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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

/select/modify/life  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... OOF: Finite Element Analysis of Microstructures. Table of Contents, /select/modify/life, OOF home. Prev, ... select/modify/life. /select ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

2

OECD energy intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

to examine OECD countries' energy intensity levels (i.e., the ratio of energy ... steady-state or long-run distribution of energy intensity for the Organisation of ...

3

AGS intensity upgrades  

SciTech Connect

After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four.

Roser, T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Intensity Frontier Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report summarizes findings of the 2013 Snowmass Community Summer Study Instrumentation Frontier's subgroup on the Intensity Frontier. This report is directed at identifying instrumentation R&D needed to support particle physics research over the coming decades at the Intensity Frontier.

S. H. Kettell; R. A. Rameika; R. S. Tschirhart

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

5

Light intensity compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

The Hurricane Intensity Issue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensity issue of hurricanes is addressed in this paper using the angular momentum budget of a hurricane in storm-relative cylindrical coordinates and a scale-interaction approach. In the angular momentum budget in storm-relative coordinates,...

T. N. Krishnamurti; S. Pattnaik; L. Stefanova; T. S. V. Vijaya Kumar; B. P. Mackey; A. J. O’Shay; Richard J. Pasch

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Le Bail Intensity Extraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Le Bail Intensity Extraction Le Bail Intensity Extraction Presentation Goal Introduce the concepts behind LeBail fitting; why it is useful and how to perform a Le Bail fit with GSAS. Format: PDF slides or a RealPlayer video of the slides with accompanying audio and a demo video that shows how a Le Bail fit is performed. Presentation Outline What is the Le Bail method? Other approaches Why use the Le Bail method? Parameter fitting with Le Bail intensity extraction Le Bail refinement strategies Avoiding problems with background fitting: BKGEDIT Demo: an example Le Bail fit Links Le Bail lecture Slides (as PDF file) FlashMovie presentation with index (best viewed with 1024x768 or better screen resolution) FlashMovie file (800x600 pixels) Le Bail demo FlashMovie presentation with index (best viewed with 1024x768 or

9

The Great Hanshin - Awaji Earthquake of January 17, 1995: A Report on Electric Power and Other Impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On Tuesday January 17, 1995 the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake struck the Kansai region of Japan, killing 6,308 people from their homes and causing injury to 43,177, displacing several hundred thousand people from their homes and causing an estimated $130 billion in losses. The earthquake measured 7.2 on the Japan Meteorological Agency scale with a moment magnitude of 6.9 (comparable to Modified Mercalli intensities of X-XI) and peak ground accelerations of up to .8g. The region suffered major utility ou...

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

High intensity hadron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.

Teng, L.C.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Energy Intensity Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our presentation will cover how we began the journey of conserving energy at our facility. We’ll discuss a basic layout of our energy intensity plan and the impact our team has had on the process, what tools we’re using, what goals have been identified, how we structured the plan to include our team in the process and so on.

Rappolee, D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

MODIFIED ZONE METHOD CALCULATOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zone Method is recommended for R-value calculations in steel stud walls by the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals ASHRAE 1997. The Modified Zone Method is similar to the...

13

CIM - compact intensity modulation.  

SciTech Connect

Compact intensity modulation (CIM), a new method to modulate the intensity of a neutron beam is demonstrated. CIM allows the production of arbitrary signals where the focus point can be chosen and changed without any constraints. A novel feature in this technique compared to spin echo techniques is that the neutron polarization is kept parallel or anti-parallel to the static fields during the passage through the magnetic fields and the beating pattern at the detector is produced by an amplitude modulation (AM) of the adiabatic RF-spin flippers rather than Larmor precession like in neutron spin echo (NSE) instruments; thus, the achievable contrast is very high and the instrument resolution can be changed very quickly. This gives the fascinating possibility at pulsed neutron sources to sweep the modulation frequency of the flippers in order to increase dynamic resolution range during the same neutron pulse.

Bleuel, M.; Lang, E.; Gahler, G.; Lal, J.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source; Inst. Lau Langevin

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

14

Unlocking energy intensive habits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy intensive habits energy intensive habits Presentation at LBL Oct 10, 2013 by Hal Wilhite Professor and Research Director University of Oslo Centre for Development and the Environment Source: WWF US EIA Outlook 2011 Conventional framing of the energy consumption and savings * Sovereign consumers * Economically rational and persistentely reflexive. * Uninfluenced by social and material conditions of everyday life * Focus on efficiency and not on size and volume which is for the most part treated as an indifferent variable Cognitive reductionism The change of frame * From individual to socio-material * From rational/reflexive experience-based (practical) knowledge * From efficiency to reduction A theory of habit * Acknowledges the role of lived experience (history, both cultural and personal) in forming

15

NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

Russell, J.T.

1964-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

16

Intense ion beam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation.

Humphries, Jr., Stanley (Ithaca, NY); Sudan, Ravindra N. (Ithaca, NY)

1977-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Consequences of intensity constraints on inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the conflicting requirements of high implosion efficiency (low corona temperature) and adequate energy transport (high corona temperature) can, together with other effects, limit useful infrared light intensities to values on the order of 100 Tw/cm/sup 2/. Increased interest in ultraviolet lasers, for which this intensity constraint is expected to be less severe, and the entry of charged-particle drivers in the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) competition are consequences of this limitation. Analytical results based on a simple model are presented which show how the gain of an ICF target is modified by the existence of an arbitrary intensity constraint.

Kidder, R.E.

1979-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

18

Intensity Frontier Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental origin of flavor in the Standard Model (SM) remains a mystery. Despite the roughly eighty years since Rabi asked “Who ordered that?” upon learning of the discovery of the muon, we have not understood the reason that there are three generations or, more recently, why the quark and neutrino mixing matrices and masses are so different. The solution to the flavor problem would give profound insights into physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and tell us about the couplings and the mass scale at which the next level of insight can be found. The SM fails to explain all observed phenomena: new interactions and yet unseen particles must exist. They may manifest themselves by causing SM reactions to differ from often very precise predictions. The Intensity Frontier (1) explores these fundamental questions by searching for new physics in extremely rare processes or those forbidden in the SM. This often requires massive and/or extremely finely tuned detectors.

Kettell S.; Rameika, R.; Tshirhart, B.

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

19

ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for energy-Intensive Processes (eIP) addresses the top technology opportunities to save energy and reduce carbon emissions across the industrial sector. the portfolio focuses the...

20

energy intensity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

intensity intensity Dataset Summary Description Energy intensity data and documentation published by the U.S. DOE's office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Energy intensity is defined as: amount of energy used in producing a given level of output or activity; expressed as energy per unit of output. This is the energy intensity of the the electricity sector, which is an energy consuming sector that generates electricity. Data are organized to separate electricity-only generators from combined heat and power (CHP) generators. Data is available for the period 1949 - 2004. Source EERE Date Released May 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Energy Consumption energy intensity fossil fuels renewable energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon electricity_indicators.xls (xls, 2.1 MiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence.

Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Accelerators for Intensity Frontier Research  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel identified three frontiers for research in high energy physics, the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. In this paper, I will describe how Fermilab is configuring and upgrading the accelerator complex, prior to the development of Project X, in support of the Intensity Frontier.

Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

23

Modified clay sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

Fogler, H. Scott (Ann Arbor, MI); Srinivasan, Keeran R. (Livonia, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Intense low energy positron beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e{sup +} beams exist producing of the order of 10{sup 8} {minus} 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams with intensities greater than 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec and current densities of the order of 10{sup 13} {minus} 10{sup 14} e{sup +} sec{sup {minus}} {sup 1}cm{sup {minus}2}. Intense e{sup +} beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B{sup +} moderators or by increasing the available activity of B{sup +} particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e{sup +} collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e{sup +} microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e{sup +} diffraction and other fields. Intense e{sup +} beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies.

Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. It can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when it replaces incandescent lighting.

26

Neutral particle beam intensity controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

Dagenhart, W.K.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

27

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

28

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

29

High intensity protons in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

During the 2012 summer shutdown a pair of electron lenses will be installed in RHIC, allowing the beam-beam parameter to be increased by roughly 50 percent. To realize the corresponding luminosity increase bunch intensities have to be increased by 50 percent, to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. We list the various RHIC subsystems that are most affected by this increase, and propose beam studies to ensure their readiness. The proton luminosity in RHIC is presently limited by the beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, electron lenses will be installed in IR10. With the help of these devices, the headon beam-beam kick experienced during proton-proton collisions will be partially compensated, allowing for a larger beam-beam tuneshift at these collision points, and therefore increasing the luminosity. This will be accomplished by increasing the proton bunch intensity from the presently achieved 1.65 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 109 bunches per beam to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11}, thus roughly doubling the luminosity. In a further upgrade we aim for bunch intensities up to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. With RHIC originally being designed for a bunch intensity of 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 56 bunches, this six-fold increase in the total beam intensity by far exceeds the design parameters of the machine, and therefore potentially of its subsystems. In this note, we present a list of major subsystems that are of potential concern regarding this intensity upgrade, show their demonstrated performance at present intensities, and propose measures and beam experiments to study their readiness for the projected future intensities.

Montag, C.; Ahrens& #44; L.; Blaskiewicz& #44; M.; Brennan& #44; J.M.; Drees& #44; K.A.; Fischer& #44; W.; Huang& #44; H.; Minty& #44; M.; Robert-Demolaize& #44; G.; Thieberger& #44; P.; Yip& #44; K.

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

New probe of modified gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest a new efficient way to constrain a certain class of large scale modifications of gravity. We show that the scale-free relation between density and size of Dark Matter halos, predicted within the LambdaCDM model with Newtonian gravity, gets modified in a wide class of theories of modified gravity.

Boyarsky, Alexey

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Harmonic generation at high intensities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.

Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Hurricane Maximum Intensity: Past and Present  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hurricane intensity forecasting has lagged far behind the forecasting of hurricane track. In an effort to improve the understanding of the hurricane intensity dilemma, several attempts have been made to compute an upper bound on the intensity of ...

J. Parks Camp; Michael T. Montgomery

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Neutral particle beam intensity controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Structure formation in modified gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We pursue a (1+3) ?covariant analysis of cosmological peculiar velocity of pressure?free matter induced by the matter density perturbations in modified f(R) gravity theories. Instead of working in a quasi?Newtonian Eulerian frame

D. M. Solomons; P. K. S. Dunsby; S. Carloni

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Designing Self-Modifying Agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agents need to be able to adapt to changes in their environment. One way to achieve this, is to provide agents with the ability of self-modification. Self-modification requires reflection and strategies with which new knowledge can be acquired, a necessary condition for creativity. This paper describes a knowledge-level model for the design of self-modifying agents and explores the feasibility of automatically designing self-modifying agents.

Frances M.T. Brazier; Frances M. T; Brazier; Niek J. E. Wijngaards

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Information Administration Home Page. Home > Energy Users > Manufacturing > Changes in Energy Intensity Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991 Overview Full Report The focus is...

39

Ion beam surface treatment: A new technique for thermally modifying surfaces using intense, pulsed ion beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emerging capability to produce high average power (10--300 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2{minus}2 MeV energies is enabling us to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed ({le}500 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 1--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy in a thin surface layer allows melft of the layer with relatively small energies (1--10J/cm2) and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal conduction into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109 K/sec) are sufficient to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nanocrystalline and metastable phases). Results from initial experiments confirm surface hardening, amorphous layer and nanocrystalline grain size formation, corrosion resistance in stainless steel and aluminum, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning and oxide layer removal as well as surface ablation and redeposition. These results follow other encouraging results obtained previously in Russia using single pulse ion beam systems. Potential commercialization of this surface treatment capability is made possible by the combination of two new technologies, a new repetitive high energy pulsed power capability (0.2{minus}2MV, 25--50 kA, 60 ns, 120 Hz) developed at SNL, and a new repetitive ion beam system developed at Cornell University.

Stinnett, R.W.; Buchheit, R.G.; Neau, E.L. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities > Table 5b

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities > Table 6a. U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy

42

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities > Table 5a

43

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities > Table 7a

44

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities > Table7c

45

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities > Table 7b

46

A MODIFIED LUNDEGARDH SPRAY CHAMBER  

SciTech Connect

Operation of an apparatus for analysis of solutions by the Lundegardh flame technique was greatiy facilituted by the modification of a spray chamber. Samples can be introduced and removed from the modified spray chamber without extinguishing the flame or dismantling the assembly. (auth)

Palin, P.C.

1951-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Iron and Steel Energy Intensities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet First Use/Ton of steel End Uses of Consumption Blue Bullet Total End Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet Total End Use/Ton of Steel Boiler Fuel as End Use Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Value of Production Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Ton of Steel Process Heating as End Use Blue Bullet Process Heating Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Process Heating /Value of Production Machine Drive as End Use Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel/Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel /Value of Production Expenditures Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Value of Production

48

A novel multi-scale intensity metric for evaluation of tropical cyclone intensity forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a new Multi-Scale Intensity (MSI) metric for evaluating Tropical Cyclone (TC) intensity forecasts is presented. The metric consists of the resolvable and observable, low wavenumber intensity represented by the sum of amplitudes of ...

Tomislava Vukicevic; Eric Uhlhorn; Paul Reasor; Bradley Klotz

49

Higher Hydroclimatic Intensity with Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of their dependence on water, natural and human systems are highly sensitive to changes in the hydrologic cycle. The authors introduce a new measure of hydroclimatic intensity (HY-INT), which integrates metrics of precipitation intensity ...

F. Giorgi; E.-S. Im; E. Coppola; N. S. Diffenbaugh; X. J. Gao; L. Mariotti; Y. Shi

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Environmental Control of Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of various environmental factors on tropical cyclone intensity is explored using a simple coupled ocean–atmosphere model. It is first demonstrated that this model is capable of accurately replicating the intensity evolution of ...

Kerry Emanuel; Christopher DesAutels; Christopher Holloway; Robert Korty

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

STABILIZED HIGH INTENSITY SOURCE OF 80 kv  

SciTech Connect

With the change of the current load from 0 to 2.5 mamp and simultaneous change of incoming intensity from 270 to 190 v, the stabilized high-intensity source changes less than l%.. The stabilized intensity can be arranged in steps of 5 kv from 60 to 80 kv. The high-intensity stabilizer automatically switches on upon reaching 60 kv. (tr-auth)

Polivanov, V.V.; Izyurov, A.V.; Pyatakov, N.I.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Analytical theory of intensity fluctuations in SASE  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in SASE experiments stimulate interest in quantitative comparison of measurements with theory. Extending the previous analysis of the SASE intensity in guided modes, the authors provide an analytical description of the intensity fluctuations by calculating intensity correlation functions in the frequency domain. Comparison of the results with experiment yields new insight into the SASE process.

Yu, L.H.; Krinsky, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Lectures on Screened Modified Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The acceleration of the expansion of the Universe has led to the construction of Dark Energy models where a light scalar field may have a range reaching up to cosmological scales. Screening mechanisms allow these models to evade the tight gravitational tests in the solar system and the laboratory. I will briefly review some of the salient features of screened modified gravity models of the chameleon, dilaton or symmetron types using $f(R)$ gravity as a template.

Philippe Brax

2012-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

Observational Tests of Modified Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modified gravity theories have richer observational consequences for large-scale structure than conventional dark energy models, in that different observables are not described by a single growth factor even in the linear regime. We examine the relationships between perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields, and discuss strategies for measuring them using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering/dynamics and the ISW effect. We show how a broad class of gravity theories can be tested by combining these probes. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining two key functions: the ratio of the two metric potentials, and the ratio of the Gravitational ``constant'' in the Poisson equation to Newton's constant. We also discuss quasilinear effects that carry signatures of gravity, such as through induced three-point correlations. Clustering of dark energy can mimic features of modified gravity theories and thus confuse the search for distinct signatures of such theories. It can produce pressure perturbations and anisotropic stresses, which breaks the equality between the two metric potentials even in general relativity. With these two extra degrees of freedom, can a clustered dark energy model mimic modified gravity models in all observational tests? We show with specific examples that observational constraints on both the metric potentials and density perturbations can in principle distinguish modifications of gravity from dark energy models. We compare our result with other recent studies that have slightly different assumptions (and apparently contradictory conclusions).

Bhuvnesh Jain; Pengjie Zhang

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

Modified biogeography-based optimisation (MBBO)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modified biogeography-based optimisation (MBBO) technique is modified version of BBO which is a bio-inspired and population-based optimisation technique. Biogeography is the study of distribution of species in nature. In this paper, ...

M. R. Lohokare; S. Devi; S. S. Pattnaik; B. K. Panigrahi; J. G. Joshi

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

EIA Energy Efficiency-Residential Sector Energy Intensities, 1978-2001  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Sector Energy Intensities Residential Sector Energy Intensities RESIDENTIAL SECTOR ENERGY INTENSITIES: 1978-2005 Released Date: August 2004 Page Last Modified:June 2009 These tables provide estimates of residential sector energy consumption and energy intensities for 1978 -1984, 1987, 1990, 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2005 based on the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Total Site Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) Html Excel PDF By Type of Housing Unit (Table 1a) html Table 1a excel table 1a. excel table 1a. Weather-Adjusted by Type of Housing Unit (Table 1b) html table 1b excel table 1b excel table 1b Total Primary Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) By Type of Housing Unit (Table 1c) html Table 1c excel table 1c excel table 1c Weather-Adjusted by Type of Housing Unit (Table 1d)

57

Image analysis by modified Legendre moments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the paper, a new set of orthogonal moments based on the modified Legendre polynomials is introduced. Three properties of the modified Legendre polynomials, which are orthogonality, orthogonal invariance and the characteristic that an interval on the ... Keywords: Feature representation capability, Legendre moments, Modified Legendre moments, Translation invariance

Bo Fu; Jianzhong Zhou; Yuhong Li; Guojun Zhang; Cheng Wang

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts The invention also includes electrochemical apparatus that can interface with optical instrumentation. If the working electrode is transparent, light from an optical fiber may be directed through the working electrode and into a cuvette. July 3, 2013 Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Applications: Electrochemical experiments in solution Electrochemical experiments on surfaces Bulk electrolysis experiments Fuel cells Corrosion studies Academic Labs Teaching and research Benefits: Incorporates disposable, commercially available cuvettes

59

Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

Robert E. Spears; J. Kevin Wilkins

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to main content Science at Fermilab Frontiers of Particle Physics Experiments & Projects Energy Frontier Tevatron at Fermilab Fermilab and the LHC Intensity Frontier Cosmic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 7c. U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity Using Primary Energy 1 by Census Region and Principal Building Activity, 1992-1999 (Million Btu per Worker)

62

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities > Table 6b . ... Warehouse and Storage 42: 38 45: Other: 3. 154: 170 163: Vacant 28: 21 21: Total ...

63

Thermodynamics in Modified Gravity Theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that there does exist an equilibrium description of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density $f(R, \\phi, X)$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $X$ is the kinetic energy of a scalar field $\\phi$. This comes from a suitable definition of an energy momentum tensor of the "dark" component obeying the local energy conservation law in the Jordan frame. It is shown that the equilibrium description in terms of the horizon entropy $S$ is convenient because it takes into account the contribution of the horizon entropy $\\hat{S}$ in non-equilibrium thermodynamics as well as an entropy production term.

Kazuharu Bamba; Chao-Qiang Geng; Shinji Tsujikawa

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

64

SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for testing each rheology modifier, hence based on the changes in rheology for a given rheology modifier, rheology modifiers were either dropped or added between simulants. Three rheology modifiers were used on all simulants. The results from this testing indicate that citric acid or polycarboxylate based rheology modifiers are the most effective in reducing the yield stress, by as much as 70% at the higher rheology modifier additions and were effective on most of the tested simulants. These rheology modifiers are organic, hence the can also be used as reductants in melter operations. The most effective non-organic rheology modifiers, sodium metasilicate reduced the yield stress by 10%. It is recommended that both citric acid and commercially available polycarboxylate rheology modifiers be further investigated. Different molecular weight polycarboxylates and different types of polycarboxylates used in other industries must be considered. These polycarboxylates are extensively utilized in the cement, ceramic, and water treatment processes, hence readily available. Future work on DWPF melter feeds involving rheology modifiers should include, assuming the present method of processing sludge through DPWF does not change, is: (1) Investigate the use of polycarboxylate in various processes and procure polycarboxylates for testing. Limit rheology modifier selection and future testing between four and eight different types. (2) Test rheology modifiers on at least two different chemical types or bounding DWPF SME product simulants. Test to include the impact of boiling and the effectiveness in reducing water content via rheology versus weight percent curves. (3) Based on selected modifiers, perform testing on actual radioactive melter feed based on results from simulant testing.

Hansen, E.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

65

Transverse instability in high intensity proton rings  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, many applications are being considered for low energy high intensity proton synchrotrons. Most high intensity proton rings are at low energy below transition. Several aspects of the beam dynamics of this kind of rings are different from the electron or high energy rings. The transverse microwave instabilities will be discussed in this article.

Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Description of Energy Intensity Tables (12)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables 3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables There are 12 data tables used as references for this report. Specifically, these tables are categorized as tables 1 and 2 present unadjusted energy-intensity ratios for Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy for 1985, 1988, 1991, and 1994; along with the percentage changes between 1985 and the three subsequent years (1988, 1991, and 1994) tables 3 and 4 present 1988, 1991, and 1994 energy-intensity ratios that have been adjusted to the mix of products shipped from manufacturing establishments in 1985 tables 5 and 6 present unadjusted energy-intensity ratios for Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy for 1988, 1991, and 1994; along with the percentage changes between 1988 and the two subsequent

67

High intensity performance of the Brookhaven AGS  

SciTech Connect

Experience and results from recent high intensity proton running periods of the Brookhaven AGS, during which a record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 6.3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse was reached, is presented. This high beam intensity allowed for the simultaneous operation of three high precision rare kaon decay experiments. The record beam intensities were achieved after the 1.5 GeV Booster was commissioned and a transition jump system, a powerful transverse damper, and an rf upgrade in the AGS were completed. Recently even higher intensity proton synchrotrons are studied for neutron spallation sources or proton driver for a muon collider. Implications of the experiences from the AGS to these proposals and also possible future upgrades for the AGS are discussed.

Brennan, J.M.; Roser, T.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Latitudinal variation of the solar photospheric intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have examined images from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in search of latitudinal variation in the solar photospheric intensity. Along with the expected brightening of the solar activity belts, we have found a weak enhancement of the mean continuum intensity at polar latitudes (continuum intensity enhancement $\\sim0.1 - 0.2%$ corresponding to a brightness temperature enhancement of $\\sim2.5{\\rm K}$). This appears to be thermal in origin and not due to a polar accumulation of weak magnetic elements, with both the continuum and CaIIK intensity distributions shifted towards higher values with little change in shape from their mid-latitude distributions. Since the enhancement is of low spatial frequency and of very small amplitude it is difficult to separate from systematic instrumental and processing errors. We provide a thorough discussion of these and conclude that the measurement captures real solar latitudinal intensity variations.

Rast, Mark P; Meisner, Randle W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Understanding and Forecasting Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change with the Typhoon Intensity Prediction Scheme (TIPS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple regression scheme with tropical cyclone intensity change as the dependent variable has been developed. The new scheme is titled the Typhoon Intensity Prediction Scheme (TIPS) and is similar to one used operationally at the National ...

Patrick J. Fitzpatrick

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Novel Nitride-Modified Multielectron Conversion Electrode ...  

Novel Nitride-Modified Multielectron Conversion Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

71

Enzymatic treatment of wool with modified proteases.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The tendency of wool to felt and shrink is mainly due to its scaly structure. The chlorine-Hercosett is the most widespread process used to modify… (more)

Silva, Carla J. S. M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

Rushford, M.C.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

74

Energy intensity (Table E.1g)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

AC Argentina AR Aruba AA Bahamas, The BF Barbados BB Belize BH Bolivia BL ... E.1g World Energy Intensity--Total Primary Energy Consumption per Dollar of Gross Domestic

75

Technical Change, Investment and Energy Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the role of different components of technical change on energy intensity by applying a Translog variable cost function setting to the new EU KLEMS dataset for 3 selected EU countries (Italy, Finland and ...

Kratena, Kurt

76

Rapid Filamentation Zones in Intense Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense tropical cyclones often possess relatively little convection around their cores. In radar composites, this surrounding region is usually echo-free or contains light stratiform precipitation. While subsidence is typically quite pronounced ...

Christopher M. Rozoff; Wayne H. Schubert; Brian D. McNoldy; James P. Kossin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Midlevel Ventilation's Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

78

The Maximum Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermodynamic approach to estimating maximum potential intensity (MPI) of tropical cyclones is described and compared with observations and previous studies. The approach requires an atmospheric temperature sounding, SST, and surface pressure; ...

Greg J. Holland

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Tropical Cyclone Lightning and Rapid Intensity Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large sample of Atlantic and eastern North Pacific tropical cyclone cases (2005–10) is used to investigate the relationships between lightning activity and intensity changes for storms over water. The lightning data are obtained from the ground-...

Mark DeMaria; Robert T. DeMaria; John A. Knaff; Debra Molenar

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Midlevel ventilation's constraint on tropical cyclone intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a TC's intensity. An idealized ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Intensity of Hydrological Cycles in Warmer Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fact that the surface and tropospheric temperatures increase with increasing CO2 has been well documented by numerical model simulations; however, less agreement is found for the changes in the intensity of precipitation and the hydrological ...

Fanglin Yang; Arun Kumar; Michael E. Schlesinger; Wanqiu Wang

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, numerical simulations of the twentieth-century climate are evaluated, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new model diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed that ...

Michael G. Bosilovich; Siegfried D. Schubert; Gregory K. Walker

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Building dependability arguments for software intensive systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method is introduced for structuring and guiding the development of end-to-end dependability arguments. The goal is to establish high-level requirements of complex software-intensive systems, especially properties that ...

Seater, Robert Morrison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

REVIEW OF RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS FOR HANFORD WASTE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)?s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy ? Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed ? a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: ? The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not appreciably change the pH of the waste. ? Organics are typically reductants and could impact glass REDOX if not accounted for in the reductant addition calculations. ? Stability of the modifiers in a caustic, radioactive environment is not known, but some of the modifiers tested were specifically designed to withstand caustic conditions. ? These acids will add to the total organic carbon content of the wastes. Radiolytic decomposition of the acids could result in organic and hydrogen gas generation. These potential impacts must be addressed in future studies with simulants representative of real waste and finally with tests using actual waste based on the rheology differences seen between SRS simulants and actual waste. The only non-organic modifier evaluated was sodium metasilicate. Further evaluation of this modifier is recommended if a reducing modifier is a concern.

Pareizs, J.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

85

HIGH INTENSITY PERFORMANCE OF THE BROOKHAVEN AGS.  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS provides 24 GeV protons for a multi-user program of fixed-target high energy physics experiments, such as the study of extremely rare Kaon decays. Up to 7 x 10{sup 13} protons are slowly extracted over 2.2 seconds each 5.1 seconds. The muon storage ring of the g-2 experiment is supplied with bunches of 7 x 10{sup 12} protons. Since the completion of the a 1.9 GeV Booster synchrotron and installation of a new high-power rf system and transition jump system in the AGS various modes of operation have been explored to overcome space charge limits and beam instabilities at these extreme beam intensities. Experiments have been done using barrier cavities to enable accumulation of debunched beam in the AGS as a potential path to significantly higher intensities. We report on the present understanding of intensity limitations and prospects for overcoming them.

AHRENS,L.A.; ALESSI,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.M.; BROWN,K.; GARDNER,C.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,K.S.; VAN ASSELT,W.; ZHANG,S.Y.

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

86

Intensity Limitations in Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

The design beam intensity of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) is 3 x 10{sup 13} ppp. This paper investigates possible limitations in the intensity upgrade. These include the space charge, transition crossing, microwave instability, coupled bunch instability, resistive wall, beam loading (static and transient), rf power, aperture (physical and dynamic), coalescing, particle losses and radiation shielding, etc. It seems that to increase the intensity by a factor of two from the design value is straightforward. Even a factor of five is possible provided that the following measures are to be taken: an rf power upgrade, a {gamma}{sub t}-jump system, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, rf feedback and feedforward, stopband corrections and local shieldings.

