is shown to generate high-order harmonics with photon energies greater than 10 keV under irradiation of helium atoms by intense femtosecond laser pulses with a centre wavelength of 8 – 10.6 μm. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  10. Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-15

    A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

  11. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier | MINOS The MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine. The MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine. Intensity Frontier MINOS The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to observe the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. MINOS uses two detectors, one located at the source of the neutrinos at Fermilab and the other located 450 miles away in northern Minnesota at the Soudan Mine. Beginning in February, 2005, researchers began

  12. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  13. Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indicators: Methodology Downloads Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads The files listed below contain methodology documentation and related studies that support the information presented on this website. The files are available to view and/or download as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. PDF icon Energy Indicators System: Index Construction Methodology PDF icon Changing the Base Year for the Index PDF icon "A Note on the Fisher Ideal Index Decomposition for Structural Change in Energy

  14. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

  15. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of themore » beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.« less

  16. Surface composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy irradiated by high-intensity pulsed ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P., E-mail: pli@sqnc.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Information Engineering, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lei, M.K., E-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, X.P. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-06-15

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation of AZ31 magnesium alloy is performed and electrochemical corrosion experiment of irradiated samples is carried out by using potentiodynamic polarization technology in order to explore the effect of HIPIB irradiation on corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. The surface composition, cross-sectional morphology and microstructure are characterized by using electron probe microanalyzer, optical microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results indicated that HIPIB irradiation leads to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, in terms of the considerable increase in both corrosion potential and pitting breakdown potential. The microstructural refinement and surface purification induced by HIPIB irradiation are responsible for the improved corrosion resistance. - Research Highlights: {yields} A modified layer about 30 {mu}m thick is obtained by HIPIB irradiation. {yields} Selective ablation of element/impurity phase having lower melting point is observed. {yields} More importantly, microstructural refinement occurred on the irradiated surface. {yields} The modified layer exhibited a significantly improved corrosion resistance. {yields} Improved corrosion resistance is ascribed to the combined effect induced by HIPIB.

  17. 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December 10 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program is now open for its second round of allocations to projects in data intensive science. This pilot aims to support and enable scientists to tackle their most demanding data intensive challenges. Selected projects will be piloting new methods and technologies targeting data

  18. Resonant wave-particle interactions modified by intrinsic Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C. S.; Lee, K. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wu, D. J.

    2012-08-15

    The concept of wave-particle interactions via resonance is well discussed in plasma physics. This paper shows that intrinsic Alfven waves can qualitatively modify the physics discussed in conventional linear plasma kinetic theories. It turns out that preexisting Alfven waves can affect particle motion along the ambient magnetic field and, moreover, the ensuing force field is periodic in time. As a result, the meaning of the usual Landau and cyclotron resonance conditions becomes questionable. It turns out that this effect leads us to find a new electromagnetic instability. In such a process intrinsic Alfven waves not only modify the unperturbed distribution function but also result in a different type of cyclotron resonance which is affected by the level of turbulence. This instability might enable us to better our understanding of the observed radio emission processes in the solar atmosphere.

  19. Modified Newmark model for seismic displacements of compliant slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, S.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1997-07-01

    Newmark sliding block analyses are widely used for estimation of permanent displacements of slopes in earthquakes. The conventional Newmark model, however, neglects the dynamic response of the material above a potential failure surface. Decoupled procedures have been developed to account for that response, but they neglect the effects of permanent displacements on the response. A modified Newmark analysis that considers the dynamic response, including the effects of permanent displacements, of the material above the failure surface is presented. The modified Newmark analysis shows that the decoupled approach produces somewhat conservative estimates of permanent displacements for stiff and/or shallow failure masses, but that it may produce unconservative estimates for failure masses that are soft and/or deep. Many slopes of large, lined landfills may fall into this latter category. The notion of a slope spectrum, which illustrates the effect of the natural period of a potential failure mass on permanent slope displacement, is also introduced.

  20. Cytogenetic status and oxidative DNA-damage induced by atorvastatin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Standard and Fpg-modified comet assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajski, Goran Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja

    2008-08-15

    To investigate the genotoxic potential of atorvastatin on human lymphocytes in vitro standard comet assay was used in the evaluation of basal DNA damage and to investigate possible oxidative DNA damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) Fpg-modified version of comet assay was also conducted. In addition to these techniques the new criteria for scoring micronucleus test were applied for more complete detection of baseline damage in binuclear lymphocytes exposed to atorvastatin 80 mg/day in different time periods by virtue of measuring the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. All parameters obtained with the standard comet assay and Fpg-modified comet assay were significantly higher in the treated than in control lymphocytes. The Fpg-modified comet assay showed a significantly greater tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment in all treated lymphocytes than did the standard comet assay, which suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible for DNA damage. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanism is also involved. In addition to the comet assay, a total number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were significantly higher in the exposed than in controlled lymphocytes. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between the results obtained by the comet (Fpg-modified and standard) and micronucleus assay. Overall, the study demonstrated that atorvastatin in its highest dose is capable of producing damage on the level of DNA molecule and cell.

  1. A modified method for barium titanate nanoparticles synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashiri, R.; Nemati, Ali; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Sanjabi, S.; Aalipour, M.

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of BaTiO{sub 3} powders synthesized at 800 Degree-Sign C for 1 h and SAED pattern (inset) of BaTiO{sub 3} powders. In this research, a modified, cost efficient and quick sol-gel procedure was used for preparation of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified process was used for preparation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified process led to preparation of finer BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles in shorter period of time and lower temperature contrary to previous researches. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed procedure seems to be more preferable for mass production. -- Abstract: In this research, a modified, cost effective sol-gel procedure applied to synthesize BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. XRD and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) applied for microstructural characterization of powders. The obtained results showed that the type of precursors, their ratio and the hydrolysis conditions had a great effect on time, temperature and therefore the costs of the synthesis process. By selection, utilization of optimized precursor's type, hydrolysis conditions, fine cubic BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized at low temperature and in short time span (1 h calcination at 800 Degree-Sign C). The proposed procedure seems to be more preferable for mass production. The result indicated that the polymorphic transformation to tetragonal (ferroelectric characteristic) occurred at 900 Degree-Sign C, which might be an indication of being nanosized.

  2. Furanic Modified Amine-based Curatives - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Furanic Modified Amine-based Curatives Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication View Patent Application Here (137 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryAromatic diamines are currently used as curatives in an array of applications such as polyurea and epoxies. When used as

  3. Structure formation in a nonlocally modified gravity model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sohyun; Dodelson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We study a nonlocally modified gravity model proposed by Deser and Woodard which gives an explanation for current cosmic acceleration. By deriving and solving the equations governing the evolution of the structure in the Universe, we show that this model predicts a pattern of growth that differs from standard general relativity (+dark energy) at the 10-30% level. These differences will be easily probed by the next generation of galaxy surveys, so the model should be tested shortly.

  4. Modified Microbes Tolerate 50-Fold More Organic Acid - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Modified Microbes Tolerate 50-Fold More Organic Acid Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Production of industrial chemicals has long relied on petroleum-based starting material. As reserves of fossil carbon dwindle, a new approach is looking to microorganisms and their ability to convert renewable sources into valuable chemicals. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently targeted several 'building block' chemicals

  5. Modified Yeast to Boost Biofuel Yields - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modified Yeast to Boost Biofuel Yields Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Producing biofuel on an industrial scale requires efficient fermentation of cellulosic plant material. Glucose and xylose are two of the most abundant sugars found in biomass. The yeast most commonly used for fermentation - Saccharomyces cerevisiae - can ferment glucose but not xylose. Researchers hope to improve fermentation by identifying/mutating

  6. Modified Yeast with Enhanced Tolerance for GVL Biomass Solvent - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Modified Yeast with Enhanced Tolerance for GVL Biomass Solvent Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Gamma-valerolactone (GVL) is an inexpensive solvent derived from biomass that can be used to break apart tough lignocellulose into fermentable sugars including xylose and glucose. GVL-based techniques are a potentially transformative breakthrough in biofuel production (for more information see WARF reference

  7. Modified polynomial function model for reversed-field pinches

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modified polynomial function model for reversed-field pinches W. Shen and J. C. Sprott Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53 706 (Received 26 November 1990; accepted 29 January 199 1) A generalized analytic representation for the magnetic field and current density profiles in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is proposed. These profiles have zero current density at the wall and finite plasma pressure. The profiles are characterized by two free parameters here taken to

  8. The role of vector fields in modified gravity scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Koyama, Kazuya; Khosravi, Nima E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    Gravitational vector degrees of freedom typically arise in many examples of modified gravity models. We start to systematically explore their role in these scenarios, studying the effects of coupling gravitational vector and scalar degrees of freedom. We focus on set-ups that enjoy a Galilean symmetry in the scalar sector and an Abelian gauge symmetry in the vector sector. These symmetries, together with the requirement that the equations of motion contain at most two space-time derivatives, only allow for a small number of operators in the Lagrangian for the gravitational fields. We investigate the role of gravitational vector fields for two broad classes of phenomena that characterize modified gravity scenarios. The first is self-acceleration: we analyze in general terms the behavior of vector fluctuations around self-accelerating solutions, and show that vanishing kinetic terms of vector fluctuations lead to instabilities on cosmological backgrounds. The second phenomenon is the screening of long range fifth forces by means of Vainshtein mechanism. We show that if gravitational vector fields are appropriately coupled to a spherically symmetric source, they can play an important role for defining the features of the background solution and the scale of the Vainshtein radius. Our general results can be applied to any concrete model of modified gravity, whose low-energy vector and scalar degrees of freedom satisfy the symmetry requirements that we impose.

  9. Fire Intensity Data for Validation of the Radiative Transfer Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2016-01-01

    A set of experiments and test data are outlined in this report that provides radiation intensity data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. The experiments were performed with lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuels that yielded fully turbulent fires 2 m diameter). In addition, supplemental measurements of air flow and temperature, fuel temperature and burn rate, and flame surface emissive power, wall heat, and flame height and width provide a complete set of boundary condition data needed for validation of models used in fire simulations.

  10. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  11. Intense transient magnetic-field generation by laser plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1981-08-18

    In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to the magnetic field thereof. In alternate embodiments the target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet.

  12. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier | ArgoNeuT ArgoNeuT ArgoNeut detector at Proton Assembly Building Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT The Argon Neutrino Teststand or ArgoNeuT detector, nicknamed for Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, is a liquid argon neutrino detector at Fermilab. Argon is a noble, non-toxic element that in its gaseous form constitutes about 1 percent of air. It exists as a colorless liquid only in the narrow temperature range of minus 186 to minus 189 degrees Celsius. Neutrinos passing through

  13. Joint Facilities User Forum on Data Intensive Computing Lessons Learned

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Forum on Data Intensive Computing Lessons Learned - NERSC/JGI Partnership Kjiersten Fagnan, NERSC User Services/JGI --- 1 --- June 1 7, 2 013 Outline * Overview o f N ERSC/JGI P artnership - DOE J GI b ackground - Team o verview - Compute r esources * CompuBng S trategic P lan - JGI G oals - NERSC G oals * Lessons Learned --- 2 --- DOE Joint Genome Institute 3 DOE JGI, Serving as a genomic user facility in support of the DOE missions: * Walnut Creek, CA facility opened in 1999 * 250

  14. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.; Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen; Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvgen 5, 100 44 Stockholm

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) topdown analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottomup approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. We review topdown, model-based, and bottomup estimates from literature. Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices. We argue against extending the Internet system boundary beyond data transmission. Decision-makers need data that differentiates between end devices and transmission.

  15. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, the worlds smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700C capability, UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  16. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coverdale, C.A.

    1995-05-11

    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by L{sub plasma} {ge} 2L{sub Rayleigh} > c{tau}. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (n{sub o} {le} 0.05n{sub cr}). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in {omega}-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  17. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

    2009-08-24

    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  18. Correlating sampling and intensity statistics in nanoparticle diffraction experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Öztürk, Hande; Yan, Hanfei; Hill, John P.; Noyan, I. Cevdet

    2015-07-28

    It is shown in a previous article [Öztürk, Yan, Hill & Noyan (2014).J. Appl. Cryst.47, 1016–1025] that the sampling statistics of diffracting particle populations within a polycrystalline ensemble depended on the size of the constituent crystallites: broad X-ray peak breadths enabled some nano-sized particles to contribute more than one diffraction spot to Debye–Scherrer rings. Here it is shown that the equations proposed by Alexander, Klug & Kummer [J. Appl. Phys.(1948),19, 742–753] (AKK) to link diffracting particle and diffracted intensity statistics are not applicable if the constituent crystallites of the powder are below 10 nm. In this size range, (i) themore » one-to-one correspondence between diffracting particles and Laue spots assumed in the AKK analysis is not satisfied, and (ii) the crystallographic correlation between Laue spots originating from the same grain invalidates the assumption that all diffracting plane normals are randomly oriented and uncorrelated. Such correlation produces unexpected results in the selection of diffracting grains. For example, three or more Laue spots from a given grain for a particular reflection can only be observed at certain wavelengths. In addition, correcting the diffracted intensity values by the traditional Lorentz term, 1/cos θ, to compensate for the variation of particles sampled within a reflection band does not maintain fidelity to the number of poles contributing to the diffracted signal. A new term, cos θB/cos θ, corrects this problem.« less

  19. Selective Zn2+ sensing using a modified bipyridine complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akula, Mahesh; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Nag, Amit; Bhattacharya, Anupam

    2014-06-01

    A novel fluorescent Zn2+ sensor, 4-(pyridin-2-yl)-3H-pyrrolo[2, 3-c]quinoline (PPQ), has been designed, synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. PPQ exhibits superior detection of Zn2+ in the presence of various cations tested, including Cd2+ and Hg2+, via wavelength shifted fluorescence intensity enhancement. The emission wavelength at 500 nm, ensures probable noninterference from cellular components while performing biological applications.

  20. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front...

  1. Structure and Electrochemistry of Vanadium-Modified LiFePO4 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Structure and Electrochemistry of Vanadium-Modified LiFePO4 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure and Electrochemistry of Vanadium-Modified LiFePO4...

  2. Hydrogen peroxide modified sodium titanates with improved sorption capabilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hobbs, David T. (North Augusta, SC)

    2009-02-24

    The sorption capabilities (e.g., kinetics, selectivity, capacity) of the baseline monosodium titanate (MST) sorbent material currently being used to sequester Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radioisotopes at the Savannah River Site are significantly improved when treated with hydrogen peroxide; either during the original synthesis of MST, or, as a post-treatment step after the MST has been synthesized. It is expected that these peroxide-modified MST sorbent materials will have significantly improved sorption capabilities for non-radioactive cations found in industrial processes and waste streams.

  3. Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

    2014-04-24

    Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1?xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.

  4. Characterization of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel extruded pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikka, V.K.; Hart, M.D.

    1985-04-01

    The fabrication of hot-extruded pipe of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at Cameron Iron Works is described. The report also deals with the tempering response; tensile, Charpy impact, and creep properties; and microstructure of the hot-extruded pipe. The tensile properties of the pipe are compared with the average and average -1.65 standard error of estimate curves for various product forms of several commercial heats of this alloy. The creep-rupture properties are compared with the average curve for various product forms of the commercial heats.

  5. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; et al

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore » is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  6. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sbastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  7. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-?energy-? density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-?energy-? density plasma the ideas for steady-?state current drive developed for low-?energy-? density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-?energy-?density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  8. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; Hosemann, P.; Lidia, S.; Minor, A. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystalmore » Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.« less

  9. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  10. Intensity limitations in compact H{sup minus} cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baartman, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    At TRIUMF, we have demonstrated 2.5 mA in a compact H{sup -} cyclotron. It is worthwhile to explore possibility of going to even higher intensity. In small cyclotrons, vertical focusing vanishes at the center. The space charge tune shift further reduces vertical focusing, thus determining an upper limit on instantaneous current. Limit on average current is of course also dependent upon phase acceptance, but this can be made quite large in an H{sup -} cyclotron. Longitudinal space charge on the first turn can reduce the phase acceptance as well. For finite ion source brightness, another limit comes from bunching efficiency in presence of space charge forces. We present methods of calculating and optimizing these limits. In particular, we show that it is possible to achieve 10mA in a 50 MeV compact H{sup -} cyclotron.

  11. Working Group Report: Computing for the Intensity Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebel, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Wolbers, S.

