National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for model intercomparison project

  1. Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project March 2012. [1] Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared and Assimilation System models. Citation: Johnson, M., et al. (2012), Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness

  2. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tilmes, S.; Mills, Mike; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

    2015-01-15

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO?) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annualmore »tropical emission of 8 Tg SO? yr?¹. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.« less

  3. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilmes, S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Mills, Mike [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Niemeier, Ulrike [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Schmidt, Hauke [Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Robock, Alan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Kravitz, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lamarque, J. F. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Pitari, G. [Univ. L'Aquila (Italy). Dept. of Physical and Chemical Sciences; English, J. M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO?) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO? yr?¹. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

  4. Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier; Robock, Alan; Rasch, Philip J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Bou Karam, Diana; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Jones, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Lunt, Daniel; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-09

    Solar geoengineering—deliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earth—has been proposed as a means of counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due to quadrupled CO2 concentrations and prevents 97% of the Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO2 levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2mmday-1 in magnitude over 92% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity increases by 120% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily from CO2 fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant heat stress compared to a high CO2 world with no geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1 cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.

  5. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3): Multi-Model Dataset Archive at PCMDI (Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In response to a proposed activity of the WCRP's Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM),PCMDI volunteered to collect model output contributed by leading modeling centers around the world. Climate model output from simulations of the past, present and future climate was collected by PCMDI mostly during the years 2005 and 2006, and this archived data constitutes phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). In part, the WGCM organized this activity to enable those outside the major modeling centers to perform research of relevance to climate scientists preparing the Fourth Asssessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Program to assess scientific information on climate change. The IPCC publishes reports that summarize the state of the science. This unprecedented collection of recent model output is officially known as the WCRP CMIP3 multi-model dataset. It is meant to serve IPCC's Working Group 1, which focuses on the physical climate system - atmosphere, land surface, ocean and sea ice - and the choice of variables archived at the PCMDI reflects this focus. A more comprehensive set of output for a given model may be available from the modeling center that produced it. As of November 2007, over 35 terabytes of data were in the archive and over 303 terabytes of data had been downloaded among the more than 1200 registered users. Over 250 journal articles, based at least in part on the dataset, have been published or have been accepted for peer-reviewed publication. Countries from which models have been gathered include Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany and Korea, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Great Britain and the United States. Models, variables, and documentation are collected and stored. Check http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ipcc/data_status_tables.htm to see at a glance the output that is available. (Description taken from http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ipcc/about_ipcc.php)

  6. The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilmes, S.; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, J.-F.; Marsh, D.; Mills, Mike; Alterskjaer, Kari; Muri, Helene O.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Boucher, Olivier; Schulz, M.; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Jones, A.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Bou Karam, Diana; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Yang, Shuting; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-14

    Abstract: The hydrologic impact of enhancing Earth’s albedo due to solar radiation management (SRM) is investigated using simulations from 12 models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). An artificial experiment is investigated, where global mean temperature is preserved at pre-industrial conditions, while atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The associated reduction of downwelling surface solar radiation in a high CO2 environment leads to a reduction of global evaporation of 10% and 4% and precipitation of 6.1% and 6.3% over land and ocean, respectively. An initial reduction of latent heat flux at the surface is largely driven by reduced evapotranspiration over land with instantly increasing CO2 concentrations in both experiments. A warming surface associated with the transient adjustment in the 4xCO2 experiment further generates an increase of global precipitation, with considerable regional changes, such as a significant precipitation reduction of 7% for the North American summer monsoon. Reduced global precipitation persists in the geoengineered experiment where temperatures are stabilized, with considerable regional rainfall deficits. Precipitation reductions that are consistent in sign across models are identified in the geoengineered experiment over monsoonal land regions of East Asia (6%), North America (7%), South America (6%) and South Africa (5%). In contrast to the 4xCO2 experiment, where the frequency of months with heavy precipitation intensity is increased by over 50%, it is reduced by up to 20% in the geoengineering scenario . The reduction in heavy precipitation is more pronounced over land than over the ocean, and accompanies a stronger reduction in evaporation over land. For northern mid-latitudes, maximum precipitation reduction over land ranges from 1 to 16% for individual models. For 45-65°N, the frequency of median to high intensity precipitation in summer is strongly reduced. These changes in precipitation in both total amount and frequency of extremes, point to a considerable weakening of the hydrological cycle in a geoengineered world.

  7. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, D.N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A.M; Schaefer, K.; King, A.W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R.; Post, W.M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C.H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  8. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Overview and Description of Models, Simulations and Climate Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamarque, J.-F.; Shindell, Drew; Josse, B.; Young, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Eyring, Veronika; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Collins, W. J.; Doherty, R.; Dalsoren, S.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Plummer, David; Righi, M.; Rumbold, S.; Schulz, M.; Skeie, R. B.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Zeng, G.

    2013-02-07

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) consists of a series of timeslice experiments targeting the long-term changes in atmospheric composition between 1850 and 2100, with the goal of documenting radiative forcing and the associated composition changes. Here we introduce the various simulations performed under ACCMIP and the associated model output. The ACCMIP models have a wide range of horizontal and vertical resolutions, vertical extent, chemistry schemes and interaction with radiation and clouds. While anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were specified for all time slices in the ACCMIP protocol, it is found that the natural emissions lead to a significant range in emissions, mostly for ozone precursors. The analysis of selected present-day climate diagnostics (precipitation, temperature, specific humidity and zonal wind) reveals biases consistent with state-of-the-art climate models. The model-to-model comparison of changes in temperature, specific humidity and zonal wind between 1850 and 2000 and between 2000 and 2100 indicates mostly consistent results, but with outliers different enough to possibly affect their representation of climate impact on chemistry.

  9. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Dentener, Frank; McConnell, J.R.; Ro, C-U; Shaw, Mark; Vet, Robert; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Dalsoren, S.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, David; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Zeng, G.; Curran, M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Das, S.; Fritzsche, D.; Nolan, M.

    2013-08-20

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States, but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching >1300 mgN/m2/yr averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, ~30-50% larger than the values in any region currently (2000). Despite known issues, the new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  10. The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Andrew; Haywood, J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-11

    We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentra- tions as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid rate of global-mean warming following termination, accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and in plant net primary productivity, and decreases in sea-ice cover. While there is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of warming, there is much less of an agreement regarding the patterns of change in the other quantities.

  11. OptIC project: An intercomparison of optimization techniques for parameter estimation in terrestrial biogeochemical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    and earth system models, especially for long-term (multian- nual and greater) simulations. Data assimilation

  12. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

  13. The T-REX valley wind intercomparison project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidli, J; Billings, B J; Burton, R; Chow, F K; De Wekker, S; Doyle, J D; Grubisic, V; Holt, T R; Jiang, Q; Lundquist, K A; Ross, A N; Sheridan, P; Vosper, S; Whiteman, C D; Wyszogrodzki, A A; Zaengl, G; Zhong, S

    2008-08-07

    An accurate simulation of the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is very important, as the evolution of the boundary layer sets the stage for many weather phenomena, such as deep convection. Over mountain areas the evolution of the boundary layer is particularly complex, due to the nonlinear interaction between boundary layer turbulence and thermally-induced mesoscale wind systems, such as the slope and valley winds. As the horizontal resolution of operational forecasts progresses to finer and finer resolution, more and more of the thermally-induced mesoscale wind systems can be explicitly resolved, and it is very timely to document the current state-of-the-art of mesoscale models at simulating the coupled evolution of the mountain boundary layer and the valley wind system. In this paper we present an intercomparison of valley wind simulations for an idealized valley-plain configuration using eight state-of-the-art mesoscale models with a grid spacing of 1 km. Different sets of three-dimensional simulations are used to explore the effects of varying model dynamical cores and physical parameterizations. This intercomparison project was conducted as part of the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX; Grubisic et al., 2008).

  14. THE CARBON-LAND MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT (C-LAMP): A PROTOTYPE FOR COUPLED BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models

  15. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud Results are presented...

  16. Evaluation of Preindustrial to Present-day Black Carbon and its Albedo Forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, Drew; Berntsen, T.; Bisiauxs, M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; McConnell, J.R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-03-05

    As a part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against the observations including 12 ice core records, a long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using the NCAR Community Land and Sea-Ice model 4 with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000, which includes the SNICAR BC-snow model. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations to using recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to the differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology among models; 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However,models agree well on 2.5~3 times increase in the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day, which matches with the 2.5 times increase in BC emissions. We find a large model diversity at both NH and SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfrauch and Ispra. However, the models fail to capture the Arctic BC seasonality due tosevere underestimations during winter and spring. Compared to recent snowpack measurements, the simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of observations except for Greenland and Arctic Ocean. However, model and observation differ widely due to missing interannual variations in emissions and possibly due to the choice of the prescribed meteorology period (i.e., 1996-2000).

  17. Historical and idealized model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Historical and idealized model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity M. Eby1, A. J. Weaver1, K. Alexander1, K

  18. Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 799811 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2003-01-01

    Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting 799 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 799811 (2003) © EGU Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models

  19. The global gridded crop model intercomparison: Data and modeling protocols for Phase 1 (v1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.; Müller, C.; Deryng, D.; Chryssanthacopoulos, J.; Boote, K. J.; Büchner, M.; Foster, I.; Glotter, M.; Heinke, J.; Iizumi, T.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Mueller, N. D.; Ray, D. K.; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, A. C.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-02-11

    We present protocols and input data for Phase 1 of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison, a project of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). The project consist of global simulations of yields, phenologies, and many land-surface fluxes using 12–15 modeling groups for many crops, climate forcing data sets, and scenarios over the historical period from 1948 to 2012. The primary outcomes of the project include (1) a detailed comparison of the major differences and similarities among global models commonly used for large-scale climate impact assessment, (2) an evaluation of model and ensemble hindcasting skill, (3) quantification of key uncertainties from climate input data, model choice, and other sources, and (4) a multi-model analysis of the agricultural impacts of large-scale climate extremes from the historical record.

  20. The global gridded crop model intercomparison: Data and modeling protocols for Phase 1 (v1.0)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, J.; Müller, C.; Deryng, D.; Chryssanthacopoulos, J.; Boote, K. J.; Büchner, M.; Foster, I.; Glotter, M.; Heinke, J.; Iizumi, T.; et al

    2015-02-11

    We present protocols and input data for Phase 1 of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison, a project of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). The project consist of global simulations of yields, phenologies, and many land-surface fluxes using 12–15 modeling groups for many crops, climate forcing data sets, and scenarios over the historical period from 1948 to 2012. The primary outcomes of the project include (1) a detailed comparison of the major differences and similarities among global models commonly used for large-scale climate impact assessment, (2) an evaluation of model and ensemble hindcasting skill, (3) quantification ofmore »key uncertainties from climate input data, model choice, and other sources, and (4) a multi-model analysis of the agricultural impacts of large-scale climate extremes from the historical record.« less

  1. The Program for climate Model diagnosis and Intercomparison: 20-th anniversary Symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Gerald L; Bader, David C; Riches, Michael; Bamzai, Anjuli; Joseph, Renu

    2011-01-05

    Twenty years ago, W. Lawrence (Larry) Gates approached the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (now the Office of Science) with a plan to coordinate the comparison and documentation of climate model differences. This effort would help improve our understanding of climate change through a systematic approach to model intercomparison. Early attempts at comparing results showed a surprisingly large range in control climate from such parameters as cloud cover, precipitation, and even atmospheric temperature. The DOE agreed to fund the effort at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in part because of the existing computing environment and because of a preexisting atmospheric science group that contained a wide variety of expertise. The project was named the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), and it has changed the international landscape of climate modeling over the past 20 years. In spring 2009 the DOE hosted a 1-day symposium to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of PCMDI and to honor its founder, Larry Gates. Through their personal experiences, the morning presenters painted an image of climate science in the 1970s and 1980s, that generated early support from the international community for model intercomparison, thereby bringing PCMDI into existence. Four talks covered Gates���¢��������s early contributions to climate research at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), the RAND Corporation, and Oregon State University through the founding of PCMDI to coordinate the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). The speakers were, in order of presentation, Warren Washington [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)], Kelly Redmond (Western Regional Climate Center), George Boer (Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis), and Lennart Bengtsson [University of Reading, former director of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)]. The afternoon session emphasized the scientific ideas that are the basis of PCMDI���¢��������s success, summarizing their evolution and impact. Four speakers followed the various PCMDI-supported climate model intercomparison projects, beginning with early work on cloud representations in models, presented by Robert D. Cess (Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Stony Brook University), and then the latest Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Projects (CFMIPs) led by Sandrine Bony (Laboratoire de M�������©t�������©orologie Dynamique). Benjamin Santer (LLNL) presented a review of the climate change detection and attribution (D & A) work pioneered at PCMDI, and Gerald A. Meehl (NCAR) ended the day with a look toward the future of climate change research.

  2. Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) and availability of the data on the Earth System Grid (ESG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Scienceincluded in the new Earth System Models (ESMs) participating

  3. Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) and availability of the data on the Earth System Grid (ESG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Scienceincluded in the new Earth System Models (ESMs) participatingof the C-LAMP model output via the Earth System Grid (ESG).