Chan, W.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Short rise time intense electron beam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source  

SciTech Connect

A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Observationally Verifiable Predictions of Modified Gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MOG is a fully relativistic modified theory of gravity based on an action principle. The MOG field equations are exactly solvable numerically in two important cases. In the spherically symmetric

J. W. Moffat; V. T. Toth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Theory of Deliquescence and Modified Köhler Curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conventional Köhler theory, which describes the equilibrium sizes of hygroscopic aerosol particles in humid air, is modified by considering the solubility limitation so that the deliquescence and hysteresis processes can also be explained. A ...

Jen-Ping Chen

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Program on Technology Innovation: Crystal Habit Modifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a review of the scientific and technical literature pertaining to the potential use of crystal habit modifiers to control the formation or consequent effects of deposits in nuclear plant systems. Crystal habit modifiers (CHMs) could potentially be added to the primary or secondary circuits of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) or to boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant as a means of controlling the crystal habit (shape) of the crystals that comprise primary and secondary...

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

92

AGS RESONANT EXTRACTION WITH HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), we continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams.[1] Learning to extract and transport these higher intensity beams has required a process of careful modeling and experimentation. We have had to learn how to correct for various instabilities and how to better match extraction and the transport lines to the higher emittance beams being accelerated in the AGS. Techniques employed include ''RF'' methods to smooth out momentum distributions and fine structure. We will present results of detailed multi-particle tracking modeling studies which enabled us to develop a clear understanding of beam loss mechanisms in the transport and extraction process. We will report on our status, experiences, and the present understanding of the intensity limitations imposed by resonant extraction and transport to fixed target stations.

AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; VANASSELT,W.

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

93

Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons  

SciTech Connect

The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented.

Weng, W.T.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Transverse impedance localization using intensity dependent optics  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of transverse impedance in the SPS to track the evolution over the last few years show discrepancies compared to the analytical estimates of the major contributors. Recent measurements to localize the major sources of the transverse impedance using intensity dependent optics are presented. Some simulations using HEADTAIL to understand the limitations of the reconstruction and related numerical aspects are also discussed.

Calaga,R.; Arduini, G.; Metral, E.; Papotti, G.; Quatraro, D.; Rumolo, G.; Salvant, B.; Tomas, R.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

95

Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is hypothesized that the effect of the SST on the intensity of tropical cyclones can be separated into two distinct contributions: one from the large-scale SST field that is in equilibrium with the atmosphere, and another one from a local ...

Lars R. Schade

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973–96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and ...

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for Genetically Modified Organism(GMO) in Roundup Ready, Soy Flour, Non-Modified Soy Flour samples. Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs appli

98

DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

1997-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

99

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Energy End-Use Intensities 1989 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Full Report Tables National estimates and analysis of energy consumption by fuel (electricity, natural gas,...

100

Optimization Online - The least-intensity feasible solution for ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 28, 2002 ... The least-intensity feasible solution for aperture-based inverse planning in ... closest to the origin, thus being of least intensity or least energy.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy-Efficiency Technologies and Benchmarking the Energy Intensity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-Efficiency Technologies and Benchmarking the Energy Intensity for the Textile Industry Title Energy-Efficiency Technologies and Benchmarking the Energy Intensity for the...

102

Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Title Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication...

103

NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program DOE Researchers Eligible to Apply for Resources, Expertise April 12, 2012...

104

HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED IN-SITU RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-1 0431 UC-91 HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED IN-REFERENCES • . • • • • . , . HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR ACalifomia. LBL-10431 HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED

Hall, W.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Cell properties for modified PTMA cathodes of organic radical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cell properties for modified PTMA cathodes of organic radical batteries Title Cell properties for modified PTMA cathodes of organic radical batteries Publication Type Journal...

106

Very high intensity reaction chamber design  

SciTech Connect

The problem of achieving very high intensity irradiation by light in minimal regions was studied. Three types of irradiation chamber are suggested: the common laser-reaction chamber, the folded concentric or near-concentric resonator, and the asymmetric confocal resonator. In all designs the ratio of high-intensity illuminated volume to other volume is highly dependent (to the $sup 3$/$sub 2$ power) on the power and fluence tolerances of optical elements, primarily mirrors. Optimization of energy coupling is discussed for the common cavity. For the concentric cavities, optimization for both coherent and incoherent beams is treated. Formulae and numerical examples give the size of chambers, aspect ratios, maximum pass number, image sizes, fluences, and the like. Similarly for the asymmetric confocal chamber, formulae and numerical examples for fluences, dimensions, losses, and totally contained pass numbers are given. (auth)

Devaney, J.J.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fluctuations of intensive quantities in statistical thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In phenomenological thermodynamics, the canonical coordinates of a physical system split in pairs with each pair consisting of an extensive quantity and an intensive one. In the present paper, the quasi-thermodynamic fluctuation theory of a model system of a large number of oscillators is extended to statistical thermodynamics based on the idea to perceive the fluctuations of intensive variables as the fluctuations of specific extensive ones in a "thermodynamically dual" system. The extension is motivated by the symmetry of the problem in the context of an analogy with quantum mechanics which is stated in terms of a generalized Pauli problem for the thermodynamic fluctuations. The doubled Boltzmann constant divided by the number of particles plays a similar role to the Planck constant.

Artur E. Ruuge

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

108

Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study  

SciTech Connect

Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows: SuperMicro X7DBE Xeon Dual Socket Blackford Server Motherboard; 2 Intel Xeon Dual-Core 2.66 GHz processors; 1 GB DDR2 PC2-5300 RAM (2 x 512); 80GB Hard Drive (Seagate SATA II Barracuda). The Fusion board is presently capable of 4X in a PCIe slot. The image resampling benchmark was run on a dual Xeon workstation with NVIDIA graphics card (see Chapter 5 for full specification). An XtremeData Opteron+FPGA was used for the language classification application. We observed that these benchmarks are not uniformly I/O intensive. The only benchmark that showed greater that 50% of the time in I/O was the graph algorithm when it accessed data files over NFS. When local disk was used, the graph benchmark spent at most 40% of its time in I/O. The other benchmarks were CPU dominated. The image resampling benchmark and language classification showed order of magnitude speedup over software by using co-processor technology to offload the CPU-intensive kernels. Our experiments to date suggest that emerging hardware technologies offer significant benefit to boosting the performance of data-intensive algorithms. Using GPU and FPGA co-processors, we were able to improve performance by more than an order of magnitude on the benchmark algorithms, eliminating the processor bottleneck of CPU-bound tasks. Experiments with a prototype solid state nonvolative memory available today show 10X better throughput on random reads than disk, with a 2X speedup on a graph processing benchmark when compared to the use of local SATA disk.

Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",11.24893441,11.08565002,10.98332766,10.82852279,10.67400621,10.54170176,10.39583203,10.27184573,10.14478673,10.02575883,9.910410202,9.810812106,9.69894802,9.599821783,9.486985399,9.394733753,9.303329725,9.221322623 "AEO 1995",,10.86137373,10.75116461,10.60467959,10.42268977,10.28668187,10.14461664,10.01081222,9.883759026,9.759022105,9.627404949,9.513643295,9.400418762,9.311729546,9.226142899,9.147374752,9.071102491,8.99599906 "AEO 1996",,,10.71047701,10.59846153,10.43655044,10.27812088,10.12746866,9.9694713,9.824165152,9.714832565,9.621874334,9.532324916,9.428169355,9.32931308,9.232716414,9.170931044,9.086870061,9.019963901,8.945602337

110

Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Session 9 Session 9 Energy Efficiency: Measuring Gains and Quantifying Opportunities April 7, 2010 2010 Energy Conference Washington, DC Steve Wade, Economist Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010 Steve Wade, 2010 Energy Conference, April 7, 2010 2 * What are the sources of efficiency in the AEO 2010? * What is the contribution of energy efficiency to projected U.S. energy intensity? * How do AEO scenarios relate to technical potential? Overview Steve Wade, 2010 Energy Conference, April 7, 2010 3 * Technology - Stock turnover - Progress and learning * Mandates - CAFÉ, efficiency standards (NAECA, EPACT), building codes... - Renewable fuel standards * Incentives - Tax credits, loan guarantees, grants, ...  Energy efficiency and renewables - ACESA, ARRA (stimulus bill) ...  Investment tax credits

111

Correlated-Intensity velocimeter for Arbitrary Reflector  

SciTech Connect

A velocimetry apparatus and method comprising splitting incoming reflected laser light and directing the laser light into first and second arms, filtering the laser light with passband filters in the first and second arms, one having a positive passband slope and the other having a negative passband slope, and detecting the filtered laser light via light intensity detectors following the passband filters in the first and second arms

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Luo, Shengnian (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Arlington, VA); Paul, Stephen F. (West Orange, NJ)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

112

Electronic High-Intensity Discharge Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI Technical Update addresses the most promising controllable energy efficient light source electronic high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting. Business and technical market factors (Chapter 2) explain the upcoming growth of the HID lamp and electronic HID ballast market. Future technical improvements are emphasized along with discussion of the importance of utility involvement in helping their customers make the switch from magnetically-ballasted HID lighting to higher efficiency electronic HID l...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

113

High intensity discharge 400-watt sodium ballast. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of a research and development program directed toward design, test, and evaluation of energy efficient High Intensity Discharge (HID) Solid State 400-Watt Ballast lighting system are reported. Phase I of the project which was designed to modify the existing Datapower ballast to LBL configuration, measure performance characteristics, and compare efficiency with a core/coil ballast including energy loss analysis is covered. In addition, Datapower was tasked to build six (6) prototype 400-Watt High Pressure Sodium Ballasts for verification tests by an independent test facility and follow-on performance and life tests at LBL.

Felper, G.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output plane to determine whether a particular target is present in the field of view. Preferably, a temporal pattern is imaged in the output plane with a optical detector having a plurality of pixels and a correlation coefficient for each pixel is determined by accumulating the intensity and intensity-square of each pixel. The orbiting of the constant response caused by the filter rotation is also preferably eliminated either by the use of two orthogonal mirrors pivoted correspondingly to the rotation of the filter or the attaching of a refracting wedge to the filter to remove the offset angle. Detection is preferably performed of the temporal pattern in the output plane at a plurality of different angles with angular separation sufficient to decorrelate successive frames. 1 fig.

Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

REVIEW OF RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS FOR HANFORD WASTE  

SciTech Connect

As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)?s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy ? Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed ? a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues:  The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not appreciably change the pH of the waste.  Organics are typically reductants and could impact glass REDOX if not accounted for in the reductant addition calculations.  Stability of the modifiers in a caustic, radioactive environment is not known, but some of the modifiers tested were specifically designed to withstand caustic conditions.  These acids will add to the total organic carbon content of the wastes. Radiolytic decomposition of the acids could result in organic and hydrogen gas generation. These potential impacts must be addressed in future studies with simulants representative of real waste and finally with tests using actual waste based on the rheology differences seen between SRS simulants and actual waste. The only non-organic modifier evaluated was sodium metasilicate. Further evaluation of this modifier is recommended if a reducing modifier is a concern.

Pareizs, J.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Intensity Forecasting Experiment: A NOAA Multiyear Field Program for Improving Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2005, NOAA's Hurricane Research Division (HRD), part of the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, began a multiyear experiment called the Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX). By emphasizing a partnership among NOAA's HRD, ...

Robert Rogers; Sim Aberson; Michael Black; Peter Black; Joe Cione; Peter Dodge; John Gamache; John Kaplan; Mark Powell; Jason Dunion; Eric Uhlhorn; Nick Shay; Naomi Surgi

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

An Examination of Tropical Cyclone Position, Intensity, and Intensity Life Cycle within Atmospheric Reanalysis Datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following study examines the position and intensity differences of tropical cyclones (TCs) among the Best-Track and five atmospheric reanalysis datasets to evaluate the degree to which reanalyses are appropriate for studying TCs. While ...

Benjamin A. Schenkel; Robert E. Hart

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Lorentz Invariance Violation in Modified Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. We analyse briefly the OPERA results and show that they could be reproduced with chameleon models. We suggest that neutrinos emitted radially, at different energies, and observed on the other side of the earth would provide a test of these models.

Brax, Philippe

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Viscous Modified Cosmic Chaplygin Gas Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we construct modified cosmic Chaplygin gas which has viscosity. We use exponential function method to solve non-linear equation and obtain time-dependent dark energy density. Then discuss Hubble expansion parameter and scale factor and fix them by using observational data. We also investigate stability of this theory.

Behnam Pourhassan

2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

120

Cosmological Acceleration: Dark Energy or Modified Gravity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or "dark energy", either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any Dark Energy constituent. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of "dark energy" cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, with nearly static Dark Energy, or with gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish static "dark energy" from dynamic "dark energy" with equation of state $w(z)$ either changing rapidly or tracking the background matter. But to cosmologically distinguish $\\Lambda$CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined bservations in the solar system or at the intermediate Vainstein scale. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence ("Why now?") without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity.

Sidney Bludman

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cosmological singularities and modified theories of gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider perturbative modifications of the Friedmann equations in terms of energy density corresponding to modified theories of gravity proposed as an alternative route to comply with the observed accelerated expansion of the universe. Assuming that the present matter content of the universe is a pressureless fluid

Leonardo Fernández?Jambrina; Ruth Lazkoz

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Using MIDI to modify video game content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the concept of using background music to control video game parameters and thus actions on the screen. Each song selected by the player makes the game look different and behave variedly. The concept is explored by modifying an existing ... Keywords: MIDI, MIDI-controlled games, background music reactive games, games, music, musically controlled games, rhythm games, virtual sequencer

Jukka Holm; Juha Arrasvuori; Kai Havukainen

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Modified borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as the reversible hydrogen storage materials with the high capacity, the feasibility to reduce dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderate rehydrogenation condition has been explored. The commercial available lithium borohydride has been modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as the additives. The modified lithium borohydrides release 9 wt% hydrogen starting from 473K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorb 7-9 wt% hydrogen at 873K and 7 MPa. The additive modification reduces dehydriding temperature from 673K to 473K and moderates rehydrogenation conditions to 923K and 15 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis discovered the formation of the intermediate compound TiB{sub 2} that may plays the key role in change the reaction path resulting the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide modified lithium borohydrides decreases gradually during hydriding-dehydriding cycling due to the lost of the boron during dehydrogenation. But, it can be prevented by selecting the suitable additive, forming intermediate boron compounds and changing the reaction path. The additives reduce dehydriding temperature and improve the reversibility, it also reduces the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by optimization of the additive loading and introducing new process other than ball milling.

Au, Ming

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

124

Chemically modified electrodes: molecular design for electroanalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical methods traditionally have found important applications in sample analysis and organic and inorganic synthesis. The electrode surface itself can be a powerful tool. This article is an update of chemically modified electrodes (CMEs) and rational molecular design of electrode surfaces.

Murray, R.W.; Ewing, A.G.; Durst, R.A.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method of enhancing cyclotron beam intensity  

SciTech Connect

When an easily ionized support gas such as xenon is added to the cold cathode in sources of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, large beam enhancements are produced. For example, .sup.20 Ne.sup.7+ is increased from 0.05 enA to 27 enA, and .sup.16 O.sup.5+ intensities in excess of 35 e.mu.A have been extracted for periods up to 30 minutes. Approximately 0.15 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas feed line and the primary gas flow is reduced by about 30%.

Hudson, Ed D. (Knoxville, TN); Mallory, Merrit L. (East Lansing, MI)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Intense steady state electron beam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

1990-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

127

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

Lapatovich, Walter P. (Hudson, MA); Keeffe, William M. (Rockport, MA); Liebermann, Richard W. (Danvers, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

129

Intense ion beam research at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

Two new interdisciplinary programs are underway at Los Alamos involving the physics and technology of intense light ion beams. In contrast to high-power ICF applications, the LANL effort concentrates on the development of relatively low-voltage (50 to 800 kV) and long-pulsewidth (0.1 to 1 {mu}s) beams. The first program involves the 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Anaconda generator which has been fitted with an extraction ion diode. Long pulsewidth ion beams have been accelerated, propagated, and extracted for a variety of magnetic field conditions. The primary application of this beam is the synthesis of novel materials. Initial experiments on the congruent evaporative deposition of metallic and ceramic thin films are reported. The second program involves the development of a 120-keV, 50-kA, 1-{mu}s proton beam for the magnetic fusion program as an ion source for an intense diagnostic neutral beam. Ultra-bright, pulsed neutral beams will be required to successfully measure ion temperatures and thermalized alpha particle energy distributions in large, dense, ignited tokamaks such as ITER.

Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Gautier, D.C.; Greenly, J.B.; Henins, I.; Linton, T.W.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Waganaar, W.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Intense ion beam research at Los Alamos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two new interdisciplinary programs are underway at Los Alamos involving the physics and technology of intense light ion beams. In contrast to high-power ICF applications, the LANL effort concentrates on the development of relatively low-voltage (50 to 800 kV) and long-pulsewidth (0.1 to 1 {mu}s) beams. The first program involves the 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Anaconda generator which has been fitted with an extraction ion diode. Long pulsewidth ion beams have been accelerated, propagated, and extracted for a variety of magnetic field conditions. The primary application of this beam is the synthesis of novel materials. Initial experiments on the congruent evaporative deposition of metallic and ceramic thin films are reported. The second program involves the development of a 120-keV, 50-kA, 1-{mu}s proton beam for the magnetic fusion program as an ion source for an intense diagnostic neutral beam. Ultra-bright, pulsed neutral beams will be required to successfully measure ion temperatures and thermalized alpha particle energy distributions in large, dense, ignited tokamaks such as ITER.

Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Gautier, D.C.; Greenly, J.B.; Henins, I.; Linton, T.W.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Waganaar, W.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Modified Gravity via Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct effective field theories in which gravity is modified via spontaneous breaking of local Lorentz invariance. This is a gravitational analogue of the Higgs mechanism. These theories possess additional graviton modes and modified dispersion relations. They are manifestly well-behaved in the UV and free of discontinuities of the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov type, ensuring compatibility with standard tests of gravity. They may have important phenomenological effects on large distance scales, offering an alternative to dark energy. For the case in which the symmetry is broken by a vector field with the wrong sign mass term, we identify four massless graviton modes (all with positive-definite norm for a suitable choice of a parameter) and show the absence of the discontinuity.

B. M. Gripaios

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

132

Intramolecular ET Rates in Modified Ferrocytochromes c  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intramolecular Electron-Transfer Rates on Driving Force, pH, Intramolecular Electron-Transfer Rates on Driving Force, pH, and Temperature in Ammineruthenium-Modified Ferrocytochromes c James F. Wishart, Ji Sun, Myung Cho, Chang Su, and Stephan S. Isied J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 687-693 (1997) [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Several ruthenium ammine complexes were used to modify horse-heart cytochrome c at histidine-33, creating a series of (NH3)4(L)Ru-Cyt c derivatives (L = H2O/OH-, ammonia, 4-ethylpyridine, 3,5-lutidine, pyridine, isonicotinamide, N-methylpyrazinium) with a wide range of driving forces for Fe-to-Ru electron transfer (-DG° = -0.125 to +0.46 eV). Electron-transfer rates and activation parameters were measured by pulse radiolysis using azide or carbonate radicals. The driving-force dependence

133

Program on Technology Innovation: Crystal Habit Modifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective water chemistry control in nuclear power plants is required for materials and fuel reliability, radiation source term control, and operations. This report documents the results of laboratory screening conducted in support of an EPRI initiative to assess the feasibility of using crystal habit modifiers (CHMs) in the primary or secondary coolant of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Successful implementation of CHMs could have a significant impact on plant material condition, and operation and ma...

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

134

THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING  

SciTech Connect

CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

GLIMM,J.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

PERI Auto-tuning Memory Intensive Kernels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PERI PERI - Auto-tuning Memory Intensive Kernels for Multicore Samuel Williams † , Kaushik Datta † , Jonathan Carter , Leonid Oliker † , John Shalf , Katherine Yelick † , David Bailey CRD/NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA † Computer Science Division, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA E-mail: SWWilliams@lbl.gov, kdatta@eecs.berkeley.edu, JTCarter@lbl.gov, LOliker@lbl.gov, JShalf@lbl.gov, KAYelick@lbl.gov, DHBailey@lbl.gov Abstract. We present an auto-tuning approach to optimize application performance on emerging multicore architectures. The methodology extends the idea of search-based performance optimizations, popular in linear algebra and FFT libraries, to application-specific computational kernels. Our work applies this strategy to Sparse Matrix Vector Multiplication

136

Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method  

SciTech Connect

A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Intensity distributions of gamma-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

Observations of individual bursts chosen by the vagaries of telescope availability demonstrated that bursts are not standard candles and that their apparent energy can be as great as 10{sup 54} erg. However, determining the distribution of their apparent energy (and of other burst properties) requires the statistical analysis of a well-defined burst sample; the sample definition includes the threshold for including a burst in the sample. Thus optical groups need to the criteria behind the decision to search for a spectroscopic redshift. Currently the burst samples are insufficient to choose between lognormal and power law functional forms of the distribution, and the parameter values for these functional forms differ between burst samples. Similarly, the actual intensity distribution may be broader than observed, with a low energy tail extending below the detection threshold.

Band, D. L. (David L.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Intensity Distributions of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Observations of individual bursts chosen by the vagaries of telescope availability demonstrated that bursts are not standard candles and that their apparent energy can be as great as 10 54 erg. However, determining the distribution of their apparent energy (and of other burst properties) requires the statistical analysis of a well-defined burst sample; the sample definition includes the threshold for including a burst in the sample. Thus optical groups need to the criteria behind the decision to search for a spectroscopic redshift. Currently the burst samples are insufficient to choose between lognormal and power law functional forms of the distribution, and the parameter values for these functional forms differ between burst samples. Similarly, the actual intensity distribution may be broader than observed, with a low energy tail extending below the detection threshold.

David L. Band

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING  

SciTech Connect

CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

GLIMM,J.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A Climatology of Intense (or Major) Atlantic Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of intense (or major) hurricanes in the Atlantic basin is investigated on both intraseasonal and interannual time scales. Differences are highlighted in characteristics between intense hurricanes and the weaker minor hurricanes ...

Christopher W. Landsea

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIFAN 1830 INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMSAC02-05CH11231. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION467 (1992). [38] R. W. Moir, Fusion Tech. 25, 5 (1994) [39

Sharp, W. M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992 - Index...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Energy End-Use Intensities 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Tables National estimates of energy consumption by fuel (electricity and natural gas) and end use (heating,...

143

Mechanism of Concentric Eyewall Replacement Cycles and Associated Intensity Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the mechanisms responsible for the secondary eyewall replacement cycles and associated intensity changes in intense tropical cyclones (TCs), two numerical experiments are conducted in this study with the Weather Research and ...

Xiaqiong Zhou; Bin Wang

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Energy Intensity Indicators in the U.S.: Electricity Sector ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensity Indicators in the U.S.: Electricity Sector (1949 - 2004) Energy intensity data and documentation published by the U.S. DOE's office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

145

Trends in Northern Hemisphere Surface Cyclone Frequency and Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the hypothesized effects of global warming from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is a change in the frequency and/or intensity of extratropical cyclones. In this study, winter frequencies and intensities of extratropical ...

Gregory J. McCabe; Martyn P. Clark; Mark C. Serreze

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An Extended Model for the Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emanuel’s theory of hurricane potential intensity (E-PI) makes use of the assumption that slantwise convective instability vanishes in a steady-state vortex of a tropical cyclone. In the framework of an extended mathematical potential intensity ...

Thomas Frisius; Daria Schönemann

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Mechanisms for Global Warming Impacts on Precipitation Frequency and Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global warming mechanisms that cause changes in frequency and intensity of precipitation in the tropics are examined in climate model simulations. Under global warming, tropical precipitation tends to be more frequent and intense for heavy ...

Chia Chou; Chao-An Chen; Pei-Hua Tan; Kuan Ting Chen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

China's energy intensity and its determinants at the provincial level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy consumed per dollar of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The People's Republic of China's (China's) energy intensity has been declining significantly since the late 1970s. ...

Zhang, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Carbon Intensity, - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Carbon Intensity using Market Exchange Rates (Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide per Thousand Year 2005 U.S. Dollars) Loading...

150

HIGH INTENSITY BEAM OPERATION OF THE BROOKHAVEN AGS  

SciTech Connect

For the last few years the Brookhaven AGS has operated at record proton intensities. This high beam intensity allowed for the simultaneous operation of several high precision rare kaon decay experiments. The record beam intensities were achieved after the AGS Booster was commissioned and a transition jump system, a powerful transverse damper, and an rf upgrade in the AGS were completed. The intensity is presently limited by space charge effects at both Booster and AGS injection and transverse instabilities in the AGS.

ROSER,T.

1999-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

151

INTENSITY OF BETATRON RADIATION AS FUNCTION OF INJECTION VOLTAGE  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of betatron radiation emission as a function of injection voltage was studied using a 25-Mev betatron with a 350-kw external electron injector. The injection voltage was measured every 20 to 30 kw from 50 to 250 kw. The results showed that up to 250 kw, emission intensity increases according to theory. It is suggested that an increase in injection intensity up to 1000 kw and over should result in a considerable rise in emission intensity. (R.V.J.)

Moskalev, V.A.; Okulov, B.V.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Table 23. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu / $Billion Nominal GDP) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 20.1 18.5 16.9 15.5 14.4 13.2 AEO 1983 19.9 18.7 17.4 16.2 15.1 14.0 9.5 AEO 1984 20.1 19.0 17.7 16.5 15.5 14.5 10.2 AEO 1985 20.0 19.1 18.0 16.9 15.9 14.7 13.7 12.7 11.8 11.0 10.3 AEO 1986 18.3 17.8 16.8 16.1 15.2 14.3 13.4 12.6 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.5 8.9 8.3 7.8 AEO 1987 17.6 17.0 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.7 12.9 12.1 11.4 8.2 AEO 1989* 16.9 16.2 15.2 14.2 13.3 12.5 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.0 AEO 1990 16.1 15.4 11.7 8.6 6.4 AEO 1991 15.5 14.9 14.2 13.6 13.0 12.5 11.9 11.3 10.8 10.3 9.7 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.3 6.0 AEO 1992 15.0 14.5 13.9 13.3 12.7 12.1 11.6 11.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.1 7.7 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.2 AEO 1993 14.7 13.9 13.4 12.8 12.3 11.8 11.2 10.7 10.2 9.6 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.8 7.4 7.1 6.7 6.4

153

Holographic Dark Energy Scenario and Variable Modified Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter, we have considered that the universe is filled with normal matter and variable modified Chaplygin gas. Also we have considered the interaction between normal matter and variable modified Chaplygin gas in FRW universe. Then we have considered a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and interacting variable modified Chaplygin gas energy density. Then we have reconstructed the potential of the scalar field which describes the variable modified Chaplygin cosmology.

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Modified Bayer Process for Alumina Removal from Hanford Waste  

AREVA NC Inc. Modified Bayer Process for Alumina Removal from Hanford Waste January 24, 2007 Don Geniesse AREVA NC Inc.

155

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. It can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when it replaces incandescent lighting. Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. In a high-intensity discharge lamp, electricity arcs between two electrodes, creating an intensely bright light. Mercury, sodium, or metal halide gas

156

Modified Higgs Sectors and NLO Associated Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many beyond the Standard Model (BSM) scenarios involve Higgs couplings to additional electroweak fields. It is well established that these new fields may modify Higgs gamma-gamma and gamma-Z decays at one-loop. However, one unexplored aspect of such scenarios is that by electroweak symmetry one should also expect modifications to the Higgs Z-Z coupling at one-loop and, more generally, modifications to Higgs production and decay channels beyond tree-level. In this paper we investigate the full BSM modified electroweak corrections to associated Higgs production at both the LHC and a future lepton collider in two simple SM extensions. From both inclusive and differential NLO associated production cross sections we find BSM-NLO corrections can be as large as O(>10%) when compared to the SM expectation, consistent with other precision electroweak measurements, even in scenarios where modifications to the Higgs diphoton rate are not significant. At the LHC such corrections are comparable to the involved QCD uncertainties. At a lepton collider the Higgs associated production cross section can be measured to high accuracy (O(1%) independent of uncertainties in total width and other couplings), and such a deviation could be easily observed even if the new states remain beyond kinematic reach. This should be compared to the expected accuracy for a model-independent determination of the Higgs diphoton coupling at a lepton collider, which is O(15%). This work demonstrates that precision measurements of the Higgs associated production cross section constitute a powerful probe of modified Higgs sectors and will be valuable for indirectly exploring BSM scenarios.

