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Sample records for modeling tools land

  1. IDRISI Land Change Modeler | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IDRISI Land Change Modeler Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IDRISI Land Change Modeler AgencyCompany Organization: Clark Labs Sector: Land Focus Area:...

  2. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  3. Models & Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable ... Arctic Climate Measurements Global Climate Models Software Sustainable Subsurface ...

  4. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  5. Load Model Data Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  6. International land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Package v002.00

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Collier, Nathaniel; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Climage Modeling.org; Mu, Mingquan [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Riley, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2016-05-09

    As a contribution to International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Project, we are providing new analysis approaches, benchmarking tools, and science leadership. The goal of ILAMB is to assess and improve the performance of land models through international cooperation and to inform the design of new measurement campaigns and field studies to reduce uncertainties associated with key biogeochemical processes and feedbacks. ILAMB is expected to be a primary analysis tool for CMIP6 and future model-data intercomparison experiments. This team has developed initial prototype benchmarking systems for ILAMB, which will be improved and extended to include ocean model metrics and diagnostics.

  7. International land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Package v001.00

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mu, Mingquan [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Riley, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Climage Modeling.org; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2016-05-02

    As a contribution to International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Project, we are providing new analysis approaches, benchmarking tools, and science leadership. The goal of ILAMB is to assess and improve the performance of land models through international cooperation and to inform the design of new measurement campaigns and field studies to reduce uncertainties associated with key biogeochemical processes and feedbacks. ILAMB is expected to be a primary analysis tool for CMIP6 and future model-data intercomparison experiments. This team has developed initial prototype benchmarking systems for ILAMB, which will be improved and extended to include ocean model metrics and diagnostics.

  8. Sandia Modeling Tool Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar attendees will learn what collaborative, stakeholder-driven modeling is, how the models developed have been and could be used, and how specifically this process and resulting models might...

  9. A framework for benchmarking land models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi; Randerson, J.; Abramowitz, G.; Bacour, C.; Blyth, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, Philippe; Dalmonech, D.; Fisher, J.B.; Fisher, R.; Friedlingstein, P.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Huntzinger, Deborah; Jones, C.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, David M.; Li, D.J.; Mahecha, M.; Niu, S.L.; Norby, Richard J.; Piao, S.L.; Qi, X.; Peylin, P.; Prentice, I.C.; Riley, William; Reichstein, M.; Schwalm, C.; Wang, Y.; Xia, J. Y.; Zaehle, S.; Zhou, X. H.

    2012-10-09

    Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine datamodel mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models

  10. A framework for benchmarking land models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi; Randerson, James T.; Hoffman, Forrest; Norby, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models

  11. Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates We ...

  12. Vectorizing the Community Land Model (CLM) (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Vectorizing the Community Land Model (CLM) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vectorizing the Community Land Model (CLM) In this paper we describe our...

  13. Department of Energy Land Ice Modeling Efforts (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Land Ice Modeling Efforts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Department of Energy Land Ice Modeling Efforts Authors: Price, Stephen F. Dr 1 + Show Author...

  14. Component Modeling Approach Software Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-23

    The Component Modeling Approach Software Tool (CMAST) establishes a set of performance libraries of approved components (frames, glass, and spacer) which can be accessed for configuring fenestration products for a project, and btaining a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Transmittance (VT) rating for those products, which can then be reflected in a CMA Label Certificate for code compliance. CMAST is web-based as well as client-based. The completed CMA program and software tool will be useful in several ways for a vast array of stakeholders in the industry: Generating performance ratings for bidding projects Ascertaining credible and accurate performance data Obtaining third party certification of overall product performance for code compliance

  15. NREL: Energy Analysis - Models and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printable Version Models and Tools Use models and tools developed or supported by NREL to assess, analyze, and optimize renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies for your project. Many of these tools can be applied on a global, regional, local, or project basis. NREL models and tools include several designed for the consumer or energy professional. Technology and Performance Analysis Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) Determine which supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to

  16. Component Modeling Approach Software Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-08-23

    The Component Modeling Approach Software Tool (CMAST) establishes a set of performance libraries of approved components (frames, glass, and spacer) which can be accessed for configuring fenestration products for a project, and btaining a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Transmittance (VT) rating for those products, which can then be reflected in a CMA Label Certificate for code compliance. CMAST is web-based as well as client-based. The completed CMA program and software toolmore » will be useful in several ways for a vast array of stakeholders in the industry: Generating performance ratings for bidding projects Ascertaining credible and accurate performance data Obtaining third party certification of overall product performance for code compliance« less

  17. Open-source extreme conditions modeling tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... HomeEnergy, Modeling & Analysis, News, Renewable Energy, Water PowerOpen-source extreme ... numerical tools for use in modeling extreme conditions of wave energy converters (WECs). ...

  18. Global Biofuels Modeling and Land Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Modeling and Land Use DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Strategic Analysis & Cross-cutting Sustainability March 25 2015 Gbadebo Oladosu (PI) Oak Ridge National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information GOAL STATEMENT * Primary goal of the project is to demonstrate the viability of biofuels in the context of the national/global economy. * Metrics include: - Cost effectiveness:

  19. NREL: Energy Analysis - Models and Tools Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are no longer active. See current models and tools here. ADVISOR (ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR) Simulate and analyze conventional, advanced, light, and heavy vehicles, including...

  20. Model Analysis ToolKit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-05-15

    MATK provides basic functionality to facilitate model analysis within the Python computational environment. Model analysis setup within MATK includes: - define parameters - define observations - define model (python function) - define samplesets (sets of parameter combinations) Currently supported functionality includes: - forward model runs - Latin-Hypercube sampling of parameters - multi-dimensional parameter studies - parallel execution of parameter samples - model calibration using internal Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm - model calibration using lmfit package - modelmore » calibration using levmar package - Markov Chain Monte Carlo using pymc package MATK facilitates model analysis using: - scipy - calibration (scipy.optimize) - rpy2 - Python interface to R« less

  1. Assessment of Land Surface Model Performance in WRF for Simulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wind Energy Community Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Land Surface Model Performance in WRF for Simulating Wind at Heights Relevant to the Wind Energy ...

  2. Assessment of Land Surface Model Performance in WRF for Simulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Assessment of Land Surface Model Performance in WRF for Simulating Wind at Heights Relevant to the Wind Energy Community Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of ...

  3. Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) Model (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Objectives Estimate the petroleum use impacts of alternative technologies and policies. Estimate future vehicle market share based on infrastructure constraints, consumer preferences, and vehicle attributes. Analyze policy options by considering factors such as vehicle incentives and energy prices. Key Attributes & Strengths The model validates in many relevant dimensions with historical vehicle

  4. Performance and Architecture Lab Modeling Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-06-19

    Analytical application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult. Furthermore, models are frequently expressed in forms that are hard to distribute and validate. The Performance and Architecture Lab Modeling tool, or Palm, is a modeling tool designed to make application modeling easier. Palm provides a source code modeling annotation language. Not only does the modeling language divide the modeling task into sub problems, itmore » formally links an application's source code with its model. This link is important because a model's purpose is to capture application behavior. Furthermore, this link makes it possible to define rules for generating models according to source code organization. Palm generates hierarchical models according to well-defined rules. Given an application, a set of annotations, and a representative execution environment, Palm will generate the same model. A generated model is a an executable program whose constituent parts directly correspond to the modeled application. Palm generates models by combining top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. A model's hierarchy is defined by static and dynamic source code structure. Because Palm coordinates models and source code, Palm's models are 'first-class' and reproducible. Palm automates common modeling tasks. For instance, Palm incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. Palm's workflow is as follows. The workflow's input is source code annotated with Palm modeling annotations. The most important annotation models an instance of a block of code. Given annotated source code, the Palm Compiler produces executables and the Palm Monitor collects a representative performance profile. The Palm Generator synthesizes a model based on the static and dynamic mapping of annotations to program

  5. Performance and Architecture Lab Modeling Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-06-19

    Analytical application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult. Furthermore, models are frequently expressed in forms that are hard to distribute and validate. The Performance and Architecture Lab Modeling tool, or Palm, is a modeling tool designed to make application modeling easier. Palm provides a source code modeling annotation language. Not only does the modeling language divide the modeling task into sub problems, it formally links an application's source code with its model. This link is important because a model's purpose is to capture application behavior. Furthermore, this link makes it possible to define rules for generating models according to source code organization. Palm generates hierarchical models according to well-defined rules. Given an application, a set of annotations, and a representative execution environment, Palm will generate the same model. A generated model is a an executable program whose constituent parts directly correspond to the modeled application. Palm generates models by combining top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. A model's hierarchy is defined by static and dynamic source code structure. Because Palm coordinates models and source code, Palm's models are 'first-class' and reproducible. Palm automates common modeling tasks. For instance, Palm incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. Palm's workflow is as follows. The workflow's input is source code annotated with Palm modeling annotations. The most important annotation models an instance of a block of code. Given annotated source code, the Palm Compiler produces executables and the Palm Monitor collects a representative performance profile. The Palm Generator synthesizes a model based on the static and dynamic mapping of annotations to program behavior

  6. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's systems ...

  7. DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More September 4, 2014 - ...

  8. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop ...

  9. Computational Tools for Predictive Modeling of Properties in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Computational Tools for Predictive Modeling of Properties in Complex Actinide Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Tools for Predictive Modeling ...

  10. New DOE Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore Wind Plants New DOE Modeling Tool ... of Energy (DOE) recently released a new version of the Jobs and Economic ...

  11. Probabilistic Modeling of Settlement Risk at Land Disposal Facilities - 12304

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foye, Kevin C.; Soong, Te-Yang

    2012-07-01

    example, relative density, which can be determined through field measurements, was selected as the field quality control parameter for waste placement. This technique can be extended to include a rigorous performance-based methodology using other parameters (void space criteria, debris-soil mix ratio, pre-loading, etc.). As shown in this example, each parameter range, or sets of parameter ranges can be selected such that they can result in an acceptable, long-term differential settlement according to the probabilistic model. The methodology can also be used to re-evaluate the long-term differential settlement behavior at closed land disposal facilities to identify, if any, problematic facilities so that remedial action (e.g., reinforcement of upper and intermediate waste layers) can be implemented. Considering the inherent spatial variability in waste and earth materials and the need for engineers to apply sound quantitative practices to engineering analysis, it is important to apply the available probabilistic techniques to problems of differential settlement. One such method to implement probability-based differential settlement analyses for the design of landfill final covers has been presented. The design evaluation technique presented is one tool to bridge the gap from deterministic practice to probabilistic practice. (authors)

  12. Global Biofuels Modeling and Land Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... equilibrium models * Oil, natural gas and coal supply curves are explicitly modeled to ... supplyuse of biofuels depends on how consumers respond in the transportation market. ...

  13. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  14. New Modeling Tool Analyzes Floating Platform Concepts for Offshore Wind Turbines (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a new complex modeling and analysis tool capable of analyzing floating platform concepts for offshore wind turbines. The new modeling tool combines the computational methodologies used to analyze land-based wind turbines with the comprehensive hydrodynamic computer programs developed for offshore oil and gas industries. This new coupled dynamic simulation tool will enable the development of cost-effective offshore technologies capable of harvesting the rich offshore wind resources at water depths that cannot be reached using the current technology.

  15. Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Atul Jain

    2005-04-17

    This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and

  16. Models and Tools | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    need tools that can help them assess potential energy use, oil use and carbon emission impacts of advanced light- and heavy-duty transportation technologies and alternative...

  17. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  18. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  19. Modeling and Tool Wear in Routing of CFRP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iliescu, D.; Fernandez, A.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of feed force in routing of carbon composite material. In order to extend tool life and improve quality of the machined surface, a better understanding of uncoated and coated tool behaviors is required. This work describes (1) the optimization of the geometry of multiple teeth tools minimizing the tool wear and the feed force, (2) the optimization of tool coating and (3) the development of a phenomenological model between the feed force, the routing parameters and the tool wear. The experimental results indicate that the feed rate, the cutting speed and the tool wear are the most significant factors affecting the feed force. In the case of multiple teeth tools, a particular geometry with 14 teeth right helix right cut and 11 teeth left helix right cut gives the best results. A thick AlTiN coating or a diamond coating can dramatically improve the tool life while minimizing the axial force, roughness and delamination. A wear model has then been developed based on an abrasive behavior of the tool. The model links the feed rate to the tool geometry parameters (tool diameter), to the process parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) and to the wear. The model presented has been verified by experimental tests.

  20. New Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    A recent overhaul of the tool makes it a powerful, robust, and flexible modeling software to aid the development of innovative wind and water power technologies.

  1. Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process ... Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report EIS-0082: Record of Decision

  2. Estimating a model discrepancy term for the Community Land Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... month - The final fitted polynomial model has 10% - 20% errors - not good enough * Regression kriging - Used quadratic as a meantrend model and stationary Gaussian Process model ...

  3. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Models and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models and Tools image of three models of semi truck cabs. Truck cab models drawn from CAD geometry using CoolCalc (left and center), and a model with overlay of computational fluid dynamics flow (right) indicate areas of heat absorption and loss. Illustrations by Jason Lustbader, Matt Jeffers, and Larry Chaney, NREL The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) vehicle thermal management modeling tools allow researchers to assess the trade-offs and calculate the potential benefits of

  4. Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across Scales ...

  5. Land-ice modeling for sea-level prediction (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Land-ice modeling for sea-level prediction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Land-ice modeling for sea-level prediction Authors: Lipscomb, William H 1 ...

  6. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Dianliang; Zhu Hongmin

    2010-05-21

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  7. Optical Diagnostics and Modeling Tools Applied to Diesel HCCI | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Optical Diagnostics and Modeling Tools Applied to Diesel HCCI Optical Diagnostics and Modeling Tools Applied to Diesel HCCI 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Engine Research 2002_deer_choi.pdf (954.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Development of Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines 3-D Combustion Simulation

  8. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  9. NREL: Technology Deployment - Models and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This model allows users to see how various inputs, such as system size, location, and project costs, impact the economics of a project from both a potential customer's perspective ...

  10. An update on modeling land-ice/ocean interactions in CESM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asay-davis, Xylar

    2011-01-24

    This talk is an update on ongoing land-ice/ocean coupling work within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The coupling method is designed to allow simulation of a fully dynamic ice/ocean interface, while requiring minimal modification to the existing ocean model (the Parallel Ocean Program, POP). The method makes use of an immersed boundary method (IBM) to represent the geometry of the ice-ocean interface without requiring that the computational grid be modified in time. We show many of the remaining development challenges that need to be addressed in order to perform global, century long climate runs with fully coupled ocean and ice sheet models. These challenges include moving to a new grid where the computational pole is no longer at the true south pole and several changes to the coupler (the software tool used to communicate between model components) to allow the boundary between land and ocean to vary in time. We discuss benefits for ice/ocean coupling that would be gained from longer-term ocean model development to allow for natural salt fluxes (which conserve both water and salt mass, rather than water volume).