    2013-10-25

    This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

  12. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  13. Nanocomposite fibers and film containing polyolefin and surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu,Benjamin (Setauket, NY); Hsiao, Benjamin S. (Setauket, NY)

    2010-01-26

    Methods for modifying carbon nanotubes with organic compounds are disclosed. The modified carbon nanotubes have enhanced compatibility with polyolefins. Nanocomposites of the organo-modified carbon nanotubes and polyolefins can be used to produce both fibers and films having enhanced mechanical and electrical properties, especially the elongation-to-break ratio and the toughness of the fibers and/or films.

  14. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities...

  15. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a...

  16. The CP-Violating pMSSM at the Intensity Frontier (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: The CP-Violating pMSSM at the Intensity Frontier Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The CP-Violating pMSSM at the Intensity Frontier You are accessing a...

  17. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

    1999-06-29

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

  18. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; Merten, Julian; King, Lindsay; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentration and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.

  19. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; Merten, Julian; King, Lindsay; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentrationmore » and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.« less

  20. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  1. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Bethlehem, PA); Taylor, Fred William (Allentown, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO.sub.2 from a gaseous mixture containing CO.sub.2 comprising introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. to adsorb CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent and a CO.sub.2 depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO.sub.2 laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO.sub.2 from the CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 600.degree. C., is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions.

  2. Applying a Modified Triad Approach to Investigate Wastewater lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawlowicz, R.; Urizar, L.; Blanchard, S.; Jacobsen, K.; Scholfield, J.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 20 miles of wastewater lines are below grade at an active military Base. This piping network feeds or fed domestic or industrial wastewater treatment plants on the Base. Past wastewater line investigations indicated potential contaminant releases to soil and groundwater. Further environmental assessment was recommended to characterize the lines because of possible releases. A Remedial Investigation (RI) using random sampling or use of sampling points spaced at predetermined distances along the entire length of the wastewater lines, however, would be inefficient and cost prohibitive. To accomplish RI goals efficiently and within budget, a modified Triad approach was used to design a defensible sampling and analysis plan and perform the investigation. The RI task was successfully executed and resulted in a reduced fieldwork schedule, and sampling and analytical costs. Results indicated that no major releases occurred at the biased sampling points. It was reasonably extrapolated that since releases did not occur at the most likely locations, then the entire length of a particular wastewater line segment was unlikely to have contaminated soil or groundwater and was recommended for no further action. A determination of no further action was recommended for the majority of the waste lines after completing the investigation. The modified Triad approach was successful and a similar approach could be applied to investigate wastewater lines on other United States Department of Defense or Department of Energy facilities. (authors)

  3. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boilers | Department of Energy Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers PDF icon biomass-fired_boilers.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion

  4. Department of Energy Commercial Building Benchmarks (New Construction): Energy Use Intensities, May 5, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file contains the energy use intensities (EUIs) for the benchmark building files by building type and climate zone.

  5. Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report looks at the best methods of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity.

  6. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  7. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-05-23

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K{sup +} ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons of improved experimental and calculated axial focus (> 100 x axial compression, < 2 ns pulses) and higher peak energy deposition on target are also presented. These achievements demonstrate the capabilities for near term target heating experiments to T{sub e} {approx} 0.1 eV and for future ion accelerators to heat targets to T{sub e} > 1 eV.

  8. INTENSITY MAPPING OF MOLECULAR GAS DURING COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carilli, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    I present a simple calculation of the expected mean CO brightness temperature from the large-scale distribution of galaxies during cosmic reionization. The calculation is based on the cosmic star formation rate density required to reionize, and keep ionized, the intergalactic medium, and uses standard relationships between star formation rate, IR luminosity, and CO luminosity derived for star-forming galaxies over a wide range in redshift. I find that the mean CO brightness temperature resulting from the galaxies that could reionize the universe at z = 8 is T{sub B} {approx} 1.1(C/5)(f{sub esc}/0.1){sup -1}{mu}K, where f{sub esc} is the escape fraction of ionizing photons from the first galaxies and C is the IGM clumping factor. Intensity mapping of the CO emission from the large-scale structure of the star-forming galaxies during cosmic reionization on scales of order 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} deg{sup 2}, in combination with H I 21 cm imaging of the neutral IGM, will provide a comprehensive study of the earliest epoch of galaxy formation.

  9. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 10.9 10.7 10.6 10.5 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1995 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 AEO 1996 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 1997 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3

  10. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-03-15

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse 'slice' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{sub s}ummary.html.

  11. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-12-09

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{_}summary.html.

  12. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  13. Lithium intercalation behavior of surface modified carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T.D.; Murguia, L.X.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    1997-07-17

    The surface properties of several well-characterized commercial carbon materials were modified by thermal and chemical treatments. The reversible capacities for lithium intercalation of a sponge green coke and a fuel green coke for lithium intercalation increased by as much as 25% after heat treatment in both reducing (5% H{sub 2}/Ar) and oxidizing (CO{sub 2}) environments. The irreversible capacity loss increased significantly with CO{sub 2} treatment at 800{degrees}C. The trend of larger capacity losses with CO{sub 2} treatment is also observed with a synthetic graphite (SFG6) which was produced by heat treatment at about 3000{degrees}C. Carbon fibers that were first impregnated with LiOH solution followed by reaction with CO{sub 2} to form Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} tended to show lower irreversible capacity losses.

  14. Modified Magnicon for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-19

    Analysis, and low-power cold tests are described on a modified design intended for the Ka-band pulsed magnicon now in use for high-gradient accelerator R and D and rare elementary particle searches at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. The modification is mainly to the output cavity of the magnicon, which presently operates in the TM310 mode. It is proposed to substitute for this a dual-chamber TE311 cavity structure. The first chamber is to extract about 40% of the beam power (about 25 MW) at 34.272 GHz, while the second chamber is to convey the power to four WR-28 output waveguides. Minor design changes are also proposed for the penultimate 11.424 GHz cavity and the beam collector. The intention of these design changes is to allow the magnicon to operate reliably 24/7, with minor sensitivity to operating parameters.

  15. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  16. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Karen; Stewart, James; Kelly, Valerie; Xie, Jason; Brock, Kristy K.; Moseley, Joanne; Cho, Young-Bin; Fyles, Anthony; Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Lf, Johan; Jaffray, David A.; Milosevic, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1)a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost.

  17. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  18. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  19. Prostate Bed Motion During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klayton, Tracy; Price, Robert; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Sobczak, Mark; Greenberg, Richard; Li, Jinsheng; Keller, Lanea; Sopka, Dennis; Kutikov, Alexander; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal radiation therapy in the postprostatectomy setting requires accurate setup and localization of the prostatic fossa. In this series, we report prostate bed localization and motion characteristics, using data collected from implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso four-dimensional localization system uses three implanted radiofrequency transponders for daily target localization and real-time tracking throughout a course of radiation therapy. We reviewed the localization and tracking reports for 20 patients who received ultrasonography-guided placement of Calypso transponders within the prostate bed prior to a course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Results: At localization, prostate bed displacement relative to bony anatomy exceeded 5 mm in 9% of fractions in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction and 21% of fractions in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction. The three-dimensional vector length from skin marks to Calypso alignment exceeded 1 cm in 24% of all 652 fractions with available setup data. During treatment, the target exceeded the 5-mm tracking limit for at least 30 sec in 11% of all fractions, generally in the A-P or S-I direction. In the A-P direction, target motion was twice as likely to move posteriorly, toward the rectum, than anteriorly. Fifteen percent of all treatments were interrupted for repositioning, and 70% of patients were repositioned at least once during their treatment course. Conclusion: Set-up errors and motion of the prostatic fossa during radiotherapy are nontrivial, leading to potential undertreatment of target and excess normal tissue toxicity if not taken into account during treatment planning. Localization and real-time tracking of the prostate bed via implanted Calypso transponders can be used to improve the accuracy of plan delivery.

  20. SU-E-T-409: Intensity Modulated Robotic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, B; Jin, L; Li, J; Chen, L; Ma, C; Fan, J; Zhang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: As compared with the IRIS-based models, the MLC-based CyberKnife system allows more efficient treatment delivery due to its improved coverage of large lesions and intensity modulation. The treatment delivery efficiency is mainly determined by the number of selected nodes. This study aimed to demonstrate that relatively small sets of optimally selected nodes could produce high-quality plans. Methods: The full body path of the CyberKnife system consists of 110 nodes, from which we selected various sets for 4 prostate cancer cases using our in-house beamselection software. With the selected nodes we generated IMRT plans using our in-house beamlet-based inverse-planning optimization program. We also produced IMRT plans using the MultiPlan treatment planning system (version 5.0) for the same cases. Furthermore, the nodes selected by MultiPlan were used to produce plans with our own optimization software so that we could compare the quality of the selected sets of nodes. Results: Our beam-selection program selected one node-set for each case, with the number of nodes ranging from 23 to 34. The IMRT plans based on the selected nodes and our in-house optimization program showed adequate target coverage, with favorable critical structure sparing for the cases investigated. Compared with the plans using the nodes selected by MultiPlan, the plans generated with our selected beams provided superior rectum/bladder sparing for 75% of the cases. The plans produced by MultiPlan with various numbers of nodes also suggested that the plan quality was not compromised significantly when the number of nodes was reduced. Conclusion: Our preliminary results showed that with beamletbased planning optimization, one could produce high-quality plans with an optimal set of nodes for MLC-based robotic radiotherapy. Furthermore, our beam-selection strategy could help further improve critical structure sparing.

  1. Intense x-ray machine for penetrating radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, R.A.; Eckhouse, S.

    1989-01-01

    Penetrating radiography has been used for many years in the nuclear weapons research programs. In frequently penetrating radiography has been used in conventional weapons research programs. For example the Los Alamos PHERMEX machine was used to view uranium rods penetrating steel for the GAU-8 program, and the Ector machine was used to see low-density regions in forming metal jets. The armor/anti-armor program at Los Alamos has created a need for an intense flash x-ray machine that can be dedicated to conventional weapons research. The Balanced Technology Initiative, through DARPA, has funded the design and construction of such a machine at Los Alamos. It will be an 8- to 10-MeV diode machine capable of delivering a dose of 500 R at 1 m with a spot size of less than 5 mm. The machine used an 87.5-stage low-inductance Marx generator that charges up a 7.4-/Omega/, 32-ns water line. The water line is discharged through a self-breakdown oil switch into a 12.4-/Omega/ water line that rings up the voltage into the high-impendance x-ray diode. A long (233-cm) vacuum drift tube is used to separate the large-diameter oil-insulated diode region from the x-ray source area that may be exposed to high overpressures by the explosive experiments. The electron beam is self-focused at the target area using a low-pressure background gas. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Production of intense beams of singly charged radioactive ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, G.; Batazova, M.; Gubin, K.; Logachev, P.; Martyshkin, P.

    2006-03-15

    An apparatus for the production of intense beams of singly charged radioactive ions operating in on-line regime is proposed. The radioactive atoms are produced in a uranium-graphite (UC) target bombarded with neutrons. The neutron flux is generated by a graphite neutron converter, which is bombarded with protons. The atoms of the produced isotopes are ionized in the electron beam generated with the electron gun and the ions of interest are extracted in a separator. The apparatus consists of the following parts. (1) Rotating converter dissipating a substantial power of proton beam. (2) UC target placed in a graphite container at high temperature. The atoms of radioactive isotopes can be extracted with a flow of noble gas. (3) Triode electron gun with ionization channel is placed inside the solenoid forming a focusing magnetic field. The cathode of the electron gun is a spout of the graphite container. The atoms of radioactive isotopes are carried with gas flow through the spout into the electron beam. (4) Correction coil located near the gun matches the electron beam with the ionization channel. (5) The first anode has a potential of 1-4 kV with respect to the cathode, and the second anode has some lower potential than the first anode and it is the tube of ionization channel. (6) Electron collector dissipates the electron-beam power. (7) Uranium-graphite target, the gun, the ionization channel as well as solenoid are located on an isolated platform with potential of 30-60 kV with respect to ground. The beam of singly charged ions from the ionization channel passes the collector, goes through the extractor, acquires energy of 30-60 keV, and gets transported to the separator where the required species are selected.

  3. Glass Strengthening via High-Intensity Plasma-Arc Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Harper, David C; Duty, Chad E; Patel, P

    2010-01-01

    The use of a high-intensity plasma-arc lamp was used to irradiate the surface of soda-lime silicate glass tiles to determine if an increase in strength could be achieved. The lamp had a power density of 3500 W/cm2, a processing area of 1 cm x 10 cm, irradiated near-infrared heating at a wavelength between 0.2 1.4 m, and was controlled to unidirectionally sweep across 50-mm-square tiles at a constant speed of 8 mm/s. Ring-on-ring (RoR) equibiaxial flexure and 4 pt uni-directional flexure testings of entire tiles were used to measure and compare failure stress distributions of treated and untreated glass. Even with non-optimized processing conditions, RoR failure stress increased by approximately 25% and the 4 pt bend failure stress increased by approximately 65%. Strengthening was due to a fire-polishing-like mechanism. The arc-lamp heat-treatment caused the location of the strength-limiting flaws in the 4-pt-bend tiles to change; namely, failure initiation occurred on the gage section surface for the treated glass whereas it occurred at a gage section edge for the untreated. Arc-lamp heat-treatment is attractive not only because it provides strengthening, but because it can (non-contact) process large amounts of glass quickly and inexpensively, and is a process that either a glass manufacturer or end-user can readily employ.

  4. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Wexler, Leonard H.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Happersett, Laura; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

  5. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  6. Parallel In Situ Indexing for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-09-09

    As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: indexing and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that indexing is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes indexing an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include indexes with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap indexes from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the indexes, we need to build them first. The index building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we adapt the in situ processing technology to generate the indexes, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build indexes in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the indexes can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the indexes, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.

  7. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  8. Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-15

    In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

  9. Industrial Sector Energy Demand: Revisions for Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    For the industrial sector, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) analysis and projection efforts generally have focused on the energy-intensive industriesfood, bulk chemicals, refining, glass, cement, steel, and aluminumwhere energy cost averages 4.8% of annual operating cost. Detailed process flows and energy intensity indicators have been developed for narrowly defined industry groups in the energy-intensive manufacturing sector. The non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries, where energy cost averages 1.9% of annual operating cost, previously have received somewhat less attention, however. In Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), energy demand projections were provided for two broadly aggregated industry groups in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing sector: metal-based durables and other non-energy-intensive. In the AEO2006 projections, the two groups accounted for more than 50% of the projected increase in industrial natural gas consumption from 2004 to 2030.

  10. EIS-0283-S2: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Conduct Additional Public Scoping | Department of Energy 283-S2: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Conduct Additional Public Scoping EIS-0283-S2: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Surplus Plutonium Disposition The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces its intent to modify the

  11. EIS-0407: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Environmental

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact Statement | Department of Energy Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0407: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement Abengoa Refinery Project near Hugoton, Kansas PDF icon Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Abengoa Refinery Project near Hugoton, Kanasas, DOE/EIS-0407 (April 2009) 74 FR 19543 More Documents & Publications EIS-0407:

  12. Radical-cured block copolymer-modified thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redline, Erica M.; Francis, Lorraine F.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-01-10

    Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized and added at 4 wt % to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BisGMA), a monomer that cures using free radical chemistry. In separate experiments, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was combined as a secondary monomer with BisGMA and the monomers were loaded with 4 wt % PEP-PEO. The diblock copolymers self-assembled into well-dispersed spherical micelles with PEP cores and PEO coronas. No appreciable change in the final extent of cure of the thermosets was caused by the addition of diblock copolymer, except in the case of BisGMA, where the addition of the block copolymer increased extent of cure by 12%. Furthermore, the extent of cure was increased by 29% and 37% with the addition of 25 and 50 wt % PEGDMA, respectively. Elastic modulus and fracture resistance were also determined, and the values indicate that the addition of block copolymers does not significantly toughen the thermoset materials. This finding is surprising when compared with the large increase in fracture resistance seen in block copolymer-modified epoxies, and an explanation is proposed.