Christoph Englert; Matthew McCullough

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

157

Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams  

SciTech Connect

We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 {mu}m) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm{sup 2}) of these short-pulsed ({le} 1 {mu}s) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10{sup 10} K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology.

Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

INTENSE NEUTRINO BEAMS AND LEPTONIC CP VIOLATION.  

SciTech Connect

Effects of the Leptonic CP violating phase, {delta}, on 3 generation neutrino oscillation rates and asymmetries are discussed. A figure of merit argument is used to show that our ability to measure the phase 6 is rather insensitive to the value of {theta}{sub 13} (for sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} {approx}> 0.01) as well as the detector distance (for very long oscillation baselines). Using a study of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations for BNL-Homestake (2540 km) we show that a conventional horn focused wide band neutrino beam generated by an intense 1-2 MW proton source combined with a very large water Cherenkov detector (250-500 kton) should be able to determine {delta} to about {+-}15{sup o} in 5 x 10{sup 7} sec. of running. In addition, such an effort would also measure the other oscillation parameters ({theta}{sub ij}, {Delta}m{sub ij}{sup 2}) with high precision. Similar findings apply to a Fermilab-Homestake (1280 km) baseline. We also briefly discuss features of Superbeams, Neutrino Factories and Beta-Beams.

MARCIANO, W.; PARSA, Z.

2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

159

Modified MTS MRB500 CATALYST PERFORMANCE TEST  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar was supplied to a modified MRB 500 stack m onitor from Mound Techology Solutions, Miamisburg, OH. It was found that the catalyst could convert 3.75E-03 moles of H2 before losing its effectiveness. Conversion was found to begin at a catalyst temperature of about 220 deg C and to be fully effective at about 300 deg C.

Glen R. Longhurst; Robert J. Pawelko

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Nonlinearities in modified gravity cosmology: Signatures of modified gravity in the nonlinear matter power spectrum  

SciTech Connect

A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter {zeta}, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution ({zeta}=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by {approx}30% for 10% deviation from GR (|{zeta}-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.

Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Partner Group of MPA, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai, 200030 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China)] [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

162

Distinguishing Modified Gravity from Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The acceleration of the universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale-independent on super-horizon scales and scale-dependent on sub-horizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parameterized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent $f(R)$ theories we introduce a parameterization for the gravitational coupling $G$ and the post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$. These parameterizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

Edmund Bertschinger; Phillip Zukin

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

164

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Robust optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is highly sensitive to range uncertainties and uncertainties caused by setup variation. The conventional inverse treatment planning of IMPT optimized based on the planning target volume (PTV) is not often sufficient to ensure robustness of treatment plans. In this paper, a method that takes the uncertainties into account during plan optimization is used to mitigate the influence of uncertainties in IMPT. Methods: The authors use the so-called ''worst-case robust optimization'' to render IMPT plans robust in the face of uncertainties. For each iteration, nine different dose distributions are computed--one each for {+-} setup uncertainties along anteroposterior (A-P), lateral (R-L) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions, for {+-} range uncertainty, and the nominal dose distribution. The worst-case dose distribution is obtained by assigning the lowest dose among the nine doses to each voxel in the clinical target volume (CTV) and the highest dose to each voxel outside the CTV. Conceptually, the use of worst-case dose distribution is similar to the dose distribution achieved based on the use of PTV in traditional planning. The objective function value for a given iteration is computed using this worst-case dose distribution. The objective function used has been extended to further constrain the target dose inhomogeneity. Results: The worst-case robust optimization method is applied to a lung case, a skull base case, and a prostate case. Compared with IMPT plans optimized using conventional methods based on the PTV, our method yields plans that are considerably less sensitive to range and setup uncertainties. An interesting finding of the work presented here is that, in addition to reducing sensitivity to uncertainties, robust optimization also leads to improved optimality of treatment plans compared to the PTV-based optimization. This is reflected in reduction in plan scores and in the lower normal tissue doses for the same coverage of the target volume when subjected to uncertainties. Conclusions: The authors find that the worst-case robust optimization provides robust target coverage without sacrificing, and possibly even improving, the sparing of normal tissues. Our results demonstrate the importance of robust optimization. The authors assert that all IMPT plans should be robustly optimized.

Liu Wei; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Yupeng; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Improving MapReduce energy efficiency for computation intensive workloads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MapReduce is a programming model for data intensive computing on large-scale distributed systems. With its wide acceptance and deployment, improving the energy efficiency of MapReduce will lead to significant energy savings for data centers and computational ... Keywords: intelligent DVFS scheduling, MapReduce energy efficiency, computation intensive workloads, data intensive computing, large-scale distributed systems, data centers, computational grids, energy savings, Hadoop, energy-proportional computing, resource allocation, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, processor frequency

Thomas Wirtz; Rong Ge

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 {mu}s duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications.

Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M. [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States). Central Research and Development Dept.; Lovberg, R.H. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Greenly, J.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

ESMAP-China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensity Reduction Strategy Intensity Reduction Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name China-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Agency/Company /Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Forestry, Agriculture Topics Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Website http://www.esmap.org/filez/pub Country China Eastern Asia References China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy[1] Overview "The study involves the development of pragmatic "implementation" focused policy notes to support the Government of China's goal of reducing energy intensity in China focusing on: Reevaluation of renewable energy targets, growth path, and related

169

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0555(94)/2 Distribution Category UC-950 Energy Consumption Series Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings September 1994 Energy Information ...

170

Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies & Practices This report examines strategies of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity. CDStratCompleteReport116092.pd...

171

High intensity performance and upgrades at the Brookhaven AGS  

SciTech Connect

For the last two years the Brookhaven AGS has operated the slow extracted beam program at record proton intensities. This high beam intensity allowed for the simultaneous operation of three high precision rare kaon decay experiments. The record beam intensities were achieved after the 1.5 GeV Booster was commissioned and a transition jump system, a powerful transverse damper, and an rf upgrade in the AGS were completed. Recently even higher intensity proton synchrotrons are studied for neutron spallation sources or proton driver for a muon collider. Implications of the experiences from the AGS to these proposals and also possible future upgrades for the AGS are discussed.

Roser, T.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

What is energy use intensity (EUI)? | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

buildings Use Portfolio Manager How Portfolio Manager calculates metrics What is energy use intensity (EUI)? Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio...

173

Figure 60. Energy intensity of selected commercial end uses ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refrigeration Lighting Heating, cooling, and ventilation Other 2040.00 2011.00 ... Energy intensity of selected commercial end uses, 2011 and 2040 ...

174

World Energy Intensity by Region, 1970-2020  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

If energy intensities in the developing world are assumed to increase by 136 percent—the most rapid annual rate of increase observed between 1990 and 1997 ...

175

Intense laser field ionization of atom and molecular ion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In order to understand how does the intense laser interact with matter we first of all study the ionization process. In this highly nonlinear region… (more)

Long, Zi Jian

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

U.S. Commercial Buildings Weather Adjusted Site Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 6c. U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity Using. Weather-Adjusted Site Energy. 1. ... Laboratory buildings are included in the "Other" category.

177

Ionized channel generation of an intense-relativistic electron beam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A foilless intense relativistic electron beam generator uses an ionized cnel to guide electrons from a cathode passed an anode to a remote location.

Frost, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Shope, Steven L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Opportunities to Reduce Energy and Water Intensity of Mining ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Opportunities to Reduce Energy and Water Intensity of Mining ... bearing on the value of mining projects and the image of the mining industry; ...

179

On linear infeasibility arising in intensity-modulated radiation ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 5, 2007 ... Abstract: Intensity--modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) gives rise to systems of linear inequalities, representing the effects of radiation on the ...

180

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

2 Distribution Category UC-950 Energy Consumption Series Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings September 1994 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Figure 59. Commercial delivered energy intensity in four cases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 59. Commercial delivered energy intensity in four cases, 2005-2040 (index, 2005 = 1) Reference case 2011 Technology case

182

Figure 55. Residential delivered energy intensity in four ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 55. Residential delivered energy intensity in four cases, 2005-2035 (index, 2005 = 1) Best Available Technology case High Technology case

183

Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

examines strategies of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity. CDStratCompleteReport116092.pdf More Documents & Publications...

184

CHANGES IN ENERGY INTENSITY IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0552(85-91) Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985-1991 September 1995 ... All telephone orders should be directed to:

185

Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. It is necessary to have analytical tools to help analysts identify anomalies that span seconds, days, and weeks. Unfortunately, providing analytical tools effective access to the volumes of underlying data requires novel architectures, which is often overlooked in operational deployments. Our work is focused on a summary record of communication, called a flow. Flow records are intended to summarize a communication session between a source and a destination, providing a level of aggregation from the base data. Despite this aggregation, many enterprise network perimeter sensors store millions of network flow records per day. The volume of data makes analytics difficult, requiring the development of new techniques to efficiently identify temporal patterns and potential threats. The massive volume makes analytics difficult, but there are other characteristics in the data which compound the problem. Within the billions of records of communication that transact, there are millions of distinct IP addresses involved. Characterizing patterns of entity behavior is very difficult with the vast number of entities that exist in the data. Research has struggled to validate a model for typical network behavior with hopes it will enable the identification of atypical behavior. Complicating matters more, typically analysts are only able to visualize and interact with fractions of data and have the potential to miss long term trends and behaviors. Our analysis approach focuses on aggregate views and visualization techniques to enable flexible and efficient data exploration as well as the capability to view trends over long periods of time. Realizing that interactively exploring summary data allowed analysts to effectively identify events, we utilized multidimensional OLAP data cubes. The data cube structure supports interactive analysis of summary data across multiple dimensions, such as location, time, and protocol. Cube technology also allows the analyst to drill-down into the underlying data set, when events of interest are identified and detailed analysis is required. Unfortunately, when creating these cubes, we ran into significant performance issues with our initial architecture, caused by a combination of the data volume and attribute characteristics. Overcoming, these issues required us to develop a novel, data intensive computing infrastructure. In particular, we ended up combining a Netezza Twin Fin data warehouse appliance, a solid state Fusion IO ioDrive, and the Tableau Desktop business intelligence analytic software. Using this architecture, we were able to analyze a month's worth of flow records comprising 4.9B records, totaling approximately 600GB of data. This paper describes our architecture, the challenges that we encountered, and the work that remains to deploy a fully generalized cyber analytical infrastructure.

Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economic energy intensity as an indicator for energy savingon industrial energy intensity as an indicator of savingsindustrial energy intensity as an indicator of savings

Ohshita, Stephanie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Spectral intensities inferred from diffuse reflectance spectra of lanthanide complexes in the form of solid--solid solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Judd--Ofelt theory has so far been extensively applied to absorption and fluorescence spectra of lanthanide ions in crystal and solution state only. For the first time it has been successfully applied in the modified form to interpret the spectral intensities of solid state spectra of lanthanide ions using the diffuse reflectance technique. As an illustration the diffuse reflectance spectra of Pr/sup 3 +/ and Nd/sup 3 +/ complexes of glycine as primary ligand and ethylenediamine as secondary ligand have been reported and interpreted.

Tandon, S.P.; Gokhroo, A.; Bhutra, M.P.; Surana, S.S.L.; Tandon, K.

1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Low intensity dust ion-acoustic shock waves due to dust charge fluctuation in a nonextensive dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect

The properties of low intensity dust ion acoustic shock waves are studied in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive electrons. Owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a nonextensive one, the modified electrostatic charging of a spherical dust particle in plasma with ion streaming speed is considered. Based on the weakly nonlinear analysis, a new relationship between the low intensity localized disturbances and nonextensive electrons is derived. It is found that both strength and steepness of shock structures arise as the electrons evolve far from their thermodynamic equilibrium in such plasma with parameter ranges corresponding to Saturn's rings. It is also shown that the ion temperature and population of electrons reduce the possibility of the formation of the shock profile.

Alinejad, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmansory, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Beam experiments towards high-intensity beams in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Proton bunch intensities in RHIC are planned to be increased from 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch to increase the luminosity, together with head-on beam-beam compensation using electron lenses. To study the feasibility of the intensity increase, beam experiments are being performed. Recent experimental results are presented.

Montag C.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Mernick, K.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

Research on Human Capital in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge-intensive business services are the main participants in the knowledge-based economy. Knowledge creation, spread and accumulation are strategic methods for KIBS to remain competitive. For KIBS, the achievement of its value is based on activities ... Keywords: knowledge-intensive business services, human capital, staff role conversion mode, team management mode

Jun Tao

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Knowledge-Intensive Work in the Oil and Gas Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge-Intensive Work in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Case Study Thesis for the degree collaborative work practices within a large international oil and gas company (OGC). The work is founded empirical findings, we argue that in knowledge-intensive, interdisciplinary work such as oil and gas

Langseth, Helge

192

System Configured For Applying Multiple Modifying Agents To A Substrate.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

Propp, W. Alan (Idaho Falls, ID); Argyle, Mark D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Janikowski, Stuart K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Toth, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, David L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

193

EIA Energy Efficiency-Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities: 1992- 2003 Released Date: December 2004 Page Last Revised: August 2009 These tables provide estimates of commercial sector energy consumption and energy intensities for 1992, 1995, 1999 and 2003 based on the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). They also provide estimates of energy consumption and intensities adjusted for the effect of weather on heating, cooling, and ventilation energy use. Total Site Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) Html Excel PDF bullet By Principal Building Activity (Table 1a) html Table 1a excel table 1a. pdf table 1a. Weather-Adjusted by Principal Building Activity (Table 1b) html table 1b excel table 1b pdf table 1b.

194

Investigation on Modified Humic Substances Based Binders for Iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Investigation on Modified Humic Substances Based Binders for Iron ... An Electron Microscopy Study of Nanoscale Surface and Sub-Surface ...

195

Available Technologies: Boron Nitride Nanotubes with Modified Surfaces  

Nano- & Micro-technology; Software and IT ; Licensing Interest Form Receive Customized Tech Alerts. Boron Nitride Nanotubes with Modified Surfaces . IB-2331 and IB-2332 .

196

Rare Earth Modified Matrices for SiC Matrix Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Rare Earth Modified Matrices for SiC Matrix Composites. Author(s), David L Poerschke, Carlos G Levi. On-Site Speaker (Planned), David L

197

Excerpts from the FAPAC Constitution and Bylaws Modified and...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and Bylaws Modified and Adopted by FAPAC-NM Home > About Us > Our Locations > Albuquerque Complex > Federal Asian Pacific American Council - New Mexico Chapter...

198

Modified Orbital Branching with Applications to Orbitopes and to Unit ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2012 ... Modified Orbital Branching with Applications to Orbitopes and to Unit Commitment. James Ostrowski (jostrows ***at*** utk.edu) Miguel F. Anjos ...

199

Modified Yeast Show Improved Xylose Fermentation and Toxin ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Biomass and Biofuels Modified Yeast Show Improved Xylose Fermentation and Toxin Tolerance

200

A Modified Pidgeon Process for Energy Savings and Low Carbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, A Modified Pidgeon Process for Energy Savings and Low Carbon Dioxide Emission. Author(s), SeungHo Shin, JunSung Park, Hyunna Bae , ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Equilibrium thermodynamics in modified gravitational theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that it is possible to obtain a picture of equilibrium thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density $f(R, \\phi, X)$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $X$ is the kinetic energy of a scalar field $\\phi$. This comes from a suitable definition of an energy momentum tensor of the "dark" component that respects to a local energy conservation in the Jordan frame. In this framework the horizon entropy $S$ corresponding to equilibrium thermodynamics is equal to a quarter of the horizon area $A$ in units of gravitational constant $G$, as in Einstein gravity. For a flat cosmological background with a decreasing Hubble parameter, $S$ globally increases with time, as it happens for viable $f(R)$ inflation and dark energy models. We also show that the equilibrium description in terms of the horizon entropy $S$ is convenient because it takes into account the contribution of both the horizon entropy $\\hat{S}$ in non-equilibrium thermodynamics and an entropy production term.

Kazuharu Bamba; Chao-Qiang Geng; Shinji Tsujikawa

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

202

Modified Newtonian Dynamics in the Milky Way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both microlensing surveys and radio-frequency observations of gas flow imply that the inner Milky Way is completely dominated by baryons, contrary to the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. We investigate the predictions of the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) formula for the Galaxy given the measured baryon distribution. Satisfactory fits to the observationally determined terminal-velocity curve are obtained for different choices of the MOND's interpolating function mu(x). However, with simple analytical forms of mu(x), the local circular speed v_c(R_0) can be as large as 220 km/s only for values of the parameter a_0 that are excluded by observations of NGC 3198. Only a numerically specified interpolating function can produce v_c(R_0)=220 km/s, which is therefore an upper limit in MOND, while the asymptotic velocity is predicted to be v_c(infty)=170+-5 km/s. The data are probably not consistent with the functional form of mu(x) that has been explored as a toy model in the framework of Bekenstein's covariant theory of gravity.

B. Famaey; J. Binney

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

203

Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marineof gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine

Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Factor Intensity, Product Switching, and Productivity: Evidence from Chinese Exporters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes how a …rm’s specialization in its core products after exporting a¤ects its factor intensity and productivity. Using Chinese manufacturing …rm data over the period of 1998-2007, we …nd that …rms become less capital-intensive but more productive after exporting, compared to non-exporters that share similar ex ante characteristics. To rationalize these …ndings that contrast with existing studies, we develop a variant of the model by Bernard, Redding, and Schott (2010, 2011) to consider …rms producing multiple products with varying capital intensity. The model predicts that when a …rm in a labor-abundant country starts exporting, it specializes in its core competencies by allocating more resources to produce labor-intensive products. Firm ex ante productivity is associated with a smaller decline in capital intensity after exporting. A sharper post-exporting decline in capital intensity is associated with a larger increase in measured total factor productivity. We …nd …rm-level evidence supporting these predictions. Using transaction-level data for the period over 2000-2006, we …nd that Chinese exporters continuously add new products that are less capital-intensive than their existing products

Yue Ma Y; Heiwai Tang Z; Yifan Zhang X; Peter Schott; Robert Staiger; Jo Van Biesebroeck

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Title Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors de la du Can, Stephane Rue, Ali Hasanbeigi, and Jayant A. Sathaye Journal Energy Policy Volume 46 Pagination 234-245 Keywords california, co2 emissions, energy intensity, energy use Abstract In 2008, the gross domestic product (GDP) of California industry was larger than GDP of industry in any other U.S. states. This study analyses the energy use of and output from seventeen industry subsectors in California and performs decomposition analysis to assess the influence of different factors on California industry energy use. The logarithmic mean Divisia index method is used for the decomposition analysis. The decomposition analysis results show that the observed reduction of energy use in California industry since 2000 is the result of two main factors: the intensity effect and the structural effect. The intensity effect has started pushing final energy use downward in 2000 and has since amplified. The second large effect is the structural effect. The significant decrease of the energy-intensive "Oil and Gas Extraction" subsector's share of total industry value added, from 15% in 1997 to 5% in 2008, and the increase of the non-energy intensive "Electric and electronic equipment manufacturing" sector's share of value added, from 7% in 1997 to 30% in 2008, both contributed to a decrease in the energy intensity in the industry sector

206

SURFACE-MODIFIED COALS FOR ENHANCED CATALYST DISPERSION AND LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of the Department of Energy Sponsored project DE-FGF22-95PC95229 entitled, surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. The aims of the study were to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on the coal and to train and educate minority scientists in catalysts and separation science. Illinois No. 6 Coal (DEC-24) was selected for the study. The surfactants investigated included dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, and Triton x-100, a neutral surfactant. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate was used as the molybdenum catalyst precursor. Zeta potential, BET, FTIR, AFM, UV-Vis and luminescence intensity measurements were undertaken to assess the surface properties and the liquefaction activities of the coal. The parent coal had a net negative surface charge over the pH range 2-12. However, in the presence of DDAB the negativity of the surface charge decreased. At higher concentrations of DDAB, a positive surface charge resulted. In contrast to the effect of DDAB, the zeta potential of the coal became more negative than the parent coal in the presence of SDS. Adsorption of Triton reduced the net negative charge density of the coal samples. The measured surface area of the coal surface was about 30 m{sup 2}/g compared to 77m{sup 2}/g after being washed with deionized water. Addition of the surfactants decreased the surface area of the samples. Adsorption of the molybdenum catalyst increased the surface area of the coal sample. The adsorption of molybdenum on the coal was significantly promoted by preadsorption of DDAB and SDS. Molybdenum adsorption showed that, over a wide range of concentrations and pH values, the DDAB treated coal adsorbed a higher amount of molybdenum than the samples treated with SDS. The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) also provided evidence that confirmed the adsorption of the surfactants onto the coal surface. The luminescence measurements showed that the coal and solid surfactants luminescence weakly. No statistically significant influence was observed that resulted from the action of the surfactants or surfactant-molybdenum catalyst. Interestingly, the liquefaction results produced data that indicated the use of surfactants did not significantly improve the liquefaction activity of the coal as had initially been hypothesized. The UV-adsorption tests provided evidence that suggest that this may have been due to oversaturation. Detailed discussions of the results and recommendations for future work are provided.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS AND INTENSITY SPIKING IN THE SASE FEL.  

SciTech Connect

In the linear regime before saturation, we describe the statistical correlations in the narrow band chaotic output of the SASE FEL. At a fixed position along the undulator axis, we derive joint probability distributions for the intensity in the output pulse to have values I{sub 1} and I{sub 2} at times t{sub 1} and t{sub 2}, and for the spectral intensity to have values {tilde I}{sub 1} and {tilde I}{sub 2} at frequencies {omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}. Probability distributions for the peak values of intensity in the time and frequency domains are also determined.

KRINSKY,S.; GLUCKSTERN,R.L.

2001-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

208

Energy dispersive spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: intensity considerations  

SciTech Connect

Detailed considerations are given to the reliability of energy dependent integrated intensity data collected from the pressure cavity of a diamond-anvil pressure cell illuminated with heterochromatic radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. It is demonstrated that at least in one run, the electron beam current cannot be used to correct for energy-intensity variations of the incident beam. Rather there appears to be an additional linear relationship between the decay of the synchrotron beam and the magnitude of the background intensity. 13 refs., 7 figs.

Skelton, E.F.; Elam, W.T.; Qadri, S.B.; Webb, A.W.; Schiferl, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

2002-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

210

Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation  

SciTech Connect

We have studied numerically the evolution of the light field intensity and induced refractive index of a medium upon filamentation of femtosecond laser radiation in air. It is shown that the intensity clamping results from the dynamic balance of optical powers of nonlinear lenses, induced by radiation due to the Kerr nonlinearity of air, and laser plasma produced during photoionisation. We have found the relation between the peak values of the light field intensity and the electron density in laser-produced plasma, as well as the transverse sizes of the filament and the plasma channel. (effects of laser radiation on matter)

Kandidov, V P; Fedorov, V Yu; Tverskoi, O V; Kosareva, O G; Chin, S L

2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

Holographic Dark Energy Model with Modified Variable Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter we consider a correspondence between holographic dark energy and variable modified Chaplygin gas to obtain a holographic dark energy model of the universe. The corresponding potential of the scalar field has been reconstructed which describes the modified variable Chaplygin gas. The stability of the holographic dark energy in this case is also discussed.

B. C. Paul

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

212

RESEARCH ARTICLE Seed bank persistence of genetically modified canola  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH ARTICLE Seed bank persistence of genetically modified canola in California Douglas J-Verlag 2012 Abstract Introduction Canola, which is genetically modified (GM) for tolerance to glyphosate, has of glyphosate. Methods Volunteer from dormant canola seeds produced thousands of plants per hectare

California at Davis, University of

213

Kaluza-Klein Cosmology With Modified Holographic Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the compact Kaluza-Klein cosmology in which modified holographic dark energy is interacting with dark matter. Using this scenario, we evaluate equation of state parameter as well as equation of evolution of the modified holographic dark energy. Further, it is shown that the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds without any constraint.

M. Sharif; Farida Khanum

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

214

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT MINERvA MiniBooNE MINOS NOvA LBNE Cosmic Frontier Proposed Projects and Experiments ArgoNeuT ArgoNeut detector at Proton Assembly Building Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT The Argon Neutrino Teststand or ArgoNeuT detector, nicknamed for Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, is a liquid argon neutrino detector at Fermilab. Argon is a noble, non-toxic element that in its gaseous form constitutes about 1 percent of air. It exists as a colorless liquid only in the narrow temperature range of minus 186 to minus 189 degrees Celsius. Neutrinos passing through a large volume of argon can interact with an argon atom, producing secondary particles such as muons and protons, which then ionize other argon atoms. An electric field within the detector causes

215

Toward Objective, Standardized Intensity Estimates from Surface Wind Speed Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme wind climatology and event-specific intensity assessments rely heavily on surface wind field observations. The most widely used platforms sited at airports are the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) and its predecessor, the ...

Forrest J. Masters; Peter J. Vickery; Phuong Bacon; Edward N. Rappaport

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Assessing a Tornado Climatology from Global Tornado Intensity Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work demonstrated that the shape of tornado intensity distributions from various regions worldwide is well described by Weibull functions. This statistical modeling revealed a strong correlation between the fit parameters c for shape and b ...

Bernold Feuerstein; Nikolai Dotzek; Jürgen Grieser

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations govCampaignsWater Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations 2002.04.01 - 2002.06.30 Lead Scientist : Marvin Wesely For data sets, see below. Description The U.S. DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) is a 3-year feasibility investigation focused on accurately evaluating the water cycle components and using stable isotopes as an effective tool in doing so. The study area is primarily the Whitewater subbasin in the Walnut River Watershed in southeastern Kansas. Two intensive observations periods are planned, this first one in April to June 2002 and a second currently scheduled for December 2002 to February 2003. Observations will be made of precipitation

218

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes October 8, 2013 - 9:48am Addthis Many water using processes beyond the previously covered best management practices (BMPs) are found at Federal facilities, including vehicle wash systems, maintenance services, cleaning/laundry services, single pass air conditioners, water softening systems, and others. Identify and analyze all water intensive processes for potential efficiency improvements. Overview Laundry facilities are often found at Federal facilities. The laundry facility may be a self-serve laundry where residents and personnel wash their own clothing, a commercial-type laundry service where residents drop off laundry to be washed or dry cleaned, or an industrial laundry facility

219

Purchased Energy, Energy Intensity, and Policy Impacts in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Purchased Energy, Energy Intensity, and Policy Impacts in the U.S. Manufacturing Sector: Tentative Findings Speaker(s): Marvin J. Horowitz Date: July 8, 2011 - 12:00pm Location:...

220

Climate Policy Design for Energy-Intensive Industries - And The...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Policy Design for Energy-Intensive Industries - And The Rest of Us Speaker(s): Holmes Hummel Date: January 8, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity With the two ongoing studies, one for the physics program, 1 and one for the accelerator and facilities 2 on the...

222

Initiation and Evolution of an Intense Upper-Level Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within confluent northwesterly flow of an intensifying baroclinic wave over North America in late October 1963, an intense frontal zone developed in 12 h near the inflection point in the middle and upper troposphere. By 24 h after its initial ...

Frederick Sanders; Lance F. Bosart; Chung-Chieng Lai

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The Momentum Budget of an Intense Midlatitude Squall Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rawinsonde data from OK PRE-STORM are used to calculate the momentum budgets of an intense midlatitude squall-line system with a trailing stratiform region. Budgets have been computed at three separate times during the mature through dissipating ...

William A. Gallus Jr.; Richard H. Johnson

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Observational Undersampling in Tropical Cyclones and Implications for Estimated Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum surface wind speed is an important parameter for tropical cyclone operational analysis and forecasting, since it defines the intensity of a cyclone. Operational forecast centers typically refer the wind speed to a maximum 1- or 10-min ...