  4. Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    hindcasts of atmospheric chemistry: the role of meteorology,J. : Introduction to atmospheric chemistry, Princeton Uni-and Zeng, G. : The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model

  5. Soot Particle Studies - Instrument Inter-Comparison – Project Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, E.; Sedlacek, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Ahern, A.; Wrobel, W.; Slowik, J. G.; Olfert, J.; Lack, D. A.; Massoli, P.; Cappa, C. D.; Schwarz, J.; Spackman, J. R.; Fahey, D. W.; Trimborn, A.; Jayne, J. T.; Freedman, A.; Williams, L. R.; Ng, N. L.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M.; Brem, B.; Kok, G.; Subramanian, R.; Freitag, S.; Clarke, A.; Thornhill, D.; Marr, L.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2010-03-06

    An inter-comparison study of instruments designed to measure the microphysical and optical properties of soot particles was completed. The following mass-based instruments were tested: Couette Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyzer (CPMA), Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer - Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (AMS-SMPS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) and Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor (PAS2000CE). Optical instruments measured absorption (photoacoustic, interferometric, and filter-based), scattering (in situ), and extinction (light attenuation within an optical cavity). The study covered an experimental matrix consisting of 318 runs that systematically tested the performance of instruments across a range of parameters including: fuel equivalence ratio (1.8 {le} {phi} {le} 5), particle shape (mass-mobility exponent (D{sub f m}), 2.0 {le} D{sub f m} {le} 3.0), particle mobility size (30 {le} d{sub m} {le} 300 nm), black carbon mass (0.07 {le} m{sub BC} {le} 4.2 fg) and particle chemical composition. In selected runs, particles were coated with sulfuric acid or dioctyl sebacate (DOS) (0.5 {le} {Delta}r{sub ve} {le} 201 nm) where {Delta}r{sub ve} is the change in the volume equivalent radius due to the coating material. The effect of non-absorbing coatings on instrument response was determined. Changes in the morphology of fractal soot particles were monitored during coating and denuding processes and the effect of particle shape on instrument response was determined. The combination of optical and mass based measurements was used to determine the mass specific absorption coefficient for denuded soot particles. The single scattering albedo of the particles was also measured. An overview of the experiments and sample results are presented.

  6. Intercomparison of Single-Column Numerical Models for the Prediction of Radiation Fog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intercomparison of Single-Column Numerical Models for the Prediction of Radiation Fog THIERRY-term forecasting of fog is a difficult issue that can have a large societal impact. Radiation fog appears layers of the atmosphere. Current NWP models poorly forecast the life cycle of fog, and improved NWP

  7. INTERCOMPARISON OF LONG TERM SINGLE-COLUMN MODEL SIMULATIONS OF CLOUDS AT THE ARM SGP SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTERCOMPARISON OF LONG TERM SINGLE-COLUMN MODEL SIMULATIONS OF CLOUDS AT THE ARM SGP SITE Hua Song simulated clouds with observations at the ARM SGP site. The six SCMs from GFDL AM2 and AM3, KNMI distributions between SCMs and ARM observation under both ascending and descending regimes. The cloud

  8. An energy-diagnostics intercomparison of coupled ice-ocean Arctic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    An energy-diagnostics intercomparison of coupled ice-ocean Arctic models Petteri Uotila a,*, David Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany g Institute of Numerical Mathematics Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, potential and available potential energies, energy conversion and forcing rates are studied. The energy

  9. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; et al

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations.more »Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr?¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr?¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr?¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.« less

  10. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr?¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr?¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr?¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  11. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D'Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  12. Long-Term Climate Change Commitment and Reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest, Chris E.

    This paper summarizes the results of an intercomparison project with Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) undertaken in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment ...

  13. Intercomparison of the Cloud Water Phase among Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komurcu, Muge; Storelvmo, Trude; Tan, Ivy; Lohmann, U.; Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong; Takemura, T.

    2014-03-27

    Mixed-phase clouds (clouds that consist of both cloud droplets and ice crystals) are frequently present in the Earth’s atmosphere and influence the Earth’s energy budget through their radiative properties, which are highly dependent on the cloud water phase. In this study, the phase partitioning of cloud water is compared among six global climate models (GCMs) and with Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization retrievals. It is found that the GCMs predict vastly different distributions of cloud phase for a given temperature, and none of them are capable of reproducing the spatial distribution or magnitude of the observed phase partitioning. While some GCMs produced liquid water paths comparable to satellite observations, they all failed to preserve sufficient liquid water at mixed-phase cloud temperatures. Our results suggest that validating GCMs using only the vertically integrated water contents could lead to amplified differences in cloud radiative feedback. The sensitivity of the simulated cloud phase in GCMs to the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is also investigated. The response to a change in ice nucleation is quite different for each GCM, and the implementation of the same ice nucleation parameterization in all models does not reduce the spread in simulated phase among GCMs. The results suggest that processes subsequent to ice nucleation are at least as important in determining phase and should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding and reducing differences among the models.

  14. Inter-comparison of Computer Codes for TRISO-based Fuel Micro-Modeling and Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Boer; Chang Keun Jo; Wen Wu; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Donald McEachren; Francesco Venneri

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), the Deep Burn Pebble Bed Reactor (DB-PBR) and the Deep Burn Prismatic Block Reactor (DB-PMR) are all based on fuels that use TRISO particles as their fundamental constituent. The TRISO particle properties include very high durability in radiation environments, hence the designs reliance on the TRISO to form the principal barrier to radioactive materials release. This durability forms the basis for the selection of this fuel type for applications such as Deep Bun (DB), which require exposures up to four times those expected for light water reactors. It follows that the study and prediction of the durability of TRISO particles must be carried as part of the safety and overall performance characterization of all the designs mentioned above. Such evaluations have been carried out independently by the performers of the DB project using independently developed codes. These codes, PASTA, PISA and COPA, incorporate models for stress analysis on the various layers of the TRISO particle (and of the intervening matrix material for some of them), model for fission products release and migration then accumulation within the SiC layer of the TRISO particle, just next to the layer, models for free oxygen and CO formation and migration to the same location, models for temperature field modeling within the various layers of the TRISO particle and models for the prediction of failure rates. All these models may be either internal to the code or external. This large number of models and the possibility of different constitutive data and model formulations and the possibility of a variety of solution techniques makes it highly unlikely that the model would give identical results in the modeling of identical situations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an inter-comparison between the codes and to identify areas of agreement and areas that need reconciliation. The inter-comparison has been carried out by the cooperating institutions using a set of pre-defined TRISO conditions (burnup levels, temperature or power levels, etc.) and the outcome will be tabulated in the full length paper. The areas of agreement will be pointed out and the areas that require further modeling or reconciliation will be shown. In general the agreement between the codes is good within less than one order of magnitude in the prediction of TRISO failure rates.

  15. The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) Software Development: Applications, Infrastructure, and Middleware/Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-06-30

    The status of and future plans for the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) hinge on software that PCMDI is either currently distributing or plans to distribute to the climate community in the near future. These software products include standard conventions, national and international federated infrastructures, and community analysis and visualization tools. This report also mentions other secondary software not necessarily led by or developed at PCMDI to provide a complete picture of the overarching applications, infrastructures, and middleware/networks. Much of the software described anticipates the use of future technologies envisioned over the span of next year to 10 years. These technologies, together with the software, will be the catalyst required to address extreme-scale data warehousing, scalability issues, and service-level requirements for a diverse set of well-known projects essential for predicting climate change. These tools, unlike the previous static analysis tools of the past, will support the co-existence of many users in a productive, shared virtual environment. This advanced technological world driven by extreme-scale computing and the data it generates will increase scientists’ productivity, exploit national and international relationships, and push research to new levels of understanding.

  16. Possible future projection of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) with the evaluation of model performance in Coupled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phipps, Steven J.

    Possible future projection of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) with the evaluation of model assessment of future projected rainfall will be important for policy framework. Evaluation of models performance in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) P. Parth Sarthi , Soumik Ghosh, Praveen

  17. The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Daskalakis, N. [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Patras (Greece); Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Kanakidou, M. [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; ; Adams, P. J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy; Artaxo, Paulo [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept of Applied Physics; Bahadur, R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Balkanski, Y. [Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bauer, S. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Bellouin, N. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Benedetti, Angela [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Bergman, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Berntsen, T. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geosciences; CICERO, Oslo (Norway); Beukes, J. P. [North-West Univ., Potchestroom (South Africa). Environmental Sciences and Management; Bian, Huisheng [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD (United States). Joint Center for Environmental Technology; Carslaw, K. S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Chin, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Curci, Gabriele [Univ. of L'Aquila (Italy). Dept of Physics CETEMPS; Diehl, Thomas [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Easter, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gong, S. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto (Canada). Air Quality Research Branch; Hodzic, Alma [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoyle, Christopher R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) - Inst. for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF), Davos (Switzerland); Iversen, T. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geosciences; Norwegian Meteorological Inst., Oslo (Norway); Jathar, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Jimenez, J. L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Kaiser, J. W. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); King's College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry; ; Kirkevag, A. [Norwegian Meteorological Inst., Oslo (Norway); Koch, Dorothy [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Kokkola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Lee, Y. H. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lin, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Science; Liu, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Luo, Gan [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Ma, Xiaoyan [Environment Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mann, G. W. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). National Centre for Atmospheric Science and School of Earth and Environment; Mihalopoulos, Nikos [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; Morcrette, J. -J. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Muller, J. F. [Belgian Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Myhre, G. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO), Oslo (Norway)

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) occurrence in the troposphere and analyzes the differences calculated between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA/OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34 - 144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio of is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a-1 (range 28-209 Tg a-1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition.

  18. The third RAdiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI)1 exercise: Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    . The second phase expanded the scope to include structurally com-9 plex 3-D plant architectures agreement since RAMI-2, and the capability of/need for RT models to15 accurately reproduce local estimates and opportunities of the RAMI project in the future.22 1. Introduction Space-borne observations constitute a highly

  19. The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, Angela; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, Huisheng; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, Gabriele; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Gong, S.; Hodzic, Alma; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; Ma, Xiaoyan; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Morcrette, J. -J.; Muller, J. F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, Nga L.; O'Donell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, Lynn; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, O.; Shindell, Drew; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D. V.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Wang, Zaizi; Wang, Zhilli; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) occurrence in the troposphere and analyzes the differences calculated between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA/OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34 - 144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio of is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a-1 (range 28-209 Tg a-1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition.

  20. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; et al

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemicalmore »and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a?1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a?1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a?1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a?1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6–2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8–9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a–1 (range 28–209 Tg a?1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition. Fine aerosol organic carbon (OC) and OA observations from continuous monitoring networks and individual field campaigns have been used for model evaluation. At urban locations, the model–observation comparison indicates missing knowledge on anthropogenic OA sources, both strength and seasonality. The combined model–measurements analysis suggests the existence of increased OA levels during summer due to biogenic SOA formation over large areas of the USA that can be of the same order of magnitude as the POA, even at urban locations, and contribute to the measured urban seasonal pattern. Global models are able to simulate the high secondary character of OA observed in the atmosphere as a result of SOA formation and POA aging, although the amount of OA present in the atmosphere remains largely underestimated, with a mean normalized bias (MNB) equal to –0.62 (–0.51) based on the comparison against OC (OA) urban data of all models at the surface, –0.15 (+0.51) when compared with remote measurements, and –0.30 for marine locations with OC data. The mean temporal correlations across all stations are low when compared with OC (OA) measurements: 0.47 (0.52) for urban stations, 0.39 (0.37) for remote stations, and 0.25 for marine stations with OC data. The combination of high (negative) MNB and higher correlation at urban stations when compared with the low MNB and lower correlation at remote sites suggests that knowledge about the processes that govern aerosol processing, transport and removal, on top of their sources, is important at the remote stations. There is no clear change in model skill with increasing model complexity with regard to OC or OA mass concentration. As a

  1. Third Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: Documenting progress in canopy reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    the scope to include structurally complex 3-D plant architectures with and without background topography/need for RT models to accurately reproduce local estimates of radiative quantities under conditions) to a reassessment of the role, scope, and opportunities of the RAMI project in the future. Citation: Widlowski, J

  2. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...

  3. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations: Precipitation and Cloud Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam; Fridlind, Ann; Zipser, Edward J.; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; McFarlane, Sally A.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Shipway, Ben

    2011-10-04

    The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) provided high quality model forcing and observational datasets through which detailed model and observational intercomparisons could be performed. In this first of a two part study, precipitation and cloud structures within nine cloud-resolving model simulations are compared with scanning radar reflectivity and satellite infrared brightness temperature observations during an active monsoon period from 19 to 25 January 2006. Most simulations slightly overestimate volumetric convective rainfall. Overestimation of simulated convective area by 50% or more in several simulations is somewhat offset by underestimation of mean convective rain rates. Stratiform volumetric rainfall is underestimated by 13% to 53% despite overestimation of stratiform area by up to 65% because stratiform rain rates in every simulation are much lower than observed. Although simulations match the peaked convective radar reflectivity distribution at low levels, they do not reproduce the peaked distributions observed above the melting level. Simulated radar reflectivity aloft in convective regions is too high in most simulations. In stratiform regions, there is a large spread in model results with none resembling observed distributions. Above the melting level, observed radar reflectivity decreases more gradually with height than simulated radar reflectivity. A few simulations produce unrealistically uniform and cold 10.8-?m infrared brightness temperatures, but several simulations produce distributions close to observed. Assumed ice particle size distributions appear to play a larger role than ice water contents in producing incorrect simulated radar reflectivity distributions aloft despite substantial differences in mean graupel and snow water contents across models.

  4. Intercomparison of simulation models for CO2 disposal in underground storage reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Law, David; Oldenburg, Curt

    2001-01-01

    experience with using CO2 for EOR projects (SPE, 1999), andoil recovery (EOR) using CO2 requires an understanding of

  5. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations: Precipitation and Cloud Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam C.; Fridlind, Ann; Zipser, Ed; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; McFarlane, Sally A.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Shipway, Ben

    2011-06-24

    The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) provided high quality model forcing and observational datasets through which detailed model and observational intercomparisons could be performed. In this first of a two part study, precipitation and cloud structures within nine cloud-resolving model simulations are compared with scanning radar reflectivity and satellite infrared brightness temperature observations during an active monsoon period from 19 to 25 January 2006. Most simulations slightly overestimate volumetric convective rainfall. Overestimation of simulated convective area by 50% or more in several simulations is somewhat offset by underestimation of mean convective rain rates. Stratiform volumetric rainfall is underestimated by 13% to 53% despite overestimation of stratiform area by up to 65% because stratiform rain rates in every simulation are much lower than observed. Although simulations match the peaked convective radar reflectivity distribution at low levels, they do not reproduce the peaked distributions observed above the melting level. Simulated radar reflectivity aloft in convective regions is too high in most simulations. 29 In stratiform regions, there is a large spread in model results with none resembling 30 observed distributions. Above the melting level, observed radar reflectivity decreases 31 more gradually with height than simulated radar reflectivity. A few simulations produce 32 unrealistically uniform and cold 10.8-?m infrared brightness temperatures, but several 33 simulations produce distributions close to observed. Assumed ice particle size 34 distributions appear to play a larger role than ice water contents in producing incorrect 35 simulated radar reflectivity distributions aloft despite substantial differences in mean 36 graupel and snow water contents across models. 37

  6. Three-dimensional transport and concentration of SF{sub 6} - a model intercomparison study (transcom 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denning, A.S.; Holzer, M.; Burney, K.R.; Heimann, M.; Law, R.M.; Rayner, P.J.; Fund, I.Y.; Fan, S.M.; Taguchi, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Balkanski, Y.; Taylor, J.; Maiss, M.; Levin, I.