  11. "Big Picture" Process Modeling Tools |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using process modeling tools to attain cost-effective results for GE customers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click ...

  12. DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standardization, and More | Department of Energy Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More September 4, 2014 - 8:37am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required.

  13. Enhanced Modeling and Monitoring Tools for Distributed PV Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Modeling and Monitoring Tools for Distributed PV Interconnection Page 1 of 27 Kristen Ardani, Rick Thompson, Mark Rawson, David Pinney Page 1 of 27 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Thank you everyone for joining us today for the DG Interconnection Collaborative's informational webinar. The focus of today's presentation will be on enhanced modeling and monitoring tools for distributed PV interconnection. We have a guest speaker from Green Tech Media (GTM) today, Rick Thompson. So

  14. New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis 2013qtr4_fast_large.gif This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool under a

  15. Bayesian calibration of the Community Land Model using surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2014-02-01

    We present results from the Bayesian calibration of hydrological parameters of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is often used in climate simulations and Earth system models. A statistical inverse problem is formulated for three hydrological parameters, conditional on observations of latent heat surface fluxes over 48 months. Our calibration method uses polynomial and Gaussian process surrogates of the CLM, and solves the parameter estimation problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler. Posterior probability densities for the parameters are developed for two sites with different soil and vegetation covers. Our method also allows us to examine the structural error in CLM under two error models. We find that surrogate models can be created for CLM in most cases. The posterior distributions are more predictive than the default parameter values in CLM. Climatologically averaging the observations does not modify the parameters' distributions significantly. The structural error model reveals a correlation time-scale which can be used to identify the physical process that could be contributing to it. While the calibrated CLM has a higher predictive skill, the calibration is under-dispersive.

  16. Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Sargsyan, K.; Swiler, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the Bayesian calibration of hydrological parameters of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is often used in climate simulations and Earth system models. A statistical inverse problem is formulated for three hydrological parameters, conditioned on observations of latent heat surface fluxes over 48 months. Our calibration method uses polynomial and Gaussian process surrogates of the CLM, and solves the parameter estimation problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler. Posterior probability densities for the parameters are developed for two sites with different soil and vegetation covers. Our method also allows us to examine the structural error in CLM under two error models. We find that accurate surrogate models can be created for CLM in most cases. The posterior distributions lead to better prediction than the default parameter values in CLM. Climatologically averaging the observations does not modify the parameters distributions significantly. The structural error model reveals a correlation time-scale which can potentially be used to identify physical processes that could be contributing to it. While the calibrated CLM has a higher predictive skill, the calibration is under-dispersive.

  17. Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Community Earth System Model Land Ice Working Group Meeting ... Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: ...

  18. New Modeling Tool Analyzes Floating Platform Concepts | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Modeling Tool Analyzes Floating Platform Concepts New Modeling Tool Analyzes Floating Platform Concepts May 20, 2011 - 3:16pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The United States has a large and accessible offshore wind resource. According to a report published by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2010 (Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States), winds off the coasts of the United States

  19. A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Wu, Huan; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-13

    A new physically based runoff routing model, called the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), has been developed to be applicable across local, regional, and global scales. Within each spatial unit, surface runoff is first routed across hillslopes and then discharged along with subsurface runoff into a tributary subnetwork before entering the main channel. The spatial units are thus linked via routing through the main channel network, which is constructed in a scale-consistent way across different spatial resolutions. All model parameters are physically based, and only a small subset requires calibration.MOSART has been applied to the Columbia River basin at 1/ 168, 1/ 88, 1/ 48, and 1/ 28 spatial resolutions and was evaluated using naturalized or observed streamflow at a number of gauge stations. MOSART is compared to two other routing models widely used with land surface models, the River Transport Model (RTM) in the Community Land Model (CLM) and the Lohmann routing model, included as a postprocessor in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model package, yielding consistent performance at multiple resolutions. MOSART is further evaluated using the channel velocities derived from field measurements or a hydraulic model at various locations and is shown to be capable of producing the seasonal variation and magnitude of channel velocities reasonably well at different resolutions. Moreover, the impacts of spatial resolution on model simulations are systematically examined at local and regional scales. Finally, the limitations ofMOSART and future directions for improvements are discussed.

  20. integrated-land-use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Planning Tool for Sydney, Australia Dr. Matthew Berryman, University of Wollongong Monday, November 28, 2011 - 1pm Argonne TRACC Building 222, Room D-233 The SMART Infrastructure Facility at the University of Wollongong, Australia, has been building an agent-based model to explore the feedbacks between transportation and land use. We focus on livability as a key driver of agent's location choice, and in addition to transport we include factors such

  1. Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) No ...

  2. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) Model (University of California-Irvine) Objectives Determine the number of strategically located hydrogen fueling stations needed within a geographic area to enable the introduction of commercial volumes of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and determine the geographic distribution of the required stations while also assessing the environmental impacts. Key Attributes & Strengths Optimized hydrogen fueling station

  3. JBEI Updates Techno-Economic Modeling Tools for Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Updates Techno-Economic Modeling Tools for Biofuels - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  4. Enhanced Modeling and Monitoring Tools for Distributed PV Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Modeling and Monitoring Tools for Distributed PV Interconnection" Mark Rawson, Sacramento Municipal Utility District and David Pinney, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association with introductory remarks by Rick Thompson, Greentech Media May 28, 2014 2 Purpose of Today's Meeting * Foster stakeholder collaboration and awareness o Learn about Green Tech Media's (GTM) new Grid Edge Initiative, Rick Thompson, GTM * Hear an example of how a municipal utility is planning for solar

  5. Land-use transition for bioenergy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts and interactions with other land use based mitigation options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popp, Alexander; Rose, Steven K.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Dietrich, Jan P.; Wise, Marshall A.; Stehfest, Eike; Humpenoder, Florian; Kyle, G. Page; Van Vliet, Jasper; Bauer, Nico; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This study is a model comparison assessing the drivers and impacts of bioenergy production on the global land system and the interaction with other land use based mitigation options in the context of the EMF 27 project. We compare and evaluate results from three integrated assessment models (GCAM, IMAGE, and ReMIND/MAgPIE). All three models project that dedicated bioenergy crops and biomass residues are a potentially important and cost-effective component of the energy system. But bioenergy deployment levels and feedstock composition vary notably across models as do the implications for land-use and greenhouse gas emissions and the interaction with other land use based mitigation measures. Despite numerous model differences, we identify a few that are likely contributing to differences in land-use and emissions attributable to energy crop deployment.

  6. Progress on MPAS Land Ice Model Development (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Progress on MPAS Land Ice Model Development You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of ...

  7. The smoke-fireplume model : tool for eventual application to prescribed burns and wildland fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Dunn, W. E.; Lazaro, M. A.; Policastro, A. J.

    1999-08-17

    Land managers are increasingly implementing strategies that employ the use of fire in prescribed burns to sustain ecosystems and plan to sustain the rate of increase in its use over the next five years. In planning and executing expanded use of fire in wildland treatment it is important to estimate the human health and safety consequences, property damage, and the extent of visibility degradation from the resulting conflagration-pyrolysis gases, soot and smoke generated during flaming, smoldering and/or glowing fires. Traditional approaches have often employed the analysis of weather observations and forecasts to determine whether a prescribed burn will affect populations, property, or protected Class I areas. However, the complexity of the problem lends itself to advanced PC-based models that are simple to use for both calculating the emissions from the burning of wildland fuels and the downwind dispersion of smoke and other products of pyrolysis, distillation, and/or fuels combustion. These models will need to address the effects of residual smoldering combustion, including plume dynamics and optical effects. In this paper, we discuss a suite of tools that can be applied for analyzing dispersion. These tools include the dispersion models FIREPLUME and SMOKE, together with the meteorological preprocessor SEBMET.

  8. An international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, James T [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

    2009-12-01

    The need to capture important climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, called Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). This work suggests that a more rigorous set of global offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are needed. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) was designed to meet this need by providing a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). Recently, a similar effort in Europe, called the International Land Model Benchmark (ILAMB) Project, was begun to assess the performance of European land surface models. These two projects will now serve as prototypes for a proposed international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for those models participating in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Initially used for model validation for terrestrial biogeochemistry models in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM), C-LAMP incorporates a simulation protocol for both offline and partially coupled simulations using a prescribed historical trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Models are confronted with data through comparisons against AmeriFlux site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA Globalview flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site measurements. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the CLM version 3 in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): the CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon

  9. Models & Tools for Evaluation of Project Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Models & Tools for Evaluation of Project Options Tribal Energy Program Review 2015 Lars Lisell 5/7/2015 2 Energy Audits/Energy Evaluation * Envelope/Weatherization * Lighting * HVAC * Plug loads 3 * http://www.nrel.gov/gis/ RE Resource Maps 4 * Biopower Atlas * https://mapsbeta.nrel.gov/biopower-atlas/ RE Resource Maps 5 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 6 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 7 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 8 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 9 PV Watts

  10. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  11. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  12. A spatially distributed model for the assessment of land use impacts on stream temperature in small urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Yearsley, John; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-05-15

    Stream temperatures in urban watersheds are influenced to a high degree by anthropogenic impacts related to changes in landscape, stream channel morphology, and climate. These impacts can occur at small time and length scales, hence require analytical tools that consider the influence of the hydrologic regime, energy fluxes, topography, channel morphology, and near-stream vegetation distribution. Here we describe a modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model, DHSVM, with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM, which has the capability to simulate the hydrology and water temperature of urban streams at high time and space resolutions, as well as a representation of the effects of riparian shading on stream energetics. We demonstrate the modeling system through application to the Mercer Creek watershed, a small urban catchment near Bellevue, Washington. The results suggest that the model is able both to produce realistic streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that are consistent with observations throughout a complex stream network. We use the modeling construct to characterize impacts of land use change and near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature throughout the Mercer Creek system. We then explore the sensitivity of stream temperature to land use changes and modifications in vegetation along the riparian corridor.

  13. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to Simulate Cropland Carbon Flux: Model Development and Initial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Arnold, Jeffrey; Williams, Jimmy R.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)- residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange.

  14. Integrated Dynamic Gloabal Modeling of Land Use, Energy and Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Jain, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Brian O'Neill, NCAR, Boulder, CO

    2009-10-14

    The overall objective of this collaborative project is to integrate an existing general equilibrium energy-economic growth model with a biogeochemical cycles and biophysical models in order to more fully explore the potential contribution of land use-related activities to future emissions scenarios. Land cover and land use change activities, including deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture management, are important source of not only CO2, but also non-CO2 GHGs. Therefore, contribution of land-use emissions to total emissions of GHGs is important, and consequently their future trends are relevant to the estimation of climate change and its mitigation. This final report covers the full project period of the award, beginning May 2006, which includes a sub-contract to Brown University later transferred to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) when Co-PI Brian O'Neill changed institutional affiliations.

  15. A Functional Test Platform for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yang; Thornton, Peter E; King, Anthony Wayne; Steed, Chad A; Gu, Lianhong; Schuchart, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A functional test platform is presented to create direct linkages between site measurements and the process-based ecosystem model within the Community Earth System Models (CESM). The platform consists of three major parts: 1) interactive user interfaces, 2) functional test model and 3) observational datasets. It provides much needed integration interfaces for both field experimentalists and ecosystem modelers to improve the model s representation of ecosystem processes within the CESM framework without large software overhead.

  16. Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Credit: National Institute of Standards and Technology Credit: National Institute of Standards and Technology Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Credit: National Institute of Standards and Technology Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Lead Performer: National

  17. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  18. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff

  19. An integrated computer modeling environment for regional land use, air quality, and transportation planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, C.J.; Marshall, N.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Land Use, Air Quality, and Transportation Integrated Modeling Environment (LATIME) represents an integrated approach to computer modeling and simulation of land use allocation, travel demand, and mobile source emissions for the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area. This environment provides predictive capability combined with a graphical and geographical interface. The graphical interface shows the causal relationships between data and policy scenarios and supports alternative model formulations. Scenarios are launched from within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and data produced by each model component at each time step within a simulation is stored in the GIS. A menu-driven query system is utilized to review link-based results and regional and area-wide results. These results can also be compared across time or between alternative land use scenarios. Using this environment, policies can be developed and implemented based on comparative analysis, rather than on single-step future projections. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model Evidence from MOPEX Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Maoyi; Hou, Zhangshuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ke, Yinghai; Liu, Ying; Fang, Zhufeng; Sun, Yu

    2013-12-01

    With the emergence of earth system models as important tools for understanding and predicting climate change and implications to mitigation and adaptation, it has become increasingly important to assess the fidelity of the land component within earth system models to capture realistic hydrological processes and their response to the changing climate and quantify the associated uncertainties. This study investigates the sensitivity of runoff simulations to major hydrologic parameters in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) by integrating CLM4 with a stochastic exploratory sensitivity analysis framework at 20 selected watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) spanning a wide range of climate and site conditions. We found that for runoff simulations, the most significant parameters are those related to the subsurface runoff parameterizations. Soil texture related parameters and surface runoff parameters are of secondary significance. Moreover, climate and soil conditions play important roles in the parameter sensitivity. In general, site conditions within water-limited hydrologic regimes and with finer soil texture result in stronger sensitivity of output variables, such as runoff and its surface and subsurface components, to the input parameters in CLM4. This study demonstrated the feasibility of parameter inversion for CLM4 using streamflow observations to improve runoff simulations. By ranking the significance of the input parameters, we showed that the parameter set dimensionality could be reduced for CLM4 parameter calibration under different hydrologic and climatic regimes so that the inverse problem is less ill posed.

  1. Structural analysis of three global land models on carbon cycle simulations using a traceability framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rafique, R.; Xia, J.; Hararuk, O.; Luo, Y.