Eric W. Uhlhorn; David S. Nolan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Performance of the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) facility has now been operating in a routine way for outside users since November 1, 1981. From that date through December of 1982, the accelerator system was scheduled for neutron science for 4500 hours. During this time the accelerator achieved its short-term goals by delivering about 380,000,000 pulses of beam totaling over 6 x 10/sup 20/ protons. The changes in equipment and operating practices that evolved during this period of intense running are described. The intensity related instability threshold was increased by a factor of two and the accelerator beam current has been ion source limited. Plans to increase the accelerator intensity are also described. Initial operating results with a new H/sup -/ ion source are discussed.

Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Probabilistic Prediction of Tropical Cyclones. Part II: Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new objective aid for operational probabilistic intensity (defined as maximum wind speed) prediction of tropical cyclones is presented. Based on statistical analyses of the performance of all operationally available numerical models (using ...

Harry C. Weber

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Estimating Tropical Cyclone Intensity from Infrared Image Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes results from a near-real-time objective technique for estimating the intensity of tropical cyclones from satellite infrared imagery in the North Atlantic Ocean basin. The technique quantifies the level of organization or ...

Miguel F. Piñeros; Elizabeth A. Ritchie; J. Scott Tyo

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Safety and Software Intensive Systems: Challenges Old and New  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is an increased use of software in safety-critical systems; a trend that is likely to continue in the future. Although traditional system safety techniques are applicable to software intensive systems, there are new challenges emerging. In this ...

Mats P. E. Heimdahl

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased occurrence of more intense tropical storms intruding further poleward has been foreshadowed as one of the potential consequences of global warming. This scenario is based almost entirely on the general circulation model predictions of ...

Jenni L. Evans

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Intense, Variable Mixing near the Head of Monterey Submarine Canyon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microstructure survey near the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon, the first in a canyon, confirmed earlier inferences that coastal submarine canyons are sites of intense mixing. The data collected during two weeks in August 1997 showed ...

Glenn S. Carter; Michael C. Gregg

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Beijing Urban Heat Island Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An hourly dataset of automatic weather stations over Beijing Municipality in China is developed and is employed to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban heat island intensity (UHII) over the built-up areas. A total of 56 ...

Ping Yang; Guoyu Ren; Weidong Liu

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Changes in Intense Precipitation over the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In examining intense precipitation over the central United States, the authors consider only days with precipitation when the daily total is above 12.7 mm and focus only on these days and multiday events constructed from such consecutive ...

Pavel Ya. Groisman; Richard W. Knight; Thomas R. Karl

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Passive-Microwave-Enhanced Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formulation and testing of an enhanced Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) using new predictors derived from passive microwave imagery is presented. Passive microwave imagery is acquired for tropical cyclones in the ...

Thomas A. Jones; Daniel Cecil; Mark DeMaria

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Interaction of an Intense Extratropical Cyclone with Coastal Orography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observational analyses and numerical simulations are used to investigate the interaction of an intense extra-tropical cyclone with the coastal orography of the Pacific Northwest. Known as the “Inauguration Day cyclone,” the system made landfall ...

W. James Steenburgh; Clifford F. Mass

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

China energy issues : energy intensity, coal liquefaction, and carbon pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In my dissertation I explore three independent, but related, topics on China's energy issues. First, I examine the drivers for provincial energy-intensity trends in China, and finds that technology innovation is the key ...

Wu, Ning, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Simulations Identify Requirements for LANL's High Intensity Laser...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Identify Requirements for LANL's High Intensity Laser Lab cielo equip Fig. 1. Cielo is a 1.37 petaflops capability-class supercomputer installed at LANL, funded by the US DOE NNSA...

237

Assessing the Impact of Weather on Traffic Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the effect of weather conditions on daily traffic intensities (the number of cars passing a specific segment of a road). The main objective is to examination whether or not weather conditions uniformly alter daily traffic ...

Mario Cools; Elke Moons; Geert Wets

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Intensity and ENSO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone intensity in the western North Pacific basin is examined. Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), constructed from the best-track dataset for the region for the period 1950–...

Suzana J. Camargo; Adam H. Sobel

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

A New High Intensity Electron Beam for Wakefield Acceleration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HIGH INTENSITY ELECTRON BEAM FOR WAKEFIELD ACCELERATION STUDIES* M.E. Conde , W. Gai, C. Jing, R. Konecny, W. Liu, J.G. Power, H. Wang, Z. Yusof ANL, Argonne, IL 60439, USA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Improving Tropical Cyclone Intensity Guidance in the Eastern North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research is the development of a statistical model that will provide tropical cyclone (TC) intensity guidance for the eastern North Pacific (ENP) superior to that provided by climatology and persistence models. ...

Kevin R. Petty; Jay S. Hobgood

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

ROARS: a scalable repository for data intensive scientific computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As scientific research becomes more data intensive, there is an increasing need for scalable, reliable, and high performance storage systems. Such data repositories must provide both data archival services and rich metadata, and cleanly integrate with ...

Hoang Bui; Peter Bui; Patrick Flynn; Douglas Thain

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Lateral Turbulence Intensity and Plume Meandering During Stable Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is much evidence in the literature for the presence of mesoscale lateral meanders in the stable nighttime boundary layer. These meanders result in relatively high lateral turbulence intensities and diffusion rates when averaged over an ...

Steven R. Hanna

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A Simplified Dynamical System for Tropical Cyclone Intensity Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified dynamical system for tropical cyclone intensity prediction based on a logistic growth equation (LGE) is developed. The time tendency of the maximum sustained surface winds is proportional to the sum of two terms: a growth term and a ...

Mark DeMaria

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Intensity and Structure Changes during Hurricane Eyewall Replacement Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flight-level aircraft dataset consisting of 79 Atlantic basin hurricanes from 1977 to 2007 was used to develop an unprecedented climatology of inner-core intensity and structure changes associated with eyewall replacement cycles (ERCs). During ...

Matthew Sitkowski; James P. Kossin; Christopher M. Rozoff

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Aerosol Effects on Microstructure and Intensity of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving the forecasts of the intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) remains a major challenge. One possibility for improvement is consideration of the effects that aerosols have on tropical clouds and cyclones. The authors have been pursuing this under ...

Daniel Rosenfeld; William L. Woodley; Alexander Khain; William R. Cotton; Gustavo Carrió; Isaac Ginis; Joseph H. Golden

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Adjustment of GCM Precipitation Intensity over the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regression equation is developed to adjust the simulated monthly averaged intensity of hourly precipitation over the continental United States using air temperature at the first model level (about 80 m above ground) simulated by a revised ...

Mingxuan Chen; Xubin Zeng; Robert E. Dickinson

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Estimating Intensity of Atmospheric Ice Accretion on Stationary Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of various atmospheric parameters in determining atmospheric ice accretion intensity on structures near the ground is examined theoretically, with an emphasis on glaze formation. Methods are presented for calculating the icing rate on ...

Lasse Makkonen

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Parameterized Updraft Mass Flux as a Predictor of Convective Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterized updraft mass flux, available as a unique predictive field from the Kain–Fritsch (KF) convective parameterization, is presented as a potentially valuable predictor of convective intensity. The KF scheme is described in some detail, ...

John S. Kain; Michael E. Baldwin; Steven J. Weiss

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Relationships between Tornado Intensity and Various Wind and Thermodynamic Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical relationships between tornado intensity and various stability and wind-related parameters are determined from a dataset of more than 200 tornado proximity soundings. Soundings were obtained from two sources: the University of Missouri ...

John R. Colquhoun; Philip A. Riley

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Ionized channel generation of an intense relativistic electron beam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intense relativistic electron beam generator uses an ionized channel to guide electrons from a cathode past an anode to a remote location without the use of a foil.

Frost, C.A.; Leifeste, G.T.; Shope, S.L.

1986-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Quantifying Environmental Control on Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composite analysis is used to examine environmental and climatology and persistence characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) undergoing different intensity changes in the western North Pacific (WPAC) and North Atlantic (ATL) ocean basins. Using ...

Eric A. Hendricks; Melinda S. Peng; Bing Fu; Tim Li

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

The Arm Program's Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of water vapor intensive observation periods (WVIOPs) were conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma between 1996 and 2000. The goals of these WVIOPs are to characterize the accuracy of the operational ...

H. E. Revercomb; D. D. Turner; D. C. Tobin; R. O. Knuteson; W. F. Feltz; J. Barnard; J. Bösenberg; S. Clough; D. Cook; R. Ferrare; J. Goldsmith; S. Gutman; R. Halthore; B. Lesht; J. Liljegren; H. Linné; J. Michalsky; V. Morris; W. Porch; S. Richardson; B. Schmid; M. Splitt; T. Van Hove; E. Westwater; D. Whiteman

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A Nonlinear Artificial Intelligence Ensemble Prediction Model for Typhoon Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new nonlinear artificial intelligence ensemble prediction (NAIEP) model has been developed for predicting typhoon intensity based on multiple neural networks with the same expected output and using an evolutionary genetic algorithm (GA). The ...

Long Jin; Cai Yao; Xiao-Yan Huang

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Intensity Frontier | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

more detail may lead to the answers to a number of big questions in particle physics. Quantum mechanics is what allows Intensity Frontier research to answer these questions by...

257

Irradiated fuel monitoring by Cerenkov glow intensity measurements  

SciTech Connect

Attribute measurement techniques for confirmation of declared irradiated fuel inventories at nuclear installations under safeguards surveillance are being investigated. High-gain measurements of the intensity of the Cerenkov glow from exposed assemblies in water-filled storage ponds are promising for this purpose. Such measurements have been made of Materials Testing Reactor plate-type fuel assemblies and Pressurized Water Reactor pin-type fuel assemblies. The measured intensities depend on cooling times as calculations predict.

Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Informal workshop on intense polarized ion sources: a summary  

SciTech Connect

An Informal Workshop on Intense Polarized Ion Sources was held on March 6, 1980, at the O'Hare Hilton Hotel, Chicago, Illinois. The purpose of the Workshop was to discuss problems in developing higher-intensity polarized proton sources, particularly the optically-pumped source recently proposed by L.W. Anderson of the University of Wisconsin. A summary of the discussions is reported.

Schultz, P.F. (ed.)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

EIA - AEO2010 - Energy intensity trends in AEO2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

intensity trends in AEO2010 intensity trends in AEO2010 Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Figure 17. Trends in U.S. oil prices, energy consumption, and economic output, 1950-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Energy intensity trends in AEO2010 Energy intensity—energy consumption per dollar of real GDP—indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate (Figure 17). During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8 percent per year from 1973 to 2008. In the AEO2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9 percent from 2008 to 2035.

260

Holographic Dark Energy Model with Modified Generalized Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a holographic dark energy model of the universe considering modified generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG). The modified GCG behaves as an ordinary barotropic fluid in the early epoch when the universe was tiny but behaves subsequently as a $\\Lambda$CDM model at late epoch. An equivalent model with scalar field is obtained here by constructing the corresponding potential. The holographic dark energy is identified with the modified GCG and we determine the corresponding holographic dark energy field and its potential. The stability of the holographic dark energy in this case is also discussed.

B. C. Paul; P. Thakur; A. Saha

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

How to Distinguish Dark Energy and Modified Gravity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current accelerated expansion of our universe could be due to an unknown energy component (dark energy) or a modification to general relativity (modified gravity). It is proposed in literature that combining the probes of cosmic expansion history and growth history can distinguish between dark energy and modified gravity. In the present work, we show that the possible interaction between dark energy and dark matter could make interacting dark energy model and modified gravity model indistinguishable. An explicit example is also given. Therefore, it is required to seek some complementary probes beyond the ones of cosmic expansion history and growth history.

Wei, Hao

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Computational Simulations of High Intensity X-Ray Matter Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Free electron lasers have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity short pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1-10 keV energy range. For example, the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford is being designed to produce an output intensity of 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in a 230 fs pulse. These sources will open the door to many novel research studies. However, the intense x-ray pulses may damage the optical components necessary for studying and controlling the output. At the full output intensity, the dose to optical components at normal incidence ranges from 1-10 eV/atom for low-Z materials (Z < 14) at photon energies of 1 keV. It is important to have an understanding of the effects of such high doses in order to specify the composition, placement, and orientation of optical components, such as mirrors and monochromators. Doses of 10 eV/atom are certainly unacceptable since they will lead to ablation of the surface of the optical components. However, it is not precisely known what the damage thresholds are for the materials being considered for optical components for x-ray free electron lasers. In this paper, we present analytic estimates and computational simulations of the effects of high-intensity x-ray pulses on materials. We outline guidelines for the maximum dose to various materials and discuss implications for the design of optical components.

London, R A; Rionta, R; Tatchyn, R; Roessler, S

2001-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence  

SciTech Connect

A methodology for investigating premixed turbulent flames propagating in intense isotropic turbulence has been developed. The burner uses a turbulence generator developed by Videto and Santavicca and the flame is stabilized by weak-swirl generated by air injectors. This set-up produces stable premixed turbulent flames under a wide range of mixture conditions and turbulence intensities. The experiments are designed to investigate systematically the changes in flame structures for conditions which can be classified as wrinkled laminar flames, corrugated flames and flames with distributed reaction zones. Laser Doppler anemometry and Rayleigh scattering techniques are used to determine the turbulence and scalar statistics. In the intense turbulence, the flames are found to produce very little changes in the mean and rams velocities. Their flame speed increase linearly with turbulence intensity as for wrinkled laminar flames. The Rayleigh scattering pdfs for flames within the distributed reaction zone regime are distinctly bimodal. The probabilities of the reacting states (i.e. contributions from within the reaction zone) is not higher than those of wrinkled laminar flame. These results show that there is no drastic changes in flame structures at Karlovitz number close to unity. This suggest that the Klimov-Williams criterion under-predicts the resilience of wrinkled flamelets to intense turbulence.

Bedat, B.; Cheng, R.K.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa Agency/Company /Organization: IEEE Sector: Energy Focus Area: Grid Assessment and Integration Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource Type: Technical report Website: ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1709540 UN Region: Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa Language: English References: Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa[1] "With the population of 13.4% of the world and a land area of 15%, Africa has only 2% of the world's industrial capacity. Its per capita income is only 15% of the world average and only consumes 3% of world energy. Many

265

Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) + Bonus Depreciation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) + Bonus Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) + Bonus Depreciation (2008-2012) Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) + Bonus Depreciation (2008-2012) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Water Solar Heating & Cooling Heating Water Heating Program Info Start Date 1986 Program Type Corporate Depreciation Provider U.S. Internal Revenue Service Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class lives for various types of property, ranging from three to 50 years, over which the property may be

266

Testing and Comparing the Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modified anomalous diffraction approximation (MADA) is used to predict absorption and extinction in water and ice clouds, but it does not predict the scattering phase function or asymmetry parameter g. In conjunction with g parameterizations, ...

David L. Mitchell; Anthony J. Baran; W. P. Arnott; C. Schmitt

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Modified gravity from the quantum part of the metric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that if a metric in quantum gravity can be decomposed as a sum of classical and quantum parts then Einstein quantum gravity looks approximately like modified gravity with a nonminimal interaction between gravity and matter.

Vladimir Dzhunushaliev; Vladimir Folomeev; Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Modified Ertel’s Potential Vorticity as a Climate Variable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental freedom existing in Ertel’s general definition of potential vorticity (PV) is used to construct an essential invariant measure in (q,??) space, where q is an “optimal” modified PV and ? is a monotonic increasing function of potential ...

M. V. Kurgansky; I. A. Pisnichenko

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A criterion for determining exceedance of the operating basis earthquake: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A criterion is recommended for determining whether the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) has been exceeded after the occurrence of a seismic event at a nuclear power plant. The technical procedure provides a fast and effective means for assessing the damage potential of any ''felt'' earthquake in the first few hours after occurrence. For OBE exceedance to occur, the recommended criterion requires exceedance of both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV). The detailed operational requirements for implementing the criterion are provided. The criterion was developed, based on a study of earthquake damage to conventional buildings, review of past damage to power plants and heavy industrial facilities, blast damage, fragility data and equipment vibration performance, to ensure that ground motions greater than Modified Mercalli Intensity VI are conservatively identified as exceeding the OBE. Based on direct correlations of the criterion parameters with damage data, ground motions which cause damage to buildings of good design and construction (which in general are not as seismically strong as nuclear facilities) are a factor of at least 1.5 larger than the recommended criterion threshold values. This ensures adequate conservatism in the criterion. Issues related to OBE exceedance, including the history of the OBE, regulatory and operational issues, plant operation concerns, current industry activities related to OBE exceedance and recent earthquake experience are discussed in the report.

Reed, J.W.; Anderson, N.; Chokshi, N.C.; Kennedy, R.P.; Metevia, W.J.; Ostrom, D.K.; Stevenson, J.D.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Solar System experiments do not yet veto modified gravity models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamical equivalence between modified and scalar-tensor gravity theories is revisited and it is concluded that it breaks down in the limit to general relativity. A gauge-independent analysis of cosmological perturbations in both classes of theories lends independent support to this conclusion. As a consequence, the PPN formalism of scalar-tensor gravity and Solar System experiments do not veto modified gravity, as previously thought.

Valerio Faraoni

2006-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

271

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Overview > Tables Overview > Tables 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities Tables Energy Consumption by End Use, 1992 Figure on Energy Consumption By End Use, 1992 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1992 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. divider line To View and/or Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties, visit our Technical Frequently Asked Questions. divider line Tables - (file size 31,655 bytes), pages 6. - requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Consumption of All Major Fuels by End Uses, 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities for All Major Fuels, 1992 Consumption of Electricity by End Uses, 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities for Electricity, 1992

272

Inertial Fusion Driven by Intense Heavy-Ion Beams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS * W. M. Sharp # , A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, M. A. Dorf, S. M. Lund, L. J. Perkins, M. R. Terry, LLNL, Livermore, CA, USA B. G. Logan, F. M. Bieniosek, A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J.-Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, E. P. Lee, S. M. Lidia, P. A. Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa, J.-L. Vay, W. L. Waldron, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, USA R. C. Davidson, E. P. Gilson, I. D. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev, PPPL, Princeton, NJ, USA I. Haber, R. A. Kishek, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA A. E. Koniges, NERSC, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial

273

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity With the two ongoing studies, one for the physics program, [1] and one for the accelerator and facilities [2] on the "Neutrino Factory Based on a Muon Storage Ring", a number of interesting suggestions and ideas came up. Almost immediately the question of scaling cost with the storage ring energy and with intensity came up. Nevertheless, it was impossible to explore all those questions in great detail, either in the report or in the preliminary cost estimate that is presented in Appendix A. During the study it became more and more clear, that one of the unique features of a neutrino source, namely the possibility to balance the cost of the accelerator with the cost of the detector, would urge the accelerator people to find an answer to this

274

High intensity performance and upgrades at the Brookhaven AGS  

SciTech Connect

The high intensity proton beam of the AGS is used both for the slow-extracted-beam (SEB) area with many target station to produce secondary beams and the fast-extracted-beam (FEB) line used for the production of muons for the g-2 experiment and for high intensity target testing for the spallation neutron sources and muon production targets for the muon collider. The same FEB line will also be used for the transfer of beam to RHIC. The proton beam intensity in the AGS has increased steadily over the 35 year existence of the AGS, but the most dramatic increase occurred over the last couple of years with the addition of the new AGS Booster. All modifications associated with this are discussed.

Roser, T.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Selection of minimum earthquake intensity in calculating pipe failure probabilities  

SciTech Connect

In a piping reliability analysis, it is sometimes necessary to specify a minimum ground motion intensity, usually the peak acceleration, below which the ground motions are not considered as earthquakes and, hence, are neglected. The calculated probability of failure of a piping system is dependent on this selected minimum earthquake intensity chosen for the analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the minimum earthquake intensity on the probability of pipe failure. The results indicated that the probability of failure of the piping system is not very sensitive to the variations of the selected minimum peak ground acceleration. However, it does have significant effects on various scenarios that make up the system failure.

Lo, T.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Collaborative, Data-Intensive Science Key to Science & Commerce Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article coincides with the release of "Data-Intensive Science," co-edited by Dr. Kerstin Kleese van Dam. In the piece, Dr. Kleese van Dam explains how data-intensive science has the potential to transform not only how we do science but how quickly we can translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, decisions and, ultimately, economic success. In the article, she states it is clear that nations that can most effectively transform tons of scientific data into actionable knowledge are going to be the leaders in the future of science and commerce and how creating the required new insights for complex challenges cannot be done without effective collaboration. Because many science domains already are unable to explore all of the data they collect (or which is relevant to their research), progress in collaborative, data-intensive science is crucial toward unlocking the potential of big data.

Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

277

Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate (Figure 17). During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8 percent per year from 1973 to 2008. In the AEO2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9 percent from 2008 to 2035.

Information Center

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

278

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary 9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. divider line The demand for energy in U.S. stores, offices, schools, hospitals, and other commercial buildings has been increasing. This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and "other." The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand.

279

ARM - Field Campaign - Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods 1998.08.03 - 1998.08.28 Lead Scientist : Warren Wiscombe For data sets, see below. Summary Wednesday, August 5, 1998: IOP Opening Activities: The IOP updates for the Shortwave/Aerosol/BDRF will be composed from notes taken during briefing sessions lead by Don Cahoon and company each night at the Marland Mansion in Ponca City. IOP Status as of 8/4/98 Weather forecasts indicate that cloudy conditions will prevail for the next few days. The Helicopter is on standby for clear sky conditions. Model output indicates clear sky's may move in later this week.

280

On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation  

SciTech Connect

Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation  

SciTech Connect

Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

THE OUTSKIRTS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AS MODIFIED GRAVITY PROBES  

SciTech Connect

In the context of theories of gravity modified to account for the observed dynamics of galactic systems without the need to invoke the existence of dark matter, a prediction often appears regarding low-acceleration systems: wherever a falls below a{sub 0}, one should expect a transition from the classical to the modified gravity regime. This modified gravity regime will be characterized by equilibrium velocities that become independent of distance and that scale with the fourth root of the total baryonic mass, V{sup 4}{proportional_to}M. The two conditions above are the well-known flat rotation curves and Tully-Fisher relations of the galactic regime. Recently, however, a similar phenomenology has been hinted at, at the outskirts of Galactic globular clusters, precisely in the region where a < a{sub 0}. Radial profiles of the projected velocity dispersion have been observed to stop decreasing along Keplerian expectations and to level off at constant values beyond the radii where a < a{sub 0}. We have constructed gravitational equilibrium dynamical models for a number of globular clusters for which the above gravitational anomaly has been reported, using a modified Newtonian force law that yields equilibrium velocities equivalent to modified Newtonian dynamics. We find models having an inner Newtonian region and an outer modified gravity regime, which reproduce all observational constraints, surface brightness profiles, total masses, and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles, can be easily constructed. Through the use of detailed single stellar population models tuned individually to each of the globular clusters in question, we derive estimates of the total masses for these systems. Interestingly, we find that the asymptotic values of the velocity dispersion profiles are consistent with scaling with the fourth root of the total masses, as expected under modified gravity scenarios.

Hernandez, X.; Jimenez, M. A., E-mail: xavier@astroscu.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A Diagnostic Study of Two Intense Oceanic Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic study of two intense oceanic cyclones (16–18 November 1972 and 9–11 January 1982) along the east coast of North America is presented. Both cyclones formed along a strong low-level baroclinic zone and deepened in response to an ...

Eric Rogers; Lance F. Bosart

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Stereo Matching Based on Dissimilar Intensity Support and Belief Propagation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel algorithm based on the window construction method using local edge detection is presented. Firstly, in order to construct the adaptive window, a virtual closed edge is formed around each pixel via second order differential operator. Secondly, ... Keywords: Belief propagation optimization, Cost aggregation, Dissimilar intensity support, Local edge detection, Stereo matching

Feipeng Da, Fu He, Zhangwen Chen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

Zakharov, Leonid E.

286

Search intensity, directed search and the wage distribution Bruno Decreusey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Search intensity, directed search and the wage distribution Bruno Decreusey University of Aix propose a search equilibrium model in which homogenous ...rms post wages along with a vacancy to attract relies on the organization of the search market and the search behavior of the job-seekers. The search

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

288

Critical design issues of high intensity proton linacs  

SciTech Connect

Medium-energy proton linear accelerators are being studied as drivers for spallation applications requiring large amounts of beam powder. Important design factors for such high-intensity linacs are reviewed, and issues and concerns specific to this unprecedented power regime are discussed.

Lawrence, G.P.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Seismic Hazard Assessment of Tehran Based on Arias Intensity  

SciTech Connect

In this paper probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Tehran for Arias intensity parameter is done. Tehran is capital and most populated city of Iran. From economical, political and social points of view, Tehran is the most significant city of Iran. Since in the previous centuries, catastrophic earthquakes have occurred in Tehran and its vicinity, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of this city for Arias intensity parameter is useful. Iso-intensity contour lines maps of Tehran on the basis of different attenuation relationships for different earthquake periods are plotted. Maps of iso-intensity points in the Tehran region are presented using proportional attenuation relationships for rock and soil beds for 2 hazard levels of 10% and 2% in 50 years. Seismicity parameters on the basis of historical and instrumental earthquakes for a time period that initiate from 4th century BC and ends in the present time are calculated using Tow methods. For calculation of seismicity parameters, the earthquake catalogue with a radius of 200 km around Tehran has been used. SEISRISKIII Software has been employed. Effects of different parameters such as seismicity parameters, length of fault rupture relationships and attenuation relationships are considered using Logic Tree.

Amiri, G. Ghodrati [Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, H. [College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrei, S. A. Razavian [College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

NOAA'S Hurricane Intensity Forecasting Experiment: A Progress Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An update of the progress achieved as part of the NOAA Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX) is provided. Included is a brief summary of the noteworthy aircraft missions flown in the years since 2005, the first year IFEX flights occurred, as well as a ...

Robert Rogers; Sim Aberson; Altug Aksoy; Bachir Annane; Michael Black; Joseph Cione; Neal Dorst; Jason Dunion; John Gamache; Stan Goldenberg; Sundararaman Gopalakrishnan; John Kaplan; Bradley Klotz; Sylvie Lorsolo; Frank Marks; Shirley Murillo; Mark Powell; Paul Reasor; Kathryn Sellwood; Eric Uhlhorn; Tomislava Vukicevic; Jun Zhang; Xuejin Zhang

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schamaun, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Donald C. (Los Alamos, NM); Potter, R. Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Joseph A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

Tawfik, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Explosive photodissociation of methane induced by ultrafast intense laser  

SciTech Connect

A new type of molecular fragmentation induced by femtosecond intense laser at the intensity of 2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is reported. For the parent molecule of methane, ethylene, n-butane, and 1-butene, fluorescence from H (n=3{yields}2), CH (A {sup 2}{delta}, B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup -}, and C {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}{yields}X {sup 2}{pi}), or C{sub 2} (d {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}{yields}a {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}) is observed in the spectrum. It shows that the fragmentation is a universal property of neutral molecule in the intense laser field. Unlike breaking only one or two chemical bonds in conventional UV photodissociation, the fragmentation caused by the intense laser undergoes vigorous changes, breaking most of the bonds in the molecule, like an explosion. The fragments are neutral species and cannot be produced through Coulomb explosion of multiply charged ion. The laser power dependence of CH (A{yields}X) emission of methane on a log-log scale has a slope of 10{+-}1. The fragmentation is thus explained as multiple channel dissociation of the superexcited state of parent molecule, which is created by multiphoton excitation.

Kong Fanao; Luo Qi; Xu Huailiang; Sharifi, Mehdi; Song Di; Chin, See Leang [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada and Center for Optics, Photonics, and Laser, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Center for Optics, Photonics, and Laser, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada)

2006-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Effects of Dissipative Heating on Hurricane Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of dissipative heating on hurricane intensity are examined using a 72-h explicit simulation of Hurricane Andrew (1992) with a state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic mesoscale (cloud resolving) model (i.e., MM5). It is ...

Da-Lin Zhang; Eric Altshuler

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Maximum Potential Intensities of Tropical Cyclones near Isla Socorro, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum potential intensity (MPI) of a tropical cyclone represents a theoretical upper limit to the strength of the storm imposed by the laws of physics and the energy available to the system in the atmosphere and the ocean. The MPI in this ...

Jay S. Hobgood

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Midlevel Ventilation’s Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An idealized framework based ...