    1999-01-02

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an excellent tracer of large-scale atmospheric transport, because it has slowly increasing sources mostly confined to northern midlatitudes, and has a lifetime of thousands of years. We have simulated the emissions, transport, and concentration of SF, for a 5-year period, and compared the results with atmospheric observations. In addition, we have performed an intercomparison of interhemispheric transport among 11 models to investigate the reasons for the differences among the simulations. Most of the models are reasonably successful at simulating the observed meridional gradient of SF6 in the remote marine boundary layer, though there is less agreement at continental sites. Models that compare well to observations in the remote marine boundary layer tend to systematically overestimate SF6 at continental locations in source regions, suggesting that vertical trapping rather than meridional transport may be a dominant control on the simulated meridional gradient. The vertical structure of simulated SF6 in the models supports this interpretation. Some of the models perform quite well in terms of the simulated seasonal cycle at remote locations, while others do not. Interhemispheric exchange time varies by a factor of 2 when estimated from 1-dimensional meridional profiles at the surface, as has been done for observations. The agreement among models is better when the global surface mean mole fraction is used, and better still when the full 3-dimensional mean mixing ratio is used. The ranking of the interhemispheric exchange time among the models is not sensitive to the change From station values to surface means, but is very sensitive to the change from surface means to the full 3-dimensional tracer fields. This strengthens the argument that vertical redistribution dominates over interhemispheric transport in determining the meridional gradient at the surface. Vertically integrated meridional transport in the models is divided roughly equally into transport by the mean motion, the standing eddies, and the transient eddies. The vertically integrated mass flux is a good index of the degree to which resolved advection vs. parameterized diffusion accomplishes the meridional transport of SF6. Observational programs could provide a much better constraint on simulated chemical tracer transport if they included regular sampling of vertical profiles of nonreactive trace gases over source regions and meridional profiles in the middle to upper troposphere. Further analysis of the SF6 simulations will focus on the subgrid-scale parameterized transports.

  7. Intercomparison of Biogeochemical Properties at Atlantic and Pacific Observatory Sites Using Ocean Data and a PARADIGM Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, James S.

    Intercomparison of Biogeochemical Properties at Atlantic and Pacific Observatory Sites Using Ocean compare 34 locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with respect to key upper ocean ecological by SeaWiFS mean chlorophyll: low chlorophyll ocean gyres, comparatively high chlorophyll ocean margin

  8. OAK FOREST CARBON AND WATER SIMULATIONS: MODEL INTERCOMPARISONS AND EVALUATIONS AGAINST INDEPENDENT DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Paul J; Amthor, Jeffrey S; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wilson, K.; Grant, Robert F.; Hartley, Anne; Hui, D.; HuntJr., E. Raymond; Johnson, Dale W.; Kimball, John S.; King, Anthony Wayne; Luo, Yiqi; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, G.; Thornton, Peter; Wang, S.; Williams, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Cushman, Robert Michael

    2004-01-01

    Models represent our primary method for integration of small-scale, processlevel phenomena into a comprehensive description of forest-stand or ecosystem function. They also represent a key method for testing hypotheses about the response of forest ecosystems to multiple changing environmental conditions. This paper describes the evaluation of 13 stand-level models varying in their spatial, mechanistic, and temporal complexity for their ability to capture intra- and interannual components of the water and carbon cycle for an upland, oak-dominated forest of eastern Tennessee. Comparisons between model simulations and observations were conducted for hourly, daily, and annual time steps. Data for the comparisons were obtained from a wide range of methods including: eddy covariance, sapflow, chamber-based soil respiration, biometric estimates of stand-level net primary production and growth, and soil water content by time or frequency domain reflectometry. Response surfaces of carbon and water flux as a function of environmental drivers, and a variety of goodness-of-fit statistics (bias, absolute bias, and model efficiency) were used to judge model performance. A single model did not consistently perform the best at all time steps or for all variables considered. Intermodel comparisons showed good agreement for water cycle fluxes, but considerable disagreement among models for predicted carbon fluxes. The mean of all model outputs, however, was nearly always the best fit to the observations. Not surprisingly, models missing key forest components or processes, such as roots or modeled soil water content, were unable to provide accurate predictions of ecosystem responses to short-term drought phenomenon. Nevertheless, an inability to correctly capture short-term physiological processes under drought was not necessarily an indicator of poor annual water and carbon budget simulations. This is possible because droughts in the subject ecosystem were of short duration and therefore had a small cumulative impact. Models using hourly time steps and detailed mechanistic processes, and having a realistic spatial representation of the forest ecosystem provided the best predictions of observed data. Predictive ability of all models deteriorated under drought conditions, suggesting that further work is needed to evaluate and improve ecosystem model performance under unusual conditions, such as drought, that are a common focus of environmental change discussions.

  9. Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol-climate model intercomparison studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, K.; Wan, H.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-04-24

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Constraining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the sensitivity of simulated ice formation to anthropogenic aerosolmore »concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects through ice clouds, since it provides well-constrained meteorology without strongly perturbing the model's mean climate.« less

  10. Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol–climate model intercomparison studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, K.; Wan, H.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging as an assimilation technique has seen increased use in recent years in the development and evaluation of climate models. Constraining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the sensitivity ofmore »simulated ice formation to anthropogenic aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on long-wave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations, and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. Results from both CAM5 and a second aerosol–climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 also indicate that compared to the wind-and-temperature nudging, constraining only winds leads to better agreement with the free-running model in terms of the estimated shortwave cloud forcing and the simulated convective activities. This suggests nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects since it provides well-constrained meteorology without strongly perturbing the model's mean climate.« less

  11. Technical Note: On the Use of Nudging for Aerosol-Climate Model Intercomparison Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kai; Wan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Con- straining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the artificial forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the relatively strong sensitivity of homogeneous ice nucleation to aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests that nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy, especially for studies that involve both warm and cold clouds.

  12. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.

  13. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of {tau}{sub a}, and parameterization assumptions such as a lower bound on N{sub d}. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}. In an alternative approach, the radiative flux perturbation due to anthropogenic aerosols can be broken down into a component over the cloud-free portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol direct effect) and a component over the cloudy portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol indirect effect). An estimate obtained by scaling these simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic {tau}{sub a} and satellite-retrieved Nd - {tau}{sub a} regression slopes, respectively, yields a global, annual-mean aerosol direct effect estimate of -0.4 {+-} 0.2 Wm{sup -2} and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, with a total estimate of -1.2 {+-} 0.4 Wm{sup -2}.

  14. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations of climate following volcanic eruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    to capture the NH dynamical response following eruptions. They do not sufficiently simulate the observed post] For a volcano to have a significant long-term impact on the climate it must inject a sufficient amount of sulfur

  15. Intercomparison and analyses of the climatology of the West African Monsoon in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project (WAMME) first model intercomparison experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    lower resolutions. The NCEP CFS (National Center for Envi-1996, vertical levels NCEP CFS AOGCM (Saha et al. 2006) ChouI was ?nalized. Except for the CFS coupled ocean/atmosphere

  16. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  17. Model- Waco Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    for their particular dataset. The remaining chapters list variables by file and discuss methods used to measure or calculate values for the input parameters. SWAT is a public domain model jointly developed by USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Texas A...

  18. Tropical and subtropical cloud transitions in weather and climate prediction models: the GCSS/WGNE Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teixeira, J.; Cardoso, S.; Bonazzola, M.; Cole, Jason N.; DelGenio, Anthony D.; DeMott, C.; Franklin, A.; Hannay, Cecile; Jakob, Christian; Jiao, Y.; Karlsson, J.; Kitagawa, H.; Koehler, M.; Kuwano-Yoshida, A.; LeDrian, C.; Lock, Adrian; Miller, M.; Marquet, P.; Martins, J.; Mechoso, C. R.; Meijgaard, E. V.; Meinke, I.; Miranda, P.; Mironov, D.; Neggers, Roel; Pan, H. L.; Randall, David A.; Rasch, Philip J.; Rockel, B.; Rossow, William B.; Ritter, B.; Siebesma, A. P.; Soares, P.; Turk, F. J.; Vaillancourt, P.; Von Engeln, A.; Zhao, M.

    2011-11-01

    A model evaluation approach is proposed where weather and climate prediction models are analyzed along a Pacific Ocean cross-section, from the stratocumulus regions off the coast of California, across the shallow convection dominated trade-winds, to the deep convection regions of the ITCZ: the GCSS/WGNE Pacific Cross-section Intercomparison (GPCI). The main goal of GPCI is to evaluate, and help understand and improve the representation of tropical and sub-tropical cloud processes in weather and climate prediction models. In this paper, a detailed analysis of cloud regime transitions along the cross-section from the sub-tropics to the tropics for the season JJA of 1998 is presented. This GPCI study confirms many of the typical weather and climate prediction model problems in the representation of clouds: underestimation of clouds in the stratocumulus regime by most models with the corresponding consequences in terms of shortwave radiation biases; overestimation of clouds by the ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA40) in the deep tropics (in particular) with the corresponding impact in the outgoing longwave radiation; large spread between the different models in terms of cloud cover, liquid water path and shortwave radiation; significant differences between the models in terms of vertical crosssections of cloud properties (in particular), vertical velocity and relative humidity. An alternative analysis of cloud cover mean statistics is proposed where sharp gradients in cloud cover along the GPCI transect are taken into account. This analysis shows that the negative cloud bias of some models and ERA40 in the stratocumulus regions (as compared to ISCCP) is associated not only with lower values of cloud cover in these regimes, but also with a stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition that occurs too early along the trade-wind Lagrangian trajectory. Histograms of cloud cover along the cross-section differ significantly between models. Some models exhibit a quasi-bimodal structure with cloud cover being either very large (close to 100%) or very small, while other models show a more continuous transition. The ISCCP observations suggest that reality is in-between these two extreme examples. These different patterns reflect the diverse nature of the cloud, boundary layer, and convection parameterizations in the participating weather and climate prediction models.

  19. Sandia Energy - Reference Model Project (RMP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project (RMP) Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Reference Model Project (RMP) Reference Model Project (RMP)Tara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-11T21:01:36+00:00...

  20. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface Abstract. A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model current. In order to analyze the eect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the ®rst one

  1. Intercomparison and evaluation of global aerosol microphysical properties among AeroCom models of a range of complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridley, David Andrew

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical ...

  2. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; et al

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar tomore »observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds with these models remains uncertain.« less

  3. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; Lin, Yanluan; Morcrette, J. -J.; Mulcahay, Jane; Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar to observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds with these models remains uncertain.

  4. An assessment of possible climate change in the Australian region based on intercomparison of general circulation modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whetton, P.H.; Pittock, A.B.; Haylock, M.R. ); Rayner, P.J. )

    1994-03-01

    To assist in estimating likely future climate change in the Australian region, the authors examine the results of four different general circulation modeling experiments run to assess the equilibrium impact of doubling greenhouse gases. The results examined were the most recent available at the time of study from various research centers in North America and Europe, as well as those of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). The approach used is, first, to assess the quality of the control (1 x CO[sub 2]) simulations from each of the models of mean sea level (MSL) pressure and precipitation in the Australian region by comparing these with the corresponding observed patterns; and, second, to then analyze the 2 x CO[sub 2] results of only those model experiments with the best control simulations. Of the models examined two are chosen on the basis of their simulation of current climate in the region: the CSIRO four-level model (CSIRO4) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) model. For conditions of equivalent doubling of CO[sub 2], both models show substantial increases in surface air temperature of around 4[degrees]-6[degrees] inland and 2[degrees]-4[degrees]C in coastal regions. Both models show decreased MSL pressure over the Australian continent and increases in rainfall over northern, central, and eastern Australia, particularly in the summer half of the year. The CSIRO4 model, but not the UKMO model, also shows increased pressure to the south of the continent and decreased winter rainfall in southwest and southern Australia. Generally, field significance tests show the pattern and magnitude of the changes to be significant of CSIRO4 (for which the necessary monthly simulated data were available). 42 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C. L.; Pringle, K. J.; Schulz, M.; Asmi, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Ridley, D. A.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Lee, L. A.; Zhang, Kai; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Stier, P.; Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Bauer, S.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Strunk, A.; Vignati, E.; Bellouin, N.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; Bergman, T.; Kokkola, H.; Von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Petzold, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Clarke, A. D.; Ogren, J. A.; Gras, J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kaminski, U.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D. C.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Ulevicius, V.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Zdimal, V.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Swietlicki, E.; Henzing, J. S.

    2014-05-13

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by twelve global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the results suggest that most global aerosol microphysics models simulate the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree of skill, but some models are in poor agreement with the observations. Further work is required to better constrain size-resolved primary and secondary particle number sources, and an improved understanding of nucleation and growth (e.g. the role of nitrate and secondary organics) will improve the fidelity of simulated particle size distributions.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty in estimates of mineral dust flux: An intercomparison of model performance over the Bodele Depression,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's radiation budget through absorption and scattering of solar and terrestrial radiation, (2) the indirect and regional, but to date, there have been few attempts to compare the performance of these models impact of mineral dust in particular is relatively poorly understood, despite evidence that the radiative

  7. Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Better Buildings Residential Network...