  13. Gold Binding by Native and Chemically Modified Hops Biomasses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    López, M. Laura; Gardea-Torresdey, J. L.; Peralta-Videa, J. R.; de la Rosa, G.; Armendáriz, V.; Herrera, I.; Troiani, H.; Henning, J.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals from mining, smelting operations and other industrial processing facilities pollute wastewaters worldwide. Extraction of metals from industrial effluents has been widely studied due to the economic advantages and the relative ease of technical implementation. Consequently, the search for new and improved methodologies for the recovery of gold has increased. In this particular research, the use of cone hops biomass ( Humulus lupulus ) was investigated as a new option for gold recovery. The results showed that the gold binding to native hops biomass was pH dependent from pH 2 to pH 6, with a maximum percentage bindingmore » at pH 3. Time dependency studies demonstrated that Au(III) binding to native and modified cone hops biomasses was found to be time independent at pH 2 while at pH 5, it was time dependent. Capacity experiments demonstrated that at pH 2, esterified hops biomass bound 33.4 mg Au/g of biomass, while native and hydrolyzed hops biomasses bound 28.2 and 12.0 mg Au/g of biomass, respectively. However, at pH 5 the binding capacities were 38.9, 37.8 and 11.4 mg of Au per gram of native, esterified and hydrolyzed hops biomasses, respectively.« less

  14. AVLIS modified direct denitration: UO{sub 3} powder evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagle, O.D.; Davis, N.C.; Parchen, L.J.

    1994-02-01

    The evaluation study demonstrated that AVLIS-enriched uranium converted to UO{sub 3} can be used to prepare UO{sub 3} pellets having densities in the range required for commercial power reactor fuel. Specifically, the program has demonstrated that MDD (Modified Direct Denitration)-derived UO{sub 2} powders can be reduced to sinterable UO{sub 2} powder using reduction techniques that allow control of the final powder characteristics; the resulting UO{sub 2} powders can be processed/sintered using standard powder preparation and pellet fabrication techniques to yield pellets with densities greater than 96% TD; pellet microstructures appear similar to those of power reactor fuel, and because of the high final pellet densities, it is expected that they would remain stable during in-reactor operation; the results of the present study confirm the results of a similar study carried out in 1982 (Davis and Griffin 1992). The laboratory processes were selected on the basis that they could be scaled up to standard commercial fuel processing. However, larger scale testing may be required to establish techniques compatible with commercial fuel fabrication techniques.

  15. Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources The primary objective of this invention is to minimize the sensitivity of the human eye to intense visible light by blocking or reducing the incident fluence of light before it can cause the eye to become insensitive to the light, or temporarily blinded. Typical applications may be pilots subjected to light from laser pointers, or workers in occupations that may expose them to temporary intense light sources.

  16. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Array and Emittance Exchange (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange A novel method of producing intense short wavelength radiation from relativistic electrons is described. The electrons are periodically bunched at the wavelength of interest enabling

  17. SEP Success Story: Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry | Department of Energy Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry SEP Success Story: Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry July 20, 2015 - 1:24pm Addthis SEP Success Story: Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry With help from the State Energy Program, eight dairies in Colorado received a free energy audit and energy saving recommendations through the Colorado Dairy and Irrigation Efficiency Pilot. The

  18. Modified T4 Lysozyme Fusion Proteins Facilitate G Protein-Coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facilitate G Protein-Coupled Receptor Crystallogenesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified T4 Lysozyme Fusion Proteins Facilitate G Protein-Coupled Receptor ...

  19. Modified pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 nucleic acids encoding bispecific polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srienc, Friedrich (Lake Elmo, MN); Jackson, John K. (Plymouth, MN); Somers, David A. (Roseville, MN)

    2000-01-01

    A genetically engineered Pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase having tailored substrate specificity is provided. The modified PHA polymerase is preferably a "bispecific" PHA polymerase capable of copolymerizing a short chain length monomer and a medium chain length monomer is provided. Methods for making the modified PHA polymerase and for making nucleic acids encoding the modified PHA polymerase are also disclosed, as are methods of producing PHA using the modified PHA polymerase. The invention further includes methods to assay for altered substrate specificity.

  20. 01-02-2003 - Hazards from Modifying Finished Products | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hazards from Modifying Finished Products Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/2003 File (public): PDF icon 01-02-2003(2)

  1. EIS-0407: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Refinery Project near Hugoton, Kansas Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Abengoa Refinery Project near Hugoton, Kanasas,...

  2. Method of producing titanium-modified austenitic steel having improved swelling resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Megusar, Janez (Belmont, MA); Grant, Nicholas J. (Winchester, MA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for improving the swelling resistance of a titanium-modified austenitic stainless steel that involves a combination of rapid solidification and dynamic compaction techniques.

  3. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, S. Orban, C.; Nees, J. A.; Morrison, J. T.; Frische, K. D.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser noise (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120 phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements with instantaneous plasma profiles and for enabling realistic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the ultra-intense laser-matter interaction.

  4. Table 8. Carbon intensity of the economy by State (2000-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the economy by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons energy-related carbon dioxide per million dollars of GDP" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  5. Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000-2011)" "kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  6. Fact #554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 4: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems Fact #554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems According to the 2007 National Transit Databases, the energy intensity of light transit rail systems in the U.S. ranges from about 2,000 Btu per passenger-mile to about 31,000 Btu per passenger-mile. There are only four light rail systems with energy intensity over 10,000 Btu per passenger-mile. These systems may have improved

  7. Self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin back-scattering of a long intense laser pulse in a finite temperature relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R.; Barzegar, S.; Hashemzadeh, M.

    2013-12-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of electromagnetic waves propagating through a plasma considering the effects of relativistic mass and ponderomotive nonlinearities is investigated. The modified electron density distribution, the dispersion relation, and the spatial profiles of electromagnetic wave amplitude in the plasma are obtained. It is shown that the cut-off frequency decreases, and there is an intensity range in which the ponderomotive self-focusing takes place. In the upper limit of this range, the laser beam is defocused due to the relativistic ponderomotive force. In addition, the stability of electromagnetic waves to stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied, and the backscattered wave resulting from decay of high power electromagnetic beam is resolved in relativistic regime. The study of effects of electron density and temperature on the growth rate of backscattered wave has been shown that by increasing these effects, the growth rate of instability increases.

  8. LEACHING OF TITANIUM FROM MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND MODIFIED MST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    Analysis of a fouled coalescer and pre-filters from Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) operations showed evidence of Ti containing solids. Based on these results a series of tests were planned to examine the extent of Ti leaching from monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) in various solutions. The solutions tested included a series of salt solutions with varying free hydroxide concentrations, two sodium hydroxide concentrations, 9 wt % and 15 wt %, nitric and oxalic acid solutions. Overall, the amount of Ti leached from the MST and mMST was much greater in the acid solutions compared to the sodium hydroxide or salt solutions, which is consistent with the expected trend. The leaching data also showed that increasing hydroxide concentration, whether pure NaOH solution used for filter cleaning in ARP or the waste salt solution, increased the amount of Ti leached from both the MST and mMST. For the respective nominal contact times with the MST solids - for filter cleaning or the normal filter operation, the dissolved Ti concentrations are comparable suggesting either cause may contribute to the increased Ti fouling on the MCU coalescers. Tests showed that Ti containing solids could be precipitated from solution after the addition of scrub acid and a decrease in temperature similar to expected in MCU operations. FTIR analysis of these solids showed some similarity to the solids observed on the fouled coalescer and pre-filters. Although only a cursory study, this information suggests that the practice of increasing free hydroxide in feed solutions to MCU as a mitigation to aluminosilicate formation may be offset by the impact of formation of Ti solids in the overall process. Additional consideration of this finding from MCU and SWPF operation is warranted.

  9. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  10. Small cell foams containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer as a nucleating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-28

    A small cell foam having a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer is described. This modified dense star polymer or dendrimer has a highly branched interior of one monomeric composition and an exterior structure of a different monomeric composition capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell and a particle diameter of from about 5 to about 1,000 nm with a matrix polymer.

  11. Synthesis of 3'-, or 5'-, or internal methacrylamido-modified oligonucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golova, Julia B.; Chernov, Boris K.

    2010-04-27

    New modifiers were synthesized for incorporation of a methacrylic function in 3'-, 5'- and internal positions of oligonucleotides during solid phase synthesis. A modifier was used for synthesis of 5'-methacrylated oligonucleotides for preparation of microarrays by a co-polymerization method.

  12. Measurement of proton and anti-proton intensities in the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Pordes et al.

    2003-06-04

    This paper describes the techniques used to measure the intensities of the proton (p) and anti-proton ({bar p}) beams in the Tevatron collider. The systems provide simultaneous measurements of the intensity of the 36 proton and 36 antiproton bunches and their longitudinal profiles.

  13. 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes - ISWAMP2 nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 Print http://iswamp2.jlu.edu.cn/ July 20-22, 2013; Xi'an, China

  14. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  15. Measuring galaxy clustering and the evolution of [C II] mean intensity with far-IR line intensity mapping during 0.5 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzgil, B. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Lidz, A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Infrared fine-structure emission lines from trace metals are powerful diagnostics of the interstellar medium in galaxies. We explore the possibility of studying the redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission using the three-dimensional (3D) power spectra obtained with an imaging spectrometer. The intensity mapping approach measures the spatio-spectral fluctuations due to line emission from all galaxies, including those below the individual detection threshold. The technique provides 3D measurements of galaxy clustering and moments of the galaxy luminosity function. Furthermore, the linear portion of the power spectrum can be used to measure the total line emission intensity including all sources through cosmic time with redshift information naturally encoded. Total line emission, when compared to the total star formation activity and/or other line intensities, reveals evolution of the interstellar conditions of galaxies in aggregate. As a case study, we consider measurement of [C II] autocorrelation in the 0.5 < z < 1.5 epoch, where interloper lines are minimized, using far-IR/submillimeter balloon-borne and future space-borne instruments with moderate and high sensitivity, respectively. In this context, we compare the intensity mapping approach to blind galaxy surveys based on individual detections. We find that intensity mapping is nearly always the best way to obtain the total line emission because blind, wide-field galaxy surveys lack sufficient depth and deep pencil beams do not observe enough galaxies in the requisite luminosity and redshift bins. Also, intensity mapping is often the most efficient way to measure the power spectrum shape, depending on the details of the luminosity function and the telescope aperture.

  16. FINAL FOCUS ION BEAM INTENSITY FROM TUNGSTEN FOIL CALORIMETER AND SCINTILLATOR IN NDCX-I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidia, S.M.; Bieniosek, F.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.

    2010-04-30

    Laboratory high energy density experiments using ion beam drivers rely upon the delivery of high-current, high-brightness ion beams with high peak intensity onto targets. Solid-state scintillators are typically used to measure the ion beam spatial profile but they display dose-dependent degradation and aging effects. These effects produce uncertainties and limit the accuracy of measuring peak beam intensities delivered to the target. For beam tuning and characterizing the incident beam intensity, we have developed a cross-calibrating diagnostic suite that extends the upper limit of measurable peak intensity dynamic range. Absolute intensity calibration is obtained with a 3 {micro}m thick tungsten foil calorimeter and streak spectrometer. We present experimental evidence for peak intensity measures in excess of 400 kW/cm{sup 2} using a 0.3 MV, 25 mA, 5-20 {micro}sec K{sup +1} beam. Radiative models and thermal diffusion effects are discussed because they affect temporal and spatial resolution of beam intensity profiles.

  17. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

  18. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

  19. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  20. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light

  1. Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen mustard

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (HN/sub 2/) by vincristine, Ca and liposomes (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen mustard (HN/sub 2/) by vincristine, Ca and liposomes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen mustard (HN/sub 2/) by vincristine, Ca and liposomes Though vincristine (0.5mg/kg) has no significant carcinostatic effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, it does modify the

  2. Mechanistic study of methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on a modified

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    model Mo₆S₈ cluster (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Mechanistic study of methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on a modified model Mo₆S₈ cluster Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanistic study of methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on a modified model Mo₆S₈ cluster We report the methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on metal (M = K, Ti, Co, Rh, Ni, and Cu)-modified model Mo₆S₈ catalyst using density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the

  3. Testing the Time-Reversal Modified Universality of the Sivers Function

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Testing the Time-Reversal Modified Universality of the Sivers Function Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Testing the Time-Reversal Modified Universality of the Sivers Function We derive the time-reversal modified universality for both quark and gluon Sivers functions from the parity and time-reversal invariance of QCD. We calculate the single transverse-spin asymmetry of inclusive lepton from the decay of W bosons in polarized proton-proton

  4. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  5. 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes - ISWAMP2 nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 http://iswamp2.jlu.edu.cn/ July 20-22, 2013; Xi'an, China

  6. EIA Energy Efficiency-Iron and Steel Energy Intensity, 1998-2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Intensity Table 5a. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes per Value of Production html table 5a. excel table 5a. pdf table 5. Table 5b. Consumption of Energy for All...

  7. Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for ...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by USAMP at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about magnesium-intensive front end sub...

  9. Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the intensity of the laser light used to control the resistance of the photodetector. An optical delay path is provided through which the second portion of the beam travels before reaching the light intensity controlling device. The control voltage is supplied by a variable power supply. The apparatus may be tuned to properly attenuate the laser beam passing through the intensity controlling device by adjusting the power supply, the optical delay path, or the light attenuating means.

  10. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  11. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  12. Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electron bunches (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches Authors: Zhang, Zhen ; Ding, Yuantao ; Emma, Paul ; Huang, Zhirong ; Marinelli, Agostino ; Tang, Chuanxiang Publication Date: 2015-09-10 OSTI Identifier: 1233964 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Type: Published Article

  13. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasma interaction experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hazi, A ; Hill, K ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S ; Park, J ; Schneider, M ; Stone, G ; Williams, G ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date:

  14. Accommodations for Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & HPCOR Accommodations Accommodations for Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing & HPCOR Both the Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing and the DOE HPCOR meetings are being held in downtown Oakland, CA. We have reserved room blocks at two locations in Berkeley, CA. We recommend making your reservations as soon as possible because hotel rooms in the San Francisco Bay Area are in great demand. Hotel Shattuck Plaza Reservation cutoff date is May 23,

  15. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Type of Energy | Department of Energy Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Further insight with regard to the comparison of intensity changes by sector can be gained by looking at how they differ with respect to different definitions of energy use. Source energy attributes all the energy used for electricity generation and transmission to the specific end-use sector,

  16. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz Radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz Radiation Authors: Grady, Nathaniel [1] ; Perkins Jr., Bradford G. [2] ; Hwang, Harold Y. [2] ; Brandt, Nate [2] ; Torchinsky, Darius [2] ; Singh, Ranjan [1] ; Yan, Li [3] ; Jia, Quanxi [1] ; Trugman, Stuart A. [1] ;

  17. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control Authors: Brown, Bruce C. ; Adamson, Philip ; Capista, David ; Chou, Weiren ; Kourbanis, Ioanis ; Morris, Denton K ; Seiya, Kiyomi ; Wu, Guan Hong ; Yang, Ming-Jen Publication Date: 2013-07-10 OSTI Identifier: 1128064 Report Number(s):

  18. EIS-0283-S2: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For more information on this project, see the project webpage: http:energy.govnode299815. Download Document EIS-0283-S2: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of...

  19. System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janikowski, Stuart K.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Argyle, Mark D.; Fox, Robert V.; Propp, W. Alan; Miller, David L.

    2003-09-23

    The present invention is related to systems and methods for modifying various non-equidimensional substrates with modifying agents. The system comprises a processing chamber configured for passing the non-equidimensional substrate therethrough, wherein the processing chamber is further configured to accept a treatment mixture into the chamber during movement of the non-equidimensional substrate through the processing chamber. The treatment mixture can comprise of the modifying agent in a carrier medium, wherein the carrier medium is selected from the group consisting of a supercritical fluid, a near-critical fluid, a superheated fluid, a superheated liquid, and a liquefied gas. Thus, the modifying agent can be applied to the non-equidimensional substrate upon contact between the treatment mixture and the non-equidimensional substrate.

  20. File:Construction SW NOI modified 7-18-2011.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    7-18-2011.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Construction SW NOI modified 7-18-2011.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other...

  1. System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janikowski; Stuart K. , Argyle; Mark D. , Fox; Robert V. , Propp; W. Alan , Toth; William J. , Ginosar; Daniel M. , Allen; Charles A. , Miller; David L.

    2007-07-10

    The present invention is related to systems and methods for modifying various non-equidimensional substrates with modifying agents. The system comprises a processing chamber configured for passing the non-equidimensional substrate therethrough, wherein the processing chamber is further configured to accept a treatment mixture into the chamber during movement of the non-equidimensional substrate through the processing chamber. The treatment mixture can comprise of the modifying agent in a carrier medium, wherein the carrier medium is selected from the group consisting of a supercritical fluid, a near-critical fluid, a superheated fluid, a superheated liquid, and a liquefied gas. Thus, the modifying agent can be applied to the non-equidimensional substrate upon contact between the treatment mixture and the non-equidimensional substrate.

  2. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP; Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.;...