Brian Tang; Kerry Emanuel

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

An Automated Method for Depicting Mesocyclone Paths and Intensities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The location and intensity of mesocyclone circulations can be tracked in real time by accumulating azimuthal shear values over time at every location of a uniform spatial grid. Azimuthal shear at low (0–3 km AGL) and midlevels (3–6 km AGL) of the ...

Madison L. Miller; Valliappa Lakshmanan; Travis M. Smith

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Modelling and forecasting wind speed intensity for weather risk management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main interest of the wind speed modelling is on the short-term forecast of wind speed intensity and direction. Recently, its relationship with electricity production by wind farms has been studied. In fact, electricity producers are interested in ... Keywords: ARFIMA-FIGARCH, Auto Regressive Gamma, Gamma Auto Regressive, Weather risk management, Wind speed modelling, Wind speed simulation

Massimiliano Caporin; Juliusz Pre

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Radiation intensity of lignite-fired oxy-fuel flames  

SciTech Connect

The radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames is compared to corresponding conditions in air-fuel flames during combustion of lignite in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test facility. In the oxy-fuel cases the flue-gas recycle rate was varied, so that, in principle, the same stoichiometry was kept in all cases, whereas the oxygen fraction in the recycled flue-gas mixture ranged from 25 to 29 vol.%. Radial profiles of gas concentration, temperature and total radiation intensity were measured in the furnace. The temperature, and thereby the total radiation intensity of the oxy-fuel flames, increases with decreasing flue-gas recycle rate. The ratio of gas and total radiation intensities increases under oxy-fuel conditions compared to air-firing. However, when radiation overlap between gas and particles is considered the ratios for air-firing and oxy-fuel conditions become more similar, since the gas-particle overlap is increased in the CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere. A large fraction of the radiation in these lignite flames is emitted by particles whose radiation was not significantly influenced by oxy-fuel operation. Therefore, an increment of gas radiation due to higher CO{sub 2} concentration is not evident because of the background of particle radiation, and, the total radiation intensities are similar during oxy-fuel and air-fuel operation as long as the temperature distributions are similar. (author)

Andersson, Klas; Johansson, Robert; Hjaertstam, Stefan; Johnsson, Filip; Leckner, Bo [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE - 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Two Decades of U.S. Household Trends in Energy-Intensity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This paper looks at two decades of energy–intensity trends. Energy intensity measures are often used as a measure of energy efficiency and its change over time.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

U.S. Residential Housing Weather-Adjusted Site Energy Intensity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Intensities >Table 6b U.S. Residential Housing Weather-Adjusted Site Energy Intensity

302

Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chlorine Making US energy statistics only report energya weighted-average US energy intensity. The intensity valuesProcess Stage The US Manufacturing Energy Consumption survey

Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian; Einstein, Dan; Martin, Nathan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

than other. For instance corn ethanol is the most economicalthe carbon intensity of corn ethanol and gasoline fromEmission intensity of corn ethanol, conventional crude oil

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Energy Intensities for the Iron and Steel Industry (1985-1994)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

national level data on energy intensity issues on household energy use in the residential sector, energy intensity issues on manufacturing energy use in the ...

305

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rotary) Brazil China India Mexico Energy and Carbon Dioxideenergy intensity values for Brazil, China, India, and Mexico,energy intensity values for Brazil, China, India and Mexico,

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

High-intensity-discharger 400-W sodium ballast. Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A research and development program directed toward design, test, and evaluation of an energy efficient High Intensity Discharge (HID) Solid-State 400 Watt Ballast lighting system was undertaken. Under Phase I of the project, the existing ballast was modified, performance characteristics were measured, efficiency was compared with a core/coil ballast including energy loss analysis. Six (6) prototype 400 W High Pressure Sodium Ballasts were built, for verification tests by an independent test facility prior to follow-on performance and life tests. This report covers Phase II of the project which was designed to make test data comparisons on results received from the independent test laboratory, determine methods to increase ballast efficiency, determine the importance of power factors, conduct bulb life tests, perform specification review, performance versus cost analysis, investigate the ballast to determine compliance with new FCC requirement, and determine a line transient specification in respect to solid state ballasting. In addition, Phase II required reliability testing, a manufacturing test plan, a marketing study for solid-state ballast, and the manufacture and delivery of fifteen (15) demonstration ballast units to LBL. These requirements are discussed.

Felper, G.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Astraeus Wind Modifies Manufacturing in Michigan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Astraeus Wind Modifies Manufacturing in Michigan Astraeus Wind Modifies Manufacturing in Michigan Astraeus Wind Modifies Manufacturing in Michigan May 14, 2010 - 3:35pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell When the assembly line was introduced to the automobile industry, everything changed. Cars were produced in less time with fewer errors, and each one was exactly the same as the last. As a result, the industry boomed. Astraeus Wind LLC hopes to bring this type of success to wind turbine manufacturing by standardizing the blade manufacturing process. The company wants to experiment with new materials to strengthen the blades while creating an automated process to assemble them, creating identical blades in a fast, efficient manner. CEO Jeff Metts says standardizing this process will help ensure each blade has the same measurements, lower the amount of time needed for production

308

Will multiple probes of dark energy find modified gravity?  

SciTech Connect

One of the most pressing issues in cosmology is whether general relativity (GR) plus a dark sector is the underlying physical theory or whether a modified gravity model is needed. Upcoming dark energy experiments designed to probe dark energy with multiple methods can address this question by comparing the results of the different methods in constraining dark energy parameters. Disagreement would signal the breakdown of the assumed model (GR plus dark energy). We study the power of this consistency test by projecting constraints in the w{sub 0}-w{sub a} plane from the four different techniques of the Dark Energy Survey in the event that the underlying true model is modified gravity. We find that the standard technique of looking for overlap has some shortcomings, and we propose an alternative, more powerful Multidimensional Consistency Test. We introduce the methodology for projecting whether a given experiment will be able to use this test to distinguish a modified gravity model from GR.

Shapiro, Charles [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Dodelson, Scott [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Hoyle, Ben [Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona (Spain); Samushia, Lado [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); National Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, GE-0160 Tbilisi (Georgia); Flaugher, Brenna [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Support Task Order Modified March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461 Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati - The Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a modification to a task order to Aspen Resources Limited, Inc. of Boulder, Colorado for support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. The modification increased the value of the task order to $1.6 million from $833,499. The task order modification has a one-year performance period and two one-year option periods. The Task Order was awarded under an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (ID/IQ) master Contract. Aspen Resources Limited, Inc. is a small-disadvantaged business under the Small Business Administration's

310

Intramolecular ET in Ru-Modified MnCyt c  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tetraammine(L)ruthenium(III)-Modified Tetraammine(L)ruthenium(III)-Modified Manganocytochromes c Ji Sun and James F. Wishart Inorg. Chem. 37, 1124-1126 (1998) [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Manganese-substituted horse heart cytochrome c was prepared by replacing the iron in the heme group according to established methods. The resulting manganicytochrome c was subsequently modified at histidine-33 with three ruthenium complexes trans-(NH3)4(L)Ru-His33, where L = NH3, pyridine or isonicotinamide. Proof of correct derivatization was obtained by atomic absorption analysis of manganese and ruthenium, differential pulse voltammetry and electrospray mass spectroscopy. Manganese(II)-to-ruthenium(III) intramolecular electron transfer rates were measured as a function of temperature by pulse radiolysis, using oxidation

311

ENVIRONMENT DEPENDENCE OF DARK MATTER HALOS IN SYMMETRON MODIFIED GRAVITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the environment dependence of dark matter halos in the symmetron modified gravity scenario. The symmetron is one of three known mechanisms for screening a fifth force and thereby recovering general relativity in dense environments. The effectiveness of the screening depends on both the mass of the object and the environment it lies in. Using high-resolution N-body simulations we find a significant difference, which depends on the halo's mass and environment, between the lensing and dynamical masses of dark matter halos similar to the f(R) modified gravity. The symmetron can however yield stronger signatures due to a freedom in the strength of coupling to matter.

Winther, Hans A.; Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Li Baojiu [ICC, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

Table 6. Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010)" Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010)" "thousand Btu per dollar of GDP" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"2000 to 2010" "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",18.27258197,17.12573602,17.40982338,17.21199023,16.87274619,16.36600572,16.26201029,16.16667416,15.88996309,15.31511861,15.97051076,-0.1259849985,-2.302071213 "Alaska",21.74118991,20.61708506,19.78031734,20.18143227,20.28953911,21.09573287,18.72961653,17.79373817,15.85124571,14.13669694,14.24461661,-0.3448097058,-7.496573297 "Arizona",8.723022426,8.474435286,8.399371812,7.993493579,8.274516227,7.602521438,7.232690272,7.328159916,7.62679414,7.507000095,7.628169778,-0.1255129924,-1.094852647

313

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier MiniBooNE Researchers initiated the Booster Neutrino Experiment, BooNE, to verify definitively the results of the Los Alamos Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector experiment. In 1995, the Los Alamos experiment presented strong evidence for the oscillation of muon anti-neutrinos into electron anti-neutrinos. Jasmine Ma inspects one of the phototubes that detects light from neutrino interactions. (Courtesy: Peter Ginter) Jasmine Ma inspects one of the phototubes that detects light from neutrino interactions. (Courtesy: Peter Ginter) The 800-ton detector, called MiniBooNE, searches for neutrino oscillations. The detector is located 500 meters from Fermilab's second neutrino source, the Booster Neutrino Beam or BNB. The presence of neutrinos can only be inferred by detecting the charged

314

For Physicists | Fellowships & Awards | Intensity Frontier Fellows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application Info Application Info Applications must include a curriculum vitae, and a selected publication list. In addition we request a two-page proposal describing the major contribution that will be made to the Intensity Frontier during the Fellowship, current compensation, and requested dates of support. Applicants holding postdoctoral positions should supply two letters of reference. Applications for awards beginning in 2014 will be accepted until 22 November, 2013. It is anticipated that a second round of applications will be solicited in spring 2014. Applicants should be notified by 20 December 2013. Applications should be made via: Online Application Further queries should be sent to: send email Related Links Fermilab Intensity Frontier Department NOvA Experiment

315

Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Commercial Buildings Home > Sq Ft Tables > Table 2a. Electricity Consumption per Sq Ft Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square Foot, Specific to Occupied and Vacant Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu) Electricity Intensities (thousand Btu) In Total Floor space In Occupied Floor space In Vacant Floor space Per Square Foot Per Occupied Square Foot Per Vacant Square Foot All Buildings 4,590 2,600 2,563 37 39 42 8 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,532 334 331 3 48 51 6 5,001 to 10,000 946 250 247 3 36 38 6 10,001 to 25,000

316

Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals March 2006 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special request and are based on assumptions specified by the requester. Energy Information Administration / Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

317

Selection Intensity in Genetic Algorithms with Generation Gaps  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents calculations of the selection intensity of common selection and replacement methods used in genetic algorithms (GAs) with generation gaps. The selection intensity measures the increase of the average fitness of the population after selection, and it can be used to predict the average fitness of the population at each iteration as well as the number of steps until the population converges to a unique solution. In addition, the theory explains the fast convergence of some algorithms with small generation gaps. The accuracy of the calculations was verified experimentally with a simple test function. The results of this study facilitate comparisons between different algorithms, and provide a tool to adjust the selection pressure, which is indispensable to obtain robust algorithms.

Cantu-Paz, E.

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

318

BEAM HALO FORMATION IN HIGH-INTENSITY BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

Studies of beam halo became unavoidable feature of high-intensity machines where uncontrolled beam loss should be kept to extremely small level. For a well controlled stable beam such a loss is typically associated with the low density halo surrounding beam core. In order to minimize uncontrolled beam loss or improve performance of an accelerator, it is very important to understand what are the sources of halo formation in a specific machine of interest. The dominant mechanisms are, in fact, different in linear accelerators, circular machines or Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL). In this paper, we summarize basic mechanisms of halo formation in high-intensity beams and discuss their application to various types of accelerators of interest, such as linacs, rings and ERL.

FEDOTOV, A.V.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

319

Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity  

SciTech Connect

A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Knowledge-intensive collaborative design modeling and support  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contemporary design problems embody significant levels of complexity, which make it unlikely that a single designer can work alone on a complex design problem. Knowledge-intensive collaboration has emerged as a promising discipline for dealing with the ... Keywords: Collaborative design, Design support system, Design-with-modules, Distributed module modeling and evaluation (DMME), Integrated design and analysis, Knowledge servers, Network-centric design, World-wide web

Xuan F. Zha; H. Du

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

CHALLENGES IN DATA INTENSIVE ANALYSIS AT SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTAL USER FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis and visualiza-tion challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will further highlight initial solutions under development through community efforts and lay out perspectives for the future, such as the potential of more closely linked experimental and computational science approaches, methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration across experimental scales, levels of theory and varying techniques.

Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Li, Dongsheng; Miller, Stephen D.; Cobb, John W.; Green, Mark L.; Ruby, Catherine L.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Resonant Auger Effect at High X-Ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect

The resonant Auger effect of atomic neon exposed to high-intensity x-ray radiation in resonance with the 1s {yields} 3p transition is discussed. High intensity here means that the x-ray peak intensity is sufficient ({approx} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) to induce Rabi oscillations between the neon ground state and the 1s{sup -1}3p ({sup 1}P) state within the relaxation lifetime of the inner-shell vacancy. For the numerical analysis presented, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. Both coherent and chaotic x-ray pulses are treated. The latter are used to simulate radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission. Observing x-ray-driven atomic population dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic pulse ensembles. A more practical option for experiments using x-ray free-electron lasers is to measure the line profiles in the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron. This provides information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

Rohringer, N; Santra, R

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

323

Energy use and intensity in the industrial sector, 1972 - 1991  

SciTech Connect

Energy use in the United States is substantially lower now than it would have been had energy intensities not fallen after the oil price shocks of the 1970s. The United States would have consumed over 30 quadrillion Btu (QBtu) more energy in 1991 if the energy-GDP ratio (energy divided by gross domestic product) had remained at its 1972 value. Much of this improvement has stemmed from developments within the industrial sector. This paper examines industrial energy use from two perspectives. First, the contribution of the industrial sector to the decline in the overall energy-GDP ratio is estimated. Second, the components of change in conservation trends within the industrial sector are examined. This part of the analysis identifies the change in overall industrial intensity (total energy consumption/total industrial output) that is due to improvements in energy intensity at the individual industry level in comparison to various aspects of the composition of industrial output. This paper is based upon recent work conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Alternative Fuels Policy, U.S. Department of Energy. Discussion of other end-use sectors and some additional analysis of industrial sector energy trends is found in Energy Conservation Trends - Understanding the Factors Affecting Conservation Gains and their Implications for Policy Development.

Belzer, D.B.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Atomic processes in plasmas under ultra-intense laser irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lasers delivering subpicosecond pulses with energies of a fraction of a Joule have made it possible to generate irradiance levels approaching 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. We presently operate two such systems, a KrF based excimer laser capable of producing a few 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} at 248 nm with a repetition rate of 3--5 Hz and a XeCl based excimer laser capable of producing mid 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} at 308 nm and 1 Hz. We will discuss some experimental results and the theory and modeling of the interaction of such intense laser pulses with aluminum. Because of a small ASE prepulse the high intensity interaction is not at the solid surface but rather at the n{sub e} = 2 {times} 10{sup 22} cm{sup {minus}3} critical density of the blowoff plasma generated by the ASE. The transient behavior of the plasma following the energy deposition by the intense subpicosecond pulse can be viewed as the energy-impulse response of the plasma. Experimental results and modeling of the x-ray emission from this plasma will be presented. 15 refs., 8 figs.

Schappert, G.T.; Casperson, D.E.; Cobble, J.A.; Comly, J.C.; Jones, L.A.; Kyrala, G.A.; LaGattuta, K.J.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Olson, G.L.; Taylor, A.J.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

HIGH INTENSITY PERFORMANCE AND UPGRADES AT THE BROOKHAVEN AGS  

SciTech Connect

Fig. 1 shows the present layout of the AGS-RHIC accelerator complex. The high intensity proton beam of the AGS is used both for the slow-extracted-beam (SEB) area with many target station to produce secondary beams and the fast-extracted-beam (FEB) line used for the production of muons for the g-2 experiment and for high intensity target testing for the spallation neutron sources and muon production targets for the muon collider. The same FEB line will also be used for the transfer of beam to RHIC. The proton beam intensity in the AGS has increased steadily over the 35 year existence of the AGS, but the most dramatic increase occurred over the last couple of years with the addition of the new AGS Booster[1]. In Fig. 2 the history of the AGS intensity improvements is shown and the major upgrades are indicated. The AGS Booster has one quarter the circumference of the AGS and therefore allows four Booster beam pulses to be stacked in the AGS at an injection energy of 1.5--1.9 GeV. At this increased energy, space charge forces are much reduced and this in turn allows for the dramatic increase in the AGS beam intensity. The 200 MeV LINAC is being used both for the injection into the Booster as well as an isotope production facility. A recent upgrade of the LINAC rf system made it possible to operated at an average H{sup {minus}} current of 150 {micro}A and a maximum of 12 x 10{sup 13} H{sup {minus}} per 500 {micro}s LINAC pulse for the isotope production target. Typical beam currents during the 500 {micro}s pulse are about 80 mA at the source, 60 mA after the 750 keV RFQ, 38 mA after the first LINAC tank (10 MeV), and 37 mA at end of the LINAC at 200 MeV. The normalized beam emittance is about 2 {pi} mm mrad for 95% of the beam and the beam energy spread is about {+-}1.2 MeV. A magnetic fast chopper installed at 750 keV allows the shaping of the beam injected into the Booster to avoid excessive beam loss.

ROSER,T.

1998-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

326

On the test of the modified BCS at finite temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results and conclusions by Ponomarev and Vdovin [Phys. Rev. C {\\bf 72}, 034309 (2005)] are inadequate to judge the applicability of the modified BCS because they were obtained either in the temperature region, where the use of zero-temperature single-particle spectra is no longer justified, or in too limited configuration spaces.

Nguyen Dinh Dang; Akito Arima

2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

A test of Taylor- and modified Taylor-expansion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare Taylor expansion and a modified variant of Taylor expansion, which incorporates features of the fugacity series, for expansions in the chemical potential around a zero-density lattice field theory. As a first test we apply both series to the cases of free fermions and free bosons. Convergence and other properties are analyzed.

Max Wilfling; Christof Gattringer

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

REVIEW PAPER Evaluating the effect of modified atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the natural gas surrounding the product in the package in order to delay deteriorative changes. In this paper. ,, , , Keywords Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) . Cheese . Headspace gas composition evolution the optimal gas composition, which could be especially important for products with relatively short shelf life

Recanati, Catherine

329

Multilayer perceptron network with modified sigmoid activation functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models in today's microcontrollers, e.g. engine control units, are realized with a multitude of characteristic curves and look-up tables. The increasing complexity of these models causes an exponential growth of the required calibration memory. Hence, ... Keywords: modified activation function, multilayer perceptron network, neural network, nonlinear system identification

Tobias Ebert; Oliver Bänfer; Oliver Nelles

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Detection of Ellipses by a Modified Hough Transformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hough transformation can detect straight lines in an edge-enhanced picture, however its extension to recover ellipses requires too long a computing time. This correspondence proposes a modified method which utilizes two properties of an ellipse in ... Keywords: scene analysis, Curve detection, line fitting, Hough transformation, pattern recognition, picture processing

S. Tsuji; F. Matsumoto

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Modified MFCC windowed technique for speaker word recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are one of the most popular forms of parameterization of the speech signal in speaker word recognition systems. MFCC's are based on the known variation of the human ear's critical bandwidths. In this paper, ... Keywords: DCT, MFCC, hamming window, kaiser window, modified MFCC, speaker word recognition, windowing techniques

I. Patel; Y. S. Rao

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

A modified boundary integral evolution formulation for the wave equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We apply a modified boundary integral formulation otherwise known as the Green element method (GEM) to the solution of the two-dimensional scalar wave equation. GEM essentially combines three techniques namely: (a) finite difference approximation of ... Keywords: Boundary element method, Green element method, Overhauser elements, Wave equation

Okey Oseloka Onyejekwe

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Modified Segmental Histogram Equalization for robust speaker verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that when there is an acoustic mismatch between the speech obtained during training and testing the accuracy of speaker recognition systems drastically deteriorates. In this paper we propose Modified Segmental Histogram Equalization ... Keywords: Histogram Equalization, Mismatched conditions, NIST 2000, Speaker verification

Marshalleno Skosan; Daniel Mashao

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Some Discussion on Thermodynamical Behaviour of Modified Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On going good number of research works establish Modified Chaplygin Gas as one one of the most favoured candidates of Dark Energy. In our present work, new bound on the parameter space of associated model - parameter has been worked out with new explanation. Moreover, the explicit relation between the mysterious state parameter $w$ and scale factor $a(t)$ has been derived.

Balendra Kr. Dev Choudhury; Julie Saikia

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

335

Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Surface Modified Inconel 718 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Surface Modified Inconel 718 ... and Recovery Process of Rare Metals from Oil Desulfurization Spent Catalyst ... Pulsed Laser Evaporation: An Enabling Technology for Organic Thin Films ... Redox Investigation of NiFe2O4 Supported on Al2O3 and Yttria- Stabilized ...

336

An orthogonal access modifier model for feature-oriented programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In feature-oriented programming (FOP), a programmer decomposes a program in terms of features. Ideally, features are implemented modularly so that they can be developed in isolation. Access control is an important ingredient to attain feature ... Keywords: feature-oriented programming, orthogonal access modifier model

Sven Apel; Jörg Liebig; Christian Kästner; Martin Kuhlemann; Thomas Leich

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Computer software engineers design, create, and modify computer applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computer software engineers design, create, and modify computer applications. Computer Software Engineers (0*NET 15-1031.00, 15-1032.00) Significant Points Computer software engineers are projected are expected for college graduates with at least a bachelor's degree in computer engineering or computer

338

Relativistic effects in the interaction of high intensity ultra-short laser pulse with collisional underdense plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect of weakly relativistic ponderomotive force in the interaction of intense laser pulse with nonisothermal, underdense, collisional plasma is studied. Ponderomotive force modifies the electron density and temperature distribution. By considering the weakly relativistic effect and ohmic heating of plasma electrons, the nonlinear dielectric permittivity of plasma medium is obtained and the equation of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma is solved. It is shown that with considering the ohmic heating of electrons and collisions, the effect of ponderomotive force in weakly relativistic regime leads to steepening the electron density profile and increases the temperature of plasma electrons noticeably. Bunches of electrons in plasma become narrower. By increasing the laser pulse strength, the wavelength of density oscillations decreases. In this regime of laser-plasma interaction, electron temperature increases sharply by increasing the intensity of laser pulse. The amplitude of electric and magnetic fields increases by increasing the laser pulse energy while their wavelength decreases and they lost their sinusoidal form.

Abedi, Samira [Physics Department, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dorranian, Davoud [Laser Lab., Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abari, Mehdi Etehadi [Physics Department, Science Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, Babak [Physics Department, Science Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laser-Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

ELECTRON COUD DYNAMICS IN HIGH-INTENSITY RINGS.  

SciTech Connect

Electron cloud due to beam-induced multipacting is one of the main concerns for the high intensity. Electrons generated and accumulated inside the beam pipe form an ''electron cloud'' that interacts with the circulating charged particle beam. With sizeable amount of electrons, this interaction can cause beam instability, beam loss and emittance growth. At the same time, the vacuum pressure will rise due to electron desorption. This talk intends to provide an overview of the mechanism and dynamics of the typical electron multipacting in various magnetic fields and mitigation measures with different beams.

WANG, L.; WEI, J.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

340

Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

Haugh, M. J.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Field assessment of an aluminum intensive passenger car  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ford Motor Co. has made a small batch of ``aluminum intensive vehicles`` (AIV), consisting of mid-size cars (Taurus/Sable) with all-aluminum bodies. The first twenty vehicles were made for internal evaluation at Ford, but the second batch of twenty has been placed on the hands of selected independent users, primarily automotive suppliers, for long term field assessment. The mass reduction achieved in the body of an AIV is shown, and compared with an equivalent standard steel body. Argonne obtained one of these vehicles last October; this is an assessment of the fuel consumption and other operational characteristics of this type of car to date.

Cuenca, R.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Data-intensive computing on numerically-insensitive supercomputers  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of the era of petascale supercomputing, via the delivery of the Roadrunner supercomputing platform at Los Alamos National Laboratory, there is a pressing need to address the problem of visualizing massive petascale-sized results. In this presentation, I discuss progress on a number of approaches including in-situ analysis, multi-resolution out-of-core streaming and interactive rendering on the supercomputing platform. These approaches are placed in context by the emerging area of data-intensive supercomputing.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fasel, Patricia K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lo, Li - Ta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patchett, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Sean J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woodring, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Joshua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Chung - Hsing [ONL

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

343

Intense transient magnetic-field generation by laser plasma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to the magnetic field thereof. In alternate embodiments the target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet.

Benjamin, R.F.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

344

Slow Electrons Generated by Intense High-Frequency Laser Pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A very slow electron is shown to emerge when an intense high-frequency laser pulse is applied to a hydrogen negative ion. This counterintuitive effect cannot be accounted for by multiphoton or tunneling ionization mechanisms. We explore the effect and show that in the high-frequency regime the atomic electron is promoted to the continuum via a nonadiabatic transition caused by slow deformation of the dressed potential that follows a variation of the envelope of the laser pulse. This is a general mechanism, and a slow electron peak should always appear in the photoelectron spectrum when an atom is irradiated by a high-frequency pulse of finite length.

Toyota, Koudai; Watanabe, Shinichi [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofu-ga-oka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Tolstikhin, Oleg I. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Morishita, Toru [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofu-ga-oka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

2009-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

345

Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

346

Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

347

Precision monitoring of relative beam intensity for Mu2e  

SciTech Connect

For future experiments at the intensity frontier, precise and accurate knowledge of beam time structure will be critical to understanding backgrounds. The proposed Mu2e experiment will utilize {approx}200 ns (FW) bunches of 3 x 10{sup 7} protons at 8 GeV with a bunch-to-bunch period of 1695 ns. The out-of-bunch beam must be suppressed by a factor of 10{sup -10} relative to in-bunch beam and continuously monitored. I propose a Cerenkov-based particle telescope to measure secondary production from beam interactions in a several tens of microns thick foil. Correlating timing information with beam passage will allow the determination of relative beam intensity to arbitrary precision given a sufficiently long integration time. The goal is to verify out-of-bunch extinction to the level 10{sup -6} in the span of several seconds. This will allow near real-time monitoring of the initial extinction of the beam resonantly extracted from Fermilabs Debuncher before a system of AC dipoles and collimators, which will provide the final extinction. The effect on beam emittance is minimal, allowing the necessary continuous measurement. I will present the detector design and some concerns about bunch growth during the resonant extraction.

Evans, N.J.; Kopp, S.E.; /Texas U.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Intense synchrotron radiation from a magnetically compressed relativistic electron layer  

SciTech Connect

Using a simple model of a relativistic electron layer rotating in an axial magnetic field, energy gain by an increasing magnetic field and energy loss by synchrotron radiation were considered. For a typical example, initial conditions were approximately 8 MeV electron in approximately 14 kG magnetic field, at a layer radius of approximately 20 mm, and final conditions were approximately 4 MG magnetic field approximately 100 MeV electron layer energy at a layer radius of approximately 1.0 mm. In the final state, the intense 1-10 keV synchrotron radiation imposes an electron energy loss time constant of approximately 100 nanoseconds. In order to achieve these conditions in practice, the magnetic field must be compressed by an imploding conducting liner; preferably two flying rings in order to allow the synchrotron radiation to escape through the midplane. The synchrotron radiation loss rate imposes a lower limit to the liner implosion velocity required to achieve a given final electron energy (approximately 1 cm/$mu$sec in the above example). In addition, if the electron ring can be made sufficiently strong (field reversed), the synchrotron radiation would be a unique source of high intensity soft x-radiation. (auth)

Shearer, J.W.; Nowak, D.A.; Garelis, E.; Condit, W.C.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers  

SciTech Connect

Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) and many HEP programs (Muon Collider). These high-intensity GeV-range proton drivers are particularly challenging, encountering duty cycle and space-charge limits in the synchrotron and machine size concerns in the weaker-focusing cyclotrons; a 10-20 MW proton driver is not presently considered technically achievable with conventional re-circulating accelerators. One, as-yet, unexplored re-circulating accelerator, the Fixed-field Alternating Gradient, or FFAG, is an attractive alternative to the cyclotron. Its strong focusing optics are expected to mitigate space charge effects, and a recent innovation in design has coupled stable tunes with isochronous orbits, making the FFAG capable of fixed-frequency, CW acceleration, as in the classical cyclotron. This paper reports on these new advances in FFAG accelerator technology and references advanced modeling tools for fixed-field accelerators developed for and unique to the code COSY INFINITY.

Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; /Michigan State U.; Snopok, P.; /IIT, Chicago

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

DZero data-intensive computing on the Open Science Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy physics experiments periodically reprocess data, in order to take advantage of improved understanding of the detector and the data processing code. Between February and May 2007, the DZero experiment has reprocessed a substantial fraction of its dataset. This consists of half a billion events, corresponding to about 100 TB of data, organized in 300,000 files. The activity utilized resources from sites around the world, including a dozen sites participating to the Open Science Grid consortium (OSG). About 1,500 jobs were run every day across the OSG, consuming and producing hundreds of Gigabytes of data. Access to OSG computing and storage resources was coordinated by the SAM-Grid system. This system organized job access to a complex topology of data queues and job scheduling to clusters, using a SAM-Grid to OSG job forwarding infrastructure. For the first time in the lifetime of the experiment, a data intensive production activity was managed on a general purpose grid, such as OSG. This paper describes the implications of using OSG, where all resources are granted following an opportunistic model, the challenges of operating a data intensive activity over such large computing infrastructure, and the lessons learned throughout the project.

Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Baranovski, A.; Diesburg, M.; Garzoglio, G.; /Fermilab; Kurca, T.; /Lyon, IPN; Mhashilkar, P.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

On the Capacity of Free-Space Optical Intensity Channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New upper and lower bounds are presented on the capacity of the free-space optical intensity channel. This channel is characterized by inputs that are nonnegative (representing the transmitted optical intensity) and by outputs that are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise (because in free space the disturbances arise from many independent sources). Due to battery and safety reasons the inputs are simultaneously constrained in both their average and peak power. For a fixed ratio of the average power to the peak power the difference between the upper and the lower bounds tends to zero as the average power tends to infinity, and the ratio of the upper and lower bounds tends to one as the average power tends to zero. The case where only an average-power constraint is imposed on the input is treated separately. In this case, the difference of the upper and lower bound tends to 0 as the average power tends to infinity, and their ratio tends to a constant as the power tends to zero.

Lapidoth, Amos; Wigger, Michele A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

On the Capacity of Free-Space Optical Intensity Channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New upper and lower bounds are presented on the capacity of the free-space optical intensity channel. This channel is characterized by inputs that are nonnegative (representing the transmitted optical intensity) and by outputs that are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise (because in free space the disturbances arise from many independent sources). Due to battery and safety reasons the inputs are simultaneously constrained in both their average and peak power. For a fixed ratio of the average power to the peak power the difference between the upper and the lower bounds tends to zero as the average power tends to infinity, and the ratio of the upper and lower bounds tends to one as the average power tends to zero. The case where only an average-power constraint is imposed on the input is treated separately. In this case, the difference of the upper and lower bound tends to 0 as the average power tends to infinity, and their ratio tends to a constant as the power tends to zero.

Lapidoth, Amos; Wigger, Michele A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Environment Dependence of Dark Matter Halos in Symmetron Modified Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the environment dependence of dark matter halos in the symmetron modified gravity scenario. The symmetron is one of three known mechanisms for screening a fifth-force and thereby recovering General Relativity in dense environments. The effectiveness of the screening depends on both the mass of the object and the environment it lies in. Using high-resolution N-body simulations we find a significant difference, which depends on the halos mass and environment, between the lensing and dynamical masses of dark matter halos similar to the f(R) modified gravity. The symmetron can however yield stronger signatures due to a freedom in the strength of the coupling to matter.

Hans A. Winther; David F. Mota; Baojiu Li

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

354

Cosmic Ray Anomalies Inspired Some Discussion on Modified Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The postulation of Dark energy and Dark matter on the basis of observational results does not end the mystery of their existence. Theoretically new insights into dark matter have been achieved analyzing recent experimental data from the cosmic ray physics. It has been shown that, if the dark matter is a hidden scalar field, then it is not only possible to explain the ATIC/PPB BETS excess but also the observed dark matter abundance naturally and simultaneously. Being motivated, mainly by the assumption of hidden scalar field and some associated works, we consider the Modified Chaplygin Gas for some thermodynamical analysis. The point that if the scalar field is assumed to oscillate before the reheating was not completed, i.e., T_R importance of thermodynamical analysis. We, assuming the properties of Modified Chaplygin Gas, derive an expression for the second law of thermodynamics. It is obse...

Saikia, Julie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Cosmic Ray Anomalies Inspired Some Discussion on Modified Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The postulation of Dark energy and Dark matter on the basis of observational results does not end the mystery of their existence. Theoretically new insights into dark matter have been achieved analyzing recent experimental data from the cosmic ray physics. It has been shown that, if the dark matter is a hidden scalar field, then it is not only possible to explain the ATIC/PPB BETS excess but also the observed dark matter abundance naturally and simultaneously. Being motivated, mainly by the assumption of hidden scalar field and some associated works, we consider the Modified Chaplygin Gas for some thermodynamical analysis. The point that if the scalar field is assumed to oscillate before the reheating was not completed, i.e., T_R importance of thermodynamical analysis. We, assuming the properties of Modified Chaplygin Gas, derive an expression for the second law of thermodynamics. It is observed that it also sheds some new lights on Generalised Second Law.

Julie Saikia; Balendra Kr. Dev Choudhury

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

356

Qubits entanglement dynamics modified by an effective atomic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study entanglement dynamics of a couple of two-level atoms resonantly interacting with a cavity mode and embedded in a dispersive atomic environment. We show that in the absence of the environment the entanglement reaches its maximum value when only one exitation is involved. Then, we find that the atomic environment modifies that entanglement dynamics and induces a typical collapse-revival structure even for an initial one photon Fock state of the field.

I. Sainz; A. B. Klimov; Luis Roa

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

357

Wormholes supported by phantom-like modified Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have examined the possible construction of a stationary, spherically symmetric and spatially inhomogeneous wormhole spacetime supported by the phantom energy. The later is supposed to be represented by the modified Chaplygin gas equation of state. The solutions so obtained satisfy the flare out and the asymptotic flatness conditions. It is also shown that the averaged null energy condition has to be violated for the existence of the wormhole.

Mubasher Jamil; M. Umar Farooq; Muneer Ahmad Rashid

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

Cosmological Models in Modified f(R) Gravity Theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The actual accelerated expansion of the universe continues being a mystery in physics. Some models had been proposed for this explanations, among them the dark energy, which however has problems of experimental character as well as theoretical. Other approximations, like modified gravity theories are an interesting alternative for this problem. Motivated in this approach we study cosmological models in f(R) theories which are natural extension of General Relativity with arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar. One chapter has dedicated to obtain the modified field equations in the metric formalism of f(R) theories, including the discussion about boundary terms in the action. Later, we apply these equations in order to describe the dynamics of the universe, using for this as space-time, the FLRW universe. We focus our study in the problem of cosmological distances in f(R) theories. From the study of the Geodesic Deviation Equation (GDE) in this modified scenario, we obtain differential equations for the angular diameter distance, and as an extension, the Dyer-Roeder like equation in f(R) gravity.

Alejandro Guarnizo

2012-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

359

Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated that conversion efficiencies of 30-40% are possible at intensities of 600-800 GW/cm2, which is the operating level of the Petawatt laser at LLNL. The main limiting factors are phase modulation and material damage.

Banks, P S

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Composition Dependent Analysis of Raman Spectra in the Modified Boroaluminosilicate System: Implications for Coupling Between Structural Resonance and Relaxation in the Glass Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The boroaluminosilicate system was systematically modified by addition of magnesium, sodium and zirconium oxides. Strong bridging silicate bands and narrow and intense nonbridging silicate bands compose the Raman spectra of glasses. The fundamental nonbridging molecular species bands are related to the bridged network bands by the first overtone and signify anharmonic oscillation. At a constant degree of depolymerisation, the nonbridging band intensity depends on the silica content. With decrease in silica content, the bridged network band frequency shifts to a higher value and simultaneously the nonbridging bands intensify. The sharp rise in intensity for the nonbridging bands is attributed to resonant oscillations between the bridged lattice network and nonbridging molecular species. The resonance between the two structural entities possibly occurs in response to relaxation of the bridged network with decrease in silica content. Contributions to enhancement of intensity also presumably arise from resonance in valency bonds and oscillations in the oxygen edge shared polyhedral (ESP) structure for the nonbridging molecular species. The force constant of the ESP species varies as a function of zirconium, sodium and magnesium coordination to apex nonbridging oxygens. The single ESP band transforms to Fermi doublet upon crystallisation to orthosilicate structures of zircon and forsterite. 32 refs.

S. V. Raman; R. S. Czernuszewicz; A. A. Zareba

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Matching the Observed Star Formation Intensity Distribution with Empirical Laws  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This letter matches the shape of the star formation intensity distribution function to empirical laws such as the Schmidt law. The shape of the distribution at a redshift of one is reproduced from the empirical Schmidt law with a critical density, a Schechter distribution of galaxy masses and the assumption that star formation occurs mainly in exponential disks. The shape of the distribution depends primarily on two values, the characteristic mass m* in the Schechter mass distribution and the characteristic radius re in the exponential disk. As these characteristic values evolve they will affect the shape of the distribution function. The expected direction of evolution of the parameters partially cancels each other leaving the distribution shape relatively invariant.

Rodger I. Thompson

2002-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

362

A Plasma Lens for High Intensity Laser Focusing  

SciTech Connect

A plasma lens based on a short hydrogen-filled alumina capillary discharge is experimentally characterized. For a plasma length of about 5mm, the focal length, measured from the plasma entrance, was {approx} 11 to 8mm for on axis densities of {approx} 2.5 to 5 x 1018cm-3, respectively. The plasma temperature away from the walls of the 1/2mm diameter capillary was estimated to be {approx} 8eV indicating that the plasma is fully ionized. Such a lens should thus be suitable for focusing very high intensity pulses. Comparisons of the measured focusing strength to that predicted by a first-order fluid model [N. A. Bobrova, et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 016407 (2002)] shows reasonable agreement given that some of the observed plasma parameters are not predicted by this model.

Fang, F.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C. [UCLA Department of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 (United States); Lopes, N. C. [Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas, ESuperior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Ito, H. [Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya City, Zip 321-8585 (Japan)

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

363

Deposition and surface treatment with intense pulsed ion beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense pulsed ion beams (500 keV, 30 kA, 0.5 {mu}s) are being investigated for materials processing. Demonstrated and potential applications include film deposition, glazing and joining, alloying and mixing, cleaning and polishing, corrosion improvement, polymer surface treatments, and nanophase powder synthesis. Initial experiments at Los Alamos have emphasized thin-film formation by depositing beam ablated target material on substrates. We have deposited films with complex stoichiometry such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, and formed diamond-like-carbon films. Instantaneous deposition rates of 1 mm/sec have been achieved because of the short ion range (typically 1{mu}m), excellent target coupling, and the inherently high energy of these beams. Currently the beams are produced in single shot uncomplicated diodes with good electrical efficiency. High-voltage modulator technology and diodes capable of repetitive firing, needed for commercial application, are being developed.

Olson, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

364

HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON  

SciTech Connect

We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

HIGH INTENSITY LIGHT SOURCES (Part II of Thesis)  

SciTech Connect

A stable carbon arc operated in controlled atmosphere is described. The arc was designed to serve as a light source during lifetime studies of the B/sup 2/ SIGMA state of the CN molecule. The CN radiation from the plasma of the arc was investigated and found to have a brightness temperature of 5500 icient laborato K at lambda 3883 A. This is considerably higher than an estimate of the value required for lifetime measurements. The stability of the carbon arc under various conditions is discussed. For successful lifetime measurements, the light source employed must have a high brightness temperature (intensity). A method for the determination of the brightness temperature of a light source at a specific wave length is described. The method was used for determining the brightness temperatures of some available light sources. Sodium, thallium, and mercury discharge lamps, a medium-pressure mercury arc lamp, and the carbon arc were studied. (auth)

Worden, E.F. Jr.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Analysis of Intense Poleward Water Vapor Transports into High Latitudes of Western North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant cool season precipitation along the western coast of North America is often associated with intense water vapor transport (IWVT) from the Pacific Ocean during favorable synoptic-scale flow regimes. These relatively narrow and intense ...

Alain Roberge; John R. Gyakum; Eyad H. Atallah

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Relating the Skill of Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts to the Synoptic Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior knowledge of the performance of a tropical cyclone intensity forecast holds the potential to increase the value of forecasts for end users. The values of certain dynamical parameters, such as storm speed, latitude, current intensity, ...

Kieran T. Bhatia; David S. Nolan

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

New Developments of the Intensity-Scale Technique within the Spatial Verification Methods Intercomparison Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensity-scale verification technique introduced in 2004 by Casati, Ross, and Stephenson is revisited and improved. Recalibration is no longer performed, and the intensity-scale skill score for biased forecasts is evaluated. Energy and its ...

B. Casati

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Objective Debiasing for Improved Forecasting of Tropical Cyclone Intensity with a Global Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The damage potential of a tropical cyclone is proportional to a power (generally greater than one) of intensity, which demands high accuracy in forecasting intensity for managing this natural disaster. However, the current skill in forecasting ...

P. Goswami; S. Mallick; K. C. Gouda

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Summary of sessions B and F: High intensity linacs and frontend & proton drivers  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the sessions B&F of the 33rd ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity & High Brightness Hadron Beams held in Bensheim, Germany. It covers high intensity linacs, front ends and proton driver topics.

Ferdinand, R.; /Saclay; Chou, W.; /Fermilab; Galambos, J.; /Oak Ridge

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Environmental Dynamical Control of Tropical Cyclone Intensity—An Observational Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of two environmental dynamical factors, namely, the transitional speed and vertical wind shear, on tropical cyclone (TC) intensification, intensity, and lifetime peak intensity were analyzed based on observations in the western North ...

Zhihua Zeng; Yuqing Wang; Chun-Chieh Wu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

The Relationship between Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change and the Strength of Inner-Core Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Convective intensity proxies measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), Precipitation Radar (PR), and Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) are used to assess the relationship between intense convection in the ...

Haiyan Jiang

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

An Operational Statistical Typhoon Intensity Prediction Scheme for the Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current version of the Statistical Typhoon Intensity Prediction Scheme (STIPS) used operationally at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) to provide 12-hourly tropical cyclone intensity guidance through day 5 is documented. STIPS is a ...

John A. Knaff; Charles R. Sampson; Mark DeMaria

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Spatially Inhomogeneous Trends of Tropical Cyclone Intensity over the Western North Pacific for 1977–2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial distribution of trends in tropical cyclone (TC) intensity over the western North Pacific Ocean (WNP) during the period 1977–2010 was examined using five TC datasets. The spatial distribution of the TC intensity was expressed by ...

Doo-Sun R. Park; Chang-Hoi Ho; Joo-Hong Kim; Hyeong-Seog Kim

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Accuracy of Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecast Guidance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five statistical and dynamical tropical cyclone intensity guidance techniques available at the National Hurricane Center (NHC) during the 2003 and 2004 Atlantic and eastern North Pacific seasons were evaluated within three intensity phases: (I) ...

Russell L. Elsberry; Tara D. B. Lambert; Mark A. Boothe

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Detecting hazardous intensive care patient episodes using real-time mortality models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The modern intensive care unit (ICU) has become a complex, expensive, data-intensive environment. Caregivers maintain an overall assessment of their patients based on important observations and trends. If an advanced ...

Hug, Caleb W. (Caleb Wayne)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Detecting Hazardous Intensive Care Patient Episodes Using Real-time Mortality Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The modern intensive care unit (ICU) has become a complex, expensive, data-intensive environment. Caregivers maintain an overall assessment of their patients based on important observations and trends. If an advanced ...

Hug, Caleb

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Cirrus-Cloud Experiment: Intensive Field Observations Planned for Fire  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plans for an intensive cirrus-cloud field experiment are described. The Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (Citrus IFO) is a major component of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE). The ...

David O'C. Starr

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Influence of ENSO on Tropical Cyclone Intensity in the Fiji Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the variation in tropical cyclone (TC) intensity for different phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in the Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga (FST) region. The variation in TC intensity is inferred from the ...

Savin S. Chand; Kevin J. E. Walsh

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Projected Increases in North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity from CMIP5 Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropical cyclones—particularly intense ones—are a hazard to life and property, so an assessment of the changes in North Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity has important socioeconomic implications. In this study, the authors focus on the ...

Gabriele Villarini; Gabriel A. Vecchi

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A Possible Constraint on Regional Precipitation Intensity Changes under Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in daily precipitation versus intensity under a global warming scenario in two regional climate simulations of the United States show a well-recognized feature of more intense precipitation. More important, by resolving the precipitation ...

W. J. Gutowski Jr.; E. S. Takle; K. A. Kozak; J. C. Patton; R. W. Arritt; J. H. Christensen

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Development and Technology 008 "Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps" Jordan

Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Table 6a. U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity Using Weather ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Intensity Using Weather-Adjusted Site Energy by Census Region and Principal Building Activity.

384

Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report looks at the best methods of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity.

385

Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

Zhang, Da

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY INTENSITY INDICATORS AND THEIR ROLE AS POLICY -MAKING TOOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY INTENSITY INDICATORS AND THEIR ROLE AS POLICY - MAKING TOOLS by Mallika as a basis for policy-making has been on the rise. The idea that trends in both energy intensity policy criteria. Estimates of economic energy intensity from decomposition analyses are found to be data

387

Iron carbide on titania surface modified with group VA oxides as Fisher-Tropsch catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Catalysts comprising iron carbide on a surface modified titania support wherein said support comprises a surface modifying oxide of tantalum, niobium, vanadium and mixtures thereof supported on said titania wherein at least a portion of said surface modifying oxide is in a non-crystalline form. These catalysts are useful for Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis reactions. Preferably, at least about 25 wt. % of said surface modifying oxide will be in a non-crystalline form.

Wachs, I. E.; Cherisch, C. C.; Fiato, R. A.

1985-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

388

Modified Thermal-Optical Analysis Using Spectral Absorption Selectivity to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modified Thermal-Optical Analysis Using Spectral Absorption Selectivity to Modified Thermal-Optical Analysis Using Spectral Absorption Selectivity to Distinguish Black Carbon from Pyrolized Organic Carbon Title Modified Thermal-Optical Analysis Using Spectral Absorption Selectivity to Distinguish Black Carbon from Pyrolized Organic Carbon Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., Craig E. Corrigan, and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 42 Pagination 8459-8464 Abstract This study presents a method for analyzing the black carbon (BC) mass loading on a quartz fiber filter using a modified thermal-optical analysis method, wherein light transmitted through the sample is measured over a spectral region instead of at a single wavelength. Evolution of the spectral light transmission signal depends on the relative amounts of light-absorbing BC and char, the latter of which forms when organic carbon in the sample pyrolyzes during heating. Absorption selectivities of BC and char are found to be distinct and are used to apportion the amount of light attenuated by each component in the sample. Light attenuation is converted to mass concentration on the basis of derived mass attenuation efficiencies (MAEs) of BC and char. The fractions of attenuation due to each component are scaled by their individual MAE values and added together as the total mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC). An iterative algorithm is used to find the MAE values for both BC and char that provide the best fit to the carbon mass remaining on the filter (derived from direct measurements of thermally evolved CO2) at temperatures higher than 480 degrees C. This method was applied to measure the BC concentration in precipitation samples collected in northern California. The uncertainty in the measured BC concentration of samples that contained a high concentration of organics susceptible to char ranged from 12% to 100%, depending on the mass loading of BC on the filter. The lower detection limit for this method was approximately 0.35 microg of BC, and the uncertainty approached 20% for BC mass loading greater than 1.0 microg of BC.

389

Modified definition of group velocity and electromagnetic energy conservation equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The classical definition of group velocity has two flaws: (a) the group velocity can be greater than the phase velocity in a non-dispersive medium; (b) the definition is not consistent with the principle of relativity. To remove the flaws, a modified definition is proposed. A criterion is set up to identify the justification of group velocity definition. A "superluminal power flow" is constructed to show that the electromagnetic energy conservation equation cannot uniquely define the power flow if the principle of Fermat is not taken into account.

Changbiao Wang

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

390

Spherical Thin-Shell Wormholes and Modified Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to construct spherical thin-shell wormhole solutions through cut and paste technique and investigate the stability of these solutions in the vicinity of modified Chaplygin gas. The Darmois-Israel formalism is used to formulate the stresses of the surface concentrating the exotic matter. We explore the stability of the wormhole solutions by using the standard potential method. We conclude that there exist more stable as well as unstable solutions than the previous study with generalized Chaplygin gas \\cite{15}.

M. Sharif; M. Azam

2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

391

Interaction between phantom field and modified Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter, we have considered a flat FRW universe. Instead of considering only one candidate for dark energy, we have considered interaction between phantom field and modified Chaplygin gas. It has been shown that the potential of the phantom field increases from a lower value with evolution of the Universe. It has been observed that, the field has an increasing tendency and potential has also an increasing tendency with passage of cosmic time. In the evolution of the universe the crossing of $w=-1$ has been realized by this interacting model.

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

392

Time machines and traversable wormholes in modified theories of gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent work on wormhole geometries in the context of modified theories of gravity, in particular, in f(R) gravity and with a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling, and in the recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini theory. In principle, the normal matter threading the throat can be shown to satisfy the energy conditions and it is the higher order curvatures terms that sustain these wormhole geometries. We also briefly review the conversion of wormholes into time-machines, explore several of the time travel paradoxes and possible remedies to these intriguing side-effects in wormhole physics.

Francisco S. N. Lobo

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

393

Modified GBIG Scenario as a Successful Alternative for Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a DGP-inspired braneworld model where induced gravity on the brane is modified in the spirit of $f(R)$ gravity and stringy effects are taken into account by incorporation of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk action. We explore cosmological dynamics of this model and we show that this scenario is a successful alternative for dark energy proposal. Interestingly, it realizes the phantom-like behavior without introduction of any phantom field on the brane and the effective equation of state parameter crosses the cosmological constant line naturally in the same way as observational data suggest.

Nozari, Kourosh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Reconstruction of modified gravity with ghost dark energy models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we reconstruct the $f(R)$ modified gravity for different ghost and generalized ghost dark energy models in FRW flat universe, which describe the accelerated expansion of the universe. The equation of state of reconstructed $f(R)$ - gravity has been calculated. We show that the corresponding $f(R)$ gravity of ghost dark energy model can behave like phantom or quintessence. We also show that the equation of state of reconstructed $f(R)$ gravity for generalized ghost model can transit from quintessence regime to the phantom regime as indicated by recent observations.

Khodam-Mohammadi, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Modified GBIG Scenario as an Alternative for Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a DGP-inspired braneworld model where induced gravity on the brane is modified in the spirit of $f(R)$ gravity and stringy effects are taken into account by incorporation of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk action. We explore cosmological dynamics of this model and we show that this scenario is a successful alternative for dark energy proposal. Interestingly, it realizes the phantom-like behavior without introduction of any phantom field on the brane and the effective equation of state parameter crosses the cosmological constant line naturally in the same way as observational data suggest.

Kourosh Nozari; Narges Rashidi

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

396

Security improvement of using modified coherent state for quantum cryptography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Weak coherent states as a photon source for quantum cryptography have limit in secure data rate and transmission distance because of the presence of multi-photon events and loss in transmission line. Two-photon events in a coherent state can be taken out by a two-photon interference scheme. We investigate the security issue of utilizing this modified coherent state in quantum cryptography. A 4 dB improvement in secure data rate or a nearly two-fold increase in transmission distance over the coherent state are found. With a recently proposed and improved encoding strategy, further improvement is possible.

Y. J. Lu; Luobei Zhu; Z. Y. Ou

2005-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Nanocomposite fibers and film containing polyolefin and surface-modified carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for modifying carbon nanotubes with organic compounds are disclosed. The modified carbon nanotubes have enhanced compatibility with polyolefins. Nanocomposites of the organo-modified carbon nanotubes and polyolefins can be used to produce both fibers and films having enhanced mechanical and electrical properties, especially the elongation-to-break ratio and the toughness of the fibers and/or films.

Chu,Benjamin (Setauket, NY); Hsiao, Benjamin S. (Setauket, NY)

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

398

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 AEO 1995 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.0 AEO 1996 10.7 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1997 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1998 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 AEO 1999 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 2000 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 AEO 2001 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.4

399

The Galactic Halo's O VI Resonance Line Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We used FUSE to observe ultraviolet emission from diffuse O VI in the hot gas in the Galactic halo. By comparing our result with another, nearby observation blocked by an opaque cloud at a distance of 230 pc, we could subtract off the contribution from the Local Bubble, leading to an apparent halo intensity of I_{OVI} = 4680^{+570}_{-660} photons/cm^2/s/sr. A correction for foreground extinction leads to an intrinsic intensity that could be as much as twice this value. Assuming T ~ 3 x 10^5 K, we conclude that the electron density, n_e, is 0.01-0.02 /cm^3, the thermal pressure, p/k, is 7000-10,000 K/cm^3, and that the hot gas is spread over a length of 50-70 pc, implying a small filling factor for O VI-rich gas. ROSAT observations of emission at 1/4 keV in the same direction indicate that the X-rays are weaker by a factor of 1.1 to 4.7, depending on the foreground extinction. Simulated supernova remnants evolving in low density gas have similar O VI to X-ray ratios when the remnant plasma is approaching collisional ioinizational equilibrium and the physical structures are approaching dynamical ``middle age''. Alternatively, the plasma can be described by a temperature power-law. Assuming that the material is approximately isobaric and the length scales according to T^(beta) d(ln T), we find beta = 1.5+/-0.6 and an upper temperature cutoff of 10^{6.6(+0.3,-0.2)} K. The radiative cooling rate for the hot gas, including that which is too hot to hold O VI, is 6 x 10^{38} erg/s/kpc^2. This rate implies that ~70% of the energy produced in the disk and halo by SN and pre-SN winds is radiated by the hot gas in the halo.

Robin L. Shelton; Shauna M. Sallmen; Edward B. Jenkins

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

400

High pressure study of changes in energy and intensity of excitations in crystalline metal glyoximes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of high pressure has been measured on the energy and integrated intensity of electronic excitations of several layered crystals of glyoximes containing Ni, Pd, or Pt. Large changes in both energy and intensity were observed, both of which were completely reversible. The shifts in energy with pressure, are explained in terms of the relative spatial extent of the outer d and p orbitals of Ni, Pd, and Pt. The effects of back donation from the ligands and intensity borrowing from the higher energy charge transfer excitations are considered as possible causes of the observed intensity changes. It was concluded that intensity borrowing was the major cause of the observed changes.

Tkacz, M.; Drickamer, H.G.