    2014-06-27

    Modeled carbon (C) storage capacity is largely determined by the C residence time and net primary productivity (NPP). Extensive research has been done on NPP dynamics but the residence time and their relationships with C storage are much less studied. In this study, we implemented a traceability analysis to understand the modeled C storage and residence time in three land surface models: CSIRO's Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) with 9 C pools, Community Land Model (version 3.5) combined with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CLM3.5-CASA) with 12 C pools and Community Land Model (version 4) (CLM4) with 26 C pools. The globally averagedmoreC storage and residence time was computed at both individual pool and total ecosystem levels. The spatial distribution of total ecosystem C storage and residence time differ greatly among the three models. The CABLE model showed a closer agreement with measured C storage and residence time in plant and soil pools than CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4. However, CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 were close to each other in modeled C storage but not with measured data. CABLE stores more C in root whereas CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 store more C in woody pools, partly due to differential NPP allocation in respective pools. The C residence time in individual C pools is greatly different among models, largely because of different transfer coefficient values among pools. CABLE had higher bulk residence time for soil C pools than the other two models. Overall, the traceability analysis used in this study can help fully characterizes the behavior of complex land models.less

  2. Tools and Models for Integrating Multiple Cellular Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerstein, Mark

    2015-11-06

    In this grant, we have systematically investigated the integrated networks, which are responsible for the coordination of activity between metabolic pathways in prokaryotes. We have developed several computational tools to analyze the topology of the integrated networks consisting of metabolic, regulatory, and physical interaction networks. The tools are all open-source, and they are available to download from Github, and can be incorporated in the Knowledgebase. Here, we summarize our work as follow. Understanding the topology of the integrated networks is the first step toward understanding its dynamics and evolution. For Aim 1 of this grant, we have developed a novel algorithm to determine and measure the hierarchical structure of transcriptional regulatory networks [1]. The hierarchy captures the direction of information flow in the network. The algorithm is generally applicable to regulatory networks in prokaryotes, yeast and higher organisms. Integrated datasets are extremely beneficial in understanding the biology of a system in a compact manner due to the conflation of multiple layers of information. Therefore for Aim 2 of this grant, we have developed several tools and carried out analysis for integrating system-wide genomic information. To make use of the structural data, we have developed DynaSIN for protein-protein interactions networks with various dynamical interfaces [2]. We then examined the association between network topology with phenotypic effects such as gene essentiality. In particular, we have organized E. coli and S. cerevisiae transcriptional regulatory networks into hierarchies. We then correlated gene phenotypic effects by tinkering with different layers to elucidate which layers were more tolerant to perturbations [3]. In the context of evolution, we also developed a workflow to guide the comparison between different types of biological networks across various species using the concept of rewiring [4], and Furthermore, we have developed

  3. EAC Recommendations Regarding Emerging and Alternative Regulatory Models and Modeling Tools to Assist in Analysis (September 2014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EAC recommendations from the September 2014 meeting regarding Emerging and Alternative Regulatory Models and Modeling Tools to Assist in Analysis (September 2014)

  4. Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across Scales

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (MPAS) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) No abstract prepared. Authors: Hoffman, Matthew J [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2012-06-25 OSTI Identifier: 1044843 Report Number(s): LA-UR-12-22469 TRN: US201214%%525 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  5. Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework Authors: Hoffman, Matthew J. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-02-14 OSTI Identifier: 1063255 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-20973 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Community

  6. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, Victor; Cole, Wesley; Sullivan, Patrick; Brinkman, Gregory; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  7. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's systems analysis program uses a consistent set of models and data for transparent analytical evaluations. The following fact sheets provide an overview and individual summaries of the models and tools used for systems analysis of hydrogen and fuel cells. View the Overview Fact Sheet and

  8. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John E.; Craig, Anthony P.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter E.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-11-27

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). To facilitate consistency, CMIP5 used a novel land use harmonization to provide ESMs with seamless, 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. However, we have identified and partially addressed a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design. The CMIP5 Community ESM (CESM) global afforestation is only 22% of RCP4.5 afforestation from 2005 to 2100. Likewise, only 17% of the Global Change Assessment Models (GCAMs) 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation signal, and none of the pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within a newly integrated model. This is a critical problem because afforestation is necessary for achieving the RCP4.5 climate stabilization. We attempted to rectify this problem by modifying only the ESM component of the integrated model, enabling CESM to simulate 66% of GCAMs afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAMs pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Similar inconsistencies likely exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models, with possible contributions from afforestation exceeding model-specific, potentially viable forest area. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to adequately rectify this problem.

  9. UC Davis Models: Geospatial Station Network Design Tool and Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout Economic Analysis Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UC Davis Models Geospatial Station Network Design Tool & Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout Economic Analysis Model (University of California-Davis) Objectives Analyze regional strategies for early rollout of hydrogen infrastructure in support of fuel cell vehicle commercialization. Estimate how many hydrogen fueling stations would be needed and how much it will cost to develop cost competitive hydrogen supply. Compare the cost of hydrogen from different types and sizes of hydrogen stations

  10. Office Of Nuclear Energy Annual Review Meeting Dynamic Simulation Modeling Tool

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Review Meeting Dynamic Simulation Modeling Tool Lou Qualls ORNL September 16-18, 2014 2 Work Package SR-14OR130108 - Modeling Tools for Dynamic Behavior Simulations of SMRs 2 ü FY14 molten salt cooled model deliverable due. n FY15 web application deliverable due. n FY15 model repository establishment due. n FY15 working collaboration with University partners. n Simplified Dynamic Modeling for Advanced SMRs - Numerous dynamic models are needed to simulate plant behavior

  11. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    d Simul Waste Pr plan needs to c al, processing. e ETR Team R 12 months): ( ssor, memory engineers and tools; (3) Deve ation of uncerta s; (4) Reconcile ween HTWOS l; (5) Link...

  12. On linking an Earth system model to the equilibrium carbon representation of an economically optimizing land use model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Mao, Jiafu; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Xiaoying; Thomson, Allison M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-01-01

    Human activities are significantly altering biogeochemical cycles at the global scale, posing a significant problem for earth system models (ESMs), which may incorporate static land-use change inputs but do not actively simulate policy or economic forces. One option to address this problem is a to couple an ESM with an economically oriented integrated assessment model. Here we have implemented and tested a coupling mechanism between the carbon cycles of an ESM (CLM) and an integrated assessment (GCAM) model, examining the best proxy variables to share between the models, and quantifying our ability to distinguish climate- and land-use-driven flux changes. CLMs net primary production and heterotrophic respiration outputs were found to be the most robust proxy variables by which to manipulate GCAMs assumptions of long-term ecosystem steady state carbon, with short-term forest production strongly correlated with long-term biomass changes in climate-change model runs. By leveraging the fact that carbon-cycle effects of anthropogenic land-use change are short-term and spatially limited relative to widely distributed climate effects, we were able to distinguish these effects successfully in the model coupling, passing only the latter to GCAM. By allowing climate effects from a full earth system model to dynamically modulate the economic and policy decisions of an integrated assessment model, this work provides a foundation for linking these models in a robust and flexible framework capable of examining two-way interactions between human and earth system processes.

  13. Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Link, Robert P.; Zhang, Xuesong; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    The use of marginal lands (MLs) for biofuel production has been contemplated as a promising solution for meeting biofuel demands. However, there have been concerns with spatial location of MLs, their inherent biofuel potential, and possible environmental consequences with the cultivation of energy crops. Here, we developed a new quantitative approach that integrates high-resolution land cover and land productivity maps and uses conditional probability density functions for analyzing land use patterns as a function of land productivity to classify the agricultural lands. We subsequently applied this method to determine available productive croplands (P-CLs) and non-crop marginal lands (NC-MLs) in a nine-county Southern Michigan. Furthermore, Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling Framework (SEIMF) using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) was used to understand the net energy (NE) and soil organic carbon (SOC) implications of cultivating different annual and perennial production systems.

  14. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalizedmore » linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.« less

  15. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalized linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.

  16. Utilizing CLASIC observations and multiscale models to study the impact of improved Land surface representation on modeling cloud- convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niyogi, Devdutta S.

    2013-06-07

    The CLASIC experiment was conducted over the US southern great plains (SGP) in June 2007 with an objective to lead an enhanced understanding of the cumulus convection particularly as it relates to land surface conditions. This project was design to help assist with understanding the overall improvement of land atmosphere convection initiation representation of which is important for global and regional models. The study helped address one of the critical documented deficiency in the models central to the ARM objectives for cumulus convection initiation and particularly under summer time conditions. This project was guided by the scientific question building on the CLASIC theme questions: What is the effect of improved land surface representation on the ability of coupled models to simulate cumulus and convection initiation? The focus was on the US Southern Great Plains region. Since the CLASIC period was anomalously wet the strategy has been to use other periods and domains to develop the comparative assessment for the CLASIC data period, and to understand the mechanisms of the anomalous wet conditions on the tropical systems and convection over land. The data periods include the IHOP 2002 field experiment that was over roughly same domain as the CLASIC in the SGP, and some of the DOE funded Ameriflux datasets.

  17. Data Tools & Models - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Tools & Models Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Tools Time Series Models & Documentation EIA has a vast amount of data, reports, forecasts, analytical content, and documentation to assist researchers working on energy topics. For users eager to dive deeper into our content, we have assembled tools to customize searches, view specific data sets, study detailed documentation, and access time-series data. Application Programming Interface (API): The API allows computers to more

  18. Community Land Model Version 3.0 (CLM3.0) Developer's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, FM

    2004-12-21

    This document describes the guidelines adopted for software development of the Community Land Model (CLM) and serves as a reference to the entire code base of the released version of the model. The version of the code described here is Version 3.0 which was released in the summer of 2004. This document, the Community Land Model Version 3.0 (CLM3.0) User's Guide (Vertenstein et al., 2004), the Technical Description of the Community Land Model (CLM) (Oleson et al., 2004), and the Community Land Model's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM): Technical Description and User's Guide (Levis et al., 2004) provide the developer, user, or researcher with details of implementation, instructions for using the model, a scientific description of the model, and a scientific description of the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model integrated with CLM respectively. The CLM is a single column (snow-soil-vegetation) biogeophysical model of the land surface which can be run serially (on a laptop or personal computer) or in parallel (using distributed or shared memory processors or both) on both vector and scalar computer architectures. Written in Fortran 90, CLM can be run offline (i.e., run in isolation using stored atmospheric forcing data), coupled to an atmospheric model (e.g., the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)), or coupled to a climate system model (e.g., the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3)) through a flux coupler (e.g., Coupler 6 (CPL6)). When coupled, CLM exchanges fluxes of energy, water, and momentum with the atmosphere. The horizontal land surface heterogeneity is represented by a nested subgrid hierarchy composed of gridcells, landunits, columns, and plant functional types (PFTs). This hierarchical representation is reflected in the data structures used by the model code. Biophysical processes are simulated for each subgrid unit (landunit, column, and PFT) independently, and prognostic variables are maintained for each subgrid unit. Vertical heterogeneity

  19. Land-use change trajectories up to 2050: insights from a global agro-economic model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, Christoph; van Meijl, Hans; Kyle, G. Page; Nelson, Gerald C.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Gurgel, Angelo; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald; Tabeau, Andrzej; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; von Lampe, Martin; Wise, Marshall A.; Blanc, Elodie; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Valin, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agricultural land use have important implications for environmental services. Previous studies of agricultural land-use futures have been published indicating large uncertainty due to different model assumptions and methodologies. In this article we present a first comprehensive comparison of global agro-economic models that have harmonized drivers of population, GDP, and biophysical yields. The comparison allows us to ask two research questions: (1) How much cropland will be used under different socioeconomic and climate change scenarios? (2) How can differences in model results be explained? The comparison includes four partial and six general equilibrium models that differ in how they model land supply and amount of potentially available land. We analyze results of two different socioeconomic scenarios and three climate scenarios (one with constant climate). Most models (7 out of 10) project an increase of cropland of 1025% by 2050 compared to 2005 (under constant climate), but one model projects a decrease. Pasture land expands in some models, which increase the treat on natural vegetation further. Across all models most of the cropland expansion takes place in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In general, the strongest differences in model results are related to differences in the costs of land expansion, the endogenous productivity responses, and the assumptions about potential cropland.

  20. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; et al

    2015-07-28

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate modelmore » simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m⁻² yr⁻², equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in

  1. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The ob curren plannin Dispos yield re to mod plannin to imp (4) det actual * Th th Th co no in pl * In fo op sy as di re de co an * Th en m ha ev sc The pu techni projec Site: H roject: H Report Date: S ited States valuation in Su Why DOE bjective of the r nt Process Simu ng basis for OR sition System P easonable esti del facilities cur ng or operation rove the rate o termine if addit execution of in What th he current Syst hat are limited t hese tools curr omposition, res ot meeting was itial

  2. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for SRS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Workflo The ob Proces Savann Dispos assess evaluat design evaluat predict to guid * Th so in w es sy * Th is m * Th fle m de fu The pu techni projec Site: S roject: S Report Date: J ited States valuation i Why DOE ow Diagram bjective of the rev ss Simulation To nah River Site (S sition System Pla s whether the too te methods used , construction, p te methods to im ions; and (4) det e actual executio What th he current Syst oftware tools to formation, and aste. These to stimates, but th ystem

  3. EERE Success Story-Autonomie Modeling Tool Improves Vehicle Design and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing, Informs New Fuel Economy Standards | Department of Energy Autonomie Modeling Tool Improves Vehicle Design and Testing, Informs New Fuel Economy Standards EERE Success Story-Autonomie Modeling Tool Improves Vehicle Design and Testing, Informs New Fuel Economy Standards December 21, 2015 - 9:45am Addthis Autonomie, an advanced vehicle modeling and design software package created by Argonne National laboratory with EERE support, is helping U.S. auto manufacturers develop the next

  4. Model Analysis ToolKit (MATK), Version 0

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Version 0 MATK provides basic functionality to facilitate model analysis within the Python computational environment. June 19, 2015 software MATK provides basic functionality to...

  5. Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment Development and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

    2007-02-01

    This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a users manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

  6. LANL12-RS-108J Device Modeler Tool Kit - DMTK Final Report for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: LANL12-RS-108J Device Modeler Tool Kit - DMTK Final Report for FY14 Authors: Temple, Brian Allen 1 ; Pimentel, David A. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National ...

  7. May 27 Webinar Will Explore Models and Tools for Evaluating Tribal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 27 Webinar Will Explore Models and Tools for Evaluating Tribal Energy Project ... and Renewable Energy Projects, on Wednesday, May 27, 2015, from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. ...

  8. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rooftop Air Conditioners | Department of Energy User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners Lead Performer: University of California, Davis - Davis, CA DOE Total Funding: $200,000 Cost Share: $339,515 Project Term: 2015 - 2017 Funding Opportunity: Building University Innovators and Leaders Development (BUILD) Funding Opportunity Announcement

  9. "Big Picture" Process Modeling Tools |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using process modeling tools to attain cost-effective results for GE customers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Using process modeling tools to attain cost-effective results for GE customers Jimmy Lopez 2015.03.26 Sometimes, we need to look outside the box to realize the powerful tools we have inside.

  10. Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas...

  11. Synergia: An accelerator modeling tool with 3-D space charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amundson, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Computing Division, CEPA/PSM, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Spentzouris, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Computing Division, CEPA/PSM, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)]. E-mail: spentz@fnal.gov; Qiang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ryne, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    High precision modeling of space-charge effects, together with accurate treatment of single-particle dynamics, is essential for designing future accelerators as well as optimizing the performance of existing machines. We describe Synergia, a high-fidelity parallel beam dynamics simulation package with fully three-dimensional space-charge capabilities and a higher order optics implementation. We describe the computational techniques, the advanced human interface, and the parallel performance obtained using large numbers of macroparticles. We also perform code benchmarks comparing to semi-analytic results and other codes. Finally, we present initial results on particle tune spread, beam halo creation, and emittance growth in the Fermilab Booster accelerator.