  8. Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Better Buildings Residential...

  9. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (?) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a ? of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing ? to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  10. Fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    The fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during March 15-23, 1978. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) used unshielded, with a 12-cm-thick Lucite shield, a 20-cm-thick concrete shield, or a 5-cm-thick steel and 15-cm-thick concrete shield, and provided four neutron and gamma-ray spectra. Then the dose was calculated based on the HPRR neutron spectra and dose conversion factors which had been determined previously for the four spectra. The results of these personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies reveal that estimates of dose equivalent vary over a wide range. The standard deviation of the mean of participants data for gamma measurements was in the range of 29 to 43%; for neutrons it was 57 to 188%. (PCS)

  11. Multimedia Project Studio Service Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McShea, Daniel W.

    (LINK, CIT lab, library reference desk, library IT, etc) ·Types of work that will be supported. The other is located on East Campus in the Lilly Library, 115. A project team (including representation from OIT, the Library, the Center for In- structional Technology and Student Affairs) was assembled and met

  12. Ocean Carbon Cycle Models from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    •\tPacific data-model intercomparison from Patrick Wetzel (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany)

  13. Results from the Second International Module Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rummel, S.; Anderberg, A.; Emery, K.

    2005-11-01

    The peak-watt rating is a primary indicator of PV performance. The peak power rating is the maximum electrical power that is produced when the PV device is continuously illuminated at 1000 Wm/sup-2/ total irradiance under International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 60904-2 reference spectrum, and 25 deg C cell temperature. Most manufacturers trace their peak-watt rating through calibrations performed at recognized terrestrial calibration facilities. Manufacturers typically perform intercomparisons among a set of their modules internally with other plants and among. Sometimes they have the same module measured at different calibration facilities to determine the differences in calibration. This intercomparison was to mimic this procedure and supply new thin film samples along with samples that could pose other problems. These intercomparisons sample the laboratories' everyday procedures better than a formal intercomparison where the laboratories' best procedures and data scrutiny are used.

  14. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Transportation Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) International Transportation model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  15. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Industrial Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Industrial Model (WIM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  16. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Residential Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Residential Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: World Electricity Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Electricity Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Commercial Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Commercial Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  19. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA.

  20. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  1. Using Ecosystem Experiments to Improve Vegetation Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Medlyn, Belinda; Zaehle, S; DeKauwe, Martin G.; Walker, Anthony P.; Dietze, Michael; Hanson, Paul J.; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul; Luo, Yiqi; Parton, William; et al

    2015-05-21

    Ecosystem responses to rising CO2 concentrations are a major source of uncertainty in climate change projections. Data from ecosystem-scale Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a unique opportunity to reduce this uncertainty. The recent FACE Model–Data Synthesis project aimed to use the information gathered in two forest FACE experiments to assess and improve land ecosystem models. A new 'assumption-centred' model intercomparison approach was used, in which participating models were evaluated against experimental data based on the ways in which they represent key ecological processes. Identifying and evaluating the main assumptions caused differences among models, and the assumption-centered approach produced amore »clear roadmap for reducing model uncertainty. We explain this approach and summarize the resulting research agenda. We encourage the application of this approach in other model intercomparison projects to fundamentally improve predictive understanding of the Earth system.« less

  2. Regional Climate Downscaling Intercomparison over the Philippines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Jian-Hua "Joshua"

    Regional Climate Downscaling Intercomparison over the Philippines J.H. Qian, A.W. Robertson, M: PAGASA, the Philippines #12;#12;#12;#12;Analysis of r a i n f a l l fluctuations in the Philippines 237 Figure 1 Climatological map (after "Philippines Water Resources", 1976). Vigan, Legaspi, Zamboanga

  3. Daily Precipitation Statistics: An Intercomparison between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    Daily Precipitation Statistics: An Intercomparison between NCEP Reanalyses and Observations Vernon-2010. Resolution T382 (~0.3x0.3 degrees). #12;R1, R2, CFSR: Comparison to OI Station-based Precipitation Analyses station-based daily precipitation analysis data set (1979-2006). · The high-resolution reanalysis (CFSR

  4. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

    2011-06-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  5. Seasonal cycle of Precipitation over Major River Basins in South and Southeast Asia: A Review of the CMIP5 climate models data for present climate and future climate projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Böhner, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We review the skill of thirty coupled climate models participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 in terms of reproducing properties of the seasonal cycle of precipitation over the major river basins of South and Southeast Asia (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for historical period (1961-2000). We also present projected changes by these models by end of century (2061-2100) under extreme scenario RCP8.5. First, we assess their ability to reproduce observed timings of the monsoon onset and the rate of rapid fractional accumulation (RFA slope) - a measure of seasonality within active monsoon period. Secondly, we apply a threshold-independent seasonality index (SI) - a multiplicative measure of precipitation and extent of its concentration relative to the uniform distribution (relative entropy - RE). We apply SI distinctly for monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR), westerly precipitation regime (WPR) and annual precipitation regime. For present climate, neither any single model nor the multi-mod...

  6. Building Project Model Support for Automated Labor Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, Rafael

    that full integration of automated data monitoring systems with building project models BPM is an effectiveBuilding Project Model Support for Automated Labor Monitoring R. Sacks1 ; R. Navon2 ; and E ADC , offers a solution to the problem. Integration with a computerized building project model BPM

  7. TransCom N[subscript 2]O model inter-comparison – Part 2: Atmospheric inversion estimates of N[subscript 2]O emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, R. L.

    This study examines N[subscript 2]O emission estimates from five different atmospheric inversion frameworks based on chemistry transport models (CTMs). The five frameworks differ in the choice of CTM, meteorological data, ...

  8. Intercomparison of techniques to model water stress effects on CO2 and energy exchange in temperate and boreal deciduous forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, Robert F. [University of Alberta; Zhang, Y. [Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing; Yuan, F. [McMaster University; Wang, S. [Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Gaumont-Guay, D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Black, T. A. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Barr, A. [Environment Canada; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Arain, A. [McMaster University

    2006-01-01

    Soil water deficits are a key controller of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in deciduous broadleaf forests. Mathematical models of forest NEP need to represent the processes by which this control is exerted if they are to be used to predict the impacts of changing hydrology on forest C stocks. The key processes controlling NEP during soil water deficits are hydraulic limitations to water transfer in soil, roots, stems and leaves that impose constraints on gross primary productivity (GPP). We compare five ecosystem models with different techniques to simulate these processes for their ability to model reduced latent versus sensible heat fluxes, earlier diurnal declines in CO2 influxes and reduced soil CO2 effluxes during soil drying. Model accuracy was assessed using energy and CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance and surface chambers in a warm temperate and a cool boreal deciduous forest during a drying period. Diurnal declines in CO2 influxes during soil drying were consistently simulated by models in which soil drying lowered root and canopy water potentials ( c) and raised soil and root hydraulic resistances. Leaf stomatal conductance (gl), derived in these models from non-linear functions of c, then became more sensitive to diurnal changes in vapor pressure deficits (D). Diurnal declines in CO2 influxes could be simulated with comparable accuracy under most conditions by a model in which gl was empirically related to soil water potential and D, although these declines were sometimes not fully simulated. CO2 influxes declined too rapidly with diurnal rises in D in another model in which gl was calculated from CO2 fixation which was empirically related to soil water content. Divergences in modeled versus measured half-hourly or hourly CO2 exchange were also apparent in modeled versus measured annual GPP, net primary productivity (NPP) and NEP. The ability to distinguish among alternative algorithms for their accuracy in calculating CO2 and energy fluxes was often limited by uncertainty in the measurement of these fluxes using eddy covariance, especially when low wind speeds and stable boundary layers reduced atmospheric turbulence.

  9. Project Title Improved Emission Models for Project Evaluation (MOVES-Matrix) University Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Title Improved Emission Models for Project Evaluation (MOVES-Matrix) University Georgia or organization) DOT - $92,292.15 Total Project Cost $92,292.15 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and End Dates November 1, 2013 ­ June 30, 2015 Brief Description of Research Project Local governments

  10. Ris-R-1174(EN) RTMOD: Real-Time MODel Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1174(EN) RTMOD: Real-Time MODel Evaluation Giovanni Graziani and Stefano Galmarini JRC January 2000 #12;Abstract. The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis

  11. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 1: Deep Convective Updraft Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, A. C.; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Collis, Scott M.; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias. Snow reflectivity can exceed 40 dBZ in a two-moment scheme when a constant bulk density of 100 kg m-3 is used. Making snow mass more realistically proportional to area rather than volume should somewhat alleviate this problem. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations. This is associated with large amounts of liquid water above the freezing level in updraft cores. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of large rainwater contents lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. Strong simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some showing supercell characteristics. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 meters to 100 meters weakens strong updrafts, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may partly be a product of interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and large-scale environmental biases that promote different convective modes and strengths than observed.

  12. Model Investment Grade Audit and Project Proposal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and documents for conducting an investment grade audit to evaluate potential measures and presenting a project proposal for a set of bundled measures that deliver savings to pay for the project over the finance term.

  13. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-04-16

    The guide was developed in support of DOE O 415.1 to assist IT Program and Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT.

  14. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-07-17

    The guide was developed in support of DOE O 415.1 to assist IT Program and Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  15. Uncertainty in emissions projections for climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort David.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Mayer, Monika.; Reilly, John M.; Harnisch, Jochen.; Hyman, Robert C.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Wang, Chien.

    Future global climate projections are subject to large uncertainties. Major sources of this uncertainty are projections of anthropogenic emissions. We evaluate the uncertainty in future anthropogenic emissions using a ...

  16. Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle in 200 hPa kinetic energy in AMIP GCM simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 hPa kinetic energy is represented by means of the spherical harmonic components for the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations, the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast Reanalysis (ERA). The data used are the monthly mean wind fields from 1979 to 1988. The kinetic energy is decomposed into the divergent (DKE) and rotational (RKE) components and emphasis is placed on examining the former. The two reanalysis data sets show reasonable agreement that is best for the rotational kinetic energy. The largest difference in the divergent kinetic energy occurs during the northern summer. As might be expected, the two analyses are closet in regions where there are sufficient observations such that the effect of the model used in the assimilation cycle are minimized. The observed RKE show only a slight seasonal cycle with a maximum occuring during the northern winter. The DKE, on the other hand, has a very pronounced seasonal cycle with maxima at the solsticial seasons and minima during the equinoctial seasons. The model results show a very large spread in the magnitudes of the RKE and DKE although the models all evince a seasonal variation in phase with that observed. The median values of the seasonal cycle of RKE and DKE for the models are usually superior to those of any individual model. Results are also presented for simulation following the AMIP protocol but using updated versions of the original AMIP entries. In most cases these new integrations show better agreement with the observations.

  17. Webinar: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings, originally presented on January 17, 2013.

  18. SECTION 103 WRDA 86, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    STRUCTURAL FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECTS AND SEPARABLE ELEMENTS MODEL HISTORY: 10 January 2006 - Model Flood Risk Management model, go to the Implementation Memo link to see the Structural Flood Risk Management Model Implementation Memo, dated 1 February 2006. MODEL APPLICABILITY: The Structural Flood Risk

  19. Differences in carbon cycle and temperature projections from emission- and concentration-driven earth system model simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, P.; Zeng, X.; Zeng, X.

    2014-08-29

    The influence of prognostic and prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on the carbon uptake and temperature is investigated using all eight Earth System Models (ESMs) with relevant output variables from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the projected [CO2] differences in 2100 vary from -19.7 to +207.3 ppm in emission-driven ESMs. Incorporation of the interactive concentrations also increases the range of global warming, computed as the 20 year average difference between 2081–2100 and 1850–1869/1861–1880, by 49% from 2.36 K (i.e. ranging from 3.11 to 5.47 K) in the concentration-driven simulations to 3.51 K inmore »the emission-driven simulations. The observed seasonal amplitude of global [CO2] from 1980–2011 is about 1.2–5.3 times as large as those from the eight emission-driven ESMs, while the [CO2] seasonality is simply neglected in concentration-driven ESMs, suggesting the urgent need of ESM improvements in this area. The temperature-concentration feedback parameter ? is more sensitive to [CO2] (e.g. during 1980–2005 versus 2075–2100) than how [CO2] is handled (i.e. prognostic versus prescribed). This sensitivity can be substantially reduced by using a more appropriate parameter ?' computed from the linear regression of temperature change versus that of the logarithm of [CO2]. However, the inter-model relative variations of both ? and ?' remain large, suggesting the need of more detailed studies to understand and hopefully reduce these discrepancies.« less

  20. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    model.   3.0 PV System Modeling Issues When modeling the PV systems in the electric  power electric grid.   4.0 Load Composition Data Tool 4.1. Introduction A power system model 

  1. Fusion Simulation Project (Whole Tokamak Plasma Modeling)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · FESAC appointed committee to develop a roadmap ­ Final FESAC Report December 2002 · http an FSP Steering Committee in 2003 ­ Develop project vision, governance concept, and roadmap for the FSP

  2. Model Ordinance for Renewable Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oregon Department of Energy issued guidance to local governments to address wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and co-generation project planning needs at the city and county level in July 2005...

  3. SECTION 208 FCA 54, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    AUTHORITY CLEARING AND SNAGGING FOR FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECTS MODEL HISTORY: 22 September 2006 - Model risk management" throughout model; and 3) increase the Section 215 limit. 21 August 2012 - Model of credit; 4) replace text of Article XI and revise text referring to labor laws in Articles II.B.5.g., IV

  4. PNNL Results from 2009 Silene Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2010-06-30

    This document reports the results of testing of the Hanford Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on October 13, 14, and 15, 2009.