1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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401

Intensity Frontier: More Information | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Intensity Frontier » Intensity Frontier: More Information High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Snowmass / P5 Planning Process Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theoretical Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator R&D Stewardship Research Highlights .pdf file (13.1MB) Questions for the Universe Accomplishments Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees News & Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: sc.hep@science.doe.gov More Information » Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier: More Information Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Experiments at the Intensity Frontier aim to transform our understanding of

402

Applying a Modified Triad Approach to Investigate Wastewater lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 20 miles of wastewater lines are below grade at an active military Base. This piping network feeds or fed domestic or industrial wastewater treatment plants on the Base. Past wastewater line investigations indicated potential contaminant releases to soil and groundwater. Further environmental assessment was recommended to characterize the lines because of possible releases. A Remedial Investigation (RI) using random sampling or use of sampling points spaced at predetermined distances along the entire length of the wastewater lines, however, would be inefficient and cost prohibitive. To accomplish RI goals efficiently and within budget, a modified Triad approach was used to design a defensible sampling and analysis plan and perform the investigation. The RI task was successfully executed and resulted in a reduced fieldwork schedule, and sampling and analytical costs. Results indicated that no major releases occurred at the biased sampling points. It was reasonably extrapolated that since releases did not occur at the most likely locations, then the entire length of a particular wastewater line segment was unlikely to have contaminated soil or groundwater and was recommended for no further action. A determination of no further action was recommended for the majority of the waste lines after completing the investigation. The modified Triad approach was successful and a similar approach could be applied to investigate wastewater lines on other United States Department of Defense or Department of Energy facilities. (authors)

Pawlowicz, R.; Urizar, L. [Bechtel National, Inc., 1230 Columbia St., Suite 400, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Blanchard, S. [Brown and Caldwell, 9665 Chesapeake Drive, Suite 201, San Diego, CA 92123 (United States); Jacobsen, K. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southwest 1220 Pacific Highway, San Diego, CA 92132 (United States); Scholfield, J. [EarthTech, 841 Bishop St., Suite 500, Honolulu, HI 96813 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

On model selection forecasting, Dark Energy and modified gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fisher matrix approach (Fisher 1935) allows one to calculate in advance how well a given experiment will be able to estimate model parameters, and has been an invaluable tool in experimental design. In the same spirit, we present here a method to predict how well a given experiment can distinguish between different models, regardless of their parameters. From a Bayesian viewpoint, this involves computation of the Bayesian evidence. In this paper, we generalise the Fisher matrix approach from the context of parameter fitting to that of model testing, and show how the expected evidence can be computed under the same simplifying assumption of a gaussian likelihood as the Fisher matrix approach for parameter estimation. With this `Laplace approximation' all that is needed to compute the expected evidence is the Fisher matrix itself. We illustrate the method with a study of how well upcoming and planned experiments should perform at distinguishing between Dark Energy models and modified gravity theories. In particular we consider the combination of 3D weak lensing, for which planned and proposed wide-field multi-band imaging surveys will provide suitable data, and probes of the expansion history of the Universe, such as proposed supernova and baryonic acoustic oscillations surveys. We find that proposed large-scale weak lensing surveys from space should be able readily to distinguish General Relativity from modified gravity models.

A. F. Heavens; T. D. Kitching; L. Verde

2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

404

NONTHERMAL RADIATION FROM COSMIC-RAY MODIFIED SHOCKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We calculate nonthermal radiation from cosmic-ray (CR) protons and electrons accelerated at CR modified plane and spherical shocks, using time-dependent, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) simulations that include radiative losses of CR electrons. Strong non-relativistic shocks with physical parameters relevant for young supernova remnants (SNRs) are considered in both the plane-parallel and spherically symmetric geometries, and compared at times when their dynamical and CR properties are concordant. A thermal leakage injection model and a Bohm-like diffusion coefficient are adopted. After DSA energy gains balance radiative losses, the electron spectrum at the plane shock approaches a time-asymptotic spectrum with a super-exponential cutoff above the equilibrium momentum. The postshock electron spectrum cuts off at a progressively lower momentum downstream from the shock due to the energy losses. That results in the steepening of the volume integrated electron energy spectrum by one power of the particle energy. These features evolve toward lower energies in the spherical, SNR shocks. In a CR modified shock, pion decay gamma-ray emission reveals distinct signatures of nonlinear DSA due to the concave proton momentum spectrum. Although the electron momentum spectrum has a much weaker concavity, the synchrotron spectral slope at the shock may flatten by about 0.1-0.3 between radio and X-ray bands. The slope of the volume integrated emission spectrum behaves nonlinearly around the break frequency.

Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Edmon, Paul P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Jones, T. W., E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: pedmon@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met.

Stevens, P.F.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

407

Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

G. Shvets

2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

408

Deposition of DLC via intense ion beam ablation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diamond-like carbon films were prepared by high intensity pulsed ion beam ablation of graphite targets. A 350 key, 35 kA, 400 ns pulse width beam, consisting primarily of carbon ions and protons, was focused onto a graphite target at a fluence of 15-45J/cm{sup 2}. Films were deposited onto substrates positioned i.n q n angular array from normal to the target to 90{degrees} off normal. Deposition rates up to 30 nm per pulse, corresponding to an instantaneous deposition rate greater than I mn/sec, have been observed. Electrical resistivities between 1 and 1000 ohm-cm were measured for these films. XRD scans showed that no crystalline structure developed in the films. SEM revealed that the bulk of the films contain material with feature sizes on the order of 100 nm, but micron size particles were deposited as well. Both Raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicated significant amounts of sp{sup 3} bonded carbon present in most of the films.

Johnston, G.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Tiwari, P.; Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Waganaar, W.J.; Muenchausen, R.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tallant, D.; Simpson, R.L. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D.B. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Qui, X. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept of Chemical Engineering

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Novel materials synthesis using an intense pulsed ion beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial experiments on evaporation from metallic and ceramic targets using a pulsed light ion beam source is reported. The source is an intense ion beam produced by a 1.2 MV, 300 kJ Anaconda generator fitted with an extraction diode. Beam fluences of 10--20 J/cm{sup 2} gives a deposition rate of about 30--50 nm per shot, for both brass and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (1-2-3) targets. This is about 1000 times greater than comparable rates from pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Single-shot ablated 1-2-3 films, deposited on Si, were analyzed using RBS; the measured stoichiometry was close to 1-2-3 in favorable cases, but shot-to-shot reproducibility was poor. Approximately 1% of the available ion beam energy was utilized for these initial experiments. The potential for producing large area coatings from multi-cation targets and nanophase powders using pulsed ion beam deposition will be discussed.

Gautier, D.C.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Rej, D.J.; Roberts, B.F.; Waganarr, W.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Johnston, G. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Novel materials synthesis using an intense pulsed ion beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial experiments on evaporation from metallic and ceramic targets using a pulsed light ion beam source is reported. The source is an intense ion beam produced by a 1.2 MV, 300 kJ Anaconda generator fitted with an extraction diode. Beam fluences of 10--20 J/cm[sup 2] gives a deposition rate of about 30--50 nm per shot, for both brass and YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] (1-2-3) targets. This is about 1000 times greater than comparable rates from pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Single-shot ablated 1-2-3 films, deposited on Si, were analyzed using RBS; the measured stoichiometry was close to 1-2-3 in favorable cases, but shot-to-shot reproducibility was poor. Approximately 1% of the available ion beam energy was utilized for these initial experiments. The potential for producing large area coatings from multi-cation targets and nanophase powders using pulsed ion beam deposition will be discussed.

Gautier, D.C.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Rej, D.J.; Roberts, B.F.; Waganarr, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Johnston, G. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Injection, compression and stability of intense ion-rings  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in pulsed high power ion beam technology make possible the creation of intense ion-rings with strong self-magnetic fields by single pulse injection. Such ion rings have several uses in controlled fusion e.g., to produce a min parallel B parallel magnetic geometry with a mirror ratio much higher than is possible with external conductors. For even stronger ion rings a min parallel B parallel with closed lines of force (ASTRON type) can be created. For this purpose, since the ion energies required are much higher than are available from high power sources, magnetic compression can be utilized to increase the ion energy. The success of this scheme depends critically on the stability of the ion ring. The low frequency perturbations of the ring-plasma system is examined by means of a generalization of the energy principle which established sufficient conditions for stability. The high-frequency micro- instabilities and their nonlinear consequences are discussed in terms of conventional techniques. (auth)

Sudan, R.N.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

A modified SMO algorithm for SVM regression and its application in quality prediction of HP-LDPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm for support vector machine (SVM) regression is proposed based on Shevade's SMO-1 algorithm. The main improvement is that a modified heuristics method is used in this modified SMO algorithm ...

Hengping Zhao; Jinshou Yu

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalisation (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies.

Purchase, Iain F.H. [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ifhp@chadzombe.u-net.com

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Prostate Bed Motion During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Conformal radiation therapy in the postprostatectomy setting requires accurate setup and localization of the prostatic fossa. In this series, we report prostate bed localization and motion characteristics, using data collected from implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso four-dimensional localization system uses three implanted radiofrequency transponders for daily target localization and real-time tracking throughout a course of radiation therapy. We reviewed the localization and tracking reports for 20 patients who received ultrasonography-guided placement of Calypso transponders within the prostate bed prior to a course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Results: At localization, prostate bed displacement relative to bony anatomy exceeded 5 mm in 9% of fractions in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction and 21% of fractions in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction. The three-dimensional vector length from skin marks to Calypso alignment exceeded 1 cm in 24% of all 652 fractions with available setup data. During treatment, the target exceeded the 5-mm tracking limit for at least 30 sec in 11% of all fractions, generally in the A-P or S-I direction. In the A-P direction, target motion was twice as likely to move posteriorly, toward the rectum, than anteriorly. Fifteen percent of all treatments were interrupted for repositioning, and 70% of patients were repositioned at least once during their treatment course. Conclusion: Set-up errors and motion of the prostatic fossa during radiotherapy are nontrivial, leading to potential undertreatment of target and excess normal tissue toxicity if not taken into account during treatment planning. Localization and real-time tracking of the prostate bed via implanted Calypso transponders can be used to improve the accuracy of plan delivery.

Klayton, Tracy; Price, Robert; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Sobczak, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Jinsheng; Keller, Lanea; Sopka, Dennis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kutikov, Alexander [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Horwitz, Eric M., E-mail: eric.horwitz@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Challenges in Data Intensive Analysis at Scientific Experimental User Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today's scientific challenges such as routes to a sustainable energy future, materials by design or biological and chemical environmental remediation methods, are complex problems that require the integration of a wide range of complementary expertise to be addressed successfully. Experimental and computational science research methods can hereby offer fundamental insights for their solution. Experimental facilities in particular can contribute through a large variety of investigative methods, which can span length scales from millions of kilometers (radar) to the sub-nucleus (LHC). These methods are used to probe structure, properties, and function of objects from single elements to whole communities. Hereby direct imaging techniques are a powerful means to develop an atomistic understanding of scientific issues. For example, the identification ofmechanisms associated with chemical, material, and biological transformations requires the direct observation of the reactions to build up an understanding of the atom-by-atom structural and chemical changes. Computational science can aid the planning of such experiments, correlate results, explain or predict the phenomena as they would be observed and thus aid their interpretation. Furthermore computational science can be essential for the investigation of phenomena that are difficult to observe due to their scale, reaction time or extreme conditions. Combining experimental and computational techniques provides scientists with the ability to research structures and processes at various levels of theory, e.g. providing molecular 'movies' of complex reactions that show bond breaking and reforming in natural time scales, along with the intermediate states to understand the mechanisms that govern the chemical transformations. This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will highlight current solutions and lay out perspectives for the future, such as methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration across experimental scales, levels of theory, and varying techniques.

Kleese Van Dam, Kerstin [ORNL; Li, Dongsheng [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cobb, John W [ORNL; Green, Mark L [ORNL; Burley, Catherine L [ORNL; Miller, Stephen D [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Test of modified BCS model at finite temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recently suggested modified BCS (MBCS) model has been studied at finite temperature. We show that this approach does not allow the existence of the normal (non-superfluid) phase at any finite temperature. Other MBCS predictions such as a negative pairing gap, pairing induced by heating in closed-shell nuclei, and ``superfluid -- super-superfluid'' phase transition are discussed also. The MBCS model is tested by comparing with exact solutions for the picket fence model. Here, severe violation of the internal symmetry of the problem is detected. The MBCS equations are found to be inconsistent. The limit of the MBCS applicability has been determined to be far below the ``superfluid -- normal'' phase transition of the conventional FT-BCS, where the model performs worse than the FT-BCS.

V. Yu. Ponomarev; A. I. Vdovin

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

418

Deputy Secretary Decision Affirming Decision as Modified, January 19, 2000  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Daniel Holsinger, Complainant, v. K-Ray Security, Inc., Respondent OHA Case Nos. VWC-0001 and VWC-0002 Daniel Holsinger, Complainant, v. K-Ray Security, Inc., Respondent OHA Case Nos. VWC-0001 and VWC-0002 DECISION AFFIRMING AGENCY DECISION AS MODIFIED Issued: January 19, 2000 This is a request for review by K-Ray Security, Inc., the current security operations contractor at DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center ("FETC"), of the Decision of the Office of Hearings and Appeals ("OHA") on remand from the Deputy Secretary adhering, after an additional evidentiary hearing and an assessment of the equities, to its earlier finding that reinstatement of Complainant Holsinger as a security guard is a necessary and appropriate action to effect full relief, even though it was the prior security contractor, Watkins Security Agency, Inc., ("WSA") that was found to have committed the act of reprisal

419

Modifying Proteins to Combat Disease | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Higher Temperature at the Earth's Core Higher Temperature at the Earth's Core Clues about Rheumatoid Arthritis Damage Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Modifying Proteins to Combat Disease JANUARY 22, 2013 Bookmark and Share Structure of the human PRMT5:MEP50 hetero-octameric complex bound to a substrate peptide and a cofactor analog. Cartoon representations of the PRMT5 monomers are colored blue, green, wheat, and yellow, while the MEP50 molecules are in red. Highlighted in stick representation are the substrate peptide derived from histone H3 in magenta, and the cofactor analog in orange. Transmitting from one generation to the next the genetic message encoded in

420

Observational Constraints of New Variable Modified Chaplygin Gas Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assuming the flat FRW universe in Einstein's gravity filled with New Variable Modified Chaplygin gas (NVMCG) dark energy and dark matter having negligible pressure. In this research work we analyze the viability on the basis of recent observation. Hubble parameter $H$ is expressed in terms of the observable parameters $H_0$, $\\Omega_m^0$ and the model parameters $A_0$, $B_0$, $C_0$, $m$, $n$, $\\alpha$ and the red shift parameter $z$. Here we find a best fitted parameter range of $A_0$, $B_0$ keeping $0\\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ and using Stern data set (12 points) by minimizing the $\\chi^2$ test at 66%, 90% and 99% confidence levels. Next we do the joint analysis with BAO and CMB observations. Again evaluating the distance modulus $\\mu(z)$ vs redshift ($z$) curve obtained in the model NVMCG with dark matter with the best fitted value of the parameters and comparing with that derived from the union2 compilation data.

Jhumpa Bhadra; Ujjal Debnath

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Glassy Aging with Modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts Form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this report we address the question whether aging in the non equilibrium glassy state is controlled by the equilibrium alpha-relaxation process which occur at temperatures above Tg. Recently Lunkenheimer et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 055702 (2005)] proposed a model for the glassy aging data of dielectric relaxation using a modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) form. The aging time dependence of the relaxation time is defined by these authors through a functional relation involving the corresponding frequency but the stretching exponent is same as the alpha-relaxation stretching exponent. We present here an alternative functional form directly involving the relaxation time itself. The proposed model fits the data of Lunkenheimer et. al. perfectly with a stretching exponent different from the alpha-relaxation stretching exponent.

Bhaskar Sen Gupta; Shankar P. Das

2007-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

422

Modified Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) for Uncertainty Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a methodology of characterizing important phenomena, which is also part of a broader research by the authors called 'Modified PIRT'. The methodology provides robust process of phenomena identification and ranking process for more precise quantification of uncertainty. It is a two-step process of identifying and ranking methodology based on thermal-hydraulics (TH) importance as well as uncertainty importance. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) has been used for as a formal approach for TH identification and ranking. Formal uncertainty importance technique is used to estimate the degree of credibility of the TH model(s) used to represent the important phenomena. This part uses subjective justification by evaluating available information and data from experiments, and code predictions. The proposed methodology was demonstrated by developing a PIRT for large break loss of coolant accident LBLOCA for the LOFT integral facility with highest core power (test LB-1). (authors)

Gol-Mohamad, Mohammad P.; Modarres, Mohammad; Mosleh, Ali [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Time delays across saddles as a test of modified gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modified gravity theories can produce strong signals in the vicinity of the saddles of the total gravitational potential. In a sub-class of these models this translates into diverging time-delays for echoes crossing the saddles. Such models arise from the possibility that gravity might be infrared divergent or confined, and if suitably designed they are very difficult to rule out. We show that Lunar Laser Ranging during an eclipse could probe the time-delay effect within meters of the saddle, thereby proving or excluding these models. Very Large Baseline Interferometry, instead, could target delays across the Jupiter-Sun saddle. Such experiments would shed light on the infrared behaviour of gravity and examine the puzzling possibility that there might be well-hidden regions of strong gravity and even singularities inside the solar system.

Joao Magueijo; Ali Mozaffari

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Sweep efficiency modeling of modified in-situ retorts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple two-dimensional flow model is used to illustrate the effects of different porosity and permeability distributions and retort geometries on sweep efficiency during modified in-situ oil shale retorting. Results of these case studies, two emphasizing different retort geometries and porosity distributions and one a study of nonuniform flow around a single, large block, are presented. The most interesting is a simulation of the flow field and resultant retort front movement for Occidental Petroleum Company Retort 5. A porosity/permeability distribution was chosen based on reported tracer data. The results of the model calculation indicate a sweep efficiency of about 55%. From these data an estimate can be made of the amount of oil degradation from burning, cracking, and coking. 17 figures.

Gregg, M.L.; Campbell, J.H.

1980-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

425

Thermodynamics of Modified Chaplygin Gas and Tachyonic Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we generalize the results of the work of ref. [10] in modified Chaplygin gas model and tachyonic field model. Here we have studied the thermodynamical behaviour and the equation of state in terms of volume and temperature for both models. We have used the solution and the corresponding equation of state of our previous work [12] for tachyonic field model. We have also studied the thermodynamical stability using thermal equation of state for the tachyonic field model and have shown that there is no critical points during thermodynamical expansion. The determination of $T_{*}$ due to expansion for the tachyonic field have been discussed by assuming some initial conditions. Here, the thermal quantities have been investigated using some reduced parameters.

Samarpita Bhattacharya; Ujjal Debnath

2010-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

426

Thermodynamics of apparent horizon and modified Friedman equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=T_hdS_h+WdV$, at apparent horizon of a FRW universe, and assuming that the associated entropy with apparent horizon has a quantum corrected relation, $S=\\frac{A}{4G}-\\alpha \\ln \\frac{A}{4G}+\\beta \\frac{4G}{A}$, we derive modified Friedmann equations describing the dynamics of the universe with any spatial curvature. We also examine the time evolution of the total entropy including the quantum corrected entropy associated with the apparent horizon together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon. Our study shows that, with the local equilibrium assumption, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

427

Modified Magnicon for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis, and low-power cold tests are described on a modified design intended for the Ka-band pulsed magnicon now in use for high-gradient accelerator R and D and rare elementary particle searches at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. The modification is mainly to the output cavity of the magnicon, which presently operates in the TM310 mode. It is proposed to substitute for this a dual-chamber TE311 cavity structure. The first chamber is to extract about 40% of the beam power (about 25 MW) at 34.272 GHz, while the second chamber is to convey the power to four WR-28 output waveguides. Minor design changes are also proposed for the penultimate 11.424 GHz cavity and the beam collector. The intention of these design changes is to allow the magnicon to operate reliably 24/7, with minor sensitivity to operating parameters.

Jay L. Hirshfield

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

428

Fusion-fission reactions with modified Woods-Saxon potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A modified Woods-Saxon potential model is proposed for a unified description of the entrance channel fusion barrier and the fission barrier of fusion-fission reactions based on the Skyrme energy-density functional approach. The fusion excitation functions of 120 reactions have been systematically studied. The fusion (capture) cross sections are well described with the calculated potential and an empirical barrier distribution. Incorporating a statistical model (HIVAP code) for describing the decay of the compound nucleus, the evaporation residue (and fission) cross sections of 51 fusion-fission reactions have been systematically investigated. Optimal values of some key parameters of the HIVAP code are obtained based on the experimental data of these reactions. The experimental data are reasonably well reproduced by the calculated results. The upper and lower confidence limits of the systematic errors of the calculated results are given.

Ning Wang; Kai Zhao; Werner Scheid; Xizhen Wu

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From each according to his emission intensity or fromeach according to his emissions? D. RajagopalFrom each according to his emission intensity or from each

Rajagopal, Deepak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indicators of steel sector energy efficiency and intensity.Energy intensity in the iron and steel industry: a comparison of physical and economic indicators,”

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Experiments at the Intensity Frontier | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Facilities Facility Ops Experiments at the Energy Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Cosmic Frontier Projects, Missions, and Status HEP User Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees News & Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: sc.hep@science.doe.gov More Information » Facilities Experiments at the Intensity Frontier Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page The Intensity Frontier, accessed with a combination of intense particle beams and highly sensitive detectors, offers a second, unique investigation

432

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release)-Energy Intensity Section  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Intensity Intensity Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release) Energy Intensity Figure 7. Energy use per capita and per dollar of gross domestic product, 1980-2030 (index, 1980 = 1). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Energy intensity, measured as energy use (in thousand Btu) per dollar of GDP (in 2000 dollars), is projected to decline at an average annual rate of 1.6 percent from 2006 to 2030 in the AEO2008 reference case (Figure 7). Although energy use generally increases as the economy grows, continuing improvement in the energy efficiency of the U.S. economy and a shift to less energy-intensive activities are projected to keep the rate of energy consumption growth lower than the rate of GDP growth. Since 1992, the energy intensity of the U.S. economy has declined on

433

Industrial Sector Energy Demand: Revisions for Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

For the industrial sector, EIAs analysis and projection efforts generally have focused on the energy-intensive industriesfood, bulk chemicals, refining, glass, cement, steel, and aluminumwhere energy cost averages 4.8 percent of annual operating cost. Detailed process flows and energy intensity indicators have been developed for narrowly defined industry groups in the energy-intensive manufacturing sector. The non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries, where energy cost averages 1.9 percent of annual operating cost, previously have received somewhat less attention, however. In AEO2006, energy demand projections were provided for two broadly aggregated industry groups in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing sector: metal-based durables and other non-energy-intensive. In the AEO2006 projections, the two groups accounted for more than 50 percent of the projected increase in industrial natural gas consumption from 2004 to 2030.

Information Center

2007-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

434

Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991  

SciTech Connect

In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Parallel In Situ Indexing for Data-intensive Computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: indexing and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that indexing is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes indexing an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include indexes with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap indexes from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the indexes, we need to build them first. The index building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we adapt the in situ processing technology to generate the indexes, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build indexes in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the indexes can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the indexes, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.

Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

436

Intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy optimization by photon proxy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Introducing intensity modulation into neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT) planning has the potential to mitigate some normal tissue complications seen in past neutron trials. While the hardware to deliver IMNRT plans has been in use for several years, until recently the IMNRT planning process has been cumbersome and of lower fidelity than conventional photon plans. Our in-house planning system used to calculate neutron therapy plans allows beam weight optimization of forward planned segments, but does not provide inverse optimization capabilities. Commercial treatment planning systems provide inverse optimization capabilities, but currently cannot model our neutron beam. Methods: We have developed a methodology and software suite to make use of the robust optimization in our commercial planning system while still using our in-house planning system to calculate final neutron dose distributions. Optimized multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions for segments designed in the commercial system using a 4 MV photon proxy beam are translated into static neutron ports that can be represented within our in-house treatment planning system. The true neutron dose distribution is calculated in the in-house system and then exported back through the MATLAB software into the commercial treatment planning system for evaluation. Results: The planning process produces optimized IMNRT plans that reduce dose to normal tissue structures as compared to 3D conformal plans using static MLC apertures. The process involves standard planning techniques using a commercially available treatment planning system, and is not significantly more complex than conventional IMRT planning. Using a photon proxy in a commercial optimization algorithm produces IMNRT plans that are more conformal than those previously designed at our center and take much less time to create. Conclusions: The planning process presented here allows for the optimization of IMNRT plans by a commercial treatment planning optimization algorithm, potentially allowing IMNRT to achieve similar conformality in treatment as photon IMRT. The only remaining requirements for the delivery of very highly modulated neutron treatments are incremental improvements upon already implemented hardware systems that should be readily achievable.

Snyder, Michael; Hammoud, Ahmad; Bossenberger, Todd; Spink, Robyn; Burmeister, Jay [Karmanos Cancer Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

REFLECTED LIGHT INTENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM DEFECTS ON HIGHLY REFLECTIVE SPHERES PDO 6984778, Topical Report  

SciTech Connect

A light reflection technique suitable for development into an automated surface quality certification system was investigated to determine if reflected light intensity distributions could be corre]ated with surface defect depths. Reflected laser light intensity distributions from pit and scratch defects on highly reflective spheres were studied with a commercial multi-element photodetector. It was found that the intensity distributions --Goll'lf be correlated with depths of pits and scratches in a size range of concern on highly reflective' spheres.

Klingsport, P. E.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by state (2000...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by state (2000 - 2010)" "kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2010"...

439

U.S. energy intensity projected to continue its steady decline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil ... Energy use in homes, ... the role of energy-intensive industries in the United States declined with continuing structural changes ...

440

Laser guiding at relativistic intensities and wakefield particle accleration in plasma channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser Guiding at Relativistic Intensities and Wakefieldfirst time in a high gradient laser wakefield accelerator byguiding the drive laser pulse. Channels formed by

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

TransForum v3n1 - Aluminum-Intensive Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARGONNE PREDICTS BENEFITS OF ALUMINUM-INTENSIVE VEHICLES Aluminum Car Frame At the Paris Exposition of 1855, as part of the rich and varied displays of France's evolving...

442

Table WH10. Consumption Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Main Water Heating Fuel Used (physical units/number of household members) Electricity Table WH10. Consumption Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used, 2005

443

Table WH11. Expenditures Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Main Water Heating Fuel Used (Dollars/number of household members) Electricity Table WH11. Expenditures Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used, 2005

444

Nonlinear Magnetoresistance Oscillations in Intensely Irradiated Two-Dimensional Electron Systems Induced by Multiphoton Processes.  

SciTech Connect

We report on magneto-oscillations in differential resistivity of a two-dimensional electron system subject to intense microwave radiation. The period of these oscillations is determined not only by microwave frequency but also by its intensity. A theoretical model based on quantum kinetics at high microwave power captures all important characteristics of this phenomenon which is strongly nonlinear in microwave intensity. Our results demonstrate a crucial role of the multiphoton processes near the cyclotron resonance and its harmonics in the presence of strong dc electric field and offer a unique way to reliably determine the intensity of microwaves acting on electrons.

Khodas, M.; Chiang, H.-S.; Hatke, A.T.; Zudov, M.A.; Vavilov, M.G.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

445

U.S. energy intensity projected to continue its steady decline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In the United States, energy intensity has been declining steadily since the early 1970s and continues to decline in EIA's long-term projection.

446

Wavelength and intensity dependent studies of isolated Photosystem II reaction centers using an optical parametric amplifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Isolated Photosystem II reaction centers were excited at five wavelengths to study the effects of excitation wavelength and intensity on energy transfer and charge separation.

Greenfield, S.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Seibert, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Basic Sciences Div.; Govindjee [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber.  

SciTech Connect

The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Energy Carrier Transport In Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes are made into films or bulks, their surface or junction morphology in the networks can be modified to obtain desired electrical transport properties by various surface modification methods. The methods include incorporation of organic molecules or inorganic nanoparticles, debundling of nanotubes by dispersing agents, and microwave irradiation. Because carbon nanotubes have unique carrier transport characteristics along a sheet of graphite in a cylindrical shape, the properties can be dramatically changed by the modification. This is ideal for developing high-performance materials for thermoelectric and photovoltaic energy conversion applications. In this research, decoration of various organic/inorganic nanomaterials on carbon nanotubes was employed to enhance their electrical conductivity, to improve thermoelectric power factor by modulating their electrical conductance and thermopower, or to obtain n-type converted carbon nanotube. The electrical conductivity of double-wall nanotubes (DWNTs) decorated with tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) was increased up to 5.9 × 10^5 S/m. The sheet resistances were measured to be 42 ?/sq at 75% of transmittance for HNO3/SOCl2-treated DWNT films, making their electrical conductivities 200~300% better than those of the pristine DWNT films. A series of experiments at different ion concentrations and reaction time periods were systematically performed in order to find optimum nanomaterial formation conditions and corresponding electronic transport changes for better thermoelectric power factor. For example, the thermoelectric power factors were improved by ~180% with F4TCNQ on DWNTs, ~200% with Cu on SWNTs, and ~140% with Fe on single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). Also SWNTs was converted from p-type to n-type with a large thermopower (58 ?V/K) by using polyethyleneimine (PEI) without vacuum or controlled environment. This transport behavior is believed to be from charge interactions resulted from the difference between the work functions/reduction potentials of nanotubes and nanomaterials. In addition, different dispersing agents were utilized with DWNT and SWNTs to see a debundling effect in a film network. The highest electrical conductivity of ~1.72×10^6 S/m was obtained from DWNT film which was fabricated with a nanotube solution dispersed by chlorosulfonic acid. Debundling of nanotubes in the film network has been demonstrated to be a critical parameter in order to get such high electrical property. In the last experiment, Au nanoparticle decoration on carbon nanotube bundle was performed and a measurement of themophysical properties has done before and after modifying carbon nanotube surface. Carbon nanotube bundle, herein, was bridged on microdevice to enable the measurement work. This study demonstrates a first step toward a breakthrough in order to extract the potential of carbon nanotubes regarding electron transport properties.