  12. Improvement of capabilities of the Distributed Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for investigating SOFC long term performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez Galdamez, Rinaldo A.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.

    2012-04-30

    This report provides an overview of the work performed for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) modeling during the 2012 Winter/Spring Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A brief introduction on the concept, operation basics and applications of fuel cells is given for the general audience. Further details are given regarding the modifications and improvements of the Distributed Electrochemistry (DEC) Modeling tool developed by PNNL engineers to model SOFC long term performance. Within this analysis, a literature review on anode degradation mechanisms is explained and future plans of implementing these into the DEC modeling tool are also proposed.

  13. Assessment of uncertainties in the response of the African monsoon precipitation to land use change simulated by a regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung Ruby; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin -Ho

    2014-02-22

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature.

  14. Assessment of Uncertainties in the Response of the African Monsoon Precipitation to Land Use change simulated by a regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-02-22

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature.

  15. New DOE Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore Wind Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To help developers more readily estimate the economic benefits of offshore wind plants, DOE recently released a new version of the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) input-output modeling tool. The original tool was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to estimate the economic impacts of constructing renewable power plants. The updated version allows users to better understand the potential regional economic impacts of offshore wind development.

  16. Water balance in the Amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getirana, Augusto; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hongyi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Rodell, Matthew; Mounirou Toure, Ally; Xue, Yongkang; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Arsenault, Kristi Rae; Drapeau, Guillaume; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ronchail, Josyane; Sheffield, Justin

    2014-12-06

    Despite recent advances in modeling and remote sensing of land surfaces, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-of-the-art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables [total water storage (TWS), evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff (R) and baseflow (B)] are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Fourteen LSMs were run using meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 1-degree spatial resolution. Three experiments are performed using precipitation which has been rescaled to match monthly global GPCP and GPCC datasets and the daily HYBAM dataset for the Amazon basin. R and B are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration, and GRACE TWS estimates in different catchments. At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39mm.d-1 to 3.26mm.d-1 and a low spatial correlation between ET and P indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget variables vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used, but simulated TWS generally agree at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using the HYBAM dataset, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network the daily rescaling.

  17. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib, E-mail: garib@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 . Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  18. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The ten federal region model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the region or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decision; and the Region Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM), which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. These Models were developed to provide a suite of fast, personal-computer based policy analysis tools; as one moves from the REP model to the TFRM to the REPAM the level of detail (and complexity) increases. In 1993 a panel was formed to identify model strengths, weaknesses (including any potential biases) and to suggest potential improvements. The panel met in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and to deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this meeting. This report is organized as follows. It provides a description of the TFRM and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  19. Update on Small Modular Reactors Dynamics System Modeling Tool -- Molten Salt Cooled Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Richard Edward; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Fugate, David L.; Qualls, A L.; Borum, Robert C.; Chaleff, Ethan S.; Rogerson, Doug W.; Batteh, John J.; Tiller, Michael M.

    2014-08-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the third year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor SMR models, ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technical area, and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the Modular Dynamic SIMulation (MoDSIM) tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the program, (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using existing geometry and thermal-hydraulic data, (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models, and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  20. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments

  1. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Mao, Jiafu; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Bisht, Gautam

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  2. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  3. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  4. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Mao, Jiafu; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Bisht, Gautam

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  5. Models and Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this webinar, attendees will learn about the models and tools developed by DOE and its partners to assist Tribes in assessing renewable energy and energy efficiency project potential. The webinar is held from 11:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain Standard Time on May 27, 2015.

  6. Validation of Multiple Tools for Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modeling Against Measured Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    This report expands upon a previous work by the same authors, published in the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists conference. In this validation study, comprehensive analysis is performed on nine photovoltaic systems for which NREL could obtain detailed performance data and specifications, including three utility-scale systems and six commercial scale systems. Multiple photovoltaic performance modeling tools were used to model these nine systems, and the error of each tool was analyzed compared to quality-controlled measured performance data. This study shows that, excluding identified outliers, all tools achieve annual errors within +/-8% and hourly root mean squared errors less than 7% for all systems. It is further shown using SAM that module model and irradiance input choices can change the annual error with respect to measured data by as much as 6.6% for these nine systems, although all combinations examined still fall within an annual error range of +/-8.5%. Additionally, a seasonal variation in monthly error is shown for all tools. Finally, the effects of irradiance data uncertainty and the use of default loss assumptions on annual error are explored, and two approaches to reduce the error inherent in photovoltaic modeling are proposed.

  7. May 27 Webinar Will Explore Models and Tools for Evaluating Tribal Energy Project Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy, in partnership with Western Area Power Administration (Western), will present the next Tribal Renewable Energy Series webinar, Models and Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Projects, on Wednesday, May 27, 2015, from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain time.

  8. Tools for model-independent bounds in direct dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cirelli, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We discuss a framework (based on non-relativistic operators) and a self-contained set of numerical tools to derive the bounds from some current direct detection experiments on virtually any arbitrary model of Dark Matter elastically scattering on nuclei.

  9. Investigating Uncertainty and Sensitivity in Integrated, Multimedia Environmental Models: Tools for FRAMES-3MRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babendreier, Justin E.; Castleton, Karl J.

    2005-08-01

    Elucidating uncertainty and sensitivity structures in environmental models can be a difficult task, even for low-order, single-medium constructs driven by a unique set of site-specific data. Quantitative assessment of integrated, multimedia models that simulate hundreds of sites, spanning multiple geographical and ecological regions, will ultimately require a comparative approach using several techniques, coupled with sufficient computational power. The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems - Multimedia, Multipathway, and Multireceptor Risk Assessment (FRAMES-3MRA) is an important software model being developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for use in risk assessment of hazardous waste management facilities. The 3MRA modeling system includes a set of 17 science modules that collectively simulate release, fate and transport, exposure, and risk associated with hazardous contaminants disposed of in land-based waste management units (WMU) .

  10. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this report, we introduce a new transparent regional capacity expansion model with high spatio-temporal resolution and detailed representation of dispatch. The development of this model, referred to as the Resource Planning Model (RPM), is motivated by the lack of a tool in the public domain that can be used to characterize optimal regional deployment of resources with detailed dispatch modeling. In particular, RPM is designed to evaluate scenarios of renewable technology deployment to meet renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and emission-reduction goals, and to project possible deployment levels for various projections of future technology and fuel prices.

  11. APEX - a Petri net process modeling tool built on a discrete-event simulation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gish, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    APEX, the Animated Process Experimentation tool, provides a capability for defining, simulating and animating process models. Primarily constructed for the modeling and analysis of software process models, we have found that APEX is much more broadly applicable and is suitable for process modeling tasks outside the domain of software processes. APEX has been constructed as a library of simulation blocks that implement timed hierarchical colored Petri Nets. These Petri Net blocks operate in conjunction with EXTEND, a general purpose continuous and discrete-event simulation tool. EXTEND provides a flexible, powerful and extensible environment with features particularly suitable for the modeling of complex processes. APEX`s Petri Net block additions to EXTEND provide an inexpensive capability with well-defined and easily understood semantics that is a powerful, easy to use, flexible means to engage in process modeling and evaluation. The vast majority of software process research has focused on the enactment of software processes. Little has been said about the actual creation and evaluation of software process models necessary to support enactment. APEX has been built by the Software Engineering Process Technology Project at GTE Laboratories which has been focusing on this neglected area of process model definition and analysis. We have constructed high-level software lifecycle models, a set of models that demonstrate differences between four levels of the SEI Capability Maturity Model (CMM), customer care process models, as well as models involving more traditional synchronization and coordination problems such as producer-consumer and 2-phase commit. APEX offers a unique blend of technology from two different disciplines: discrete-event simulation and Petri Net modeling. Petri Nets provide a well-defined and rich semantics in a simple, easy to understand notation. The simulation framework allows for execution, animation, and measurement of the resultant models.

  12. Assessment of uncertainties in the response of the African monsoon precipitation to land use change simulated by a regional model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung Ruby; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin -Ho

    2014-02-22

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubsmore » and an increase in surface air temperature.« less

  13. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan

    2014-02-18

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  14. A Distributed Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for Simulating SOFC Performance and Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-10-13

    This report presents a distributed electrochemistry (DEC) model capable of investigating the electrochemistry and local conditions with the SOFC MEA based on the local microstructure and multi-physics. The DEC model can calculate the global current-voltage (I-V) performance of the cell as determined by the spatially varying local conditions through the thickness of the electrodes and electrolyte. The simulation tool is able to investigate the electrochemical performance based on characteristics of the electrode microstructure, such as particle size, pore size, electrolyte and electrode phase volume fractions, and triple-phase-boundary length. It can also investigate performance as affected by fuel and oxidant gas flow distributions and other environmental/experimental conditions such as temperature and fuel gas composition. The long-term objective for the DEC modeling tool is to investigate factors that cause electrode degradation and the decay of SOFC performance which decrease longevity.

  15. ENV-Linkages-KEI Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Moderate Related Tools CRED: A New Model of Climate and Development Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects TEEMP ... further results A recursive...

  16. Modeling the Effects of Irrigation on Land Surface Fluxes and States over the Conterminous United States: Sensitivity to Input Data and Model Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Sacks, William J.; Lei, Huimin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-09-16

    Previous studies on irrigation impacts on land surface fluxes/states were mainly conducted as sensitivity experiments, with limited analysis of uncertainties from the input data and model irrigation schemes used. In this study, we calibrated and evaluated the performance of irrigation water use simulated by the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) against observations from agriculture census. We investigated the impacts of irrigation on land surface fluxes and states over the conterminous United States (CONUS) and explored possible directions of improvement. Specifically, we found large uncertainty in the irrigation area data from two widely used sources and CLM4 tended to produce unrealistically large temporal variations of irrigation demand for applications at the water resources region scale over CONUS. At seasonal to interannual time scales, the effects of irrigation on surface energy partitioning appeared to be large and persistent, and more pronounced in dry than wet years. Even with model calibration to yield overall good agreement with the irrigation amounts from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), differences between the two irrigation area datasets still dominate the differences in the interannual variability of land surface response to irrigation. Our results suggest that irrigation amount simulated by CLM4 can be improved by (1) calibrating model parameter values to account for regional differences in irrigation demand and (2) accurate representation of the spatial distribution and intensity of irrigated areas.

  17. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-11

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowgroundmore » respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model–observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  18. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-18

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differedmore » from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  19. Modeling and Adhesive Tool Wear in Dry Drilling of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girot, F.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.

    2011-01-17

    One of the challenges in aeronautic drilling operations is the elimination of cutting fluids while maintaining the quality of drilled parts. This paper therefore aims to increase the tool life and process quality by working on relationships existing between drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), coatings and tool geometry. In dry drilling, the phenomenon of Built-Up Layer is the predominant damage mechanism. A model fitting the axial force with the cutting parameters and the damage has been developed. The burr thickness and its dispersion decrease with the feed rate. The current diamond coatings which exhibit a strong adhesion to the carbide substrate can limit this adhesive layer phenomenon. A relatively smooth nano-structured coating strongly limits the development of this layer.

  20. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J. C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-07-28

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m⁻² yr⁻², equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our

  1. Integrated Climate and Carbon-cycle Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-03-06

    The INCCA model is a numerical climate and carbon cycle modeling tool for use in studying climate change and carbon cycle science. The model includes atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice components.

  2. Sensitivity of Global Terrestrial Gross Primary Production to Hydrologic States Simulated by the Community Land Model Using Two Runoff Parameterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Huimin; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Dawen; Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Hayes, Daniel J.; Schwalm, C.; Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Shishi

    2014-09-01

    The terrestrial water and carbon cycles interact strongly at various spatio-temporal scales. To elucidate how hydrologic processes may influence carbon cycle processes, differences in terrestrial carbon cycle simulations induced by structural differences in two runoff generation schemes were investigated using the Community Land Model 4 (CLM4). Simulations were performed with runoff generation using the default TOPMODEL-based and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model approaches under the same experimental protocol. The comparisons showed that differences in the simulated gross primary production (GPP) are mainly attributed to differences in the simulated leaf area index (LAI) rather than soil moisture availability. More specifically, differences in runoff simulations can influence LAI through changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and their seasonality that affect the onset of the growing season and the subsequent dynamic feedbacks between terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles. As a result of a relative difference of 36% in global mean total runoff between the two models and subsequent changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and LAI, the simulated global mean GPP differs by 20.4%. However, the relative difference in the global mean net ecosystem exchange between the two models is small (2.1%) due to competing effects on total mean ecosystem respiration and other fluxes, although large regional differences can still be found. Our study highlights the significant interactions among the water, energy, and carbon cycles and the need for reducing uncertainty in the hydrologic parameterization of land surface models to better constrain carbon cycle modeling.

  3. NREL: Wind Research - Offshore Design Tools and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design Tools and Methods Graphic of a modular depiction of the FAST tool, which includes aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, control and electrical system dynamics, and structural dynamics modules. NREL's CAE Tool, FAST, and its Sub-Modules Illustration of wind turbines in various environments including land-based, shallow water (0-30m), transitional depth (30-60m), and deep water floating (greater than 60m). FAST has the capability of modeling a wide range of offshore wind system configurations

  4. A description of the new 3D electron gun and collector modeling tool: MICHELLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petillo, J.; Mondelli, A.; Krueger, W.

    1999-07-01

    A new 3D finite element gun and collector modeling code is under development at SAIC in collaboration with industrial partners and national laboratories. This development program has been designed specifically to address the shortcomings of current simulation and modeling tools. In particular, although there are 3D gun codes that exist today, their ability to address fine scale features is somewhat limited in 3D due to disparate length scales of certain classes of devices. Additionally, features like advanced emission rules, including thermionic Child's law and comprehensive secondary emission models also need attention. The program specifically targets problems classes including gridded-guns, sheet-beam guns, multi-beam devices, and anisotropic collectors. The presentation will provide an overview of the program objectives, the approach to be taken by the development team, and a status of the project.

  5. The GEWEX LandFlux project: Evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally gridded forcing data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McCabe, M. F.; Ershadi, A.; Jimenez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Michel, D.; Wood, E. F.

    2016-01-26

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) LandFlux project, fourmore » commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman–Monteith-based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to the coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance. Using surface flux observations from 45 globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overall statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m–2; 0.65), followed closely by GLEAM

  6. Smart Grid Tools and Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Partnerships Tribal Energy Program Intellectual ... to be employed by communities (cities, towns, counties, and tribal lands) to ... and tools (including energy storage) are ...

  7. Sensitivity of Surface Flux Simulations to Hydrologic Parameters Based on an Uncertainty Quantification Framework Applied to the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lin, Guang; Ricciuto, Daniel M.