  5. Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    al. : Changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methaneal. : Changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methaneal. : Changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane

  6. SECTION 103 WRDA 86, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    STRUCTURAL FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT AND RECREATION PROJECTS AND SEPARABLE ELEMENTS MODEL HISTORY: 19 April 2006 and Whereas clauses; and 2) change the term "flood damage reduction" to "flood risk management" throughout for a project specific agreement developed using the current version of the Structural Flood Risk Management

  7. SECTION 103 WRDA 86, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    STRUCTURAL FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT AND ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION PROJECTS AND SEPARABLE ELEMENTS MODEL HISTORY: 15 in the title and Whereas clauses; and 2) change the term "flood damage reduction" to "flood risk management for a project specific agreement developed using the current version of the Structural Flood Risk Management

  8. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Model Validation by Playing Back Voltage at the Feeder Head 2 Figure 5 Average Hardware Cost of one PMU

  9. SECTION 205 FCA 48, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    AUTHORITY STRUCTURAL FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECTS MODEL HISTORY: 4 October 2006 - Model originally risk management" throughout model; 3) increase the Section 215 limit; and 4) increase the Section 205 of credit; 5) replace text of Article XI and revise text referring to labor laws in Articles II.B.5.g., IV

  10. SECTION 205 FCA 48, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    AUTHORITY STRUCTURAL FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT AND RECREATION PROJECTS MODEL HISTORY: 23 October 2006 - Model risk management" throughout model; 3) increase the Section 215 limit; and 4) increase the Section 205 of credit; 5) replace text of Article XI and revise text referring to labor laws in Articles II.Q.7., IV

  11. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  12. INTERCOMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIAMOND,D.J.; ARONSON,A.; JO,J.; AVVAKUMOV,A.; MALOFEEV,V.; SIDOROV,V.; FERRARESI,P.; GOUIN,C.; ANIEL,S.; ROYER,M.E.

    1999-10-01

    This study is part of an overall program to understand the uncertainty in best-estimate calculations of the local fuel enthalpy during the rod ejection accident. Local fuel enthalpy is used as the acceptance criterion for this design-basis event and can also be used to estimate fuel damage for the purpose of determining radiological consequences. The study used results from neutron kinetics models in PARCS, BARS, and CRONOS2, codes developed in the US, the Russian Federation, and France, respectively. Since BARS uses a heterogeneous representation of the fuel assembly as opposed to the homogeneous representations in PARCS and CRONOS, the effect of the intercomparison was primarily to compare different intra-assembly models. Quantitative comparisons for core power, reactivity, assembly fuel enthalpy and pin power were carried out. In general the agreement between methods was very good providing additional confidence in the codes and providing a starting point for a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in calculated fuel enthalpy using best-estimate methods.

  13. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    model for use in power grid studies.   Recommendation: decisions concerning power  grid investments.   5.0 Loadstate  operating status of power grid and PV system.   The 

  14. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much disturbances is that modeling the voltage sensitivity of the load is far more important than the  frequency 

  15. Bachelor's Project Statistical Models for Software Testing with Imperfect Debugging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Bucchianico, Alessandro

    Bachelor's Project Statistical Models for Software Testing with Imperfect Debugging A. Di models for software testing. During software testing, it is important to know when to stop testing (simplistic ways to solve Maximum Likelihood equations) are being used. In order to provide software test

  16. Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-09-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  17. Research project on CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual progress report, March 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cess, R.D.; Hameed, S.

    1995-01-01

    This summarizes current progress in the research project at SUNY Stony Brook on CO2-induced climate change. Three tasks are described, corresponding to the task categories in the USDOE/PRC CAS cooperative project on climate change. Task 1, led by Dr. Robert Cess, concerns the intercomparison of CO2 related climatic warming in contemporary general circulation models. Task 2, directed by Dr. Sultan Hameed, looks at understanding the natural variability in climatic data and comparing its significant features between observations and model simulations. Task 3, also directed by Dr. Hameed focuses on analysis of historical climate data developed at the institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Data model issues in the Cherenkov Telescope Array project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, J L; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bregeon, J; Bulgarelli, A; de Cesare, G; Reyes, R de los; Fioretti, V; Kosack, K; Lavalley, C; Lyard, E; Marx, R; Rico, J; Sanguillot, M; Servillat, M; Walter, R; Ward, J E

    2015-01-01

    The planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future ground-based Very-High-Energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory, will be the largest project of its kind. It aims to provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity compared to currently operating VHE experiments and open access to guest observers. These features, together with the thirty years lifetime planned for the installation, impose severe constraints on the data model currently being developed for the project. In this contribution we analyze the challenges faced by the CTA data model development and present the requirements imposed to face them. While the full data model is still not completed we show the organization of the work, status of the design, and an overview of the prototyping efforts carried out so far. We also show examples of specific aspects of the data model currently under development.

  19. Energy Demand Modelling Introduction to the PhD project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Demand Modelling Introduction to the PhD project Erika Zvingilaite Risø DTU System Analysis for optimization of energy systems Environmental effects Global externalities cost of CO2 Future scenarios for the Nordic energy systems 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 (energy-production, consumption, emissions, net costs

  20. RESEARCH PROJECT USING SNOW TELEMETRY (SNOTEL) DATA TO MODEL STREAMFLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    RESEARCH PROJECT USING SNOW TELEMETRY (SNOTEL) DATA TO MODEL STREAMFLOW: A CASE STUDY OF THREE Laituri Mazdak Arabi #12;ii © 2012 David C. Deitemeyer #12;iii ABSTRACT USING SNOW TELEMETRY (SNOTEL) DATA snow measurements in the Western United States is instrumental in the successful forecasting of water

  1. THE FERNALD DOSIMETRY RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT Environmental Pathways -Models and Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Deposition Models . 19 Building Wake Effects and Plume Rise . 23 Resuspension of Particulates . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . 26 Deposition Measurements Using Gummed Film 27 Soil Data for Locations Near the FMPC .. .. 28 Project Task 4 D. Particle-Size Distributions for Releases of Uranium and Thorium E. Meteorological Data

  2. A Test Suite for GCMs: An Intercomparison of 11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    A Test Suite for GCMs: An Intercomparison of 11 Dynamical Cores Christiane Jablonowski1, PeterSandia National Laboratories PDEs on the Sphere Workshop, Santa Fe Apr/28/2009 #12;Motivation · Test standardized & easy-to-use analysis techniques · Idea: Establish a collection of test cases that finds broad

  3. Projection-based model reduction for contact problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balajewicz, Maciej; Farhat, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    Large scale finite element analysis requires model order reduction for computationally expensive applications such as optimization, parametric studies and control design. Although model reduction for nonlinear problems is an active area of research, a major hurdle is modeling and approximating contact problems. This manuscript introduces a projection-based model reduction approach for static and dynamic contact problems. In this approach, non-negative matrix factorization is utilized to optimally compress and strongly enforce positivity of contact forces in training simulation snapshots. Moreover, a greedy algorithm coupled with an error indicator is developed to efficiently construct parametrically robust low-order models. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated for the model reduction of several two-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic obstacle and self contact problems.

  4. A. Dias and P.G. Ioannou Company and Project Evaluation Model for Privately-Promoted Infrastructure Projects Page 1 of 16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Dias and P.G. Ioannou Company and Project Evaluation Model for Privately-Promoted Infrastructure Projects Page 1 of 16 COMPANY AND PROJECT EVALUATION MODEL FOR PRIVATELY-PROMOTED INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS and project profiles. Example applications of the model include the evaluation of the Eurotunnel

  5. Structuring Risk in E-Government Development Projects Using a Causal Model Abdullah Al-Shehab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winstanley, Graham

    Structuring Risk in E-Government Development Projects Using a Causal Model Abdullah Al-Shehab 1 projects is minimal compared with traditional Information System (IS) development projects. The success projects, and this research uses a similar approach applied in E-Gov development projects. This experiment

  6. GM Project G.6 October 20005 -1 5. OVERVIEW OF THE MODELING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GM Project G.6 October 20005 - 1 5. OVERVIEW OF THE MODELING SYSTEM 5.1 INTRODUCTION TO MODELING those #12;GM Project G.6 October 20005 - 2 estimates by the projected percentages of the elderly in the prices, #12;GM Project G.6 October 20005 - 3 or acquisition costs, of the goods or services

  7. Spectroradiometer Intercomparison and Impact on Characterizing Photovoltaic Device Performance: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, E.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-11-01

    Indoor and outdoor testing of photovoltaic (PV) device performance requires the use of solar simulators and natural solar radiation, respectively. This performance characterization requires accurate knowledge of spectral irradiance distribution that is incident on the devices. Spectroradiometers are used to measure the spectral distribution of solar simulators and solar radiation. On September 17, 2013, a global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers was organized by the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This paper presents highlights of the results of this first intercomparison, which will help to decrease systematic inter-laboratory differences in the measurements of the outputs or efficiencies of PV devices and harmonize laboratory experimental procedures.

  8. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  9. TransCom N[subscript 2]O model inter-comparison – Part 1: Assessing the influence of transport and surface fluxes on tropospheric N[subscript 2]O variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, R. L.

    We present a comparison of chemistry-transport models (TransCom-N2O) to examine the importance of atmospheric transport and surface fluxes on the variability of N2O mixing ratios in the troposphere. Six different models ...

  10. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-07

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  11. Standard Product Models and Project Databases for Context-Aware Information Access and Retrieval in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    1 Standard Product Models and Project Databases for Context-Aware Information Access and Retrieval and Technology (NIST) to evaluate the capability of interoperable product models and project databases of visual software modeling tools and modeling standards and methods. Standard product models and databases

  12. MHK Projects/Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deployed 0 Number of Build Out Units Deployed 0 Main Overseeing Organization Makai Ocean Engineering Inc Project Technology *MHK TechnologiesDeep Water Pipelines Project Timeline...

  13. The Modelling of Risks in IS/IT Projects through Causal and Cognitive Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winstanley, Graham

    , project evaluation, information systems project risk 1. Introduction IT projects have been notorious definition of risk management is "the identification of the hazards and possible problems, the evaluation1 The Modelling of Risks in IS/IT Projects through Causal and Cognitive Mapping Abdullah J. Al

  14. Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models, spectroscopy, laboratory plasma-drivenhave powerful radiation-driven stellar windsstellar winds.. etaeta CarinaCarina #12;TheThe ChandraChandra X

  15. Validation and Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Project Cost Models with Project Cost Data Obtained from the Southwest Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee; Reid Grigg; Brian McPherson

    2011-04-15

    Obtaining formal quotes and engineering conceptual designs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites and facilities is costly and time-consuming. Frequently, when looking at potential locations, managers, engineers and scientists are confronted with multiple options, but do not have the expertise or the information required to quickly obtain a general estimate of what the costs will be without employing an engineering firm. Several models for carbon compression, transport and/or injection have been published that are designed to aid in determining the cost of sequestration projects. A number of these models are used in this study, including models by J. Ogden, MIT's Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program Model, the Environmental Protection Agency and others. This report uses the information and data available from several projects either completed, in progress, or conceptualized by the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to determine the best approach to estimate a project's cost. The data presented highlights calculated versus actual costs. This data is compared to the results obtained by applying several models for each of the individual projects with actual cost. It also offers methods to systematically apply the models to future projects of a similar scale. Last, the cost risks associated with a project of this scope are discussed, along with ways that have been and could be used to mitigate these risks.

  16. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-12-21

    The guide supports consistent and effective implementation of DOE O 415.1 and assists IT Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT projects of small and medium size. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  17. Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haran, Murali

    Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence K. Sham Bhat, Murali Haran, Adam Terando, and Klaus Keller. Abstract Projections of future climatic changes are a key input to the design of climate change mitiga- tion and adaptation strategies. Current climate change projections

  18. Measurements and Modeling of Atmospheric Pollution over the Paris Area: An Overview of the ESQUIF Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    project As in many big cities throughout the world, pollution levels in the Paris area due to concentratedMeasurements and Modeling of Atmospheric Pollution over the Paris Area: An Overview of the ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution

  19. Transistor roadmap projection using predictive full-band atomistic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmani-Jelodar, M., E-mail: m.salmani@gmail.com; Klimeck, G. [Network for Computational Nanotechnology and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Kim, S. [Intel Corporation, 2501 Northwest 229th Avenue, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Ng, K. [Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC), 1101 Slater Rd, Durham, North Carolina 27703 (United States)

    2014-08-25

    In this letter, a full band atomistic quantum transport tool is used to predict the performance of double gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) over the next 15?years for International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). As MOSFET channel lengths scale below 20?nm, the number of atoms in the device cross-sections becomes finite. At this scale, quantum mechanical effects play an important role in determining the device characteristics. These quantum effects can be captured with the quantum transport tool. Critical results show the ON-current degradation as a result of geometry scaling, which is in contrast to previous ITRS compact model calculations. Geometric scaling has significant effects on the ON-current by increasing source-to-drain (S/D) tunneling and altering the electronic band structure. By shortening the device gate length from 20?nm to 5.1?nm, the ratio of S/D tunneling current to the overall subthreshold OFF-current increases from 18% to 98%. Despite this ON-current degradation by scaling, the intrinsic device speed is projected to increase at a rate of at least 8% per year as a result of the reduction of the quantum capacitance.

  20. Project Profile: An Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProject Develops Student-Stakeholders Project DevelopsProjectADVANCEDthe

  1. A New Teaching Model For The Subject Of Software Project Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qureshi, M Rizwan Jameel; Nadeem, Muhammad; Mehmood, Asif

    2012-01-01

    Software (SW) development is a very tough task which requires a skilled project leader for its success. If the project leader is not skilled enough then project may fail. In the real world of SW engineering 65% of the SW projects fail to meet their objectives as in [1]. The main reason is lack of training of the project mangers. This extreme ratio of failure can be reduced by teaching SW project management (SPM) to the future project managers in the practical manner, so that they may be skillful enough to handle the project in a better way. This paper intends to propose a model to be used to teach SPM to the student of SW engineering to reduce the failure rate of projects.

  2. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Engineering Program, Project 7: Development of Field Exposure Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, T.D.; Rankin, R.F.; Wiley, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conceptual model for estimating magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure (PE) of individuals or groups and construct a working model using existing data.