  3. EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and...

  4. Improving Costs and Efficiency of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles by Modifying...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Improving Costs and Efficiency of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles by Modifying the Surface of Stainless...

  5. T-606: Sun Java System Access Manager Lets Remote Users Partially Modify Data and Remote Authenticated Users Partially Access Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sun Java System Access Manager Lets Remote Users Partially Modify Data and Remote Authenticated Users Partially Access Data.

  6. EIS-0283-S2: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Conduct Additional Public Scoping | Department of Energy The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces its intent to modify the scope of the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and to conduct additional public scoping. For more information on this project, see the project webpage: http://energy.gov/node/299815. Download Document PDF icon EIS-0283-S2: Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the

  7. Modified T4 Lysozyme Fusion Proteins Facilitate G Protein-Coupled Receptor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystallogenesis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Modified T4 Lysozyme Fusion Proteins Facilitate G Protein-Coupled Receptor Crystallogenesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified T4 Lysozyme Fusion Proteins Facilitate G Protein-Coupled Receptor Crystallogenesis Authors: Thorsen, Thor Seneca ; Matt, Rachel ; Weis, William I. ; Kobilka, Brian K. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (Stanford-MED) Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1182298 Resource Type: Journal Article

  8. Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Model (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modi ed Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction

  9. In-situ characterization of plasma modified surfaces by vibrational sum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    frequency generation spectroscopy. (Conference) | SciTech Connect In-situ characterization of plasma modified surfaces by vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-situ characterization of plasma modified surfaces by vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. No abstract prepared. Authors: Hebner, Gregory Albert ; Barnat, Edward V. ; Farrow, Darcie Publication Date: 2010-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1027046 Report Number(s):

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED ALUMINUM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATION (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED ALUMINUM ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED ALUMINUM ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATION Authors: Sims, Zachary C [1] ; Rios, Orlando [1] ; McCall, S. K. [2] ; Ott, Dr. Ryan T. [3] ; Van Buuren, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations

  11. Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Public Scoping Meetings, and Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement for the Northern Pass Project: Federal Register Notice VOlume 78, No. 173 - September 6, 2013 | Department of Energy Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, and Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement for the Northern Pass Project: Federal Register Notice VOlume 78, No. 173 - September 6, 2013 Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the

  12. Considerations for the use of the modified line reversal technique for gas temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkleman, B.C.

    1993-06-01

    Several areas related to the successful and accurate application of modified line reversal are discussed. Initially, generalized modified line reversal equations are developed. A review of basic line reversal theory is presented followed by development of correction factors for optical system effects. Image size and their effect on accurate determinations of spectral radiances is discussed. Temperature biases introduced by image vignetting is calculated. Measured image irradiances are given.

  13. A modified post damping ring bunch compressor beamline for the TESLA linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philippe R.-G. Piot; Winfried Decking

    2004-03-23

    We propose a modified bunch compressor beamline, downstream of the damping ring, for the TESLA linear collider. This modified beamline uses a third harmonic radio-frequency section based on the 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity under development at Fermilab. In our design the beam deceleration is about {approx}50 MeV instead of {approx}450 MeV in the original design proposed.

  14. EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement | Department of Energy Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement Department of Energy - Presidential Permit Application for Northern

  15. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoub, Muhammad; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Inayat, Abrar

    2014-10-24

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  16. Cuprous-chloride-modified nanoporous alumina membranes for ethylene-ethane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.S.; Wang, Y.; Ji, W.; Higgins, R.J.

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize a CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina membrane for separation of ethylene from ethane. CuCl was effectively coated in the 4 nm pore {gamma}-alumina top layers of disk-shaped and tubular alumina membranes by the reservoir method. Permeation of a single gas and binary mixture of ethylene and ethane was measured to characterize separation properties of the modified membranes. Pure ethylene permeance of the CuCl-modified membrane is 10--40% lower than that predicted from the pure ethane permeance by the Knudsen theory. This result is explained by a model based on the adsorbed layer of ethylene via {pi}-complexation. Such an adsorbed layer hinders the diffusion of ethylene in the nanopores of CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina. Multiple gas permeation measurements on the CuCl-modified membranes show a separation factor for ethylene over ethane larger than the Knudsen value. This confirms a positive contribution of the surface flow of ethylene to the permeance of ethylene in the multiple gas permeation system. A maximum separation factor for ethylene over ethane of 1.4 is obtained for the CuCl-modified membrane at 60 C.

  17. Intensive Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the clouds and the overall cloud field over a triangular study area with sides roughly six miles long. The southwest corner of the triangular experiment area will be at the...

  18. Foreground contamination in Ly? intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Silva, Marta; Santos, Mario G.

    2014-04-10

    The intensity mapping of Ly? emission during the epoch of reionization will be contaminated by foreground emission lines from lower redshifts. We calculate the mean intensity and the power spectrum of Ly? emission at z ? 7 and estimate the uncertainties according to the relevant astrophysical processes. We find that the low-redshift emission lines from 6563 H?, 5007 [O III], and 3727 [O II] will be strong contaminants on the observed Ly? power spectrum. We make use of both the star formation rate and luminosity functions to estimate the mean intensity and power spectra of the three foreground lines at z ? 0.5 for H?, z ? 0.9 for [O III], and z ? 1.6 for [O II], as they will contaminate the Ly? emission at z ? 7. The [O II] line is found to be the strongest. We analyze the masking of the bright survey pixels with a foreground line above some line intensity threshold as a way to reduce the contamination in an intensity mapping survey. We find that the foreground contamination can be neglected if we remove pixels with fluxes above 1.4 10{sup 20} W m{sup 2}.

  19. Intensity-resolved ionization yields of aniline with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Hart, N.; Zhu, F.; Nava, R.; Pham, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Paulus, G. G.; Schuessler, H. A.; Mohamed, T.; Schroeder, H.

    2011-12-15

    We present experimental results for the ionization of aniline and benzene molecules subjected to intense ultrashort laser pulses. Measured parent molecular ions yields were obtained using a recently developed technique capable of three-dimensional imaging of ion distributions within the focus of a laser beam. By selecting ions originating from the central region of the focus, where the spatial intensity distribution is nearly uniform, volumetric-free intensity-dependent ionization yields were obtained. The measured data revealed a previously unseen resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI)-like process. Comparison of benzene, aniline, and Xe ion yields demonstrates that the observed intensity-dependent structures are not due to geometric artifacts in the focus. Finally for intensities greater than {approx}3x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, we attribute the ionization of aniline to a stepwise process going through the {pi}{sigma}{sup *} state which sits three photons above the ground state and two photons below the continuum.

  20. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-03-27

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to producemore » carbon monoxide and methane. In addition, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.« less

  1. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-03-27

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to produce carbon monoxide and methane. In addition, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by metal-modified silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brahiti, N.; Hadjersi, T.; Menari, H.; Amirouche, S.; El Kechai, O.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: SiNWs modified with Pd, Au and Pt were used as photocatalysts to degrade MB. Yield of photodegardation increases with UV irradiation time. SiNWs modified with Pd nanoparticles show the best photocatalytic activity. A degradation of 97% was obtained after 200 min of UV irradiation. - Abstract: Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) modified with Au, Pt and Pd nanoparticles were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methylene blue in water under UV light irradiation. The modification of SiNWs was carried out by deposition of metal nanoparticles using the electroless metal deposition (EMD) technique. The effect of metal nanoparticles deposition time on the photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of modified SiNWs was enhanced when the deposition time of metal nanoparticles was increased. In addition of modified SiNWs with Pt, Au and Pd nanoparticles, oxidized silicon substrate (Ox-Si), oxidized silicon nanowires (Ox-SiNWs) and hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were also evaluated for the photodegradation of methylene blue.

  3. Apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Matesh N. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Baum, John W. (Patchogue, NY)

    1982-11-02

    Charged particle beam monitoring means (40) are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam (44) in an experimental device (10). The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component (42) which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam (44), while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof (46) for incidence in an experimental chamber (18), and providing a signal (I.sub.m) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Calibration means (36) are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I.sub.f) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means (41 and 43) are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  4. New and improved apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged-particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, M.N.; Baum, J.W.

    1981-01-16

    Charged particle beam monitoring means are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam in an experimental device. The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam, while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof for incidence in an experimental chamber, and providing a signal (I/sub m/) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Caibration means are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I/sub f/) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  5. Technique for compressing light intensity ranges utilizing a specifically designed liquid crystal notch filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten metal in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. To accomplish this, the assembly utilizes the combination of interference filter and a liquid crystal notch filter. The latter which preferably includes a cholesteric liquid crystal arrangement is configured to pass light at all wavelengths, except a relatively narrow wavelength band which defines the filter's notch, and includes means for causing the notch to vary to at least a limited extent with the intensity of light at its light incidence surface.

  6. Overview of the High Intensity Neutrino Source Linac R&D program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, R.C.; Appollinari, G.; Carneiro, J.P.; Gonin, I.; Hanna, B.; Hays, S.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lanfranco, G.; Madrak, R.L.; Moretti, A.; Nicol, T.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-09-01

    The Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac R&D program is building a first-of-a-kind 60 MeV superconducting H- linac. The HINS Linac incorporates superconducting solenoids for transverse focusing, high power RF vector modulators for independent control of multiple cavities powered from a single klystron, and superconducting spoke-type accelerating cavities starting at 10 MeV. This will be the first application and demonstration of any of these technologies in a low-energy, high-intensity proton/H- linear accelerator. The HINS effort is relevant to a high intensity, superconducting H- linac that might serve the next generation of neutrino physics and muon storage ring/collider experiments. An overview of the HINS program, machine design, status, and outlook is presented.

  7. Utilizing gas-filled cavities for the generation of an intense muon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, Diktys; Neuffer, David V.

    2015-05-03

    A key requirement for designing intense muon sources is operating rf cavities in multi-tesla magnetic fields. Recently, a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated that an rf cavity filed with high pressure hydrogen gas could meet this goal. In this study, rigorous simulation is used to design and evaluate the performance of an intense muon source with gas filled cavities. We present a new lattice design and compare our results with conventional schemes. We detail the influence of gas pressure on the muon production rate.

  8. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga (Conference) | SciTech Connect Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Authors: Wong, J. ; Holt, M. ; Hong, H. ; Wall, M. ; Schwartz, A. ; Zschack, P. ; Chiang, T.-C. Publication Date: 2016-01-20 OSTI Identifier: 1235452 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference:

  9. Single bunch intensity monitoring system using an improved wall current monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, C.D.; Crisp, J.; Howard, D.; Kerns, Q.; Martin, P.; McConnell, D.; Michals, P.; Payne, J.; Tawzer, S.; Webber, R.

    1989-03-01

    Important parameters in collider operations are the length and intensity of individual beam bunches. A system to automatically measure these parameters has been developed using a wall current monitor signal digitized by a 1 GHz sampling oscilloscope under microprocessor control. Bunch length and intensity are computed by the microprocessor and presented to the host computer. To verify the required accuracy, attention has been paid to the calibration and frequency response of the system. Design and performance of a new wall current monitor with improved bandwidth is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Deflection of MeV electrons by self-generated magnetic fields in intense

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser-solid interaction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Deflection of MeV electrons by self-generated magnetic fields in intense laser-solid interaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deflection of MeV electrons by self-generated magnetic fields in intense laser-solid interaction Authors: Perez, F ; Kemp, A J ; Divol, L ; Chen, C D ; Patel, P K Publication Date: 2013-04-25 OSTI Identifier: 1116958 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-635901 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource

  11. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HiRadMat Facility (Conference) | SciTech Connect Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility Authors: Ammigan, K. ; et al. Publication Date: 2015-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1230046 Report Number(s): IPAC-2015-WEPTY015 DOE Contract Number: AC02-07CH11359 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 6th

  12. A FOURTH ORDER RESONANCE OF A HIGH INTENSITY LINAC (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect A FOURTH ORDER RESONANCE OF A HIGH INTENSITY LINAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A FOURTH ORDER RESONANCE OF A HIGH INTENSITY LINAC The 4sigma=360 (or 4nu=1) resonance of a linac is manifested when the depressed tune sigma is close to and below 90 . It is observed that this fourth order resonance is dominating over the better known envelope instability and practically replacing it. Simulation study shows a clear emittance growth by this resonance and its stopband.

  13. Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    filters for medical and industrial applications (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a

  14. Sixth-Order Resonance of High-Intensity Linear Accelerators (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Sixth-Order Resonance of High-Intensity Linear Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 5, 2016 Title: Sixth-Order Resonance of High-Intensity Linear Accelerators Authors: Jeon, Dong-O ; Hwang, Kyung Ryun ; Jang, Ji-Ho ; Jin, Hyunchang ; Jang, Hyojae Publication Date: 2015-05-06 OSTI Identifier: 1179719 Grant/Contract Number: FG02-12ER41800 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review

  15. The CP-Violating pMSSM at the Intensity Frontier (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: The CP-Violating pMSSM at the Intensity Frontier Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The CP-Violating pMSSM at the Intensity Frontier Authors: Berger, Joshua ; Cahill-Rowley, Matthew W. ; Ghosh, Diptimoy ; Hewett, JoAnne L. ; Ismail, Ahmed ; Rizzo, Thomas G. Publication Date: 2013-10-07 OSTI Identifier: 1096197 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15747 arXiv:1309.7653 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  16. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  17. Neutronic Study of Slightly Modified Water Reactors and Application to Transition Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Richard; Guillemin, Perrine; Nuttin, Alexis; Bidaud, A.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we have studied slightly modified water reactors and their applications to transition scenarios. The PWR and CANDU reactors have been considered. New fuels based on Thorium have been tested: Thorium/Plutonium and Thorium/Uranium- 233, with different fissile isotope contents. Changes in the geometry of the assemblies were also explored to modify the moderation ratio, and consequently the neutron flux spectrum. A core equivalent assembly methodology was introduced as an exploratory approach and to reduce the computation time. Several basic safety analyses were also performed. We have finally developed a new scenario code, named OSCAR (Optimized Scenario Code for Advanced Reactors), to study the efficiency of these modified reactors in transition to Gen IV reactors or in symbiotic fleet. (authors)

  18. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  19. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein E-mail: khosravi@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: hosseinmoshafi@iasbs.ac.ir

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ?CDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ?CDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f{sub NL} in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology.

  20. SU-E-T-174: Evaluation of the Optimal Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans Done On the Maximum and Average Intensity Projection CTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the difference in coverage between plans done on average intensity projection and maximum intensity projection CT data sets for lung patients and to establish correlations between different factors influencing the coverage. Methods: For six lung cancer patients, 10 phases of equal duration through the respiratory cycle, the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) from their 4DCT datasets were obtained. MIP and AIP datasets had three GTVs delineated (GTVaip delineated on AIP, GTVmip delineated on MIP and GTVfus delineated on each of the 10 phases and summed up). From the each GTV, planning target volumes (PTV) were then created by adding additional margins. For each of the PTVs an IMRT plan was developed on the AIP dataset. The plans were then copied to the MIP data set and were recalculated. Results: The effective depths in AIP cases were significantly smaller than in MIP (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.839 indicates strong degree of positive linear relationship between the average percentage difference in effective depths and average PTV coverage on the MIP data set. The V2 0 Gy of involved lung depends on the PTV coverage. The relationship between PTVaip mean CT number difference and PTVaip coverage on MIP data set gives r = 0.830. When the plans are produced on MIP and copied to AIP, r equals ?0.756. Conclusion: The correlation between the AIP and MIP data sets indicates that the selection of the data set for developing the treatment plan affects the final outcome (cases with high average percentage difference in effective depths between AIP and MIP should be calculated on AIP). The percentage of the lung volume receiving higher dose depends on how well PTV is covered, regardless of on which set plan is done.