    2012-08-10

    Uncertainties in hydrologic parameters could have significant impacts on the simulated water and energy fluxes and land surface states, which will in turn affect atmospheric processes and the carbon cycle. Quantifying such uncertainties is an important step toward better understanding and quantification of uncertainty of integrated earth system models. In this paper, we introduce an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to analyze sensitivity of simulated surface fluxes to selected hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model (CLM4) through forward modeling. Thirteen flux tower footprints spanning a wide range of climate and site conditions were selected to perform sensitivity analyses by perturbing the parameters identified. In the UQ framework, prior information about the parameters was used to quantify the input uncertainty using the Minimum-Relative-Entropy approach. The quasi-Monte Carlo approach was applied to generate samples of parameters on the basis of the prior pdfs. Simulations corresponding to sampled parameter sets were used to generate response curves and response surfaces and statistical tests were used to rank the significance of the parameters for output responses including latent (LH) and sensible heat (SH) fluxes. Overall, the CLM4 simulated LH and SH show the largest sensitivity to subsurface runoff generation parameters. However, study sites with deep root vegetation are also affected by surface runoff parameters, while sites with shallow root zones are also sensitive to the vadose zone soil water parameters. Generally, sites with finer soil texture and shallower rooting systems tend to have larger sensitivity of outputs to the parameters. Our results suggest the necessity of and possible ways for parameter inversion/calibration using available measurements of latent/sensible heat fluxes to obtain the optimal parameter set for CLM4. This study also provided guidance on reduction of parameter set dimensionality and parameter

  8. LANL12-RS-108J Report on Device Modeler Testing of the Device Modeler Tool Kit. DMTK in FY14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, Brian Allen; Pimentel, David A.

    2014-09-28

    This document covers the various testing and modifications of the Device Modeler Tool Kit (DMTK) for project LANL12-RS-108J in FY14. The testing has been comprised of different device modelers and trainees for device modeling using DMTK on the secure network for a few test problems. Most of these problems have been synthetic data problems. There has been a local secure network training drill where one of the trainees has used DMTK for real data. DMTK has also been used on a laptop for a deployed real data training drill. Once DMTK gets into the home team, it will be used for more training drills (TDs) which will contain real data in the future.

  9. CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY TOOL (CMT): A GIS-BASED AUTOMATED EXTRACTION MODEL FOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUDI, DAVID; KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY; BERSCHEID, ALAN

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  10. The Use Of Computational Human Performance Modeling As Task Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacuqes Hugo; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    During a review of the Advanced Test Reactor safety basis at the Idaho National Laboratory, human factors engineers identified ergonomic and human reliability risks involving the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during manual fuel movement and inspection in the canal. There were clear indications that these risks increased the probability of human error and possible severe physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, a detailed study was conducted to determine the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element. Due to practical and safety constraints, the task network analysis technique was employed to study the work procedures at the canal. Discrete-event simulation software was used to model the entire procedure as well as the salient physical attributes of the task environment, such as distances walked, the effect of dropped tools, the effect of hazardous body postures, and physical exertion due to strenuous tool handling. The model also allowed analysis of the effect of cognitive processes such as visual perception demands, auditory information and verbal communication. The model made it possible to obtain reliable predictions of operator performance and workload estimates. It was also found that operator workload as well as the probability of human error in the fuel inspection and transfer task were influenced by the concurrent nature of certain phases of the task and the associated demand on cognitive and physical resources. More importantly, it was possible to determine with reasonable accuracy the stages as well as physical locations in the fuel handling task where operators would be most at risk of losing their balance and falling into the canal. The model also provided sufficient information for a human reliability analysis that indicated that the postulated fuel exposure accident was less than credible.

  11. Divergent predictions of carbon storage between two global land models: attribution of the causes through traceability analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafique, Rashid; Xia, Jianyang; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Wang, Yingping; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-08-27

    Representations of the terrestrial carbon cycle in land models are becoming increasingly complex. It is crucial to develop approaches for critical assessment of the complex model properties in order to understand key factors contributing to models’ performance. In this study, we applied a traceability analysis, which decomposes carbon cycle models into traceable components, to two global land models (CABLE and CLM-CASA’) to diagnose the causes of their differences in simulating ecosystem carbon storage capacity. Driven with similar forcing data, the CLM-CASA’ model predicted ~31% larger carbon storage capacity than the CABLE model. Since ecosystem carbon storage capacity is a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE), the predicted difference in the storage capacity between the two models results from differences in either NPP or τE or both. Our analysis showed that CLM-CASA’ simulated 37% higher NPP than CABLE due to higher rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) in CLM-CASA’. On the other hand, τE , which was a function the baseline carbon residence time (τ´E) and environmental effect on carbon residence time, was on average 11 years longer in CABLE than CLM-CASA’. The difference in τE was mainly found to be caused by longer τ´E in CABLE than CLM-CASA’. This difference in τE was mainly caused by longer τ´E of woody biomass (23 vs. 14 years in CLM-CASA’) and higher proportion of NPP allocated to woody biomass (23% vs. 16%). Differences in environmental effects on carbon residence times had smaller influences on differences in ecosystem carbon storage capacities compared to differences in NPP and τ´E. Overall; the traceability analysis is an effective method for identifying sources of variations between the two models.

  12. Reservoir Modeling by Data Integration via Intermediate Spaces and Artificial Intelligence Tools in MPS Simulation Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi, Rouhollah; Khamehchi, Ehsan

    2013-12-15

    Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data.

  13. Development of a robust modeling tool for radiation-induced segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying; Field, Kevin G; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels in Light Water Reactor (LWR) components has been linked to changes in grain boundary composition due to irradiation induced segregation (RIS). This work developed a robust RIS modeling tool to account for thermodynamics and kinetics of the atom and defect transportation under combined thermal and radiation conditions. The diffusion flux equations were based on the Perks model formulated through the linear theory of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Both cross and non-cross phenomenological diffusion coefficients in the flux equations were considered and correlated to tracer diffusion coefficients through Manning’s relation. The preferential atomvacancy coupling was described by the mobility model, whereas the preferential atom-interstitial coupling was described by the interstitial binding model. The composition dependence of the thermodynamic factor was modeled using the CALPHAD approach. Detailed analysis on the diffusion fluxes near and at grain boundaries of irradiated austenitic stainless steels suggested the dominant diffusion mechanism for chromium and iron is via vacancy, while that for nickel can swing from the vacancy to the interstitial dominant mechanism. The diffusion flux in the vicinity of a grain boundary was found to be greatly influenced by the composition gradient formed from the transient state, leading to the oscillatory behavior of alloy compositions in this region. This work confirms that both vacancy and interstitial diffusion, and segregation itself, have important roles in determining the microchemistry of Fe, Cr, and Ni at irradiated grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steels.

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  15. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick; Im, Piljae

    2012-04-01

    ) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation

  16. An update on land-ice modeling in the CESM (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LJWG efforts to date have led to the inclusion of a dynamic ice-sheet model (the Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model, or Glimmer-CISM) in the Community Earth System Model (CESM), ...

  17. Low-Carbon Land Transport Policy Handbook | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Handbook Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Carbon Land Transport Policy Handbook AgencyCompany Organization: Routledge ComplexityEase...

  18. The ArcSDE GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool for Savannah River Site Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLANE, TRACY; JONES, DWIGHT

    2005-10-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile Department of Energy site located near Aiken, South Carolina. With a workforce of over 10,000 employees and subcontractors, SRS emergency personnel must be able to respond to an emergency event in a timely and effective manner, in order to ensure the safety and security of the Site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides the technology needed to give managers and emergency personnel the information they need to make quick and effective decisions. In the event of a site evacuation, knowing the number of on-site personnel to evacuate from a given area is an essential piece of information for emergency staff. SRS has developed a GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool to quickly communicate real-time information that summarizes employee populations by facility area and building and then generates dynamic maps that illustrate output statistics.

  19. Downscaling Global Land Cover Projections from an Integrated Assessment Model for Use in Regional Analyses: Results and Evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Huang, Maoyi; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-06-05

    Projections of land cover change generated from Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at subregional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land use at the sub-continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5 degree).

  20. Evaluating the Community Land Model in a pine stand with shading manipulations and 13CO2 labeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mao, Jiafu; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; King, Anthony Wayne; Shi, Xiaoying; Iversen, Colleen M.; Norby, Richard J.

    2016-02-03

    Carbon partitioning and flow through ecosystems regulates land surface atmosphere CO2 exchange and thus is a key, albeit uncertain component of mechanistic models. The Partitioning in Trees and Soil (PiTS) experiment-model project tracked C partitioning through a young Pinus taeda stand following pulse-labeling with 13CO2 and two levels of shading. The field component of this project provided process-oriented data that was used to evaluate and improve terrestrial biosphere model simulations of rapid shifts in carbon partitioning and hydrological dynamics under varying environmental conditions. Here we tested the performance of the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) in capturing short-term carbonmore » and water dynamics in relation to manipulative shading treatments, and the timing and magnitude of carbon fluxes through various compartments of the ecosystem. To constrain CLM4 to closely simulate pretreatment conditions, we calibrated select model parameters with the pretreatment observational data. Compared to CLM4 simulations with default parameters, CLM4 with calibrated model parameters was better able to simulate pretreatment vegetation carbon pools, light response curves, and other initial states and fluxes of carbon and water. Over a 3-week treatment period, the calibrated CLM4 generally reproduced the impacts of shading on average soil moisture at 15-95 cm depth, transpiration, relative change in stem carbon, and soil CO2 efflux rate, although some discrepancies in the estimation of magnitudes and temporal evolutions existed. CLM4, however, was not able to track the progression of the 13CO2 label from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots or surface soil CO2 efflux, even when optimized model parameters were used. This model bias arises, in part, from the lack of a short-term non-structural carbohydrate storage pool and progressive timing of within-plant transport, thus indicating a need for future work to improve the allocation routines in CLM4

  1. Evaluating the Community Land Model in a pine stand with 13CO2 labeling and shading manipulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Jiafu; Ricciuto, Daniel M; Thornton, Peter E; Warren, Jeffrey M.; King, Anthony Wayne; Shi, Xiaoying; Iversen, Colleen M; Norby, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carbon partitioning and flow through ecosystems regulates land surface atmosphere CO2 exchange and thus is a key, albeit uncertain component of mechanistic models. The Partitioning in Trees and Soil (PiTS) experiment-model project tracked C partitioning through a young Pinus taeda stand following pulse-labeling with 13CO2 and two levels of shading. The field component of this project provided process-oriented data that was used to evaluate and improve terrestrial biosphere model simulations of rapid shifts in carbon partitioning and hydrological dynamics under varying environmental conditions. Here we tested the performance of the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) in capturing short-term carbon and water dynamics in relation to manipulative shading treatments, and the timing and magnitude of carbon fluxes through various compartments of the ecosystem. To constrain CLM4 to closely simulate pretreatment conditions, we calibrated select model parameters with the pretreatment observational data. Compared to CLM4 simulations with default parameters, CLM4 with calibrated model parameters was better able to simulate pretreatment vegetation carbon pools, light response curves, and other initial states and fluxes of carbon and water. Over a 3-week treatment period, the calibrated CLM4 generally reproduced the impacts of shading on average soil moisture at 15-95 cm depth, transpiration, relative change in stem carbon, and soil CO2 efflux rate, although some discrepancies in the estimation of magnitudes and temporal evolutions existed. CLM4, however, was not able to track the progression of the 13CO2 label from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots or surface soil CO2 efflux, even when optimized model parameters were used. This model bias arises, in part, from the lack of a short-term non-structural carbohydrate storage pool and progressive timing of within-plant transport, thus indicating a need for future work to improve the allocation routines in CLM4. Overall

  2. Evaluating the Community Land Model in a pine stand with 13CO2 labeling and shading manipulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mao, Jiafu; Ricciuto, Daniel M; Thornton, Peter E; Warren, Jeffrey M.; King, Anthony Wayne; Shi, Xiaoying; Iversen, Colleen M; Norby, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carbon partitioning and flow through ecosystems regulates land surface atmosphere CO2 exchange and thus is a key, albeit uncertain component of mechanistic models. The Partitioning in Trees and Soil (PiTS) experiment-model project tracked C partitioning through a young Pinus taeda stand following pulse-labeling with 13CO2 and two levels of shading. The field component of this project provided process-oriented data that was used to evaluate and improve terrestrial biosphere model simulations of rapid shifts in carbon partitioning and hydrological dynamics under varying environmental conditions. Here we tested the performance of the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) in capturing short-term carbonmore » and water dynamics in relation to manipulative shading treatments, and the timing and magnitude of carbon fluxes through various compartments of the ecosystem. To constrain CLM4 to closely simulate pretreatment conditions, we calibrated select model parameters with the pretreatment observational data. Compared to CLM4 simulations with default parameters, CLM4 with calibrated model parameters was better able to simulate pretreatment vegetation carbon pools, light response curves, and other initial states and fluxes of carbon and water. Over a 3-week treatment period, the calibrated CLM4 generally reproduced the impacts of shading on average soil moisture at 15-95 cm depth, transpiration, relative change in stem carbon, and soil CO2 efflux rate, although some discrepancies in the estimation of magnitudes and temporal evolutions existed. CLM4, however, was not able to track the progression of the 13CO2 label from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots or surface soil CO2 efflux, even when optimized model parameters were used. This model bias arises, in part, from the lack of a short-term non-structural carbohydrate storage pool and progressive timing of within-plant transport, thus indicating a need for future work to improve the allocation routines in CLM4

  3. Parameterizing atmosphere-land surface exchange for climate models with satellite data: A case study for the Southern Great Plains CART site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, W.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution satellite data provide detailed, quantitative descriptions of land surface characteristics over large areas so that objective scale linkage becomes feasible. With the aid of satellite data, Sellers et al. and Wood and Lakshmi examined the linearity of processes scaled up from 30 m to 15 km. If the phenomenon is scale invariant, then the aggregated value of a function or flux is equivalent to the function computed from aggregated values of controlling variables. The linear relation may be realistic for limited land areas having no large surface contrasts to cause significant horizontal exchange. However, for areas with sharp surface contrasts, horizontal exchange and different dynamics in the atmospheric boundary may induce nonlinear interactions, such as at interfaces of land-water, forest-farm land, and irrigated crops-desert steppe. The linear approach, however, represents the simplest scenario, and is useful for developing an effective scheme for incorporating subgrid land surface processes into large-scale models. Our studies focus on coupling satellite data and ground measurements with a satellite-data-driven land surface model to parameterize surface fluxes for large-scale climate models. In this case study, we used surface spectral reflectance data from satellite remote sensing to characterize spatial and temporal changes in vegetation and associated surface parameters in an area of about 350 {times} 400 km covering the southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  4. Quantifying the impacts of land surface schemes and dynamic vegetation on the model dependency of projected changes in surface energy and water budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Miao; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Haishan