  3. Undergraduate Research Project: Computer Modeling of Nanotube Embedded Chemicapacitive Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    by the deadly anthrax attacks on the United States in 20025 , has made the detection of contaminants even more of this undergraduate research project is to elucidate the properties of such a device proposed by the United States throughout this project. I am also indebted to the United States Army Research Laboratory for the funding

  4. Climate Model Intercomparisons: Preparing for the Next Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meehl, J.; Moss, Richard H.; Taylor, K. E.; Eyring, Veronika; Stouffer, R. J.; Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, B.

    2014-03-04

    The article reports on the Aspen Global Change Institute workshopthat provided an input on scenarios. Our group is continuing to work on a number of aspects of scenarios for the next research cycle.

  5. Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrationsmarine boundary layer at Barbados: Impact of African dust,on Mineral Dust in the Barbados Trade Winds, Nature, 320(

  6. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a cloud top temperature of -15C. While the cloud was water dominated, ice precipitation appears to have lowered the liquid water path to about 23 of the adiabatic value....

  7. LLNL Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activities <LEDSGP/hometraining < LEDSGPLEED

  8. Posters Surface Flux Intercomparison Between the MM5 Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters955

  9. The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation Model Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(activeInforum LIFTMEMSProject:MiniThe

  10. 2003-01-2975 NASA's Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maluf, David A.

    flight data recorders, ATC radar tracks, maintenance logs, weather records, aviation safety incident2003-01-2975 NASA's Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Project Irving C. Statler and David A NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project addresses

  11. Project Title Economic Modeling & Unconventional Gas Resource Appraisal Program Line Tough Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    support to assess the economic viability of new tough gas plays (tight gas, shale gas, CBM). Project are illustrated using the US shale gas plays as case templates. Discounted cash flow models are applied1 Project Title Economic Modeling & Unconventional Gas Resource Appraisal Program Line Tough Gas

  12. Probability-weighted ensembles of U.S. county-level climate projections for climate risk analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, D J; Kopp, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of climate change risk requires a method for constructing probabilistic time series of changes in physical climate parameters. Here, we develop two such methods, Surrogate/Model Mixed Ensemble (SMME) and Monte Carlo Pattern/Residual (MCPR), and apply them to construct joint probability density functions (PDFs) of temperature and precipitation change over the 21st century for every county in the United States. Both methods produce $likely$ (67% probability) temperature and precipitation projections consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's interpretation of an equal-weighted Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble, but also provide full PDFs that include tail estimates. For example, both methods indicate that, under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5, there is a 5% chance that the contiguous United States could warm by at least 8$^\\circ$C. Variance decomposition of SMME and MCPR projections indicate that background variability dominates...

  13. Post-2020 climate agreements in the major economies assessed in the light of global models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavoni, Massimo; Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Aboumahboub, Tino; Bowen, Alex; Calvin, Katherine V.; Campiglio, Emanuele; Kober, Tom; Jewell, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David; van Sluisveld, Mariesse; Zimmer, Anne; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2014-12-15

    Integrated assessment models can help in quantifying the implications of international climate agreements and regional climate action. This paper reviews scenario results from model intercomparison projects to explore different possible outcomes of post-2020 climate negotiations, recently announced pledges and their relation to the 2°C target. We provide key information for all the major economies, such as the year of emission peaking, regional carbon budgets and emissions allowances. We highlight the distributional consequences of climate policies, and discuss the role of carbon markets for financing clean energy investments, and achieving efficiency and equity.

  14. GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

    2010-06-17

    This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

  15. ME 8813 -Modeling and Simulation Project Report Bert Bradley i

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The design and manufacture of automotive transmission gears is not without negative impacts to be enhanced through the design of the gear itself. To accomplish this feat, designers need capabilities and Simulation in Engineering Design Semester Project: Characterizing the Manufacturing Process of an Automotive

  16. Projects With Sequential Iteration: Models and Complexity Arunava Banerjee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Arunava

    activities which facilitate the transformation of a market opportunity into a product available for sale to bring new products to market problematic. Frequently, managers of such NPD projects are overwhelmed necessary to bring new products to market problematic. Typically, product development concerns all

  17. Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) to Improve Ministery of Construction and Housing (MOCAH) Within Kurdistan Regional Government 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, Azad Jabbar

    2015-05-06

    The Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3®), a standard developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI), has become an effective model to help an organization successfully implement strategies and achieve its objectives...

  18. Final Map Draft Comparison Report WIND ENERGY RESOURCE MODELING AND MEASUREMENT PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    II Final Map Draft Comparison Report #12;WIND ENERGY RESOURCE MODELING AND MEASUREMENT PROJECT Tel: 978-749-9591 Fax: 978-749-9713 mbrower@awstruewind.com August 10, 2004 #12;2 WIND ENERGY RESOURCE issues. 1 Background In Task 2 of the project, five promising areas of the state for wind energy

  19. Challenges, Benefits, & Risks Associated with Integrated Project Delivery and Building Information Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Ryan T.

    2012-12-14

    that inefficiencies in the traditional project delivery methods have been identified. Parallel modeling is the most obvious of the inefficiencies. In parallel modeling, the Contractor re-creates the Architect/Engineer’s BIM model, which was developed during the design...

  20. 1D Modeling of Solar Cells ELEN E9501 Course Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    1D Modeling of Solar Cells ELEN E9501 Course Project Columbia University Department of Electrical ............................................................................................................................6 4.1 One-dimensional Drift Diffusion Model for P-N Diodes.............................................................................................................8 4.3 Simulation Results of the Solar Cell Model

  1. The decision-making modeling for concurrent planning of construction projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, Euysup

    2009-05-15

    conditions. Furthermore, the model was applied to a hypothetical construction project. From the simulations the major conclusions include: (1) The decentralized approach becomes preferred with more activities; (2) Considering more methods provides more...

  2. Final technical report for DOE Computational Nanoscience Project: Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, P. T.

    2010-02-08

    This document reports the outcomes of the Computational Nanoscience Project, "Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices". It includes a list of participants and publications arising from the research supported.

  3. PROJECT INFORMATION FORM Project Title A stochastic multi-agent optimization model for addressing risk and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    : · How would renewable/ alternative energy industry compete with conventional energy energy system planning University University of California, Davis PI Yueyue modeling framework for strategic renewable energy planning, where green technologies

  4. Project Profile: Physics-Based Reliability Models for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    developed models to predict the reliability of hybrid gas bearing (HGB) and dry gas seal (DGS) components in the turboexpander of a supercritical CO2 turbine. The...

  5. Particle-Number Projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Study with Effective Shell Model Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Maqbool; J. A. Sheikh; P. A. Ganai; P. Ring

    2010-11-22

    We perform particle-number projected mean-field study using the recently developed symmetry-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations. Realistic calculations have been performed in sd- and fp-shell nuclei using the shell model empirical intearctions, USD and GXPFIA. It is demonstrated that the mean-field results for energy surfaces, obtained with these shell model interactions, are quite similar to those obtained using the density functional approaches. Further, it is shown that particle-number projected results, for neutron rich isotopes, can lead to different ground-state shapes in comparison to the bare HFB calculations.

  6. Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:BoreOpenGilliamOhio:Change |FrameworkSeawaterProject (GTAP)

  7. DOE Project Taps HPC for Next-Generation Climate Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HAB Packet HanfordDOE Project Taps HPC for Next-Generation Climate

  8. Sandia Energy - DOE-Sponsored Reference Model Project Results Released

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumniProjectsCyber Engineering

  9. Student Project Model Checking of a Closed-Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (PCA) infusion pump. They have also implemented a failure scenario where the safety of the patient.2 Model Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.1 PCA Infusion Pump such as infusion pumps can affect the patient'

  10. Macro-System Model Project #AN011 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M.

    2010-06-08

    A review of the Macro-System Model for hydrogen production pathways analysis, including objectives, accomplishments, collaborations, and future work. Presented at the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  11. Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems: A Benchmarking and Code Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; White, Mark D.; White, Signe K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Purohit, Sumit; Black, Gary D.; Podgorney, Robert; Boyd, Lauren W.; Phillips, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-30

    Numerical simulation codes have become critical tools for understanding complex geologic processes, as applied to technology assessment, system design, monitoring, and operational guidance. Recently the need for quantitatively evaluating coupled Thermodynamic, Hydrologic, geoMechanical, and geoChemical (THMC) processes has grown, driven by new applications such as geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases and development of unconventional energy sources. Here we focus on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), which are man-made geothermal reservoirs created where hot rock exists but there is insufficient natural permeability and/or pore fluids to allow efficient energy extraction. In an EGS, carefully controlled subsurface fluid injection is performed to enhance the permeability of pre-existing fractures, which facilitates fluid circulation and heat transport. EGS technologies are relatively new, and pose significant simulation challenges. To become a trusted analytical tool for EGS, numerical simulation codes must be tested to demonstrate that they adequately represent the coupled THMC processes of concern. This presentation describes the approach and status of a benchmarking and code intercomparison effort currently underway, supported by the U. S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Program. This study is being closely coordinated with a parallel international effort sponsored by the International Partnership for Geothermal Technology (IPGT). We have defined an extensive suite of benchmark problems, test cases, and challenge problems, ranging in complexity and difficulty, and a number of modeling teams are applying various simulation tools to these problems. The descriptions of the problems and modeling results are being compiled using the Velo framework, a scientific workflow and data management environment accessible through a simple web-based interface.

  12. Draft - DOE G 415.1-2, Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  13. Modeling and Simulation Optimization and Feasibility Studies for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.

    2013-01-01

    This report details the results of the modeling and simulation work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project during the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project is to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but are outside the scope of this study.

  14. A Neural Network Model for Construction Projects Site Overhead Cost Estimating in Egypt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSawy, Ismaail; Razek, Mohammed Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Estimating of the overhead costs of building construction projects is an important task in the management of these projects. The quality of construction management depends heavily on their accurate cost estimation. Construction costs prediction is a very difficult and sophisticated task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to develop a parametric cost-estimating model for site overhead cost in Egypt. Fifty-two actual real-life cases of building projects constructed in Egypt during the seven year period 2002-2009 were used as training materials. The neural network architecture is presented for the estimation of the site overhead costs as a percentage from the total project price.

  15. Power system analysis project Modeling and Sizing optimization of Stand-alone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Power system analysis project Modeling and Sizing optimization of Stand-alone photovoltaic/wind to explore a new way to do the site matching of wind turbine by introducing the design parameters: cut-in, cut-out wind speed and rated power, into the optimization based on the real load of the site and write

  16. Detecting changes in seasonal precipitation extremes using regional climate model projections: Implications for managing fluvial flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, Hayley

    further demonstrates that existing precautionary allowances for climate change used for flood managementClick Here for Full Article Detecting changes in seasonal precipitation extremes using regional climate model projections: Implications for managing fluvial flood risk H. J. Fowler1 and R. L. Wilby2

  17. Exploring Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    to Offshore Petroleum Projects by Jijun Lin B.E., Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum, such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital

  18. Evaluation of PV performance models and their impact on project risk.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2010-12-01

    Photovoltaic systems are often priced in $/W{sub p}, where Wp refers to the DC power rating of the modules at Standard Test Conditions (1000 W/m{sup 2}, 25 C cell temperature) and $ refers to the installed cost of the system. However, the true value of the system is in the energy it will produce in kWhs, not the power rating. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, the annual energy yield (kWh/kW{sup p}) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. Understanding energy yield is a key part of understanding system value. System performance models are used during project development to estimate the expected output of PV systems for a given design and location. Performance modeling is normally done by the system designer/system integrator. Often, an independent engineer will also model system output during a due diligence review of a project. A variety of system performance models are available. The most commonly used modeling tool for project development and due diligence in the United States is probably PVsyst, while those seeking a quick answer to expected energy production may use PVWatts. In this paper, we examine the variation in predicted energy output among modeling tools and users and compare that to measured output.

  19. New - DOE G 415.1-2, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT EXECUTION MODEL GUIDE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM PROJECTS

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The guide supports consistent and effective implementation of DOE O 415.1 and assists IT Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT projects of small and medium size. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  20. Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y. H.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Previsic, M.; Epler, J.; Lou, J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy established a reference model project to benchmark a set of marine and hydrokinetic technologies including current (tidal, open-ocean, and river) turbines and wave energy converters. The objectives of the project were to first evaluate the status of these technologies and their readiness for commercial applications. Second, to evaluate the potential cost of energy and identify cost-reduction pathways and areas where additional research could be best applied to accelerate technology development to market readiness.

  1. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2014-01-02

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodology calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal system in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. The overall project area is 2500km2 with the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) being about 170km2. The project was subdivided into five tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data; (2) design and populate a GIS database; (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area at 0.5km intervals to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km; (4) collect new geophysical and geochemical data, and (5) repeat Task 3 for the enhanced (baseline + new ) data. Favorability maps were based on the integrated assessment of the three critical EGS exploration parameters of interest: rock type, temperature and stress. A complimentary trust map was generated to compliment the favorability maps to graphically illustrate the cumulative confidence in the data used in the favorability mapping. The Final Scientific Report (FSR) is submitted in two parts with Part I describing the results of project Tasks 1 through 3 and Part II covering the results of project Tasks 4 through 5 plus answering nine questions posed in the proposal for the overall project. FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  2. A Study of the Economic Impact of Water Impoundment Through Validity Testing of a Comparitive-Projection Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, J. E.; Heideman, K. E.

    1969-01-01

    An established economic simulation model for reservoir development was applied to ten reservoir projects throughout Texas. The model as a predictor of economic impact was given a difficult test because of the diversity of geographic, economic...

  3. Comparative study of Regional Urban Growth (RUG) model projections for new EU members in central Europe and the Baltic States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langner, Pawel

    2009-11-26

    Urban modelling and land-cover changes are well discussed in literature and are in a focal point of many researches. Regional urban growth (RUG) model for central Europe and the Baltic States projects land-cover changes ...