  1. WORKING DRAFT Last Modified 7/13/2014 9:34 PM Pacific Standard Time

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    DRAFT Last Modified 7/13/2014 9:34 PM Pacific Standard Time Printed 7/13/2014 9:36 PM Pacific Standard Time China Energy Demand Perspective EIA presentation July 2014 CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY Any use of this material without specific permission of McKinsey & Company is strictly prohibited Last Modified 7/13/2014 9:34 PM Pacific Standard Time Printed 7/13/2014 9:36 PM Pacific Standard Time McKinsey & Company | 1 Key Points On Asian Energy Demand We have developed a granular view of

  2. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  3. Modified magnetism within the coherence volume of superconducting Fe1+delta

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SexTe1-x (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Modified magnetism within the coherence volume of superconducting Fe1+delta SexTe1-x Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified magnetism within the coherence volume of superconducting Fe1+delta SexTe1-x Authors: Leiner J. ; Thampy V. ; Christianson, A. D. ; Abernathy, D. L. ; Stone, M. B. ; Lumsden, M. D. ; Sefat, A. S. ; Sales, B. C. ; Hu, Jin ; Mao, Zhiqiang ; Bao, Wei ; Broholm, C. Publication Date: 2014-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1174093

  4. A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell Authors: Dattelbaum, Andrew M [1] ; Gupta, Gautam [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-09-09 OSTI Identifier: 1095867 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-05239; LA-UR-11-5239 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Journal

  5. Biofouling-resistant ceragenin-modified materials and structures for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Michael; Altman, Susan J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Savage, Paul B.

    2013-09-10

    This invention relates to methods for chemically grafting and attaching ceragenin molecules to polymer substrates; methods for synthesizing ceragenin-containing copolymers; methods for making ceragenin-modified water treatment membranes and spacers; and methods of treating contaminated water using ceragenin-modified treatment membranes and spacers. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Alkene-functionalized ceragenins (e.g., acrylamide-functionalized ceragenins) can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis membranes using amine-linking, amide-linking, UV-grafting, or silane-coating methods. In addition, silane-functionalized ceragenins can be directly attached to polymer surfaces that have free hydroxyls.

  6. Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

    2000-09-05

    A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

  7. CASL-U-2015-0177-000 A Modified Moving Least

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7-000 A Modified Moving Least Square Algorithm for Solution Transfer on a Spacer Grid Surface Stuart R. Slattery, Steven P. Hamilton, and Thomas M. Evans Oak Ridge National Laboratory April 19, 2015 CASL-U-2015-0177-000 ANS MC2015 - Joint International Conference on Mathematics and Computation (M&C), Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications (SNA) and the Monte Carlo (MC) Method * Nashville, Tennessee * April 19-23, 2015, on CD-ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (2015) A MODIFIED

  8. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  9. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  10. Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemans, Wim P.; Bulanov, Stepan; Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl

    2015-06-29

    In the framework of the project Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas we conducted the study of ion acceleration and flying mirrors with high intensity lasers in order to develop sources of ion beams and high frequency radiation for different applications. Since some schemes of laser ion acceleration are also considered a good source of flying mirrors, we proposed to investigate the mechanisms of mirror formation. As a result we were able to study the laser ion acceleration from thin foils and near critical density targets. We identified several fundamental factors limiting the acceleration in the RPA regime and proposed the target design to compensate these limitations. In the case of near critical density targets, we developed a concept for the laser driven ion source for the hadron therapy. Also we studied the mechanism of flying mirror generation during the intense laser interaction with thin solid density targets. As for the laser-based positron creation and capture we initially proposed to study different regimes of positron beam generation and positron beam cooling. Since the for some of these schemes a good quality electron beam is required, we studied the generation of ultra-low emittance electron beams. In order to understand the fundamental physics of high energy electron beam interaction with high intensity laser pulses, which may affect the efficient generation of positron beams, we studied the radiation reaction effects.

  11. INTENSITY ENHANCEMENT OF OVI ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION LINES IN SOLAR SPECTRA DUE TO OPACITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenan, F. P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S.; Rose, S. J.; Bowler, L. A.; Britton, J.; McCrink, L.

    2014-04-01

    Opacity is a property of many plasmas. It is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, then its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to an optically thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depths. While previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, here we investigate the spatially resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 )/I(1038 ) intensity ratio of OVI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite. We find several I(1032 )/I(1038 ) ratios observed on the disk to be significantly larger than the optically thin value of 2.0, providing the first detection (to our knowledge) of intensity enhancement in the ratio arising from opacity effects in the solar atmosphere. The agreement between observation and theory is excellent and confirms that the OVI emission originates from a slab-like geometry in the solar atmosphere, rather than from cylindrical structures.

  12. Systems for controlling the intensity variations in a laser beam and for frequency conversion thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, S.; Craxton, R.S.; Soures, J.

    1990-10-02

    In order to control the intensity of a laser beam so that its intensity varies uniformly and provides uniform illumination of a target, such as a laser fusion target, a broad bandwidth laser pulse is spectrally dispersed spatially so that the frequency components thereof are spread apart. A disperser (grating) provides an output beam which varies spatially in wavelength in at least one direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam. Temporal spread (time delay) across the beam is corrected by using a phase delay device (a time delay compensation echelon). The dispersed beam may be amplified with laser amplifiers and frequency converted (doubled, tripled or quadrupled in frequency) with nonlinear optical elements (birefringent crystals). The spectral variation across the beam is compensated by varying the angle of incidence on one of the crystals with respect to the crystal optical axis utilizing a lens which diverges the beam. Another lens after the frequency converter may be used to recollimate the beam. The frequency converted beam is recombined so that portions of different frequency interfere and, unlike interference between waves of the same wavelength, there results an intensity pattern with rapid temporal oscillations which average out rapidly in time thereby producing uniform illumination on target. A distributed phase plate (also known as a random phase mask), through which the spectrally dispersed beam is passed and then focused on a target, is used to provide the interference pattern which becomes nearly modulation free and uniform in intensity in the direction of the spectral variation. 16 figs.

  13. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nibur, Kevin A.

    2010-11-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  14. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  15. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  16. Systems for controlling the intensity variations in a laser beam and for frequency conversion thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, Stanley (Rochester, NY); Craxton, R. Stephen (Rochester, NY); Soures, John (Pittsford, NY)

    1990-01-01

    In order to control the intensity of a laser beam so that its intensity varies uniformly and provides uniform illumination of a target, such as a laser fusion target, a broad bandwidth laser pulse is spectrally dispersed spatially so that the frequency components thereof are spread apart. A disperser (grating) provides an output beam which varies spatially in wavelength in at least one direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam. Temporal spread (time delay) across the beam is corrected by using a phase delay device (a time delay compensation echelon). The dispersed beam may be amplified with laser amplifiers and frequency converted (doubled, tripled or quadrupled in frequency) with nonlinear optical elements (birefringent crystals). The spectral variation across the beam is compensated by varying the angle of incidence on one of the crystals with respect to the crystal optical axis utilizing a lens which diverges the beam. Another lens after the frequency converter may be used to recollimate the beam. The frequency converted beam is recombined so that portions of different frequency interfere and, unlike interference between waves of the same wavelength, there results an intensity pattern with rapid temoral oscillations which average out rapidly in time thereby producing uniform illumination on target. A distributed phase plate (also known as a random phase mask), through which the spectrally dispersed beam is passed and then focused on a target, is used to provide the interference pattern which becomes nearly modulation free and uniform in intensity in the direction of the spectral variation.

  17. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  18. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  19. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

  20. Dense plasma heating and Gbar shock formation by a high intensity flux of energetic electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeyre, X.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicola, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Gus'kov, S.; P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53, Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119991

    2013-06-15

    Process of shock ignition in inertial confinement fusion implies creation of a high pressure shock with a laser spike having intensity of the order of a few PW/cm{sup 2}. However, the collisional (Bremsstrahlung) absorption at these intensities is inefficient and a significant part of laser energy is converted in a stream of energetic electrons. The process of shock formation in a dense plasma by an intense electron beam is studied in this paper in a planar geometry. The energy deposition takes place in a fixed mass target layer with the areal density determined by the electron range. A self-similar isothermal rarefaction wave of a fixed mass describes the expanding plasma. Formation of a shock wave in the target under the pressure of expanding plasma is described. The efficiency of electron beam energy conversion into the shock wave energy depends on the fast electron energy and the pulse duration. The model is applied to the laser produced fast electrons. The fast electron energy transport could be the dominant mechanism of ablation pressure creation under the conditions of shock ignition. The shock wave pressure exceeding 1 Gbar during 200300 ps can be generated with the electron pulse intensity in the range of 510 PW/cm{sup 2}. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations with a radiation hydrodynamic code coupled with a fast electron transport module.

  1. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is the main electricity consuming process in the chemical industry, next to oxygen and nitrogen production. We estimate final electricity use at 173 PJ (48 TWh) and fuel use of 38 PJ. Total primary energy consumption is estimated at 526 PJ (including credits for hydrogen export). The energy intensity is estimated at an electricity consumption of 4380 kWh/tonne chlorine and fuel consumption of 3.45 GJ/tonne chlorine, where all energy use is allocated to chlorine production. Assuming an average power generation efficiency of 33% the primary energy consumption is estimated at 47.8 GJ/tonne chlorine (allocating all energy use to chlorine).

  2. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting and monitoring progress on the targets, and methodology improvements, are included.

  3. Modified Baryonic Dynamics: two-component cosmological simulations with light sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angus, G.W.; Gentile, G.; Diaferio, A.; Famaey, B.; Heyden, K.J. van der E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it E-mail: gianfranco.gentile@ugent.be

    2014-10-01

    In this article we continue to test cosmological models centred on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with light sterile neutrinos, which could in principle be a way to solve the fine-tuning problems of the standard model on galaxy scales while preserving successful predictions on larger scales. Due to previous failures of the simple MOND cosmological model, here we test a speculative model where the modified gravitational field is produced only by the baryons and the sterile neutrinos produce a purely Newtonian field (hence Modified Baryonic Dynamics). We use two-component cosmological simulations to separate the baryonic N-body particles from the sterile neutrino ones. The premise is to attenuate the over-production of massive galaxy cluster halos which were prevalent in the original MOND plus light sterile neutrinos scenario. Theoretical issues with such a formulation notwithstanding, the Modified Baryonic Dynamics model fails to produce the correct amplitude for the galaxy cluster mass function for any reasonable value of the primordial power spectrum normalisation.

  4. Modified two-fluid model of conductivity for superconducting surface resistance calculation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, D.S.

    1993-05-01

    The traditional two-fluid model of superconducting conductivity was modified to make it accurate, while remaining fast, for designing and simulating microwave devices. The modification reflects the BCS coherence effects in the conductivity of a superconductor, and is incorporated through the ratio of normal to superconducting electrons. This modified ratio is a simple analytical expression which depends on frequency, temperature and material parameters. This modified two-fluid model allows accurate and rapid calculation of the microwave surface impedance of a superconductor in the clean and dirty limits and in the weak- and strong-coupled regimes. The model compares well with surface resistance data for Nb and provides insight into Nb3Sn and Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta). Numerical calculations with the modified two-fluid model are an order of magnitude faster than the quasi-classical program by Zimmermann (1), and two to five orders of magnitude faster than Halbritter's BCS program (2) for surface resistance.

  5. On the study of threshold intensity dependence on the gain and loss processes in laser induced spark ignition of molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M. M. Aboulfotouh, A. M.; Gamal, Y. E. E.

    2015-03-30

    In the present work, a numerical analysis is performed to investigate the comparative contribution of the mechanisms responsible for electron gain and losses in laser spark ignition and plasma formation of H{sub 2}. The analysis considered H{sub 2} over pressure range 150 -3000 torr irradiated by a Nd:YAG laser radiation at wavelengths 1064 and 532?nm with pulse length 5.5?ns. The study based on a modified electron cascade model by one of the authors which solves numerically the time dependent Boltzmann equation as well as a set of rate equations that describe the rate of change of the excited states population. The model includes most of the physical processes that might take place during the interaction. Computations of The threshold intensity are performed for the combined and separate contribution of each of the gain and loss processes. Reasonable agreement with the measured values over the tested pressure range is obtained only for the case of the combined contribution. Basing on the calculation of the electron energy distribution function, the determined relations of the time evolution of the electrons density for selected values of the tested gas pressure region revealed that photo-ionization of the excited states could determine the time of electron generation and hence spark ignition. Collisional ionization contributes to this phenomenon only at the high pressure regime. Loss processes due to electron diffusion, vibrational excitation are found to have significant effect over examined pressure values for the two applied laser wavelengths.

  6. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-05-15

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

  7. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Taiee

    2015-09-25

    A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We found that these laser-solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Additionally, radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser-solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 1018 to 7.1x1019 W/cm2 are presented.

  8. Ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, ShiQuan; Cheng, XinLu; Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 ; Zhao, JianLing; Zhang, Hong

    2013-07-28

    In this paper, phonon spectra of InSb at different electronic temperatures are presented. Based on the phonon dispersion relationship, we further perform a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation. The phonon entropy, phonon heat capacity, and phonon contribution to Helmholtz free energy and internal energy of InSb are calculated as functions of temperature at different electronic temperatures. The abrupt change in the phonon entropy- temperature curve from T{sub e} = 0.75 to 1.0 eV provides an indication of InSb undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid. It can be considered as a collateral evidence of non-thermal melting for InSb under intense electronic excitation effect.

  9. QUIET-SUN INTENSITY CONTRASTS IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET AS MEASURED FROM SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Borrero, J. M.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Afram, N.; Unruh, Y. C.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Bonet, J. A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We present high-resolution images of the Sun in the near-ultraviolet spectral range between 214 nm and 397 nm as obtained from the first science flight of the 1 m SUNRISE balloon-borne solar telescope. The quiet-Sun rms intensity contrasts found in this wavelength range are among the highest values ever obtained for quiet-Sun solar surface structures-up to 32.8% at a wavelength of 214 nm. We compare the rms contrasts obtained from the observational data with theoretical intensity contrasts obtained from numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For 388 nm and 312 nm the observations agree well with the numerical simulations whereas at shorter wavelengths discrepancies between observed and simulated contrasts remain.

  10. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY); Cerqua, Kathleen A. (Rochester, NY)

    1987-01-01

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile.

  11. Breaking of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves: A description using Dawson sheet model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Sudip, E-mail: sudip@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat , Gandhinagar - 382428 (India)

    2014-02-11

    Spatio-temporal evolution of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves in a cold homogeneous plasma is studied analytically as well as numerically, as an initial value problem, using Dawson sheet model. It is found that, except for very special initial conditions which generates the well known longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin mode, for all other initial conditions, the waves break through a novel mechanism called phase mixing at an amplitude well below the Akhiezer-Polovin limit. An immediate consequence of this is, that Akhiezer-Polovin waves break when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. We demonstrate this by performing extensive numerical simulations. This result may be of direct relevance to ultrashort, ultraintense laser/beam pulse-plasma interaction experiments where relativistically intense waves are routinely excited.

  12. Determining X-ray source intensity and confidence bounds in crowded fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primini, F. A.; Kashyap, V. L.

    2014-11-20

    We present a rigorous description of the general problem of aperture photometry in high-energy astrophysics photon-count images, in which the statistical noise model is Poisson, not Gaussian. We compute the full posterior probability density function for the expected source intensity for various cases of interest, including the important cases in which both source and background apertures contain contributions from the source, and when multiple source apertures partially overlap. A Bayesian approach offers the advantages of allowing one to (1) include explicit prior information on source intensities, (2) propagate posterior distributions as priors for future observations, and (3) use Poisson likelihoods, making the treatment valid in the low-counts regime. Elements of this approach have been implemented in the Chandra Source Catalog.

  13. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Wham, Robert M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  14. Calculation of synchrotron radiation from high intensity electron beam at eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Y.; Chubar, O.; Litvinenko, V.

    2012-05-20

    The Electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (eRHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab is an upgrade project for the existing RHIC. A 30 GeV energy recovery linac (ERL) will provide a high charge and high quality electron beam to collide with proton and ion beams. This will improve the luminosity by at least 2 orders of magnitude. The synchrotron radiation (SR) from the bending magnets and strong quadrupoles for such an intense beam could be penetrating the vacuum chamber and producing hazards to electronic devices and undesired background for detectors. In this paper, we calculate the SR spectral intensity, power density distributions and heat load on the chamber wall. We suggest the wall thickness required to stop the SR and estimate spectral characteristics of the residual and scattered background radiation outside the chamber.

  15. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1987-07-14

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile. 11 figs.

  16. Air nonlinear dynamics initiated by ultra-intense lambda-cubic terahertz pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shalaby, Mostafa E-mail: christoph.hauri@psi.ch; Hauri, Christoph P. E-mail: christoph.hauri@psi.ch

    2015-05-04

    We report on the measurement of the instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity and the retarded alignment of air molecules CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} triggered by an intense, lambda-cubic terahertz pulse, a diffraction- and transform-limited single-cycle pulse. The strong-field, impulsive low-frequency excitation (3.9 THz) leads to field-free alignment dynamics of these molecules thanks to the terahertz-induced transient dipole moments in the otherwise non-polar molecules. The strong coupling to the terahertz electric transient results in the excitation of coherent large amplitude long-living rotational states at room temperature and ambient pressure. Beyond fundamental investigations of nonlinear properties in gases, our results suggest a route towards field-free molecular alignment at laser intensity well below the ionization threshold.