    2016-03-01

    Assessing and quantifying the uncertainties in projected future changes of energy and water budgets over land surface are important steps toward improving our confidence in climate change projections. In our study, the contribution of land surface models to the inter-GCM variation of projected future changes in land surface energy and water fluxes are assessed based on output from 19 global climate models (GCMs) and offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) simulations driven by meteorological forcing from the 19 GCMs. Similar offline simulations using CLM4 with its dynamic vegetation submodel are also conducted to investigate how dynamic vegetation feedback, amore » process that is being added to more earth system models, may amplify or moderate the intermodel variations of projected future changes. Projected changes are quantified as the difference between the 2081–2100 period from the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) future experiment and the 1981–2000 period from the historical simulation. Under RCP8.5, projected changes in surface water and heat fluxes show a high degree of model dependency across the globe. Although precipitation is very likely to increase in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, a high degree of model-related uncertainty exists for evapotranspiration, soil water content, and surface runoff, suggesting discrepancy among land surface models (LSMs) in simulating the surface hydrological processes and snow-related processes. Large model-related uncertainties for the surface water budget also exist in the Tropics including southeastern South America and Central Africa. Moreover, these uncertainties would be reduced in the hypothetical scenario of a single near-perfect land surface model being used across all GCMs, suggesting the potential to reduce uncertainties through the use of more consistent approaches toward land surface model development. Under such a scenario, the most significant reduction is likely to

  5. Lumped Parameter Modeling as a Predictive Tool for a Battery Status Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chester G. Motloch; Chinh D. Ho; John L. Morrison; Ronald C. Fenton; Vincent S. Battaglia; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). Both the Gen 2 Baseline and Variant C cells are tested in accordance with the cell-specific test plan, and are removed at roughly equal power fade increments and sent for destructive diagnostic analysis. The diagnostic laboratories did not need all test cells for analysis, and returned five spare cells to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL used these cells for special pulse testing at various duty cycles, amplitudes, and durations to investigate the usefulness of the lumped parameter model (LPM) as a predictive tool in a battery status monitor (BSM). The LPM is a simplified linear model that accurately predicts the voltage response during certain pulse conditions. A database of parameter trends should enable dynamic predictions of state-of-charge and state-of-health conditions during in-vehicle pulsing. This information could be used by the BSM to provide accurate information to the vehicle control system.

  6. Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Community Earth System Model Workshop ; 2012-06-18 - ... Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: ...

  7. Multi-Scale Modeling Tools to Enable Manufacturing-Informed Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Computer-Aided Design Tools for Automotive Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit ...

  8. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias-correcting (BC) Global Climate Model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables(evapotranspiration, ET; runoff; snow water equivalent, SWE; and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were firstly dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolutions with WRF model. Then a quantile mapping based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16th degree resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two series climate data were generated according to the option of bias-correction (i.e. with bias-correction (BC) and without bias-correction, NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological datasets. These im20 pact models include a macro-scale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrologic model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However

  9. Calibration and Validation of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Model using the FAST Dynamic Simulation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.

  10. Real-time global flood estimation using satellite-based precipitation and a coupled land surface and routing model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Huan; Adler, Robert F.; Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Li, Hongyi; Wang, JianJian

    2014-03-01

    A widely used land surface model, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, is coupled with a newly developed hierarchical dominant river tracing-based runoff-routing model to form the Dominant river tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment (DRIVE) model, which serves as the new core of the real-time Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS). The GFMS uses real-time satellite-based precipitation to derive flood monitoring parameters for the latitude band 50°N–50°S at relatively high spatial (~12 km) and temporal (3 hourly) resolution. Examples of model results for recent flood events are computed using the real-time GFMS (http://flood.umd.edu). To evaluate the accuracy of the new GFMS, the DRIVE model is run retrospectively for 15 years using both research-quality and real-time satellite precipitation products. Evaluation results are slightly better for the research-quality input and significantly better for longer duration events (3 day events versus 1 day events). Basins with fewer dams tend to provide lower false alarm ratios. For events longer than three days in areas with few dams, the probability of detection is ~0.9 and the false alarm ratio is ~0.6. In general, these statistical results are better than those of the previous system. Streamflow was evaluated at 1121 river gauges across the quasi-global domain. Validation using real-time precipitation across the tropics (30°S–30°N) gives positive daily Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficients for 107 out of 375 (28%) stations with a mean of 0.19 and 51% of the same gauges at monthly scale with a mean of 0.33. Finally, there were poorer results in higher latitudes, probably due to larger errors in the satellite precipitation input.

  11. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES earth system modeling; climate change; land use Word Cloud More ...

  12. Using reactive transport codes to provide mechanistic biogeochemistry representations in global land surface models: CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, G.; Yuan, F.; Bisht, G.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Xu, X.; Andre, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; et al

    2015-12-17

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models; our goal is to facilitate testing of alternative models and incorporation of new understanding. A reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN code, coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM), and test at Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. To make the reaction network designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLM compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN,more » the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. To achieve accurate, efficient, and robust numerical solutions, care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60–100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10−3 to 10−9 mol m−3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %; computing time can be doubled for log transformation. Caution needs to be taken in choosing the appropriate scaling factor because a small value caused by a negative update to a small concentration may diminish the update and result in false convergence even with very

  13. COER Hydrodynamic Modeling Competition: Modeling the Dynamic Response of a Floating Body Using the WEC-Sim and FAST Simulation Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COER HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING COMPETITION: MODELING THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A FLOATING BODY USING THE WEC-SIM AND FAST SIMULATION TOOLS Michael Lawson Braulio Barahona Garzon Fabian Wendt Yi-Hsiang Yu National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado, USA Carlos Michelen Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA ABSTRACT The Center for Ocean Energy Research (COER) at the University of Maynooth in Ireland organized a hydrodynamic modeling competition in conjunction with OMAE2015.

  14. Final report on "Modeling Diurnal Variations of California Land Biosphere CO2 Fluxes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, Inez

    2014-07-28

    In Mediterranean climates, the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand for moisture (summer). Multi-year half-hourly observations of sap flow velocities in 26 evergreen trees in a small watershed in Northern California show that different species of evergreen trees have different seasonalities of transpiration: Douglas-firs respond immediately to the first winter rain, while Pacific madrones have peak transpiration in the dry summer. Using these observations, we have derived species-specific parameterization of normalized sap flow velocities in terms of insolation, vapor pressure deficit and near-surface soil moisture. A simple 1-D boundary layer model showed that afternoon temperatures may be higher by 1 degree Celsius in an area with Douglas-firs than with Pacific madrones. The results point to the need to develop a new representation of subsurface moisture, in particular pools beneath the organic soil mantle and the vadose zone. Our ongoing and future work includes coupling our new parameterization of transpiration with new representation of sub-surface moisture in saprolite and weathered bedrock. The results will be implemented in a regional climate model to explore vegetation-climate feedbacks, especially in the dry season.

  15. Development of a tool dedicated to the evaluation of hydrogen term source for technological Wastes: assumptions, physical models, and validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamouroux, C.

    2013-07-01

    In radioactive waste packages hydrogen is generated, in one hand, from the radiolysis of wastes (mainly organic materials) and, in the other hand, from the radiolysis of water content in the cement matrix. In order to assess hydrogen generation 2 tools based on operational models have been developed. One is dedicated to the determination of the hydrogen source term issues from the radiolysis of the wastes: the STORAGE tool (Simulation Tool Of Emission Radiolysis Gas), the other deals with the hydrogen source term gas, produced by radiolysis of the cement matrices (the Damar tool). The approach used by the STORAGE tool for assessing the production rate of radiolysis gases is divided into five steps: 1) Specification of the data packages, in particular, inventories and radiological materials defined for a package medium; 2) Determination of radiochemical yields for the different constituents and the laws of behavior associated, this determination of radiochemical yields is made from the PRELOG database in which radiochemical yields in different irradiation conditions have been compiled; 3) Definition of hypothesis concerning the composition and the distribution of contamination inside the package to allow assessment of the power absorbed by the constituents; 4) Sum-up of all the contributions; And finally, 5) validation calculations by comparison with a reduced sampling of packages. Comparisons with measured values confirm the conservative character of the methodology and give confidence in the safety margins for safety analysis report.

  16. Implementing Nonlinear Buoyancy and Excitation Forces in the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Modeling Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.; Nelessen, A.; Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.

    2014-05-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) are commonly designed and analyzed using numerical models that combine multi-body dynamics with hydrodynamic models based on the Cummins Equation and linearized hydrodynamic coefficients. These modeling methods are attractive design tools because they are computationally inexpensive and do not require the use of high performance computing resources necessitated by high-fidelity methods, such as Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics. Modeling hydrodynamics using linear coefficients assumes that the device undergoes small motions and that the wetted surface area of the devices is approximately constant. WEC devices, however, are typically designed to undergo large motions in order to maximize power extraction, calling into question the validity of assuming that linear hydrodynamic models accurately capture the relevant fluid-structure interactions. In this paper, we study how calculating buoyancy and Froude-Krylov forces from the instantaneous position of a WEC device (referred to as instantaneous buoyancy and Froude-Krylov forces from herein) changes WEC simulation results compared to simulations that use linear hydrodynamic coefficients. First, we describe the WEC-Sim tool used to perform simulations and how the ability to model instantaneous forces was incorporated into WEC-Sim. We then use a simplified one-body WEC device to validate the model and to demonstrate how accounting for these instantaneously calculated forces affects the accuracy of simulation results, such as device motions, hydrodynamic forces, and power generation.

  17. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale inmore » a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.« less

  18. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  19. COER Hydrodynamic Modeling Competition: Modeling the Dynamic Response of a Floating Body Using the WEC-Sim and FAST Simulation Tools: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COER Hydrodynamic Modeling Competition: Modeling the Dynamic Response of a Floating Body Using the WEC-Sim and FAST Simulation Tools Preprint M. Lawson, B. Barahona Garzon, F. Wendt, and Y-H. Yu National Renewable Energy Laboratory C. Michelen Sandia National Laboratories To be presented at the 34 th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2015) St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada May 31-June 5, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5000-63594 March 2015 NOTICE The

  20. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  1. Update on Small Modular Reactors Dynamic System Modeling Tool: Web Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Richard Edward; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Fugate, David L.; Batteh, John J; Tiller, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports focused on the development of component and system models as well as end-to-end system models using Modelica and Dymola for two advanced reactor architectures: (1) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and (2) fluoride high-temperature reactor (FHR). The focus of this report is the release of the first beta version of the web-based application for model use and collaboration, as well as an update on the FHR model. The web-based application allows novice users to configure end-to-end system models from preconfigured choices to investigate the instrumentation and controls implications of these designs and allows for the collaborative development of individual component models that can be benchmarked against test systems for potential inclusion in the model library. A description of this application is provided along with examples of its use and a listing and discussion of all the models that currently exist in the library.

  2. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: a biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM–PFLOTRAN 1.0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; Hoffman, Forrest M.; et al

    2016-03-04

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models. A reaction network with the Community Land Model carbon–nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN (massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport) code and couple it with the CLM. To make the rate formulae designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLMs compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation ofmore » nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. We demonstrate that CLM–PFLOTRAN predictions (without invoking PFLOTRAN transport) are consistent with CLM4.5 for Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites.Switching from explicit to implicit method increases rigor but introduces numerical challenges. Care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance (STOL) to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60–100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10−3 to 10−9 mol m−3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %, double for log transformation. Overall, the log transformation method is accurate and robust, and the clipping and scaling

  3. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: A biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM PFLOTRAN 1.0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; Hoffman, Forrest M.; et al

    2016-03-04

    Here, we explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models. A reaction network with the Community Land Model carbon nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN (massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport) code and couple it with the CLM. To make the rate formulae designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLMs compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration ismore » used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. We demonstrate that CLM PFLOTRAN predictions (without invoking PFLOTRAN transport) are consistent with CLM4.5 for Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. Switching from explicit to implicit method increases rigor but introduces numerical challenges. Care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance (STOL) to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60–100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10–3 to 10–9 mol m–3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %, double for log transformation. Overall, the log transformation method is accurate and robust, and the clipping and scaling methods are

  4. Comparison of Global Model Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Manipulation Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Fung, Inez; Thornton, Peter E; Covey, Curtis; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulation experiments have been carried out at a handful of sites to gauge the response of the biosphere to significant increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Early synthesis results from four temperate forest sites suggest that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) is conserved across a broad range of productivity with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2% when the surrounding air [CO{sub 2}] was raised to 550{approx}ppm. As a part of the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), a community-based model-data comparison activity, the authors have performed a global FACE modeling experiment using two terrestrial biogeochemistry modules, CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN, coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The two models were forced with an improved NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set and reconstructed atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and N deposition data through 1997. At the beginning of 1997 in the transient simulations, global atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] was abruptly raised to 550{approx}ppm, the target value used at the FACE sites. In the control runs, [CO{sub 2}] continued to rise following observations until 2004, after which it was held constant out to year 2100. In both simulations, the last 25 years of reanalysis forcing and a constant N deposition were applied after year 2004. Across all forest biomes, the NPP responses from both models are weaker than those reported for the four FACE sites. Moreover, model responses vary widely geographically with a decreasing trend of NPP increases from 40{sup o}N to 70{sup o}N. For CLM3-CASA, the largest responses occur in arid regions of western North America and central Asia, suggesting that responses are most strongly influenced by increased water use efficiency for this model. CLM3-CN exhibits consistently weaker responses than CLM3-CASA' with the strongest responses in central Asia, but significantly constrained by N

  5. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  6. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.; Drury, E.; Eurek, K.; Bodington, N.; Lopez, A.; Perry, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces a new capacity expansion model, the Resource Planning Model (RPM), with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for mid- and long-term scenario planning of regional power systems. Although RPM can be adapted to any geographic region, the report describes an initial version of the model adapted for the power system in Colorado. It presents examples of scenario results from the first version of the model, including an example of a 30%-by-2020 renewable electricity penetration scenario.

  7. N = 4 supersymmetric mechanics: Harmonic superspace as a universal tool of model-building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, E. A.

    2013-08-15

    We overview applications of the harmonic superspace approach in models of N = 4supersymmetric mechanics, with emphasis on some recent results.

  8. Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Manual for Social Impact Assessment of Land-Based Carbon Projects Agency...

  9. GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport (Espaol) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning...

  10. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

    2010-11-01

    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under

  11. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  12. Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Forestry Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry...