  4. Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codron, Francis

    Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 J relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model climate and Earth System Models, both developed in France and contributing to the 5th coupled model

  5. Methane for Power Generation in Muaro Jambi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-07-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates electricity generation from the organic content of wastewater at a palm oil mill in Muaro Jambi, Sumatra. Palm mills use vast amounts of water in the production process resulting in problematic waste water called palm oil mill effluent (POME). The POME releases methane to the atmosphere in open ponds which could be covered to capture the methane to produce renewable electricity for rural villages. The study uses average Indonesia data to determine the economic viability of methane capture at a palm oil mill and also evaluates technology as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  6. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  7. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2013-05-15

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  8. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  9. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2014-01-02

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  10. FINAL PROJECT REPORT DOE Early Career Principal Investigator Program Project Title: Developing New Mathematical Models for Multiphase Flows Based on a Fundamental Probability Density Function Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankar Subramaniam

    2009-04-01

    This final project report summarizes progress made towards the objectives described in the proposal entitled “Developing New Mathematical Models for Multiphase Flows Based on a Fundamental Probability Density Function Approach”. Substantial progress has been made in theory, modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent multiphase flows. The consistent mathematical framework based on probability density functions is described. New models are proposed for turbulent particle-laden flows and sprays.

  11. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, G.L.; Davis, D.D.; Beltz, N.; Bandy, A.R.; Ferek, R.J.; Thornton, D.C. [NASA, Langely Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)]|[J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of `potential` uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  12. The NINJA-2 project: Detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :,; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endr?czi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I

    2014-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...

  13. MODEL REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS TO PROVIDE ENERGY AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES FROM AN OFFSHORE WIND POWER PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-10-22

    This document provides a model RFP for new generation. The 'base' RFP is for a single-source offshore wind RFP. Required modifications are noted should a state or utility seek multi-source bids (e.g., all renewables or all sources). The model is premised on proposals meeting threshold requirements (e.g., a MW range of generating capacity and a range in terms of years), RFP issuer preferences (e.g., likelihood of commercial operation by a date certain, price certainty, and reduction in congestion), and evaluation criteria, along with a series of plans (e.g., site, environmental effects, construction, community outreach, interconnection, etc.). The Model RFP places the most weight on project risk (45%), followed by project economics (35%), and environmental and social considerations (20%). However, if a multi-source RFP is put forward, the sponsor would need to either add per-MWh technology-specific, life-cycle climate (CO2), environmental and health impact costs to bid prices under the 'Project Economics' category or it should increase the weight given to the 'Environmental and Social Considerations' category.

  14. Projected shell model study of neutron-rich deformed isotopes of Sr and Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Sonia; Dar, Parvaiz Ahmad; Devi, Rani [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India)

    2008-02-15

    The projected shell model (PSM) study of {sup 98-102}Sr and {sup 100-104}Zr nuclei is carried out. The reliability of the ground-state wave function is checked by reproducing yrast spectra and electromagnetic properties. The mechanism for the onset of sudden and large deformation at N=60 is worked out. The present piece of research work has unified the two different, or conflicting, early explanations for the onset of deformation at N=60 by the spherical shell model and mean-field theory.

  15. Pre-stimulation coupled THM modeling related to the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2014-01-01

    Overview of the northwest Geysers EGS demonstration project.TO THE NORTHWEST GEYSERS EGS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT JonnyABSTRACT The Northwest Geyser EGS Demonstration Project aims

  16. TransCom model simulations of CH? and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH? variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, P. K.

    A chemistry-transport model (CTM) intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH?) has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model ...

  17. Using calibrated engineering models to predict energy savings in large-scale geothermal heat pump projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Thornton, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention as a means of implementing large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Opportunities for such projects exist for military housing, federally subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers), to name a few. Accurate prior (to construction) estimates of the energy savings in these projects reduce risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. This paper demonstrates an improved method of estimating energy savings before construction takes place. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-construction energy-use data collected in the field, this method is able to predict actual energy savings to a high degree of accuracy. This is verified with post-construction energy-use data from a geothermal heat pump ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana. This method also allows determination of the relative impact of the various energy conservation measures installed in a comprehensive energy conservation project. As an example, the breakout of savings at Fort Polk for the geothermal heat pumps, desuperheaters, lighting retrofits, and low-flow hot water outlets is provided.

  18. Using Calibrated Engineering Models To Predict Energy Savings In Large-Scale Geothermal Heat Pump Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Thornton, Jeff W.

    1998-01-01

    Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention as a means of implementing large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Opportunities for such projects exist for military housing, federally subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers), to name a few. Accurate prior (to construction) estimates of the energy savings in these projects reduce risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. This paper demonstrates an improved method of estimating energy savings before construction takes place. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-construction energy-use data collected in the field, this method is able to predict actual energy savings to a high degree of accuracy. This is verified with post-construction energy-use data from a geothermal heat pump ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana. This method also allows determination of the relative impact of the various energy conservation measures installed in a comprehensive energy conservation project. As an example, the breakout of savings at Fort Polk for the geothermal heat pumps, desuperheaters, lighting retrofits, and low-flow hot water outlets is provided.

  19. Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling Project: Seismic Hazard Models for Department of Energy Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, D.W.; Murray, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed seismic and wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the US. In Phase 1, LLNL gathered information on the sites and their critical facilities, including nuclear reactors, fuel-reprocessing plants, high-level waste storage and treatment facilities, and special nuclear material facilities. In Phase 2, development of seismic and wind hazard models, was initiated. These hazard models express the annual probability that the site will experience an earthquake or wind speed greater than some specified magnitude. This report summarizes the final seismic hazard models and response spectra recommended for each site and the methodology used to develop these models. 15 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Building model generation project : generating a model of the MIT campus terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulikov, Vitaliy Y. (Vitaliy Yurievich), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Possession of a complete, automatically generated and frequently updated model of the MIT campus leads the way to many valuable applications, ranging from three-dimensional navigation to virtual tours. In this thesis, we ...

  1. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-14

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.

  2. Superdeformed band in the $N = Z+4$ nucleus $^{40}$Ar: A projected shell model analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ying-Chun; Sun, Yang; Guidry, Mike

    2015-01-01

    It has been debated whether the experimentally-identified superdeformed rotational band in $^{40}$Ar [E. Ideguchi, et al., Phys. Lett. B 686 (2010) 18] has an axially or triaxially deformed shape. Projected shell model calculations with angular-momentum-projection using an axially-deformed basis are performed up to high spins. Our calculated energy levels indicate a perfect collective-rotor behavior for the superdeformed yrast band. However, detailed analysis of the wave functions reveals that the high-spin structure is dominated by mixed 0-, 2-, and 4-quasiparticle configurations. The calculated electric quadrupole transition probabilities reproduce well the known experimental data and suggest a reduced, but still significant, collectivity in the high spin region. The deduced triaxial deformation parameters are small throughout the entire band, suggesting that triaxiality is not very important for this superdeformed band.

  3. Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowee, Misa; Gary, S. Peter; Winske, Dan; Liu, Kaijun

    2012-07-17

    We present a summary of the FY12 activities for DTRA-funded project 'Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere'. We briefly review the outstanding scientific questions and discuss the work done in the last year to try to answer these questions. We then discuss the agenda for this Technical Meeting with the DTRA sponsors. In the last year, we have continued our efforts to understand artificial radiation belts from several different perspectives: (1) Continued development of Electron Source Model (ESM) and comparison to HANE test data; (2) Continued studies of relativistic electron scattering by waves in the natural radiation belts; (3) Began study of self-generated waves from the HANE electrons; and (4) Began modeling for the UCLA laser experiment.

  4. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  5. An international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, James T [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

    2009-12-01

    The need to capture important climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, called Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). This work suggests that a more rigorous set of global offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are needed. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) was designed to meet this need by providing a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). Recently, a similar effort in Europe, called the International Land Model Benchmark (ILAMB) Project, was begun to assess the performance of European land surface models. These two projects will now serve as prototypes for a proposed international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for those models participating in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Initially used for model validation for terrestrial biogeochemistry models in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM), C-LAMP incorporates a simulation protocol for both offline and partially coupled simulations using a prescribed historical trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Models are confronted with data through comparisons against AmeriFlux site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA Globalview flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site measurements. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the CLM version 3 in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): the CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons of the CLM3 offline results against observational datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). CLM version 4 has been evaluated using C-LAMP, showing improvement in many of the metrics. Efforts are now underway to initiate a Nitrogen-Land Model Intercomparison Project (N-LAMP) to better constrain the effects of the nitrogen cycle in biosphere models. Presented will be new results from C-LAMP for CLM4, initial N-LAMP developments, and the proposed land-biosphere model benchmarking activity.

  6. Improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models to increase the quality of climate model projections and inform DOE's energy decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models to increase results are incorporated into Earth system models to improve climate projections. e overarching goal of TES is to improve the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models

  7. Climate simulations and projections with a super-parameterized climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan, Cristiana [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences; Xu, Li [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies

    2014-10-01

    The mean climate and its variability are analyzed in a suite of numerical experiments with a fully coupled general circulation model in which subgrid-scale moist convection is explicitly represented through embedded 2D cloud-system resolving models. Control simulations forced by the present day, fixed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are conducted using two horizontal resolutions and validated against observations and reanalyses. The mean state simulated by the higher resolution configuration has smaller biases. Climate variability also shows some sensitivity to resolution but not as uniform as in the case of mean state. The interannual and seasonal variability are better represented in the simulation at lower resolution whereas the subseasonal variability is more accurate in the higher resolution simulation. The equilibrium climate sensitivity of the model is estimated from a simulation forced by an abrupt quadrupling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The equilibrium climate sensitivity temperature of the model is 2.77 °C, and this value is slightly smaller than the mean value (3.37 °C) of contemporary models using conventional representation of cloud processes. The climate change simulation forced by the representative concentration pathway 8.5 scenario projects an increase in the frequency of severe droughts over most of the North America.

  8. Projecting Low Dimensional Chaos from Spatio-temporal Dynamics in a Model for Plastic Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritupan Sarmah; G. Ananthakrishna

    2013-03-26

    We investigate the possibility of projecting low dimensional chaos from spatiotemporal dynamics of a model for a kind of plastic instability observed under constant strain rate deformation conditions. We first discuss the relationship between the spatiotemporal patterns of the model reflected in the nature of dislocation bands and the nature of stress serrations. We show that at low applied strain rates, there is a one-to-one correspondence with the randomly nucleated isolated bursts of mobile dislocation density and the stress drops. We then show that the model equations are spatiotemporally chaotic by demonstrating the number of positive Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension scale with the system size at low and high strain rates. Using a modified algorithm for calculating correlation dimension density, we show that the stress-strain signals at low applied strain rates corresponding to spatially uncorrelated dislocation bands exhibit features of low dimensional chaos. This is made quantitative by demonstrating that the model equations can be approximately reduced to space independent model equations for the average dislocation densities, which is known to be low-dimensionally chaotic. However, the scaling regime for the correlation dimension shrinks with increasing applied strain rate due to increasing propensity for propagation of the dislocation bands.

  9. Climate simulations and projections with a super-parameterized climate model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stan, Cristiana; Xu, Li

    2014-10-01

    The mean climate and its variability are analyzed in a suite of numerical experiments with a fully coupled general circulation model in which subgrid-scale moist convection is explicitly represented through embedded 2D cloud-system resolving models. Control simulations forced by the present day, fixed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are conducted using two horizontal resolutions and validated against observations and reanalyses. The mean state simulated by the higher resolution configuration has smaller biases. Climate variability also shows some sensitivity to resolution but not as uniform as in the case of mean state. The interannual and seasonal variability are better represented in themore »simulation at lower resolution whereas the subseasonal variability is more accurate in the higher resolution simulation. The equilibrium climate sensitivity of the model is estimated from a simulation forced by an abrupt quadrupling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The equilibrium climate sensitivity temperature of the model is 2.77 °C, and this value is slightly smaller than the mean value (3.37 °C) of contemporary models using conventional representation of cloud processes. The climate change simulation forced by the representative concentration pathway 8.5 scenario projects an increase in the frequency of severe droughts over most of the North America.« less

  10. Reduced order models for thermal analysis : final report : LDRD Project No. 137807.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD Senior's Council Project is focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of Reduced Order Models (ROM) for application in the thermal analysis of complex engineering problems. Two basic approaches to developing a ROM for combined thermal conduction and enclosure radiation problems are considered. As a prerequisite to a ROM a fully coupled solution method for conduction/radiation models is required; a parallel implementation is explored for this class of problems. High-fidelity models of large, complex systems are now used routinely to verify design and performance. However, there are applications where the high-fidelity model is too large to be used repetitively in a design mode. One such application is the design of a control system that oversees the functioning of the complex, high-fidelity model. Examples include control systems for manufacturing processes such as brazing and annealing furnaces as well as control systems for the thermal management of optical systems. A reduced order model (ROM) seeks to reduce the number of degrees of freedom needed to represent the overall behavior of the large system without a significant loss in accuracy. The reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of the ROM leads to immediate increases in computational efficiency and allows many design parameters and perturbations to be quickly and effectively evaluated. Reduced order models are routinely used in solid mechanics where techniques such as modal analysis have reached a high state of refinement. Similar techniques have recently been applied in standard thermal conduction problems e.g. though the general use of ROM for heat transfer is not yet widespread. One major difficulty with the development of ROM for general thermal analysis is the need to include the very nonlinear effects of enclosure radiation in many applications. Many ROM methods have considered only linear or mildly nonlinear problems. In the present study a reduced order model is considered for application to the combined problem of thermal conduction and enclosure radiation. The main objective is to develop a procedure that can be implemented in an existing thermal analysis code. The main analysis objective is to allow thermal controller software to be used in the design of a control system for a large optical system that resides with a complex radiation dominated enclosure. In the remainder of this section a brief outline of ROM methods is provided. The following chapter describes the fully coupled conduction/radiation method that is required prior to considering a ROM approach. Considerable effort was expended to implement and test the combined solution method; the ROM project ended shortly after the completion of this milestone and thus the ROM results are incomplete. The report concludes with some observations and recommendations.