  17. HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W; Patel, P; Shepherd, R

    2008-10-08

    Measurements of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using an electron spectrometer are presented. These measurements were performed on the Vulcan petawatt laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Callisto laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The effective hot electron temperatures (T{sub hot}) have been measured for laser intensities (I{lambda}{sup 2}) from 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} for the first time, and T{sub hot} is found to increase as (I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 0.34} {+-} 0.4. This scaling agrees well with the empirical scaling published by Beg et al. (1997), and is explained by a simple physical model that gives good agreement with experimental results and particle-in-cell simulations.

  18. Particle production of a graphite target system for the intensity frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, X.; Kirk, H.; McDonald, K. T.

    2015-05-03

    A solid graphite target system is considered for an intense muon and/or neutrino source in support of physics at the intensity frontier. We previously optimized the geometric parameters of the beam and target to maximize particle production at low energies by incoming protons with kinetic energy of 6.75 GeV and an rms geometric emittance of 5 mm-mrad using the MARS15(2014) code. In this study, we ran MARS15 with ROOT-based geometry and also considered a mercury-jet target as an upgrade option. The optimization was extended to focused proton beams with transverse emittances from 5 to 50 mm-mrad, showing that the particle production decreases slowly with increasing emittance. We also studied beam-dump configurations to suppress the rate of undesirable high-energy secondary particles in the beam.

  19. Nonlinear electron dynamics of gold ultrathin films induced by intense terahertz waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minami, Yasuo Takeda, Jun; Katayama, Ikufumi; Dao, Thang Duy; Nagao, Tadaaki; Kitajima, Masahiro

    2014-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear electron dynamics of polycrystalline gold (Au) ultrathin films with thicknesses ranging from 1.4 to 5.8?nm were investigated via transmittance terahertz (THz) spectroscopy with intense electric field transients. We prepared ultrathin films with low surface roughness formed on a Si(7??7) reconstructed surface, leading to the observation of monotonic decrease in THz transmittance with respect to film thickness. Furthermore, at all tested thicknesses, the transmittance decreased nonlinearly by 10%30% with the application if high-intensity THz electric fields. Based on a Drude-model analysis, we found a significant decrease in the damping constant induced by the THz electric field, indicating that electrons are driven beyond the polycrystalline grain boundaries in Au thin films, and consequently leading to the suppression of the electronboundary scattering rate.

  20. Working Group Reports Summary of Single-Column Model Intensive Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Reports Summary of Single-Column Model Intensive Observation Period Workshop at Annual Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Science Team Meeting D. A. Randall Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado R. T. Cederwall Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California * Study previous observation simulation system experiments (OSSEs) (i.e., Bill Frank, Pennsylvania State University [PSU]) and conduct OSSEs as necessary to evaluate

  1. Laser Induced Nuclear Fusion, LINF, In Muonic Molecules With Ultrashort Super Intense Laser Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Paramonov, Gennady K.

    2010-02-02

    Muonium molecules where muons replace electrons increase the stability of molecules to ionization at superhigh intensities, I>10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. We show furthermore from numerical simulations that in the nonsymmetric series, pdu, dtu, ptu, the permanent dipole moments can be used to enhance LINF, Laser Induced Nuclear Fusion by laser induced recollision of the light nucleus with the heavier nucleus.

  2. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carneiro, J.-P.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  3. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  4. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ); Kaita, Robert (Englishtown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  5. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  6. Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7 and other parts of Europe, including Ukraine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7 and other parts of Europe, including Ukraine Elizabeth Sendich November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES November 2014

  7. Intense X-rays expose tiny flaws in 3-D printed titanium that can lead to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    breakage over time | Argonne National Laboratory Intense X-rays expose tiny flaws in 3-D printed titanium that can lead to breakage over time By Katie Elyce Jones * March 4, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Titanium is strong but light - a desirable property among metals. In the twentieth century, titanium was used in military aircraft and equipment and commercial jets. Today, we find this tough and flexible metal all around us - in sports gear, tools, surgical and dental implants, prosthetics,

  8. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kononenko, V V; Konov, V I; Gololobov, V M; Zavedeev, E V

    2014-12-31

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at λ = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  10. Nonlinear photoresponse of field effect transistors terahertz detectors at high irradiation intensities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    But, D. B.; Drexler, C.; Ganichev, S. D.; Sakhno, M. V.; Sizov, F. F.; Dyakonova, N.; Drachenko, O.; Gutin, A.; Knap, W.

    2014-04-28

    Terahertz power dependence of the photoresponse of field effect transistors, operating at frequencies from 0.1 to 3 THz for incident radiation power density up to 100?kW/cm{sup 2} was studied for Si metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors and InGaAs high electron mobility transistors. The photoresponse increased linearly with increasing radiation intensity up to the kW/cm{sup 2} range. Nonlinearity followed by saturation of the photoresponse was observed for all investigated field effect transistors for intensities above several kW/cm{sup 2}. The observed photoresponse nonlinearity is explained by nonlinearity and saturation of the transistor channel current. A theoretical model of terahertz field effect transistor photoresponse at high intensity was developed. The model explains quantitative experimental data both in linear and nonlinear regions. Our results show that dynamic range of field effect transistors is very high and can extend over more than six orders of magnitudes of power densities (from ?0.5 mW/cm{sup 2} to ?5?kW/cm{sup 2})

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort light pulse

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kane, Daniel J. (Santa Fe, NM); Trebino, Rick P. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    The pulse shape I(t) and phase evolution x(t) of ultrashort light pulses are obtained using an instantaneously responding nonlinear optical medium to form a signal pulse. A light pulse, such a laser pulse, is split into a gate pulse and a probe pulse, where the gate pulse is delayed relative to the probe pulse. The gate pulse and the probe pulse are combined within an instantaneously responding optical medium to form a signal pulse functionally related to a temporal slice of the gate pulse corresponding to the time delay of the probe pulse. The signal pulse is then input to a wavelength-selective device to output pulse field information comprising intensity vs. frequency for a first value of the time delay. The time delay is varied over a range of values effective to yield an intensity plot of signal intensity vs. wavelength and delay. In one embodiment, the beams are overlapped at an angle so that a selected range of delay times is within the intersection to produce a simultaneous output over the time delays of interest.

  12. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for semielliptical inner-surface flaws in clad pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    A problem of particular interest in pressure vessel technology is the calculation of accurate stress-intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks in cylinders. Computing costs for direct solution techniques can be prohibitive when applied to three-dimensional (3-D) geometries with time-varying boundary conditions such as those associated with pressurized thermal shock. An alternative superposition technique requires the calculation of a set of influence coefficients for a given 3-D crack model that can be superimposed to obtain mode-I stress-intensity factors. This paper presents stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for axially and circumferentially oriented finite-length semielliptical inner-surface flaws with aspect ratios (total crack length (2c) to crack depth (a)) of 2, 6, and 10 for clad cylinders having an internal radius to wall thickness (t) ratio of 10. SIFICs are computed for flaw depths in the range of 0.01 {le} a/t {le} 0.5 and two cladding thicknesses. The incorporate of this SIFIC data base in fracture mechanics codes will facilitate the generation of fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of flaw geometries as may be required in structural integrity assessments of pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors.

  13. A search for the sulphur hexafluoride cation with intense, few cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dota, Krithika; Mathur, Deepak; Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 ; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Patra, Kaustuv; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2013-11-21

    It is well established that upon ionization of sulphur hexafluoride, the SF{sub 6}{sup +} ion is never observed in mass spectra. Recent work with ultrashort intense laser pulses has offered indications that when strong optical field are used, the resulting bond hardening can induce changes in the potential energy surfaces of molecular cations such that molecular ions that are normally unstable may, indeed, become metastable enough to enable their detection by mass spectrometry. Do intense, ultrashort laser pulses permit formation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}? We have utilized intense pulses of 5 fs, 11 fs, and 22 fs to explore this possibility. Our results are negative: no evidence is discovered for SF{sub 6}{sup +}. However, multiply charged sulphur and fluorine ions from highly charged SF{sub 6}{sup q+} ions are observed that enable us to resolve the controversy regarding the kinetic energy release accompanying formation of F{sup +} fragment ions. Quantum chemical computations of field-distorted potential energy curves of SF{sub 6} and its molecular ion enable us to rationalize our non-observation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}. Our findings have implications for high harmonic generation from SF{sub 6} in the few-cycle regime.

  14. Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort.

  15. Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A; Puckett, Anthony D; Todd, Michael D

    2011-01-24

    The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

  17. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  18. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  19. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  20. A modified version of the geomechanics classification for entry design in underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, D.A.; Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Geomechanics Classification was modified for entry and roof support design in underground room-and-pillar coal mines. Adjustment multipliers were introduced to incorporate the influence of strata weatherability, high horizontal stresses, and the roof support reinforcement factor into the existing classification system. Sixty-two case histories of both standing and fallen mine roof were collected from two mines in the northern Appalachian coalfield. Twenty-seven engineering and geologic parameters were recorded for each case. A partial correlation analysis was carried out on the cases to establish which parameters have a significant impact upon the supported stand-up time of coal mine roof. Survival analysis, a statistical technique used in medical research to assess the effect of a drug or treatment on a patient's life expectancy, was conducted together with stepwise multiple regression to derive values for the adjustment multipliers. A practical example is included to illustrate the application of the modified Geomechanics Classification to underground coal mine design.

  1. Improving the efficiency and availability analysis of a modified reheat regenerative Rankine cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bassily, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    Reheating in a reheat regenerative steam power cycle increases efficiency by increasing the average temperature of heat reception, but also increases the irreversibility of feed water heaters by raising the temperature of the superheated steam used for the regenerative process. This paper introduces some modifications to the regular reheat regenerative steam power cycle that reduce the irreversibility of the regenerative process. An availability analysis of the modified cycle and the regular reheat regenerative cycle as well as a comparison study between both cycles is done. The results indicate that a gain in energy efficiency of up to 2.5% as the steam generator pressure varies is obtained when applying such modifications at the same conditions of pressure, temperature's number of reheating stages, and feed water heaters. The availability analysis showed that such increase in efficiency is due to the reduction of the irreversibility of the regeneration process of the modified cycle.

  2. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  3. Process for modifying the metal ion sorption capacity of a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for modifying a medium is disclosed that includes treating a medium having a metal ion sorption capacity with a solution that includes: A) an agent capable of forming a complex with metal ions; and B) ions selected from the group consisting of sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, and combinations thereof, to create a medium having an increased capacity to sorb metal ions relative to the untreated medium.

  4. Bacteria Modified to Secrete Biologically Active Protein for Large-Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production - Energy Innovation Portal Bacteria Modified to Secrete Biologically Active Protein for Large-Scale Production Inventors: Sydnor Withers III, Miguel Dominguez, Matthew DeLisa, Charles Haitjema Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary E. coli is the most common prokaryote used to produce protein. The expressed protein generally accumulates in the cytoplasm. While this approach is useful for some proteins, not all

  5. Highly Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts for Low

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Conversion of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether to Gasoline-range Branched Hydrocarbons - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Highly Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts for Low Temperature Conversion of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether to Gasoline-range Branched Hydrocarbons National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Recent investigations by a

  6. Clostridium Thermocellum CbhA- Amino acid sequence modified for enhanced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalytic activity in the saccharification of cellulose - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Clostridium Thermocellum CbhA- Amino acid sequence modified for enhanced catalytic activity in the saccharification of cellulose National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The efficient action of cellulases to release fermentable sugars from biomass cellulose is an important

  7. Excerpts from the FAPAC Constitution and Bylaws Modified and Adopted by

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FAPAC-NM | National Nuclear Security Administration Excerpts from the FAPAC Constitution and Bylaws Modified and Adopted by FAPAC-NM | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios

  8. Geometric and Electronic Properties of Graphene Modified by External N-Containing Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xinde; Cai, Qiuxia; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Mei, Donghai; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Jianguo

    2014-10-14

    By means of the first-principles spin polarized density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated structures and electronic properties of external nitrogen-containing groups (pyridine derivatives) modified graphene via single or double bonding mode. This study of single-bond pyridine derivatives modified graphene (SBPG) shows that the ortho-carbon is the most favorable adsorption site for pyridine derivatives on graphene, as confirmed by bader charge analysis. The external stability of pyridine derivatives on graphene by [2+2] cycloaddition is caused by the match between frontier orbitals of pyridine derivatives and those of graphene, which leading to the formation of stronger chemical bonds. Interestingly, electronic structure analysis reveals that the spin-up and spin-down parts DOS of SBPG clearly split, while it is not found for double-bonds pyridine derivatives modified graphene (DBPG). This work was supported by the 973 project (2013CB733501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 21101137, 21136001, 21176221, 21306169 and 91334013). D. Mei is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  9. The radiation chemistry of Cs-7SB, a solvent modifier used in Cs and Sr extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, B.J.; Martin, L.R.; Elias, G.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2008-07-01

    The solvent modifier 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-propoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, (Cs- 7SB) is used in conjunction with calixarenes and crown ethers dissolved in alkane diluents for the extraction of Cs and Sr from highly radioactive solutions. Its purpose is to solvate the ligands and the resulting ligand-metal complexes in the organic phase. Given this role, and its relatively high concentration in the formulations used for solvent extraction, radiolytic degradation of Cs-7SB might decrease the extraction efficiency of these elements as the solvent accumulates absorbed radiation dose. This work presents the results of studies of Cs-7SB using post-radiolysis gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and solvent-extraction distribution-ratio measurements. Also presented is the kinetic analysis of the bimolecular rate constant for the modifier's reaction with nitrogen trioxide and nitrogen dioxide radicals, major radiolytically-produced radical species in irradiated aqueous nitric acid. Although Cs-7SB was found to undergo reactions with nitrogen-centered radicals, little decrease in extraction efficiency was found. It is concluded the modifier, always present at concentrations much higher than the ligands, acts as a radical scavenger, protecting ligands from radiolytic attack. (authors)

  10. Fast radiographic film calibration procedure for helical tomotherapy intensity modulated radiation therapy dose verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Yulong; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Weng Xuejun; Penagaricano, Jose; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2005-06-15

    Film dosimetry offers an advantageous in-phantom planar dose verification tool in terms of spatial resolution and ease of handling for quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. A critical step in the success of such a technique is that the film calibration be appropriately conducted. This paper presents a fast and efficient film calibration method for a helical tomotherapy unit using a single sheet of film. Considering the unique un-flattened cone shaped profile from a helical tomotherapy beam, a custom leaf control file (sinogram) was created, to produce a valley shaped intensity pattern. There are eleven intensity steps in the valley pattern, representing varying dose values from 38 to 265 cGy. This dose range covers the most commonly prescribed doses in fractionated IMRT treatments. An ion chamber in a solid water phantom was used to measure the dose in each of the eleven steps. For daily film calibration the whole procedure, including film exposure, processing, digitization and analysis, can be completed within 15 min, making it practical to use this technique routinely. This method is applicable to film calibration on a helical tomotherapy unit and is particularly useful in IMRT planar dose verification due to its efficiency and reproducibility. In this work, we characterized the dose response of the KODAK EDR2 ready-pack film which was used to develop the step valley dose maps and the IMRT QA planar doses. A comparison between the step valley technique and multifilm based calibration showed that both calibration methods agreed with less than 0.4% deviation in the clinically useful dose ranges.

  11. Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Song; Zhou Zili; Tian Ye; Lu Haiyang; Wang Wentao; Ju Jingjing; Xu Yi; Leng Yuxin; Ni Guoquan; Wang Cheng; Liu Jiansheng; Li Hongyu

    2013-04-15

    An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} (55 fs, 160 mJ at 800 nm) with ethane cluster (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298 K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons, whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1 keV, respectively, by Coulomb explosion of (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters. (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of 5 nm in radius are generated in the experiment, which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH{sub 4}){sub N} clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters with radius of about 9.6 nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308 K. While (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses, the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50 keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C{sub 2}D{sub 6}){sub N} will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

  12. Design of an intense muon source with a carbon and mercury target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, D.; Berg, J. S.; Neuffer, D.; Ding, X.

    2015-05-03

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  13. Apparatus and method for measuring fluorescence intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, T.N.