  13. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool Preprint N. Tom, M. Lawson, and Y.-H. Yu National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE 2015) Kona, Hawaii June 21-26, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5000-63905 April 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government

  14. Implementing Nonlinear Buoyancy and Excitation Forces in the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Modeling Tool: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementing Nonlinear Buoyancy and Excitation Forces in the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Modeling Tool Preprint M. Lawson and Y-H. Yu National Renewable Energy Laboratory A. Nelessen Georgia Tech K. Ruehl and C. Michelen Sandia National Laboratories To be presented at the 33 rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2014) San Francisco, CA June 8-13, 2014 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5000-61529 May 2014 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an

  15. Autonomie Modeling Tool Improves Vehicle Design and Testing, Informs New Fuel Economy Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Autonomie, an advanced vehicle modeling and design software package created by Argonne National laboratory with EERE support, is helping U.S. auto manufacturers develop the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles.

  16. HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT ENHANCED MISSION PLANNING THROUGH INNOVATIVE TOOLS LIFECYCLE COST MODELING AND AQUEOUS THERMODYNAMIC MODELING - 12134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIERSON KL; MEINERT FL

    2012-01-26

    Two notable modeling efforts within the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) are currently underway to (1) increase the robustness of the underlying chemistry approximations through the development and implementation of an aqueous thermodynamic model, and (2) add enhanced planning capabilities to the HTWOS model through development and incorporation of the lifecycle cost model (LCM). Since even seemingly small changes in apparent waste composition or treatment parameters can result in large changes in quantities of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass, mission duration or lifecycle cost, a solubility model that more accurately depicts the phases and concentrations of constituents in tank waste is required. The LCM enables evaluation of the interactions of proposed changes on lifecycle mission costs, which is critical for decision makers.

  17. Development of Modeling Methods and Tools for Predicting Coupled Reactive Transport Processes in Porous Media at Multiple Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, T Prabhakar; Barnett, Mark O; Zheng, Chunmiao; Jones, Norman L

    2010-05-05

    DE-FG02-06ER64213: Development of Modeling Methods and Tools for Predicting Coupled Reactive Transport Processes in Porous Media at Multiple Scales Investigators: T. Prabhakar Clement (PD/PI) and Mark O. Barnett (Auburn), Chunmiao Zheng (Univ. of Alabama), and Norman L. Jones (BYU). The objective of this project was to develop scalable modeling approaches for predicting the reactive transport of metal contaminants. We studied two contaminants, a radioactive cation [U(VI)] and a metal(loid) oxyanion system [As(III/V)], and investigated their interactions with two types of subsurface materials, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides. We also developed modeling methods for describing the experimental results. Overall, the project supported 25 researchers at three universities. Produced 15 journal articles, 3 book chapters, 6 PhD dissertations and 6 MS theses. Three key journal articles are: 1) Jeppu et al., A scalable surface complexation modeling framework for predicting arsenate adsorption on goethite-coated sands, Environ. Eng. Sci., 27(2): 147-158, 2010. 2) Loganathan et al., Scaling of adsorption reactions: U(VI) experiments and modeling, Applied Geochemistry, 24 (11), 2051-2060, 2009. 3) Phillippi, et al., Theoretical solid/solution ratio effects on adsorption and transport: uranium (VI) and carbonate, Soil Sci. Soci. of America, 71:329-335, 2007

  18. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  19. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation uses a vehicle simulator and economics model called the Battery Ownership Model to examine the levelized cost per mile of conventional (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in comparison with the cost to operate an electric vehicle (EV) under a service provider business model. The service provider is assumed to provide EV infrastructure such as charge points and swap stations to allow an EV with a 100-mile range to operate with driving profiles equivalent to CVs and HEVs. Battery cost, fuel price forecast, battery life, and other variables are examined to determine under what scenarios the levelized cost of an EV with a service provider can approach that of a CV. Scenarios in both the United States as an average and Hawaii are examined. The levelized cost of operating an EV with a service provider under average U.S. conditions is approximately twice the cost of operating a small CV. If battery cost and life can be improved, in this study the cost of an EV drops to under 1.5 times the cost of a CV for U.S. average conditions. In Hawaii, the same EV is only slightly more expensive to operate than a CV.

  20. Software Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software Tools Software Tools Copyright materials are released under different mechanisms: Open Source Software and Portfolio Software. CONTACT thumbnail of Kathleen McDonald Head ...

  1. Development Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Python Tools Python is an interpreted, general-purpose high-level programming language that is usually accompanied by a variety of useful tools for scientific programming...

  2. A Micro-Grid Simulator Tool (SGridSim) using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udhay Ravishankar; Milos manic

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a micro-grid simulator tool useful for implementing and testing multi-agent controllers (SGridSim). As a common engineering practice it is important to have a tool that simplifies the modeling of the salient features of a desired system. In electric micro-grids, these salient features are the voltage and power distributions within the micro-grid. Current simplified electric power grid simulator tools such as PowerWorld, PowerSim, Gridlab, etc, model only the power distribution features of a desired micro-grid. Other power grid simulators such as Simulink, Modelica, etc, use detailed modeling to accommodate the voltage distribution features. This paper presents a SGridSim micro-grid simulator tool that simplifies the modeling of both the voltage and power distribution features in a desired micro-grid. The SGridSim tool accomplishes this simplified modeling by using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) models of components that typically make-up a micro-grid. The term EN2NCI models means that the impedance based components of a micro-grid are modeled as single impedances tied between their respective voltage nodes on the micro-grid. Hence the benefit of the presented SGridSim tool are 1) simulation of a micro-grid is performed strictly in the complex-domain; 2) faster simulation of a micro-grid by avoiding the simulation of detailed transients. An example micro-grid model was built using the SGridSim tool and tested to simulate both the voltage and power distribution features with a total absolute relative error of less than 6%.

  3. Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraucunas, Ian P.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dirks, James A.; Hathaway, John E.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Chunlian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Hongyi; Moss, Richard H.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.; Thomson, Allison M.; Voisin, Nathalie; West, Tristram O.

    2015-04-01

    The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA) is an innovative modeling system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. PRIMA brings together state-of-the-art models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible coupling approach. The platform can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, such as the integrated evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. Research into stakeholder decision support needs underpins the platform's application to regional issues, including uncertainty characterization. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus in the upper U.S. Midwest. This paper focuses on PRIMA’s functional capabilities and describes some lessons learned to date about integrated regional modeling.

  4. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with themore » requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.« less

  5. Review of Literature for Inputs to the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool-Commercial/Institutional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya; Lutz, James

    2009-05-29

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing a computer model and spreadsheet tool for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help estimate the water savings attributable to their WaterSense program. WaterSense has developed a labeling program for three types of plumbing fixtures commonly used in commercial and institutional settings: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. This National Water Savings-Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is patterned after the National Water Savings-Residential model, which was completed in 2008. Calculating the quantity of water and money saved through the WaterSense labeling program requires three primary inputs: (1) the quantity of a given product in use; (2) the frequency with which units of the product are replaced or are installed in new construction; and (3) the number of times or the duration the product is used in various settings. To obtain the information required for developing the NWS-CI model, LBNL reviewed various resources pertaining to the three WaterSense-labeled commercial/institutional products. The data gathered ranged from the number of commercial buildings in the United States to numbers of employees in various sectors of the economy and plumbing codes for commercial buildings. This document summarizes information obtained about the three products' attributes, quantities, and use in commercial and institutional settings that is needed to estimate how much water EPA's WaterSense program saves.

  6. Computational Tools for Predictive Modeling of Properties in Complex Actinide Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Autschbach, Jochen; Govind, Niranjan; Atta Fynn, Raymond; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, John H.; de Jong, Wibe A.

    2015-03-30

    In this chapter we focus on methodological and computational aspects that are key to accurately modeling the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular systems containing actinides within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. Our focus is on properties that require either an accurate relativistic all-electron description or an accurate description of the dynamical behavior of actinide species in an environment at finite temperature, or both. The implementation of the methods and the calculations discussed in this chapter were done with the NWChem software suite (Valiev et al. 2010). In the first two sections we discuss two methods that account for relativistic effects, the ZORA and the X2C Hamiltonian. Section 1.2.1 discusses the implementation of the approximate relativistic ZORA Hamiltonian and its extension to magnetic properties. Section 1.3 focuses on the exact X2C Hamiltonian and the application of this methodology to obtain accurate molecular properties. In Section 1.4 we examine the role of a dynamical environment at finite temperature as well as the presence of other ions on the thermodynamics of hydrolysis and exchange reaction mechanisms. Finally, Section 1.5 discusses the modeling of XAS (EXAFS, XANES) properties in realistic environments accounting for both the dynamics of the system and (for XANES) the relativistic effects.

  7. Development of Computational Tools for Metabolic Model Curation, Flux Elucidation and Strain Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranas, Costas D

    2012-05-21

    An overarching goal of the Department of Energy™ mission is the efficient deployment and engineering of microbial and plant systems to enable biomass conversion in pursuit of high energy density liquid biofuels. This has spurred the pace at which new organisms are sequenced and annotated. This torrent of genomic information has opened the door to understanding metabolism in not just skeletal pathways and a handful of microorganisms but for truly genome-scale reconstructions derived for hundreds of microbes and plants. Understanding and redirecting metabolism is crucial because metabolic fluxes are unique descriptors of cellular physiology that directly assess the current cellular state and quantify the effect of genetic engineering interventions. At the same time, however, trying to keep pace with the rate of genomic data generation has ushered in a number of modeling and computational challenges related to (i) the automated assembly, testing and correction of genome-scale metabolic models, (ii) metabolic flux elucidation using labeled isotopes, and (iii) comprehensive identification of engineering interventions leading to the desired metabolism redirection.

  8. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  9. Computerized fire modeling as an effective tool for glovebox fire safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, DOE instituted a program of intense audits by outside safety experts as a result of increased awareness of safety related issues. These audits were referred to as (TSA's). In 1988, a third TSA was conducted of one of the major production buildings. One of the findings of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) was that at Rocky Flats fire dampers are not installed within HVAC ductwork where the duct passes through fire barrier walls. Fire dampers are not utilized in ductwork because the exhaust air flow from process areas is critical from a radiological containment standpoint. Without adequate exhaust during a postulated fire, there would be the potential for radiological contamination exterior to the building. Due to this is an intolerable situation, fire dampers are not utilized. The final solution investigated was to attack the problem through the use of a computerized fire model of critical fire areas. The fact that fuel loading in most production areas was very low (3 to 7 pounds per square foot) led to the hypothesis that insufficient fire intensity exists to cause collapse of the duct. In order to validate this approach, two critical elements were needed. The first was a method to postulate a fire in the fire areas'' and the second was to determine at what exact point ducts will actually collapse. The best approach for the first element was through the use of a computerized fire model. The second element approach would be through either sound full scale fire testing or through a complete research search of past tests.

  10. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  11. Enrollment Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enrollment Tools Enrollment Tools A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contacts Benefits Office (505) 667-1806 Email Enrollment Tools New Hire Benefits Checklist (pdf) New Hire Enrollment Tool (xls

  12. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  13. Introducing Enabling Computational Tools to the Climate Sciences: Multi-Resolution Climate Modeling with Adaptive Cubed-Sphere Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-07-14

    The research investigates and advances strategies how to bridge the scale discrepancies between local, regional and global phenomena in climate models without the prohibitive computational costs of global cloud-resolving simulations. In particular, the research explores new frontiers in computational geoscience by introducing high-order Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques into climate research. AMR and statically-adapted variable-resolution approaches represent an emerging trend for atmospheric models and are likely to become the new norm in future-generation weather and climate models. The research advances the understanding of multi-scale interactions in the climate system and showcases a pathway how to model these interactions effectively with advanced computational tools, like the Chombo AMR library developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The research is interdisciplinary and combines applied mathematics, scientific computing and the atmospheric sciences. In this research project, a hierarchy of high-order atmospheric models on cubed-sphere computational grids have been developed that serve as an algorithmic prototype for the finite-volume solution-adaptive Chombo-AMR approach. The foci of the investigations have lied on the characteristics of both static mesh adaptations and dynamically-adaptive grids that can capture flow fields of interest like tropical cyclones. Six research themes have been chosen. These are (1) the introduction of adaptive mesh refinement techniques into the climate sciences, (2) advanced algorithms for nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamical cores, (3) an assessment of the interplay between resolved-scale dynamical motions and subgrid-scale physical parameterizations, (4) evaluation techniques for atmospheric model hierarchies, (5) the comparison of AMR refinement strategies and (6) tropical cyclone studies with a focus on multi-scale interactions and variable-resolution modeling. The results of this research project

  14. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: A biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0: Modeling Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    R. T. Mills; G. Bisht; G. E. Hammond; J. Kumar; P. C. Lichtner; F. M. Hoffman; X. Xu; F. Yuan; S. L. Painter; G. Tang; and P.E. Thornton; B. Andre

    2016-04-19

    This Modeling Archive is in support of an NGEE Arctic discussion paper under review and available at doi:10.5194/gmd-9-927-2016. The purpose is to document the simulations to allow verification, reproducibility, and follow-up studies. This dataset contains shell scripts to create the CLM-PFLOTRAN cases, specific input files for PFLOTRAN and CLM, outputs, and python scripts to make the figures using the outputs in the publication. Through these results, we demonstrate that CLM-PFLOTRAN can approximately reproduce CLM results in selected cases for the Arctic, temperate and tropic sites. In addition, the new framework facilitates mechanistic representations of soil biogeochemistry processes in the land surface model.

  15. New Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A recent overhaul of the tool makes it a powerful, robust, and flexible modeling software to aid the development of innovative wind and water power technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Labora- tory (NREL) recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineer- ing tool under a new modularization framework. The new release includes: an upgraded version of the AeroDyn aerodynamics module that includes tower drag loading; the

  16. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  17. TRIDEC Land TRIDEC Land Transfer REQUEST Transfer REQUEST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area TRIDEC Land TRIDEC Land Transfer REQUEST Transfer REQUEST 300 Acres 300 Acres Additional Lands Additional Lands Identified for Identified for EA Analysis EA Analysis 2,772...

  18. A reduced order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for regional- and climate-scale land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-04-04

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometer scale (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a particular reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "Proper Orthogonal Decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally-resolvedmore » fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We applied this technique to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface-subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June–September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998–2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the four study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (< 0.1%) for two validation years not used in training the ROM. We also demonstrated that our approach: (1) efficiently corrects for coarse-resolution model bias and (2) can be used for polygonal tundra sites not included in the training dataset with relatively good accuracy (< 1.5% relative error), thereby allowing for the possibility of applying these ROMs across a much larger landscape. This method has the potential to efficiently increase the resolution of land models for coupled climate simulations, allowing LSMs to be used at spatial scales consistent with

  19. A reduced-order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-09-17

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from the molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometers (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "proper orthogonal decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally resolvedmore » fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We developed four different methods and applied them to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface–subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June–September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998–2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (< 0.1%) for 2 validation years not used in training the ROM. We also demonstrate that our approach: (1) efficiently corrects for coarse-resolution model bias and (2) can be used for polygonal tundra sites not included in the training data set with relatively good accuracy (< 1.7% relative error), thereby allowing for the possibility of applying these ROMs across a much larger landscape. By coupling the ROMs constructed at different scales together hierarchically, this method has the potential to efficiently increase the resolution of land models for coupled

  20. Percussion tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  1. xLPR v2.0: Framework Overview Landing platform and deterministic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    : Framework Overview Landing platform and deterministic model. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: xLPR v2.0: Framework Overview Landing platform and deterministic model. ...