Ryu, Yeontack

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Healthful LipidsChapter 2 Safety, Regulatory Aspects, and Public Acceptance of Genetically Modified Lipids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 2 Safety, Regulatory Aspects, and Public Acceptance of Genetically Modified Lipids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable pdf o

451

EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Hampshire DOE announces its intent to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (DOEEIS-0463) and conduct...

452

String-Inspired Chern-Simons Modified Gravity In 4-Dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chern-Simons modified gravity models in 4-dimensions are shown to be special cases of low energy effective string models to first order in the string constant.

Adak, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Observational Constraints of Modified Chaplygin Gas in RS II Brane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FRW universe in RS II braneworld model filled with a combination of dark matter and dark energy in the form of modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) is considered. It is known that the equation of state (EoS) for MCG is a three-variable equation determined by $A$, $\\alpha$ and $B$. The permitted values of these parameters are determined by the recent astrophysical and cosmological observational data. Here we present the Hubble parameter in terms of the observable parameters $\\Omega_{m0}$, $\\Omega_{x0}$, $H_{0}$, redshift $z$ and other parameters like $A$, $B$, $C$ and $\\alpha$. From Stern data set (12 points), we have obtained the bounds of the arbitrary parameters by minimizing the $\\chi^{2}$ test. The best-fit values of the parameters are obtained by 66%, 90% and 99% confidence levels. Next due to joint analysis with BAO and CMB observations, we have also obtained the bounds of the parameters ($B,C$) by fixing some other parameters $\\alpha$ and $A$. The best fit value of distance modulus $\\mu(z)$ is obtained for the MCG model in RS II brane, and it is concluded that our model is perfectly consistent with the union2 sample data.

Chayan Ranjit; Prabir Rudra; Sujata Kundu

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

454

Energy conditions in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In considering alternative higher-order gravity theories, one is liable to be motivated in pursuing models consistent and inspired by several candidates of a fundamental theory of quantum gravity. Indeed, motivations from string/M theory predict that scalar field couplings with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant, G, are important in the appearance of nonsingular early time cosmologies. In this work, we discuss the viability of an interesting alternative gravitational theory, namely, modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity or f(G) gravity. We consider specific realistic forms of f(G) analyzed in the literature that account for the late-time cosmic acceleration and that have been found to cure the finite-time future singularities present in the dark energy models. We present the general inequalities imposed by the energy conditions and use the recent estimated values of the Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters to examine the viability of the above-mentioned forms of f(G) imposed by the weak energy condition.

Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, Jose P. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (Hong Kong); Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edificio C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 {micro}m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth.

Duff, Martine

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

456

Intensity and position measuring systems in the booster of the Zero Gradient Synchrotorn  

SciTech Connect

Soon the new booster for the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) will be commissioned at Argonne. Three of its diagnostic systems will be described here: (1) the beam position system, (2) the toroid intensity measuring system and (3) the capacitive intensity measuring system.

Brunwell, F.R.; Kliss, R.M.; Schmitt, D.R.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Intensity-resolved Above Threshold Ionization Yields of Atoms with Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The above threshold ionization (ATI) spectra provide a diversity of information about a laser-atom ionization process such as laser intensity, pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and atomic energy level spacing. However, the spatial distribution of intensities inherent in all laser beams reduces the resolution of this information. This research focuses on recovering the intensity-resolved ATI spectra from experimental data using a deconvolution algorithm. Electron ionization yields of xenon were measured for a set of laser pulse intensities using a time of flight (TOF) setup. Horizontally polarized, unchirped, 50fs pulses were used in the ionization process. All laser parameters other than the radiation intensity were held constant over the set of intensity measurements. A deconvolution algorithm was developed based on the experimental parameters. Then the deconvolution algorithm was applied to the experimental data to obtain the intensity-resolved total yield probability and ATI spectra. Finally, an error analysis was performed to determine the stability and accuracy of the algorithm as well as the quality of the data. It was found that the algorithm produced greater contrast for peaks in the ATI spectra where atom specific resonant behavior is observed. Additionally, the total yield probability showed that double ionization may be observed in the ionization yield. The error analysis revealed that the algorithm was stable under the experimental conditions for a range of intensities.

Hart, Nathan Andrew

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Initial ultraviolet-B intensity data at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A measurement of UV-B reaching the ground has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instrument is the same as those operated by the National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research in their network in New Zealand. The wavelength response of the radiometer is similar to the response of human skin to UV-B. Intensity data are collected by averaging meter readings over 10 minutes from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm Pacific Standard Time, then converting to effective UV-B intensity normalized at 310 nm. This report checks the intensities obtained at LLNL from November 1992 to July 1993 against the expected results: Increased solar zenith angle, whether from the daily cycle or from the yearly cycle in solar position, should decrease UV-B intensity at the ground due to increased optical path; and, intervening cloud cover should decrease ground UV-B intensity. Three additional findings are reported here: Maximum UV-B intensity on cloudless days does not always follow a smooth curve, but instead varies either high or low to some extent; Morning UV-B intensities are less than those in the afternoon at comparable solar zenith angles at certain times of year; LLNL wintertime daily-averaged UV-B intensities are somewhat higher than those observed at Auckland, New Zealand in their winter of 1992.

Patten, K.O. Jr.; Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Smith, G.J. [New Zealand Inst. for Industrial Research and Development, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

The effect of beam intensity on the estimation bias of beam position  

SciTech Connect

For the signals of the beam position monitor (BPM), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is directly related to the beam intensity. Low beam intensity results in poor SNR. The random noise has a modulation effect on both the amplitude and phase of the BPM signals. Therefore, the beam position measurement has a certain random error. In the currently used BPM, time-averaging and waveform clipping are used to improve the measurement. The nonlinear signal processing results in a biased estimate of beam position. A statistical analysis was made to examine the effect of the SNR, which is determined by the beam intensity, on the estimation bias. The results of the analysis suggest that the estimation bias has a dependence not only on the beam position but also on beam intensity. Specifically, the dependence gets strong as the beam intensity decreases. This property has set a lower limit of the beam intensity range which the BPM`s can handle. When the beam intensity is below that limit the estimation bias starts to vary dramatically, resulting in the BPMs failure. According to the analysis, the lowest beam intensity is that at which the SNR of the generated BPM signal is about 15 dB. The limit for NSEP BPM, for instance, is about 6Ell. The analysis may provide the BPM designers with some idea about the potential of the current BPM`S.

Ma, H.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Towards building performance models for data-intensive workloads in public clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud computing paradigm provides the "illusion" of infinite resources and, therefore, becomes a promising candidate for large-scale data-intensive computing. In this paper, we explore experiment-driven performance models for data-intensive workloads ... Keywords: multi-tenancy, performance model, performance variables, prediction techniques

Rizwan Mian; Patrick Martin; Farhana Zulkernine; Jose Luis Vazquez-Poletti

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Knowledge Innovation System and Customer Impact of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the development of economy, the service industry has already exceeded the manufacturing industry and has been one country's leading industry. Providing knowledge is the service way of Knowledge-Intensive business services (KIBS). KIBS are the ... Keywords: knowledge-intensive business service, knowledge innovation, innovation system, customer influence

Jun Tao

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Estimating resource costs of data-intensive workloads in public clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The promise of "infinite" resources given by the cloud computing paradigm has led to recent interest in exploiting clouds for large-scale data-intensive computing. In this paper, we present a model to estimate the resource costs for executing data-intensive ... Keywords: cloud computing, cost model, resource provisioning

Rizwan Mian; Patrick Martin; Farhana Zulkernine; Jose Luis Vazquez-Poletti

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fabrication of nano-structural arrays by channeling pulsed atomic beams through an intensity-modulated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication of nano-structural arrays by channeling pulsed atomic beams through an intensity-dimensional nano-structure arrays by passing a pulsed atomic beam through an intensity-modulated continuous of ``cooling'' along the longitudinal direction. This enables fabrication of vertically heterogeneous nano

Zhu, Xiangdong

464

Aggregating physical intensity indicators: results of applying the composite indicator approach to the Canadian industrial sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Issues surrounding the development, application and interpretation of energy intensity indicators are a continuing source of debate in the field of energy policy analysis. Although economic energy intensity indicators still dominate intensity/efficiency studies, the use of physical energy intensity indicators is on the rise. In the past, physical energy intensity indicators were not employed since it was often impossible to develop aggregate (sector-level or nation-wide) measures of physical energy intensity due to the difficulties associated with adding diverse physical products. This paper presents the results of research conducted specifically to address this ‘‘aggregation’ ’ problem. The research focused on the development of the Composite Indicator Approach, a simple, practical, alternative method for calculating aggregate physical energy intensity indicators. In this paper, the Composite Indicator Approach is used to develop physical energy intensity indicators for the Canadian industrial and manufacturing sectors, and is then compared to other existing methods of aggregation. The physical composite indicators developed using this approach are also evaluated in terms of their reliability and overall usefulness. Both comparisons suggest that the Composite Indicator Approach can be a useful, and ultimately suitable, way of addressing the aggregation problem typically associated with heterogeneous sectors of the economy. r

Mallika N; John Nyboer; Mark Jaccard

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Stocking rate effects on intensive-early stocked Flint Hills bluestem range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stocking rate effects on intensive-early stocked Flint Hills bluestem range CLENTON E. OWENSBY, ROBERT COCHRAN, AND ED F. SMITH Stocking rate effects on intensive-early stocked Kansas Flint Hills range- lands is limited to the first 2 1/ 2 months of the growing season in the Kansas Flint Hills. Grazing

Owensby, Clenton E.

466

An Automated Method to Estimate Tropical Cyclone Intensity Using SSM/I Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated method to estimate tropical cyclone intensity using Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data is developed and tested. SSM/I images (512 km × 512 km) centered on a given tropical cyclone (TC), with a known best-track intensity, ...

Richard L. Bankert; Paul M. Tag

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

The most prominent ionospheric effects produced by intense geomagnetic storms at middle and low-latitudes,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The most prominent ionospheric effects produced by intense geomagnetic storms at middle and low (EIA), were recorded during only a few geomagnetic storms during 2000-2006. Based on observations of ionosphere TEC response to more than 15 geomagnetic storms, we found that combination of intensive dawn

Dessert, Céline

468

Intensity and mosaic spread analysis from PISEMA tensors in solid-state NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensity and mosaic spread analysis from PISEMA tensors in solid-state NMR J.R. Quine a,b,*, S 2005 Available online 18 January 2006 Abstract The solid-state NMR experiment PISEMA, is a technique: PISEMA tensors; Solid-state NMR; Powder pattern intensity; Mosaic spread; Lineshapes 1. Introduction

Aluffi, Paolo

469

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985-1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985 - 1994 Full Report Introduction Summary of Data Data Tables Data Summaries All (20-39) Food (20) Textiles (22) Apparel (23) Lumber (24) Furniture (25) Paper (26) Printing (27) Chemicals (28) Refineries (29) Rubber (30) Stone (32) Metals (33) Fab. Metals (34) Machinery (35) El. Equip.(36) Instruments (38) Misc. (39) Appendices Survey Design Quality of Data Sector Description Nonobservation Errors Glossary Intensity Sites Commercial Residential Transportation International Manufacturing Energy Intensity Changes in Energy Intensity Click for Full Graph Manufacturing Energy Consumption Consumption of Energy Click for Full Graph Manufacturing Shipments History of Shipments Click for Full Graph The focus of this data report is on intensity of energy use, measured by energy consumption relative to constant dollar shipments of manufactured products -- commonly called energy intensities (EI) by energy analysts. This report explicitly relates changes in two energy measures of energy intensity to efficiency, while being cognizant that there are structural and behavioral effects enmeshed in those measures of energy efficiency. Reporting EI serves to continue the Intensity Change report series.

470

Energy intensities in OECD countries, 1970--1989: A sectoral analysis  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the evolution of energy intensities in key sectors or subsectors between the early 1970s and the late 1980s in nine OECD countries. The sectors covered are manufacturing, automobile and air travel, freight trucking, residential space heating, and the service sector. Intensity changes varied among the sectors and countries, but common trends are visible in many cases. In most cases, the intensity decline slowed or ceased in the mid-1980s. We discuss the causes for the changes observed in each area, showing how energy-price changes were but one of many factors that played a role. Weighting the changes in intensities by 1973 energy use patterns, we find that the aggregate energy intensity index fell by 14--19% between 1973 and 1988 in the US, Japan, and West Germany.

Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.; Howarth, R.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Vulcan petawatt laser. These measurements were made using a CCD-based magnetic spectrometer. We present details on the distinct effective temperatures that were obtained for a wide variety of targets as a function of laser intensity. It is found that as the intensity increases from 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, a 0.4 dependence on the laser intensity is found. Between 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} and 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, a gradual rolling off of temperature with intensity is observed.

Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W L; Moon, S; Patel, N; Patel, P K; Shepherd, R; Snavely, R

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

472

Surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study is to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on to the coal. During this reporting period, zeta potential measurements were conducted to assess the surface charge on the raw, pretreated and catalyzed coal samples. The surface area, transmission spectroscopy and luminescence intensity of the raw coal and pretreated coal samples were also determined to assess the quality of the coal surface. Across a broad range of pH values, the raw coal had an overall negative charge. Coal treated with anionic surfactant SDS maintained an overall net negative surface negative charge. The interaction between the coal and cationic surfactant DDAB caused the opposite effect resulting in a more positive coal surface charge. Although one would have expected little or no effect of the neutral surfactant Triton X-100, there appears to be some difference in the results of the raw coal and the coal treated with Triton X-100. The authors believe that the Triton not only binds to the nonpolar sites but also has a strong affinity for the polar sites through electrostatic bonding and interaction between the hydrophobic tails. The addition of molybdenum to coal pretreated with DDAB caused a reduction in the positive charge of the coal surface probably due to possible ionic interaction between the coal surface, the surfactant and the catalyst. The adsorption isotherm of the coal was characteristic of isotherms for porous samples and the surface area of the coal increased from 30 m{sup 2}/g to 77 m{sup 2}/g when washed with deionized water. This suggests coal washing may be one method of increasing the surface area for surfactant adsorption. Although the transmission measurements provided valuable information about the coal it resulted in little information on the amount of adsorbed Triton. However, the maximum solid-liquid ratio for optimum surfactant loading of Triton X-100 was determined via the UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The luminescence intensity measurements showed that the coal and surfactants luminescence weakly. No statistically significant influence was observed from the actions of the surfactants or surfactant-molybdenum catalyst. Qualitative inspection however, showed that SDS might effectively coat coal surfaces and influence catalyst dispersion. Also, catalysts appeared to be better distributed among coal particles and in finer clusters when DDAB and Triton surfactants were used.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

473

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and this necessitates additional power beyond that used by the lamp itself. HID lamps offer important advantages compared to other lighting technologies, making them well suited for certain applications. HID lamps can be very efficient, have long operating lives, are relatively temperature-insensitive and produce a large quantity of light from a small package. For these reasons, HID lamps are often used when high levels of illumination are required over large areas and where operating and maintenance costs must be kept to a minimum. Furthermore, if the installation has a significant mounting height, high-power HID lamps can offer superior optical performance luminaires, reducing the number of lamps required to illuminate a given area. The indoor environments best suited to HID lamps are those with high ceilings, such as those commonly found in industrial spaces, warehouses, large retail spaces, sports halls and large public areas. Research into efficacy improvements for HID lighting technologies has generally followed market demand for these lamps, which is in decline for MV and LPS, has reached a plateau for HPS and is growing for MH. Several manufacturers interviewed for this study indicated that although solid-state lighting was now receiving the bulk of their company's R&D investment, there are still strong HID lamp research programs, which concentrate on MH technologies, with some limited amount of investment in HPS for specific niche applications (e.g., agricultural greenhouses). LPS and MV lamps are no longer being researched or improved in terms of efficacy or other performance attributes, although some consider MH HID lamps to be the next-generation MV lamp. Thus, the efficacy values of commercially available MV, LPS and HPS lamps are not expected to increase in the next 5 to 10 years. MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the light-producing plasma must be heated to sufficiently high temperatures to achieve high efficiencie

Scholand, Michael

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

2009 Cellulosomes, Cellulases & Other Carbohydrate Modifying Enzymes GRC  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 Gordon Conference on Cellulosomes, Cellulases & Other Carbohydrate Modifying Enzymes will present cutting-edge research on the enzymatic degradation of cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics that includes the enzymology of plant structural degradation, regulation of the degradative apparatus, the mechanism of protein complex assembly, the genomics of cell wall degrading organisms, the structure of the substrate and the industrial application of the process particularly within the biofuel arena. Indeed the deployment of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in biofuel processes will be an important feature of the meeting. It should be emphasized that the 2009 Conference will be expanded to include, in addition to cellulase research, recent advances in other plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and contributions from people working on hemicellulases and pectinases will be particularly welcome. Invited speakers represent a variety of scientific disciplines, including biochemistry, structural biology, genetics and cell biology. The interplay between fundamental research and its industrial exploitation is a particularly important aspect of the meeting, reflecting the appointment of the chair and vice-chair from academia and industry, respectively. The meeting will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with more established figures in the field. Indeed, some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented. The Conference is likely to be heavily subscribed so we would recommend that you submit your application/abstract to the GRC web site as soon as possible.

Harry Gilbert

2009-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

475

LEACHING OF TITANIUM FROM MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND MODIFIED MST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a fouled coalescer and pre-filters from Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) operations showed evidence of Ti containing solids. Based on these results a series of tests were planned to examine the extent of Ti leaching from monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) in various solutions. The solutions tested included a series of salt solutions with varying free hydroxide concentrations, two sodium hydroxide concentrations, 9 wt % and 15 wt %, nitric and oxalic acid solutions. Overall, the amount of Ti leached from the MST and mMST was much greater in the acid solutions compared to the sodium hydroxide or salt solutions, which is consistent with the expected trend. The leaching data also showed that increasing hydroxide concentration, whether pure NaOH solution used for filter cleaning in ARP or the waste salt solution, increased the amount of Ti leached from both the MST and mMST. For the respective nominal contact times with the MST solids - for filter cleaning or the normal filter operation, the dissolved Ti concentrations are comparable suggesting either cause may contribute to the increased Ti fouling on the MCU coalescers. Tests showed that Ti containing solids could be precipitated from solution after the addition of scrub acid and a decrease in temperature similar to expected in MCU operations. FTIR analysis of these solids showed some similarity to the solids observed on the fouled coalescer and pre-filters. Although only a cursory study, this information suggests that the practice of increasing free hydroxide in feed solutions to MCU as a mitigation to aluminosilicate formation may be offset by the impact of formation of Ti solids in the overall process. Additional consideration of this finding from MCU and SWPF operation is warranted.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

A modified unit decommitment algorithm in combined heat and power production planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the unit commitment in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning, considering the possibility to trade power on the spot market. We present a modified unit decommitment algorithm (MUD) that starts with a good ... Keywords: combined heat and power production, deregulated power market, energy optimization, modelling, modified unit decommitment, unit commitment

Aiying Rong; Risto Lahdelma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

A reconstruction of modified holographic Ricci dark energy in $f(R,T)$ gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider a recently proposed model of Dark Energy (DE) know as Modified Holographic Ricci DE (MHRDE) (which is function of the Hubble parameter and its first derivative with respect to the cosmic time $t$) in the light of the $f(R,T)$ model of modified gravity, considering the particular model $f(R,T) = \\mu R + \

Antonio Pasqua; Surajit Chattopadhyay; Iuliia Khomenko

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

478

Non-stationary Signal Forecasting by Neural Network with Modified Neurons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the non-stationary power signal forecasting by using a neural network with modified neurons for PJM data set provided by Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO). In this data set, the load information is the sum of power load ... Keywords: load, forecasting, neural model, modified neurons

Chih-Chien Huang; Yi-Ching Lin; Yu-Ju Chen; Shuming T. Wang; Rey-Chue Hwang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Modified Hubble law, the time-varying Hubble parameter and the problem of dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the solvable model of cosmology constructed in the Earth-related coordinate system, we derive the modified Hubble law. This law carries the slowly time-varying Hubble parameter. The modified Hubble law eliminates the need for dark energy.

Jian-Miin Liu

2005-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

480

A high-performance ATM switch based on modified shuffle-exchange network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an output buffering ATM switch, called modified shuffle-exchange network (MSN) that is obtained by inserting a connection pattern just after every other shuffle-exchange stage. The purpose of modifying a shuffle-exchange network by ... Keywords: Destination tag routing scheme, Internal conflict, Output buffering ATM switch, Performance evaluation, Shuffle-exchange network

Hasan Cam

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "modified mercalli intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

63: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS 63: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement Department of Energy - Presidential Permit Application for Northern Pass Transmission, New Hampshire DOE announces its intent to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0463) and conduct additional public scoping meetings. EIS-0463-AmendedNOI-2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, and Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands

482

EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS 3: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement EIS-0463: Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands Involvement Department of Energy - Presidential Permit Application for Northern Pass Transmission, New Hampshire DOE announces its intent to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0463) and conduct additional public scoping meetings. EIS-0463-AmendedNOI-2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the EIS and Conduct Additional Public Scoping Meetings, and Notice of Floodplains and Wetlands

483

Variations in the solvent extraction behavior of bifunctional phosphorus-based compounds modified with TBP  

SciTech Connect

The solvent extraction of americium from nitric acid by several modified bifunctional extractants in CCl/sub 4/ has been investigated. For all the compounds examined, addition of a modifier such as tributylphosphate (TBP) enhances distribution ratios at high aqueous acidities. The effect of the modifier at lower acidities varies depending on the basicity of the bifunctional extractant. While the most basic extractants show significantly reduced distribution ratios from lower acid solutions upon TBP addition, for the less basic compounds only slight reductions or, in some cases, even moderate increases in extraction are observed. Studies of the effect of modifier basicity on extraction behavior with modifiers fall within the range of variations observed for diluent effects with extractants of this type. Increases in high acid distribution ratios upon TBP addition to an extractant as simple as trioctylphophine oxide indicate that this modification of extraction behavior may be of general use for a wide range of neutral extractants. 21 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Kalina, D.G.; Horwitz, E.P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S. Title A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S. Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2011 Authors Hasanbeigi, Ali, Lynn K. Price, Nathaniel T. Aden, Zhang Chunxia, Li Xiuping, and Shangguan Fangqin Date Published June/2011 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Iron & Steel Research Institute, Iron and Steel Industry Keywords energy intensity, energy use, Low Emission & Efficient Industry Abstract Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steelproduced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order industry energy use to develop a common framework for comparing steel intensity energy use.

485

FINAL FOCUS ION BEAM INTENSITY FROM TUNGSTEN FOIL CALORIMETER AND SCINTILLATOR IN NDCX-I  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory high energy density experiments using ion beam drivers rely upon the delivery of high-current, high-brightness ion beams with high peak intensity onto targets. Solid-state scintillators are typically used to measure the ion beam spatial profile but they display dose-dependent degradation and aging effects. These effects produce uncertainties and limit the accuracy of measuring peak beam intensities delivered to the target. For beam tuning and characterizing the incident beam intensity, we have developed a cross-calibrating diagnostic suite that extends the upper limit of measurable peak intensity dynamic range. Absolute intensity calibration is obtained with a 3 {micro}m thick tungsten foil calorimeter and streak spectrometer. We present experimental evidence for peak intensity measures in excess of 400 kW/cm{sup 2} using a 0.3 MV, 25 mA, 5-20 {micro}sec K{sup +1} beam. Radiative models and thermal diffusion effects are discussed because they affect temporal and spatial resolution of beam intensity profiles.

Lidia, S.M.; Bieniosek, F.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

486

CERENKOV RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS FOR Sr$sup 90$ AND Co$sup 60$ IN WATER  

SciTech Connect

A method for calculating Cherenkov radiation intensity from an initial electron energy distribution is presented. The Cherenkov radiation intensity from 1 curie of Sr/sup 90/ in secular equilibrium with Y/sup 90/ in water was calculated from the beta energy spectrum to illustrate the use of the method for a pure beta emitter. The Cherenkov radiation intensity from 1 curie of Co/sup 60/ in water was calculated from the Compton electron energy spectrum to illustrate the use of the method for a gamma emitter. The steps necessary to obtain the Compton electron energy spectrum from a gamma emitter are indicated. (auth)

Wymer, R.G.; Biggers, R.E.

1961-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

487

Transverse beam shape measurements of intense proton beams using optical transition radiation  

SciTech Connect

A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

Scarpine, Victor E.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

489

The Influence of Hadley Circulation Intensity Changes on Extratropical Climate in an Idealized Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments have been performed using a simple global model with idealized physics and zonally symmertrical forcings to investigate the influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate. The heating within the Tropics is ...

Edmund K. M. Chang

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Budgets of Divergent and Rotational Kinetic Energy during Two Periods of Intense Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Budgets of divergent and rotational components of kinetic energy (KD and KR) are investigated for two periods of intense convection. Derivations of the budget equations are presented for limited volumes in terms of VD and VR. The two periods ...

Dennis E. Buechler; Henry E. Fuelberg

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

On the use of GP-GPUs for accelerating compute-intensive EDA applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General purpose graphics processing units (GP-GPUs) have recently been explored as a new computing paradigm for accelerating compute-intensive EDA applications. Such massively parallel architectures have been applied in accelerating the simulation of ...

Valeria Bertacco, Debapriya Chatterjee, Nicola Bombieri, Franco Fummi, Sara Vinco, A. M. Kaushik, Hiren D. Patel

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Toward improved tropical cyclone intensity forecasts : probabilistic prediction, predictability, and the role of verification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past two decades, deterministic predictions of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity consistently scored poorly in mean absolute error (MAE) verification, despite the concurrent advancement of TC modeling and observing ...

Moskaitis, Jonathan Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Association Rule Data Mining Applications for Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensity Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study applies a data mining technique called association rule mining to the analysis of intensity changes of North Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs). The “best track” data from the National Hurricane Center and the Statistical Hurricane ...

Ruixin Yang; Jiang Tang; Donglian Sun

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

The Global Circuit Intensity: Its Measurement and Variation over the Last 50 Years  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fundamental problem in atmospheric electric research has been measurement of the intensity and variation of Earth's electric field, which is proportional to ionospheric potential (Vi). To obtain its magnitude an electric field sounding through ...

Ralph Markson

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Energy Use and Energy Intensity of the U.S. Chemical Industry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR Partner Resources You are here Home Buildings & Plants Energy Use and Energy Intensity of the U.S. Chemical Industry Secondary menu About us Press room Contact...

496

DESIGN AND OPERATION OF A NEW PHOTOELECTRIC COMPARATOR FOR WAVELENGTH AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

A photoelcctric comparator that can be used for making wavelength measurements, intensity measurements, and observations of the shapes of spectral lines is described. The instrument is similar to one reported by Tomkins and Fred with improvements in the optics. (auth)

Steinhaus, D.W.

1958-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the intensity of the laser light used to control the resistance of the photodetector. An optical delay path is provided through which the second portion of the beam travels before reaching the light intensity controlling device. The control voltage is supplied by a variable power supply. The apparatus may be tuned to properly attenuate the laser beam passing through the intensity controlling device by adjusting the power supply, the optical delay path, or the light attenuating means. 3 figs.

Wilcox, R.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam  

SciTech Connect

An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the