    1993-05-04

    Apparatus and method is described for measuring intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes. A source of multiple-wavelength electromagnetic radiation is passed through a first interferometer modulated at a first frequency, the output thereof being directed into a sample to be investigated. The light emitted from the sample as a result of the interaction thereof with the excitation radiation is directed into a second interferometer modulated at a second frequency, and the output detected and analyzed. In this manner excitation, emission, and lifetime information may be obtained for a multiplicity of fluorochromes in the sample.

  14. Apparatus and method for measuring fluorescence intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, Tudor N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for measuring intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes. A source of multiple-wavelength electromagnetic radiation is passed through a first interferometer modulated at a first frequency, the output thereof being directed into a sample to be investigated. The light emitted from the sample as a result of the interaction thereof with the excitation radiation is directed into a second interferometer modulated at a second frequency, and the output detected and analyzed. In this manner excitation, emission, and lifetime information may be obtained for a multiplicity of fluorochomes in the sample.

  15. High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

  16. Interaction of high intensity laser with non-uniform clusters and enhanced X-ray emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K.; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-10-15

    Laser irradiated clusters with non-uniform density variation are shown to broaden surface plasmon resonance very significantly. As the clusters get heated and expand hydro-dynamically, the Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission yield passes through a maximum in time. The maximum yield decreases with increase in non-uniformity in the electron density inside the clusters. At higher laser intensity, the nonlinearity in laser cluster interaction may arise even prior to electron heating, via the relativistic mass variation and the nonlinear restoration force on electrons. For clusters with radius less than one tenth of the laser wavelength, the restoration force nonlinearity dominates.

  17. Enhancing the energy of terahertz radiation from plasma produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahangiri, Fazel; Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran ; Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji; Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto ; Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori; Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka

    2013-05-13

    Terahertz (THz) radiation from atomic clusters illuminated by intense femtosecond laser pulses is investigated. By studying the angular distribution, polarization properties and energy dependence of THz waves, we aim to obtain a proper understanding of the mechanism of THz generation. The properties of THz waves measured in this study differ from those predicted by previously proposed mechanisms. To interpret these properties qualitatively, we propose that the radiation is generated by time-varying quadrupoles, which are produced by the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse.

  18. Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2012-10-15

    By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

  19. High-intensity laser-driven proton acceleration enhancement from hydrogen containing ultrathin targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dollar, F.; Reed, S. A.; Matsuoka, T.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; McGuffey, C.; Rousseau, P.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Litzenberg, D. W.

    2013-09-30

    Laser driven proton acceleration experiments from micron and submicron thick targets using high intensity (2 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}), high contrast (10{sup ?15}) laser pulses show an enhancement of maximum energy when hydrogen containing targets were used instead of non-hydrogen containing. In our experiments, using thin (<1?m) plastic foil targets resulted in maximum proton energies that were consistently 20%100% higher than when equivalent thickness inorganic targets, including Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al, were used. Proton energies up to 20 MeV were measured with a flux of 10{sup 7} protons/MeV/sr.

  20. A Lightweight, High-performance I/O Management Package for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jun

    2011-06-22

    Our group has been working with ANL collaborators on the topic ??bridging the gap between parallel file system and local file system? during the course of this project period. We visited Argonne National Lab -- Dr. Robert Ross??s group for one week in the past summer 2007. We looked over our current project progress and planned the activities for the incoming years 2008-09. The PI met Dr. Robert Ross several times such as HEC FSIO workshop 08, SC??08 and SC??10. We explored the opportunities to develop a production system by leveraging our current prototype to (SOGP+PVFS) a new PVFS version. We delivered SOGP+PVFS codes to ANL PVFS2 group in 2008.We also talked about exploring a potential project on developing new parallel programming models and runtime systems for data-intensive scalable computing (DISC). The methodology is to evolve MPI towards DISC by incorporating some functions of Google MapReduce parallel programming model. More recently, we are together exploring how to leverage existing works to perform (1) coordination/aggregation of local I/O operations prior to movement over the WAN, (2) efficient bulk data movement over the WAN, (3) latency hiding techniques for latency-intensive operations. Since 2009, we start applying Hadoop/MapReduce to some HEC applications with LANL scientists John Bent and Salman Habib. Another on-going work is to improve checkpoint performance at I/O forwarding Layer for the Road Runner super computer with James Nuetz and Gary Gridder at LANL. Two senior undergraduates from our research group did summer internships about high-performance file and storage system projects in LANL since 2008 for consecutive three years. Both of them are now pursuing Ph.D. degree in our group and will be 4th year in the PhD program in Fall 2011 and go to LANL to advance two above-mentioned works during this winter break. Since 2009, we have been collaborating with several computer scientists (Gary Grider, John bent, Parks Fields, James Nunez, Hsing-Bung Chen, etc) from HPC5 and James Ahrens from Advanced Computing Laboratory in Los Alamos National Laboratory. We hold a weekly conference and/or video meeting on advancing works at two fronts: the hardware/software infrastructure of building large-scale data intensive cluster and research publications. Our group members assist in constructing several onsite LANL data intensive clusters. Two parties have been developing software codes and research papers together using both sides?? resources.

  1. A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the U.S.: Methods, Data and Key Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2014-08-31

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2010 relative to a 1985 base year. Discussion of energy intensity indicators for each of the broad end-use sectors of the economy—residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation—is presented in the report. An analysis of recent changes in the efficiency of electricity generation in the U.S. is also included. A detailed appendix describes the data sources and methodology behind the energy intensity indicators for each sector.

  2. Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

  3. Universal and nonuniversal statistical properties of levels and intensities for chaotic Rydberg molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, M.; Seligman, T.H. (Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique-Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble, Boite Postale No. 87, 38402 Saint Martin d'Heres, CEDEX (France))

    1993-05-01

    We study Rydberg molecules taking into account the interaction between the rotational motion of the nuclei and the radial motion of the electron. This situation can be treated to a good approximation in quantum mechanics by the multichannel quantum-defect method which in turn has a well-defined classical limit. We are able to calculate very long sequences of levels and the corresponding amplitudes of wave packets. This allows us to study the statistical properties of both in detail. Our interest focuses on aspects of quantum chaos'' that can be particularly well understood in this case. Our main result is that, in a completely chaotic classical situation, where statistics of quantum-level spacings follow the expected universal Gaussian-orthogonal-ensemble behavior, and statistics of line intensities display the expected universal Porter-Thomas behavior, nonuniversal properties are explicitly contained in correlations between intensities and spacings, determined by the time needed for the classical system to mix on a length scale given by the quantum wavelength.

  4. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  5. Space-time contours to treat intense field-dressed molecular states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Amit K.; Adhikari, Satrajit; Baer, Michael

    2010-01-21

    In this article we consider a molecular system exposed to an intense short-pulsed external field. It is a continuation of a previous publication [A. K. Paul, S. Adhikari, D. Mukhopadhyay et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 7331 (2009)] in which a theory is presented that treats quantum effects due to nonclassical photon states (known also as Fock states). Since these states became recently a subject of intense experimental efforts we thought that they can be treated properly within the existing quantum formulation of dynamical processes. This was achieved by incorporating them in the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) treatment with time-dependent coefficients. The extension of the BO treatment to include the Fock states results in a formidable enhancement in numerical efforts expressed, in particular, in a significant increase in CPU time. In the present article we discuss an approach that yields an efficient and reliable approximation with only negligible losses in accuracy. The approximation is tested in detail for the dissociation process of H{sub 2}{sup +} as caused by a laser field.

  6. Influence of Intense Beam in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Collura, M.G.; Jana, M.R.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwarz, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Johnson, R.P.; Franagan, G.; /Muons, Inc. /IIT

    2012-05-01

    The influence of an intense beam in a high-pressure gas filled RF cavity has been measured by using a 400 MeV proton beam in the Mucool Test Area at Fermilab. The ionization process generates dense plasma in the cavity and the resultant power loss to the plasma is determined by measuring the cavity voltage on a sampling oscilloscope. The energy loss has been observed with various peak RF field gradients (E), gas pressures (p), and beam intensities in nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Observed RF energy dissipation in single electron (dw) in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gases was 2 10{sup -17} and 3 10{sup -17} Joules/RF cycle at E/p = 8 V/cm/Torr, respectively. More detailed dw measurement have been done in H{sub 2} gas at three different gas pressures. There is a clear discrepancy between the observed dw and analytical one. The discrepancy may be due to the gas density effect that has already been observed in various experiments.

  7. EVIDENCE OF FILAMENT UPFLOWS ORIGINATING FROM INTENSITY OSCILLATIONS ON THE SOLAR SURFACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Ning, Zongjun; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Ji Haisheng

    2010-08-10

    A filament footpoint rooted in an active region (NOAA 11032) was well observed for about 78 minutes with the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 2009 November 18 in H{alpha} {+-}0.75 A. This data set had high cadence ({approx}15 s) and high spatial resolution ({approx}0.''1) and offered a unique opportunity to study filament dynamics. As in previous findings from space observations, several dark intermittent upflows were identified, and they behave in groups at isolated locations along the filament. However, we have two new findings. First, we find that the dark upflows propagating along the filament channel are strongly associated with the intensity oscillations on the solar surface around the filament footpoints. The upflows start at the same time as the peak in the oscillations, illustrating that the upflow velocities are well correlated with the oscillations. Second, the intensity of one of the seven upflows detected in our data set exhibits a clear periodicity when the upflow propagates along the filament. The periods gradually vary from {approx}10 to {approx}5 minutes. Our results give observational clues on the driving mechanism of the upflows in the filament.

  8. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES IN PHOTOSPHERIC INTENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow ({<=}2 km s{sup -1}) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

  9. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  10. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  11. The role of Nb in intensity increase of Er ion upconversion luminescence in zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, K. Sarakovskis, A.; Grigorjeva, L.; Millers, D.; Grabis, J.

    2014-06-07

    It is found that Nb co-doping increases the luminescence and upconversion luminescence intensity in rare earth doped zirconia. Er and Yb-doped nanocrystalline samples with or without Nb co-doping were prepared by sol-gel method and thermally annealed to check for the impact of phase transition on luminescence properties. Phase composition and grain sizes were examined by X-ray diffraction; the morphology was checked by scanning- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopes. Both steady-state and time-resolved luminescence were studied. Comparison of samples with different oxygen vacancy concentrations and different Nb concentrations confirmed the known assumption that oxygen vacancies are the main agents for tetragonal or cubic phase stabilization. The oxygen vacancies quench the upconversion luminescence; however, they also prevent agglomeration of rare-earth ions and/or displacement of rare-earth ions to grain surfaces. It is found that co-doping with Nb ions significantly (>20 times) increases upconversion luminescence intensity. Hence, ZrO{sub 2}:Er:Yb:Nb nanocrystals may show promise for upconversion applications.

  12. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during intense magnetic storms (1978--1979)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, W.D. ); Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Smith, E.J.; Tang, F.; Akasofu, S.

    1989-07-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling problem is investigated for the ten intense magnetic storms (Dst {lt}{minus}100 nT) that occurred during the 500 days (August 16, 1978 to December 28, 1979) studied by Gonzalez and Tsurutani (1987). This investigation concentrates on the ring current energization in terms of solar wind parameters, in order to explain the {vert bar} {minus}Dst {vert bar} growth observed during these storms. Thus several coupling functions are tested as energy input and several sets of the ring current decay time-constant {tau} are searched to find best correlations with the Dst response. From the fairly large correlation coefficients found in this study, there is strong evidence that large scale magnetopause reconnection operates during such intense storm events and that the solar wind ram pressure plays an important role in the ring current energization. Thus a ram pressure correction factor is suggested for expressions concerning the reconnection power during time intervals with large ram pressure variations.

  13. Resource intensities of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.; Phathanapirom, U.; Eggert, R.; Collins, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents resource intensities, including direct and embodied energy consumption, land and water use, associated with the processes comprising the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication and depleted uranium de-conversion. To the extent feasible, these impacts are calculated based on data reported by operating facilities, with preference given to more recent data based on current technologies and regulations. All impacts are normalized per GWh of electricity produced. Uranium extraction is seen to be the most resource intensive front end process. Combined, the energy consumed by all front end processes is equal to less than 1% of the electricity produced by the uranium in a nuclear reactor. Land transformation and water withdrawals are calculated at 8.07 m{sup 2} /GWh(e) and 1.37x10{sup 5} l/GWh(e), respectively. Both are dominated by the requirements of uranium extraction, which accounts for over 70% of land use and nearly 90% of water use.

  14. Trivalent Lanthanide/Actinide Separation Using Aqueous-Modified TALSPEAK Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis S. Grimes; Richard D. Tillotson; Leigh R. Martin

    2014-05-01

    TALSPEAK is a liquid/liquid extraction process designed to separate trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+) from minor actinides (MAs) Am3+ and Cm3+. Traditional TALSPEAK organic phase is comprised of a monoacidic dialkyl bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractant (HDEHP) in diisopropyl benzene (DIPB). The aqueous phase contains a soluble aminopolycarboxylate diethylenetriamine-N,N,N,N,N-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in a concentrated (1.0-2.0 M) lactic acid (HL) buffer with the aqueous acidity typically adjusted to pH 3.0. TALSPEAK balances the selective complexation of the actinides by DTPA against the electrostatic attraction of the lanthanides by the HDEHP extractant to achieve the desired trivalent lanthanide/actinide group separation. Although TALSPEAK is considered a successful separations scheme, recent fundamental studies have highlighted complex chemical interactions occurring in the aqueous and organic phases during the extraction process. Previous attempts to model the system have shown thermodynamic models do not accurately predict the observed extraction trends in the p[H+] range 2.5-4.8. In this study, the aqueous phase is modified by replacing the lactic acid buffer with a variety of simple and longer-chain amino acid buffers. The results show successful trivalent lanthanide/actinide group separation with the aqueous-modified TALSPEAK process at pH 2. The amino acid buffer concentrations were reduced to 0.5 M (at pH 2) and separations were performed without any effect on phase transfer kinetics. Successful modeling of the aqueous-modified TALSPEAK process (p[H+] 1.6-3.1) using a simplified thermodynamic model and an internally consistent set of thermodynamic data is presented.

  15. Enantioselective hydrogenation. III. Methyl pyruvate hydrogenation catalyzed by alkaloid-modified iridium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, K.E.; Johnston, P.; Plum, H.; Wells, P.B.; Ibbotson, A.

    1994-12-01

    Enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl pyruvate, MeCOCOOMe to methyl lactate, MeCH(OH)COOMe, is catalyzed in solution at room temperature by supported iridium catalysts modified with cinchona alkaloids. Modification with cinchonidine or quinine yields R-lactate in excess, whereas modification with cinchonine or quinidine favors S-lactate formation. Ir/SiO{sub 2} catalysts (20%) calcined at 393 to 573 K and reduced at 523 to 593 K were highly active for racemic hydrogenation in the absence of a modifier (rates typically 1.8 mol h{sup -1} g{sub cat}{sup -1}) and were comparably active when modified with cinchonidine but gave an enantiomeric excess of about 30%. Use of higher calcination or reduction temperatures led to substantially inferior activity and selectivity. The high rates recorded for both racemic and enantioselective reactions are dependent on the catalysts being activated before use by a procedure involving exposure of the catalyst to air after the initial reduction. Use of a Cl-free precursor gave an Ir/SiO{sub 2} catalyst (20%) of superior activity but inferior enantioselectivity. Ir/CaCO{sub 3} (5%) was more active for racemic hydrogenation than for enantioselective hydrogenation, but provided the highest value of the enantiomeric excess 39%. Kinematics of reaction are reported. Exchange of H for D in 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine at room temperature over Ir/CaCO{sub 3} occurred in the quinoline moiety but not in the quinuclidine ring system, indicating that the alkaloid was adsorbed to the Ir surface via the interaction of its {pi}-electron system. For both silica-supported and calcium carbonate-supported Ir, the presence of chloride ion in the catalyst was advantageous for the achievement of enantioselectivity. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg, K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  17. Production And Artile Of Iron/Surfactant-Modified Zeolite Pellets To Retain And Destroy Water Pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    BOWMAN, ROBERT S.; [et al

    2001-07-17

    A method of producing a pollutant adsorption and degradation article, and such article, are provided. At least one adsorbent is mixed with at least one pollutant transforming agent to form a mixture. This mixture is compacted to form a porous, highly permeable article. If necessary, the article can be modified with surfactant either after the compacting step or by adding the surfactant to the mixture prior to the compacting step. In addition, if necessary, a binding agent can be added to the mixture prior to the compacting step.