  2. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state

  3. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 1, Land-use model and research design, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea Geothermal Subzones, Puna District, Hawaii Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtchard, G.C.; Moblo, P.

    1994-07-01

    The Puna Geothermal Resource Subzones (GRS) project area encompasses approximately 22,000 acres centered on the Kilauea East Rift Zone in Puna District, Hawaii Island. The area is divided into three subzones proposed for geothermal power development -- Kilauea Middle East Rift, Kamaili and Kapoho GRS. Throughout the time of human occupation, eruptive episodes along the rift have maintained a dynamic landscape. Periodic volcanic events, for example, have changed the coastline configuration, altered patterns of agriculturally suitable sediments, and created an assortment of periodically active, periodically quiescent, volcanic hazards. Because of the active character of the rift zone, then, the area`s occupants have always been obliged to organize their use of the landscape to accommodate a dynamic mosaic of lava flow types and ages. While the specific configuration of settlements and agricultural areas necessarily changed in response to volcanic events, it is possible to anticipate general patterns in the manner in which populations used the landscape through time. This research design offers a model that predicts the spatial results of long-term land-use patterns and relates them to the character of the archaeological record of that use. In essence, the environmental/land-use model developed here predicts that highest population levels, and hence the greatest abundance and complexity of identifiable prehistoric remains, tended to cluster near the coast at places that maximized access to productive fisheries and agricultural soils. With the possible exception of a few inland settlements, the density of archaeological remains expected to decrease with distance from the coastline. The pattern is generally supported in the regions existing ethnohistoric and archaeological record.

  4. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  5. A SOAP Web Service for accessing MODIS land product subsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Cook, Robert B; Pan, Jerry Yun; Wilson, Bruce E

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing data from satellites have provided valuable information on the state of the earth for several decades. Since March 2000, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites have been providing estimates of several land parameters useful in understanding earth system processes at global, continental, and regional scales. However, the HDF-EOS file format, specialized software needed to process the HDF-EOS files, data volume, and the high spatial and temporal resolution of MODIS data make it difficult for users wanting to extract small but valuable amounts of information from the MODIS record. To overcome this usability issue, the NASA-funded Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a Web service that provides subsets of MODIS land products using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). The ORNL DAAC MODIS subsetting Web service is a unique way of serving satellite data that exploits a fairly established and popular Internet protocol to allow users access to massive amounts of remote sensing data. The Web service provides MODIS land product subsets up to 201 x 201 km in a non-proprietary comma delimited text file format. Users can programmatically query the Web service to extract MODIS land parameters for real time data integration into models, decision support tools or connect to workflow software. Information regarding the MODIS SOAP subsetting Web service is available on the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://daac.ornl.gov/modiswebservice.

  6. NREL: Technology Deployment - Tool Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool Development Use NREL's models and tools to prioritize opportunities and analyze the energy savings and economics of energy efficiency, advanced transportation, and renewable energy projects. NREL develops geographic tools, interactive calculators, market and metrics databases, and mobile applications to help inform sustainable energy projects and prepare the market for emerging technologies. Geographic Tools Drawing from rich datasets, NREL builds tools that deliver interactive mapping

  7. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.; et al, et al

    2014-01-23

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils lol(which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together. and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility

  8. Omics Tools

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-12-21

    The Omics Tools package provides several small trivial tools for work in genomics. This single portable package, the “omics.jar” file, is a toolbox that works in any Java-based environment, including PCs, Macs, and supercomputers. The number of tools is expected to grow. One tool (called cmsearch.hadoop or cmsearch.local), calls the external cmsearch program to predict non-coding RNA in a genome. The cmsearch program is part of the third-party Infernal package. Omics Tools does not containmore » Infernal. Infernal may be installed separately. The cmsearch.hadoop subtool requires Apache Hadoop and runs on a supercomputer, though cmsearch.local does not and runs on a server. Omics Tools does not contain Hadoop. Hadoop mat be installed separartely The other tools (cmgbk, cmgff, fastats, pal, randgrp, randgrpr, randsub) do not interface with third-party tools. Omics Tools is written in Java and Scala programming languages. Invoking the “help” command shows currently available tools, as shown below: schaumbe@gpint06:~/proj/omics$ java -jar omics.jar help Known commands are: cmgbk : compare cmsearch and GenBank Infernal hits cmgff : compare hits among two GFF (version 3) files cmsearch.hadoop : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your supercomputer cmsearch.local : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your workstation fastats : FASTA stats, e.g. # bases, GC content pal : stem-loop motif detection by palindromic sequence search (code stub) randgrp : random subsample without replacement, of groups randgrpr : random subsample with replacement, of groups (fast) randsub : random subsample without replacement, of file lines For more help regarding a particular command, use: java -jar omics.jar command help Usage: java -jar omics.jar command args« less

  9. On the applicability of surrogate-based MCMC-Bayesian inversion to the Community Land Model: Case studies at Flux tower sites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Maoyi; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Ren, Huiying; Liu, Ying; Swiler, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesianmore » model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically-average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Lastly, analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.« less

  10. Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software & Tools Development Network R&D Software-Defined Networking (SDN) Experimental Network Testbeds Performance (perfSONAR) Software & Tools Development Data for Researchers Partnerships Publications Workshops Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Software & Tools Development Over the years, ESnet

  11. Tool - Transportation System Simulation (POLARIS) | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and includes traffic flow simulation, activity based demand simulation, model building and analysis geographic information system (GIS) tools, and tools for result analysis. ...

  12. CREST Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool: A Model for Developing Cost-based Incentives in the United States. User Manual Version 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    This user manual helps model users understands how to use the CREST model to support renewable energy incentives, FITs, and other renewable energy rate-setting processes. It reviews the spreadsheet tool, including its layout and conventions, offering context on how and why it was created. It also provides instructions on how to populate the model with inputs that are appropriate for a specific jurisdiction’s policymaking objectives and context. And, it describes the results and outlines how these results may inform decisions about long-term renewable energy support programs.

  13. Assessing the Importance of Nonlinearities in the Development of a Substructure Model for the Wind Turbine CAE Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Song, H.

    2013-03-01

    Design and analysis of wind turbines are performed using aero-servo-elastic tools that account for the nonlinear coupling between aerodynamics, controls, and structural response. The NREL-developed computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool FAST also resolves the hydrodynamics of fixed-bottom structures and floating platforms for offshore wind applications. This paper outlines the implementation of a structural-dynamics module (SubDyn) for offshore wind turbines with space-frame substructures into the current FAST framework, and focuses on the initial assessment of the importance of structural nonlinearities. Nonlinear effects include: large displacements, axial shortening due to bending, cross-sectional transverse shear effects, etc.

  14. Software Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software Tools Software Tools Copyright materials are released under different mechanisms: Open Source Software and Portfolio Software. CONTACT thumbnail of Kathleen McDonald Head of Intellectual Property, Business Development Executive Kathleen McDonald Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-9090 Email The Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (FCI) releases copyright materials from Los Alamos under different mechanisms. Open Source Software GitHub Explore all open source

  15. Regulatory Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulatory Tools Home CRA - 2004 Final Recertification Decision CRA Comments & Responses CCA - 1996 CRA CARDs & TSDs CCA CARDs & TSDs Regulatory Tools Title 40 CFR Part 191 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. Title 40 CFR Part 194 Criteria for the Certification and Re-Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations.

  16. Building energy analysis tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  17. CLEAP_Tools_v2016-3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Land Use Transportation Generation Industrial Commercial Residential CITY-LEVEL TOOLS BY SECTOR Plenar.io Zoning Check Climate Explorer Smart Location Database Coastal Resilience Mapping Tool National Climate Change Viewer Open Street Map Alternative Fueling Station Locator US DOT Infrastructure Carbon Estimator Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System SLED Better Buildings Toolkit Regional Indicators Initiative TRACE BEPTC The Energy & Emissions Reduction Policy Analysis Tool I-Places

  18. Archaeology on Lab Land

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archaeology on Lab Land Archaeology on Lab Land People have lived in this area for more than 5,000 years. Lab archaeologists are studying and preserving the ancient human occupation of the Pajarito Plateau. Archaeology on Lab Land exhibit Environmental Research & Monitoring Visit our exhibit and find out how Los Alamos researchers are studying our rich cultural diversity. READ MORE Nake'muu archaeological site Unique Archaeology The thousands of Ancestral Pueblo sites identified on Lab land

  19. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM{sub 2.5} with personal exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Aileen; Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise; Leseman, Daan L.A.C.; Hellack, Bryan; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Janssen, Nicole A.H.

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM{sub 2.5} samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OP{sup ESR}) and dithiothreitol (OP{sup DTT}). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OP{sup ESR} and OP{sup DTT}, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OP{sup DTT} and OP{sup ESR} (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OP{sup DTT} measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OP{sup ESR}. OP{sup DTT} was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results

  20. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  1. Data and Tools | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL provides data, tools, and models for analyzing bioenergy research and technologies, ... BioEnergy Atlas This atlas contains two interactive maps for comparing biomass feedstock, ...

  2. Velo: Knowledge and Tool

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Velo: Knowledge and Tool Integration for Collaborative Scientific Projects Carina Lansing, Kerstin Kleese van Dam 1 Scientific Project Life Cycle 2 Conceptual Modeling Simulation Execution Visualization & Analytics Data Input Data Uncertainty Quantification Validation, Diagnostics, & Monitoring Reference Data / Data Mining Challenges to Scientists ! Has someone done something similar before? Is there a good example? ! How do I find the information I need? ! What are the best tools to

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: Transportation System Analytical Tools |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modeling, Testing, Data & Results » Vehicle Technologies Office: Transportation System Analytical Tools Vehicle Technologies Office: Transportation System Analytical Tools The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has supported the development of a number of software packages and online tools to model individual vehicles and the overall transportation system. Most of these tools are available for free or a nominal charge. Modeling tools that simulate entire vehicles and

  4. Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-02-26

    Brochure on the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for calculating the economic impacts of wind development.

  5. Downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  6. New Technologies to Reclaim Arid Lands User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Under conventional technologies to mitigate these impacts, it is estimated that up to 35 percent of revegetation projects in arid areas will fail due to unpredictable natural environmental conditions, such as drought, and reclamation techniques that were inadequate to restore vegetative cover in a timely and cost-effective manner. New reclamation and restoration techniques are needed in desert ranges to help mitigate the adverse effects of military training and other activities to arid-land environments. In 1999, a cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the US. Department of Defense (DoD), and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on mitigating military impacts in arid lands. As arid lands are impacted due to DoD and DOE activities, biological and soil resources are gradually lost and the habitat is altered. A conceptual model of that change in habitat quality is described for varying levels of disturbance in the Mojave Desert. As the habitat quality degrades and more biological and physical resources are lost from training areas, greater costs are required to return the land to sustainable levels. The purpose of this manual is to assist land managers in recognizing thresholds associated with habitat degradation and provide reclamation planning and techniques that can reduce the costs of mitigation for these impacted lands to ensure sustainable use of these lands. The importance of reclamation planning is described in this manual with suggestions about

  7. Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Lefebvre, Jordan P

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

  8. Coupling a Reactive Transport Code with a Global Land Surface Model for Mechanistic Biogeochemistry Representation: 1. Addressing the Challenge of Nonnegativity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Collier, Nathaniel O.; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Painter, Scott L.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive transport codes (e.g., PFLOTRAN) are increasingly used to improve the representation of biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystem models (e.g., the Community Land Model, CLM). As CLM and PFLOTRAN use explicit and implicit time stepping, implementation of CLM biogeochemical reactions in PFLOTRAN can result in negative concentration, which is not physical and can cause numerical instability and errors. The objective of this work is to address the nonnegativity challenge to obtain accurate, efficient, and robust solutions. We illustrate the implementation of a reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant nitrogen uptake reactions and test the implementation at arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. We examine use of scaling back the update during each iteration (SU), log transformation (LT), and downregulating the reaction rate to account for reactant availability limitation to enforce nonnegativity. Both SU and LT guarantee nonnegativity but with implications. When a very small scaling factor occurs due to either consumption or numerical overshoot, and the iterations are deemed converged because of too small an update, SU can introduce excessive numerical error. LT involves multiplication of the Jacobian matrix by the concentration vector, which increases the condition number, decreases the time step size, and increases the computational cost. Neither SU nor SE prevents zero concentration. When the concentration is close to machine precision or 0, a small positive update stops all reactions for SU, and LT can fail due to a singular Jacobian matrix. The consumption rate has to be downregulated such that the solution to the mathematical representation is positive. A first-order rate downregulates consumption and is nonnegative, and adding a residual concentration makes it positive. For zero-order rate or when the reaction rate is not a function of a reactant, representing the availability limitation of each

  9. Coupling a Reactive Transport Code with a Global Land Surface Model for Mechanistic Biogeochemistry Representation: 1. Addressing the Challenge of Nonnegativity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Collier, Nathaniel O.; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; et al

    2016-01-01

    Reactive transport codes (e.g., PFLOTRAN) are increasingly used to improve the representation of biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystem models (e.g., the Community Land Model, CLM). As CLM and PFLOTRAN use explicit and implicit time stepping, implementation of CLM biogeochemical reactions in PFLOTRAN can result in negative concentration, which is not physical and can cause numerical instability and errors. The objective of this work is to address the nonnegativity challenge to obtain accurate, efficient, and robust solutions. We illustrate the implementation of a reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant nitrogen uptake reactions and test the implementation atmore » arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. We examine use of scaling back the update during each iteration (SU), log transformation (LT), and downregulating the reaction rate to account for reactant availability limitation to enforce nonnegativity. Both SU and LT guarantee nonnegativity but with implications. When a very small scaling factor occurs due to either consumption or numerical overshoot, and the iterations are deemed converged because of too small an update, SU can introduce excessive numerical error. LT involves multiplication of the Jacobian matrix by the concentration vector, which increases the condition number, decreases the time step size, and increases the computational cost. Neither SU nor SE prevents zero concentration. When the concentration is close to machine precision or 0, a small positive update stops all reactions for SU, and LT can fail due to a singular Jacobian matrix. The consumption rate has to be downregulated such that the solution to the mathematical representation is positive. A first-order rate downregulates consumption and is nonnegative, and adding a residual concentration makes it positive. For zero-order rate or when the reaction rate is not a function of a reactant, representing the availability limitation

  10. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.