  18. Method of precisely modifying predetermined surface layers of a workpiece by cluster ion impact therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Lewis (Patchogue, NY); Buehler, Robert J. (Patchogue, NY); Matthew, Michael W. (East Patchogue, NY); Ledbetter, Myron (Belle Terre, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A method of precisely modifying a selected area of a workpiece by producing a beam of charged cluster ions that is narrowly mass selected to a predetermined mean size of cluster ions within a range of 25 to 10.sup.6 atoms per cluster ion, and accelerated in a beam to a critical velocity. The accelerated beam is used to impact a selected area of an outer surface of the workpiece at a preselected rate of impacts of cluster ions/cm.sup.2 /sec. in order to effect a precise modification in that selected area of the workpiece.

  19. Method of precisely modifying predetermined surface layers of a workpiece by cluster ion impact therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, L.; Beuhler, R.J.; Matthew, M.W.; Ledbetter, M.

    1984-06-25

    A method of precisely modifying a selected area of a workpiece by producing a beam of charged cluster ions that is narrowly mass selected to a predetermined mean size of cluster ions within a range of 25 to 10/sup 6/ atoms per cluster ion, and accelerated in a beam to a critical velocity. The accelerated beam is used to impact a selected area of an outer surface of the workpiece at a preselected rate of impacts of cluster ions/cm/sup 2//sec in order to effect a precise modification in that selected area of the workpiece.

  20. Low amplitude impact of PBX 9501: Modified Steven spigot gun tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idar, D.J.; Lucht, R.A.; Straight, J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact and subsequent high explosive (HE) reaction are of concern in credible accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of nuclear weapons. Using modified Steven spigot gun tests, the authors have investigated the high-explosive violent-reaction (HEVR) potential of PBX 9501 to low-amplitude insult. Reliable modeling predictions require that one identify the relevant parameters and behavioral responses that are key to the reaction mechanism(s) in PBX 9501. Additional efforts have been targeted at identifying relevant differences in the response between baseline and stockpile-aged PBX 9501 to low-velocity impacts.

  1. Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin; Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

  2. Surface Modified Particles By Multi-Step Addition And Process For The Preparation Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Lakewood, CO); Elliott, Brian John (Superior, CO); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Golden, CO); Myers, Andrew William (Arvada, CO); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Boulder, CO)

    2006-01-17

    The present invention relates to a new class of surface modified particles and to a multi-step surface modification process for the preparation of the same. The multi-step surface functionalization process involves two or more reactions to produce particles that are compatible with various host systems and/or to provide the particles with particular chemical reactivities. The initial step comprises the attachment of a small organic compound to the surface of the inorganic particle. The subsequent steps attach additional compounds to the previously attached organic compounds through organic linking groups.

  3. Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Jane Lau of the Joint BioEnergy Institute on "Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  4. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  5. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A.

    2012-06-05

    Particle physics aims to understand the universe around us. The Standard Model of particle physics describes the basic structure of matter and forces, to the extent we have been able to probe thus far. However, it leaves some big questions unanswered. Some are within the Standard Model itself, such as why there are so many fundamental particles and why they have different masses. In other cases, the Standard Model simply fails to explain some phenomena, such as the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and the mechanism that reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics. These gaps lead us to conclude that the universe must contain new and unexplored elements of Nature. Most of particle and nuclear physics is directed towards discovering and understanding these new laws of physics. These questions are best pursued with a variety of approaches, rather than with a single experiment or technique. Particle physics uses three basic approaches, often characterized as exploration along the cosmic, energy, and intensity frontiers. Each employs different tools and techniques, but they ultimately address the same fundamental questions. This allows a multi-pronged approach where attacking basic questions from different angles furthers knowledge and provides deeper answers, so that the whole is more than a sum of the parts. A coherent picture or underlying theoretical model can more easily emerge, to be proven correct or not. The intensity frontier explores fundamental physics with intense sources and ultra-sensitive, sometimes massive detectors. It encompasses searches for extremely rare processes and for tiny deviations from Standard Model expectations. Intensity frontier experiments use precision measurements to probe quantum effects. They typically investigate very large energy scales, even higher than the kinematic reach of high energy particle accelerators. The science addresses basic questions, such as: Are there new sources of CP violation? Is there CP violation in the leptonic sector? Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? Do the forces unify? Is there a weakly coupled hidden sector that is related to dark matter? Do new symmetries exist at very high energy scales? To identify the most compelling science opportunities in this area, the workshop Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier was held in December 2011, sponsored by the Office of High Energy Physics in the US Department of Energy Office of Science. Participants investigated the most promising experiments to exploit these opportunities and described the knowledge that can be gained from such a program. The workshop generated much interest in the community, as witnessed by the large and energetic participation by a broad spectrum of scientists. This document chronicles the activities of the workshop, with contributions by more than 450 authors. The workshop organized the intensity frontier science program along six topics that formed the basis for working groups: experiments that probe (i) heavy quarks, (ii) charged leptons, (iii) neutrinos, (iv) proton decay, (v) light, weakly interacting particles, and (vi) nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The conveners for each working group included an experimenter and a theorist working in the field and an observer from the community at large. The working groups began their efforts well in advance of the workshop, holding regular meetings and soliciting written contributions. Specific avenues of exploration were identified by each working group. Experiments that study rare strange, charm, and bottom meson decays provide a broad program of measurements that are sensitive to new interactions. Charged leptons, particularly muons and taus, provide a precise probe for new physics because the Standard Model predictions for their properties are very accurate. Research at the intensity frontier can reveal CP violation in the lepton sector, and elucidate whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. A very weakly coupled hidden-sector that may comprise the dark matter in the universe could be discovered. The search for proton decay can probe the unification of the forces with unprecedented reach and test sacrosanct symmetries to very high scales. Detecting an electric dipole moment for the neutron, or neutral atoms, could establish a clear signal for new physics, while limits on such a measurement would place severe constraints on many new theories. This workshop marked the first instance where discussion of these diverse programs was held under one roof. As a result, it was realized that this broad effort has many connections; a large degree of synergy exists between the different areas and they address similar questions. Results from one area were found to be pertinent to experiments in another domain.

  6. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the standard dies by at least 50%. Dies provided by an AST customer, made of plain carbon 1045 steel and used for pellet manufacturing outperformed the standard dies by more than 100%. Concrete crusher liner wear plates provided by an EHT customer and made of 1045 steel, had the same surface hardness as the plates made of more expensive, pre-hardened high alloy HARDOX-500 material supplied by a Swedish company and used currently by the EHT customer. The 1045 material intensively quenched wear plates are currently in the field. Concrete block molding machine wear plates provided by an IQT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed at the AST production IQ system using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. An effective case depth in the intensively quenched wear plates was the same as in the standard, oil quenched parts. Base keys provided by an EHT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. The intensively quenched parts showed the same performance as standard parts. IQT introduced the IQ process in heat treat practices of three commercial heat-treating shops: Akron Steel Treating Co., Summit Heat Treating Co. and Euclid Heat Treating Co. CWRU conducted a material characterization study for a variety of steels to develop a database to support changing/modification of recognized standards for quenching steel parts. IQT conducted a series of IQ workshops, published seven technical papers and participated in ASM Heat Treating Society conference and exposition and in Furnace North America Show. IQT designed and built a fully automated new IQ system installed at the Center for Intensive Quenching. This system includes the following major components: a stand-alone 1,900-gallon IQ water system, a 24'' x 24'' atmosphere pit furnace, and an automated load transfer mechanism. IQT established a ''Center for Intensive Quenching'' at the AST facilities. The 4,000 square feet Center includes the following equipment: High-velocity single part quenching IQ unit developed and built previously under EMTEC CT-65 project. The unit is equipped w

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammel, George M. (Merrick, NY); Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ)

    1992-10-06

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  8. Modified rubisco large subunit n-methyltransferase useful for targeting molecules to the active-site vicinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houtz, Robert L. (Lexington, KY)

    2012-03-20

    The present invention generally relates to a modified Rubisco large subunit .sup..epsilon.N-Methyltransferase (Rubisco LSMT, or RLSMT). The present invention also relates to a modified RLSMT-carbonic anhydrase (RLSMT-CA). This modified RLSMT-CA improves the efficiency of the reduction of CO.sub.2 during photosynthesis, which may increase plant growth rates. The present invention also relates to nucleic acids encoding the modified RLSMT-CA or modified RLSMT. Also, the present invention relates to cells including the modified RLSMT-CA or modified RLSMT, plants containing the modified RLSMT-CA or modified RLSMT, and methods using compositions of the present invention. In addition, the present invention relates to antibodies conjugated to CA which may bind to Rubisco, and antibodies which bind a modified RLSMT-CA. The invention also relates to modified forms of the LS and SS of Rubisco where the modified forms are fusions with CA or biologically active fragments thereof. The present invention provides methods of altering Rubisco carboxylase activity and altering plant growth.

  9. Deep-level emission in ZnO nanowires and bulk crystals: Excitation-intensity dependence versus crystalline quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Dongchao; Voss, Tobias; Ronning, Carsten; Menzel, Andreas; Zacharias, Margit

    2014-06-21

    The excitation-intensity dependence of the excitonic near-band-edge emission (NBE) and deep-level related emission (DLE) bands in ZnO nanowires and bulk crystals is studied, which show distinctly different power laws. The behavior can be well explained with a rate-equation model taking into account deep donor and acceptor levels with certain capture cross sections for electrons from the conduction band and different radiative lifetimes. In addition, a further crucial ingredient of this model is the background n-type doping concentration inherent in almost all ZnO single crystals. The interplay of the deep defects and the background free-electron concentration in the conduction band at room temperature reproduces the experimental results well over a wide range of excitation intensities (almost five orders of magnitude). The results demonstrate that for many ZnO bulk samples and nanostructures, the relative intensity R?=?I{sub NBE}/I{sub DLE} can be adjusted over a wide range by varying the excitation intensity, thus, showing that R should not be taken as an indicator for the crystalline quality of ZnO samples unless absolute photoluminescence intensities under calibrated excitation conditions are compared. On the other hand, the results establish an all-optical technique to determine the relative doping levels in different ZnO samples by measuring the excitation-intensity dependence of the UV and visible luminescence bands.

  10. Modified biokinetic model for uranium from analysis of acute exposure to UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.R.; Kathren, R.L.; Swint, M.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Urinalysis measurements from 31 workers acutely exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis product UO2F2 (during the 1986 Gore, Oklahoma UF6-release accident) were used to develop a modified recycling biokinetic model for soluble U compounds. The model is expressed as a five-compartment exponential equation: yu(t) = 0.086e-2.77t + 0.0048e-0.116t + 0.00069e-0.0267t + 0.00017 e-0.00231t + 2.5 x 10(-6) e-0.000187t, where yu(t) is the fractional daily urinary excretion and t is the time after intake, in days. The excretion constants of the five exponential compartments correspond to residence half-times of 0.25, 6, 26, 300, and 3,700 d in the lungs, kidneys, other soft tissues, and in two bone volume compartments, respectively. The modified recycling model was used to estimate intake amounts, the resulting committed effective dose equivalent, maximum kidney concentrations, and dose equivalent to bone surfaces, kidneys, and lungs.

  11. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  12. Compaction comparison testing using a modified impact soil tester and nuclear density gauge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchul, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare test results of a modified Impact Soil Tester (IST) on compacted soil with data obtained from the same soil using a nuclear density gauge at the US Army Corp of Engineer's Buena Vista Flood Wall project in Buena Vista, Virginia. The tests were run during construction of the earth flood wall during the summer of 1996. This comparison testing demonstrated the credibility of the procedure developed for the IST as a compacting testing device. The comparison data was obtained on a variety of soils ranging from silty sands to clays. The Flood Wall comparison compaction data for 90% Standard Proctor shows that the results of the IST as modified are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 89% of the time for all types of soil tested. However, if the soils are more cohesive than the results are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 97% of the time. In addition these comparison tests are in general agreement with comparison compaction testing using the same testing techniques and methods of compacted backfill in utility trenches conducted earlier for the Public Works Department, Chesterfield County, Virginia.

  13. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ([minus]60[degrees]F) temperatures.

  14. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ({minus}60{degrees}F) temperatures.

  15. A modified Stillinger-Weber potential for TlBr and its polymorphic extension

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Foster, Michael E.; Jones, Reese E.; Doty, F. Patrick; Yang, Pin; Fan, Hongyou

    2015-04-30

    TlBr is promising for g- and x- radiation detection, but suffers from rapid performance degradation under the operating external electric fields. To enable molecular dynamics (MD) studies of this degradation, we have developed a Stillinger-Weber type of TlBr interatomic potential. During this process, we have also addressed two problems of wider interests. First, the conventional Stillinger-Weber potential format is only applicable for tetrahedral structures (e.g., diamond-cubic, zinc-blende, or wurtzite). Here we have modified the analytical functions of the Stillinger-Weber potential so that it can now be used for other crystal structures. Second, past modifications of interatomic potentials cannot always bemore » applied by a broad community because any new analytical functions of the potential would require corresponding changes in the molecular dynamics codes. Here we have developed a polymorphic potential model that simultaneously incorporates Stillinger-Weber, Tersoff, embedded-atom method, and any variations (i.e., modified functions) of these potentials. As a result, we have implemented this polymorphic model in MD code LAMMPS, and demonstrated that our TlBr potential enables stable MD simulations under external electric fields.« less

  16. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance andmore » an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.« less

  17. STABILITY OF COSMIC-RAY MODIFIED SHOCKS: TWO-FLUID APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tatsuhiko; Hoshino, Masahiro; Amano, Takanobu

    2013-10-01

    The stability of cosmic-ray modified shocks (CRMSs) is studied by means of numerical simulations. Owing to the nonlinear feedback of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration, a downstream state of the modified shock can no longer be uniquely determined for given upstream parameters. It is known that up to three distinct solutions exist, which are characterized by CR production efficiency as the 'efficient', 'intermediate', and 'inefficient' branches. The stability of these solutions is investigated by performing direct time-dependent simulations of a two-fluid model. It is found that both the efficient and inefficient branches are stable even against a large-amplitude perturbation, while the intermediate one is always unstable and evolves into the inefficient state as a result of nonlinear time development. This bistable feature is robust in a wide range of parameters and does not depend on the injection model. Fully nonlinear time evolution of a hydrodynamic shock with injection results in the least efficient state in terms of CR production, consistent with the bistable feature. This suggests that the CR production efficiency in supernova remnant shocks may be lower than previously discussed in the framework of the nonlinear shock acceleration theory considering the efficient solution of the CRMS.

  18. Enhanced modified faraday cup for determination of power density distribution of electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved tomographic technique for determining the power distribution of an electron or ion beam using electron beam profile data acquired by an enhanced modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power ion or electron beams. A refractory metal disk with a number of radially extending slits, one slit being about twice the width of the other slits, is placed above a Faraday cup. The electron or ion beam is swept in a circular pattern so that its path crosses each slit in a perpendicular manner, thus acquiring all the data needed for a reconstruction in one circular sweep. The enlarged slit enables orientation of the beam profile with respect to the coordinates of the welding chamber. A second disk having slits therein is positioned below the first slit disk and inside of the Faraday cup and provides a shield to eliminate the majority of secondary electrons and ions from leaving the Faraday cup. Also, a ring is located below the second slit disk to help minimize the amount of secondary electrons and ions from being produced. In addition, a beam trap is located in the Faraday cup to provide even more containment of the electron or ion beam when full beam current is being examined through the center hole of the modified Faraday cup.

  19. Magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor deposited zinc sulfide via chemically and mechanically modified fluids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Salzman, Sivan; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Giannechini, Lucca J.; Jacobs, Stephen D.; Lambropoulos, John C.

    2016-02-19

    In this study, we describe the anisotropy in the material removal rate (MRR) of the polycrystalline, chemical-vapor deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS).We define the polycrystalline anisotropy via microhardness and chemical erosion tests for four crystallographic orientations of ZnS: (100), (110), (111), and (311). Anisotropy in the MRR was studied under magnetorheological finishing (MRF) conditions. Three chemically and mechanically modified magnetorheological (MR) fluids at pH values of 4, 5, and 6 were used to test the MRR variations among the four single-crystal planes. When polishing the single-crystal planes and the polycrystalline with pH 5 and pH 6MR fluids, variations were found inmore » the MRR among the four single-crystal planes and surface artifacts were observed on the polycrystalline material. When polishing the single-crystal planes and the polycrystalline with the modified MR fluid at pH 4, however, minimal variation was observed in the MRR among the four orientations and a reduction in surface artifacts was achieved on the polycrystalline material.« less

  20. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg? among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance and an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g? and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg? can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g?), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.