  11. Application of Inverse Models for Long-Term-Energy-Monitoring in the German Enbau: Monitor Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumann, C.; Herkel, S.; Lohnert, G.; Voss, K.; Wagner, A.

    2006-01-01

    " that supports the planning and evaluation of demonstration projects. enbau:monitor, as the related accompanying project, documents and analyzes these projects on a common platform. in the framework of enbau:monitor, two different monitoring phases were defined...

  12. Senior Design Projects 2013 Project Title 1 : Monte Carlo Simulations Using a Benchmark Full-Core Pressured Water Rector Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    -Core Pressured Water Rector Model Advisor: Prof. X. George Xu (JEC 5003; Tel: 518-276-4014; Email: xug2@rpi in the design and analysis of nuclear reactor systems. One of the most desirable modeling and simulation a full-core PWR reactor model for parallel MCNP calculations on the CCNI system 4. Code optimization

  13. Accounting for Global Climate Model Projection Uncertainty in Modern Statistical Downscaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johannesson, G

    2010-03-17

    Future climate change has emerged as a national and a global security threat. To carry out the needed adaptation and mitigation steps, a quantification of the expected level of climate change is needed, both at the global and the regional scale; in the end, the impact of climate change is felt at the local/regional level. An important part of such climate change assessment is uncertainty quantification. Decision and policy makers are not only interested in 'best guesses' of expected climate change, but rather probabilistic quantification (e.g., Rougier, 2007). For example, consider the following question: What is the probability that the average summer temperature will increase by at least 4 C in region R if global CO{sub 2} emission increases by P% from current levels by time T? It is a simple question, but one that remains very difficult to answer. It is answering these kind of questions that is the focus of this effort. The uncertainty associated with future climate change can be attributed to three major factors: (1) Uncertainty about future emission of green house gasses (GHG). (2) Given a future GHG emission scenario, what is its impact on the global climate? (3) Given a particular evolution of the global climate, what does it mean for a particular location/region? In what follows, we assume a particular GHG emission scenario has been selected. Given the GHG emission scenario, the current batch of the state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) is used to simulate future climate under this scenario, yielding an ensemble of future climate projections (which reflect, to some degree our uncertainty of being able to simulate future climate give a particular GHG scenario). Due to the coarse-resolution nature of the GCM projections, they need to be spatially downscaled for regional impact assessments. To downscale a given GCM projection, two methods have emerged: dynamical downscaling and statistical (empirical) downscaling (SDS). Dynamic downscaling involves configuring and running a regional climate model (RCM) nested within a given GCM projection (i.e., the GCM provides bounder conditions for the RCM). On the other hand, statistical downscaling aims at establishing a statistical relationship between observed local/regional climate variables of interest and synoptic (GCM-scale) climate predictors. The resulting empirical relationship is then applied to future GCM projections. A comparison of the pros and cons of dynamical versus statistical downscaling is outside the scope of this effort, but has been extensively studied and the reader is referred to Wilby et al. (1998); Murphy (1999); Wood et al. (2004); Benestad et al. (2007); Fowler et al. (2007), and references within those. The scope of this effort is to study methodology, a statistical framework, to propagate and account for GCM uncertainty in regional statistical downscaling assessment. In particular, we will explore how to leverage an ensemble of GCM projections to quantify the impact of the GCM uncertainty in such an assessment. There are three main component to this effort: (1) gather the necessary climate-related data for a regional SDS study, including multiple GCM projections, (2) carry out SDS, and (3) assess the uncertainty. The first step is carried out using tools written in the Python programming language, while analysis tools were developed in the statistical programming language R; see Figure 1.

  14. The NINJA-2 project: Detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; the NINJA-2 Collaboration; :; J. Aasi; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; K. Ackley; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. X. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; A. Ain; P. Ajith; A. Alemic; B. Allen; A. Allocca; D. Amariutei; M. Andersen; R. Anderson; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; C. Arceneaux; J. Areeda; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; L. Austin; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. T. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. W. Ballmer; J. C. Barayoga; M. Barbet; B. C. Barish; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; A. Basti; J. C. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; C. Belczynski; A. S. Bell; C. Bell; G. Bergmann; D. Bersanetti; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Biscans; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; S. Bloemen; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; M. Boer; G. Bogaert; C. Bogan; C. Bond; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; Sukanta Bose; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; D. D. Brown; F. Brückner; S. Buchman; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; R. Burman; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Calderón Bustillo; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; A. Castiglia; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; C. Celerier; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; R. Chakraborty; T. Chalermsongsak; S. J. Chamberlin; S. Chao; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; Q. Chu; S. S. Y. Chua; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; J. A. Clark; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; A. Colla; C. Collette; M. Colombini; L. Cominsky; M. Constancio Jr.; A. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corpuz; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. W. Coughlin; S. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; S. Countryman; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; R. Coyne; K. Craig; J. D. E. Creighton; S. G. Crowder; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; T. Dal Canton; M. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. S. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; S. Deléglise; W. Del Pozzo; T. Denker; T. Dent; H. Dereli; V. Dergachev; R. De Rosa; R. T. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; M. Díaz; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; A. Di Virgilio; A. Donath; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; S. Dossa; R. Douglas; T. P. Downes; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; T. Edo; M. Edwards; A. Effler; H. Eggenstein; P. Ehrens; J. Eichholz; S. S. Eikenberry; G. Endr?czi; R. Essick; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Q. Fang; S. Farinon; B. Farr; W. M. Farr; M. Favata; H. Fehrmann; M. M. Fejer; D. Feldbaum; F. Feroz; I. Ferrante; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; J. -D. Fournier; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; L. Gammaitoni; S. Gaonkar; F. Garufi; N. Gehrels; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; R. Goetz; L. Gondan; G. González; N. Gordon; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Gossan; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Gräf; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; P. Groot; H. Grote; K. Grover; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; K. Gushwa; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; M. Hanke; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. Hart; M. T. Hartman; C. -J. Haster; K. Haughian; A. Heidmann; M. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; G. Hemming; M. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; M. Heurs; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; S. Hooper; P. Hopkins; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; Y. Hu; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; M. Huynh; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; B. R. Iyer; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; H. Jang; P. Jaranowski; Y. Ji; F. Jiménez-Forteza; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; R. Jones; R. J. G. Jonker; L. Ju; Haris K; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; J. Karlen; M. Kasprzack; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; F. Kawazoe; F. Kéfélian; G. M. Keiser; D. Keitel; D. B. Kelley; W. Kells; A. Khalaidovski

    2014-01-05

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered with false alarm rates smaller than 1 in a thousand years. Parameter estimation algorithms were run on each of these waveforms to explore the ability to constrain the masses, component angular momenta and sky position of these waveforms. We also perform a large-scale monte-carlo study to assess the ability to recover each of the 60 hybrid waveforms with early Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves. Our results predict that early Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will have a volume-weighted average sensitive distance of 300Mpc (1Gpc) for $10M_{\\odot}+10M_{\\odot}$ ($50M_{\\odot}+50M_{\\odot}$) binary black hole coalescences. We demonstrate that neglecting the component angular momenta in the waveform models used in matched-filtering will result in a reduction in sensitivity for systems with large component angular momenta. [Abstract abridged for ArXiv, full version in PDF

  15. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunford, Gary [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Williams, David [WIT, Inc., 11173 Oak Fern Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States)] [WIT, Inc., 11173 Oak Fern Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States); Smith, Rick [Knowledge Systems Design, Inc., 13595 Quaker Hill Cross Rd, Nevada City, CA 95959 (United States)] [Knowledge Systems Design, Inc., 13595 Quaker Hill Cross Rd, Nevada City, CA 95959 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near-term programmatic decisions affect life cycle costs and commitments. (authors)

  16. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Nigg; Devin A. Steuhm

    2011-09-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance and, to some extent, experiment management are obsolete, inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are becoming increasingly difficult to properly verify and validate (V&V). Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In 2009 the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate V&V, within the next 3-4 years via the ATR Core Modeling and Simulation and V&V Update (or 'Core Modeling Update') Project. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). The ATR Core Modeling Update Project, targeted for full implementation in phase with the anticipated ATR Core Internals Changeout (CIC) in the 2014 time frame, began during the last quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, and has just completed its first full year. Key accomplishments so far have encompassed both computational as well as experimental work. A new suite of stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and their supporting nuclear data libraries (SCALE, KENO-6, HELIOS, NEWT, and ATTILA) have been installed at the INL under various permanent sitewide license agreements and corresponding baseline models of the ATR and ATRC are now operational, demonstrating the basic feasibility of these code packages for their intended purpose. Furthermore, a capability for rigorous sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI system is being implemented and initial computational results have been obtained. This capability will have many applications in 2011 and beyond as a tool for understanding the margins of uncertainty in the new models as well as for validation experiment design and interpretation. Finally we note that although full implementation of the new computational models and protocols will extend over a period 3-4 years as noted above, interim applications in the much nearer term have already been demonstrated. In particular, these demonstrations included an analysis that was useful for understanding the cause of some issues in December 2009 that were triggered by a larger than acceptable discrepancy between the measured excess core reactivity and a calculated value that was based on the legacy computational methods. As the Modeling Update project proceeds we anticipate further such interim, informal, applications in parallel with formal qualification of the system under the applicable INL Quality Assurance procedures and standards.

  17. Algal biomass and sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Basin Intercomparison of data from various satellite sensors, and implications for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bricaud, Annick

    Algal biomass and sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Basin Intercomparison of data from and to increasing anthropogenic inputs, is an appropriate test site for observing the evolution of algal biomass progress in the knowledge of spatial and temporal variations in algal biomass in various regions

  18. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: ATMOSPHERES, VOL. 118, 11,03611,058, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50868, 2013 The hydrological impact of geoengineering in the Geoengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Earth's albedo by solar radiation management is investigated using simulations from 12 Earth System models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). We contrast

  19. Neural networks for modelling the final target cost of water projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahiaga-Dagbui, Dominic D; Smith, Simon D

    Producing reasonably accurate cost estimates at the planning stage of a project important for the subsequent success of the project. The estimator has to be able to make judgement on the cost influence of a number of factors ...

  20. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Douglas S. Crawford; Mark D. DeHart; George W. Griffith; D. Scott Lucas; Joseph W. Nielsen; David W. Nigg; James R. Parry; Jorge Navarro

    2010-09-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance and, to some extent, experiment management are obsolete, inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are becoming increasingly difficult to properly verify and validate (V&V). Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In 2009 the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate V&V, within the next 3-4 years via the ATR Core Modeling and Simulation and V&V Update (or “Core Modeling Update”) Project. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF).

  1. PROJECT MANGEMENT PLAN EXAMPLES Prepare Project Support Plans...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    qualitativelysubjectively assess the project risk. The approach is modeled after project risk assessment processes outlined in standard project management texts and training...

  2. Determining Columbia and Snake River Project Tailrace and Forebay Zones of Hydraulic Influence using MASS2 Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2010-12-01

    Although fisheries biology studies are frequently performed at US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects along the Columbia and Snake Rivers, there is currently no consistent definition of the ``forebay'' and ``tailrace'' regions for these studies. At this time, each study may use somewhat arbitrary lines (e.g., the Boat Restriction Zone) to define the upstream and downstream limits of the study, which may be significantly different at each project. Fisheries researchers are interested in establishing a consistent definition of project forebay and tailrace regions for the hydroelectric projects on the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The Hydraulic Extent of a project was defined by USACE (Brad Eppard, USACE-CENWP) as follows: The river reach directly upstream (forebay) and downstream (tailrace) of a project that is influenced by the normal range of dam operations. Outside this reach, for a particular river discharge, changes in dam operations cannot be detected by hydraulic measurement. The purpose of this study was to, in consultation with USACE and regional representatives, develop and apply a consistent set of criteria for determining the hydraulic extent of each of the projects in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. A 2D depth-averaged river model, MASS2, was applied to the Snake and Columbia Rivers. New computational meshes were developed most reaches and the underlying bathymetric data updated to the most current survey data. The computational meshes resolved each spillway bay and turbine unit at each project and extended from project to project. MASS2 was run for a range of total river flows and each flow for a range of project operations at each project. The modeled flow was analyzed to determine the range of velocity magnitude differences and the range of flow direction differences at each location in the computational mesh for each total river flow. Maps of the differences in flow direction and velocity magnitude were created. USACE fishery biologists requested data analysis to determine the project hydraulic extent based on the following criteria: 1) For areas where the mean velocities are less than 4 ft/s, the water velocity differences between operations are not greater than 0.5 ft/sec and /or the differences in water flow direction are not greater than 10 degrees, 2) If mean water velocity is 4.0 ft/second or greater the boundary is determined using the differences in water flow direction (i.e., not greater than 10 degrees). Based on these criteria, and excluding areas with a mean velocity of less than 0.1 ft/s (within the error of the model), a final set of graphics were developed that included data from all flows and all operations. Although each hydroelectric project has a different physical setting, there were some common results. The downstream hydraulic extent tended to be greater than the hydraulic extent in the forebay. The hydraulic extent of the projects tended to be larger at the mid-range flows. At higher flows, the channel geometry tends to reduce the impact of project operations.

  3. Long-Term Climate Commitments Projected with ClimateCarbon Cycle Models G.-K. PLATTNER,a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Long-Term Climate Commitments Projected with Climate­Carbon Cycle Models G.-K. PLATTNER,a,n R IAC, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland c Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada h The Open

  4. TITLE: Analisi d'un model de suspensioamortiment: projecte de tesi. AUTHOR: Marta Pellicer (Dpt. Matematica Aplicada 1, UPC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    TITLE: Anâ??alisi d'un model de suspensiâ??o­amortiment: projecte de tesi. AUTHOR: Marta Pellicer (Dpt'existâ??encia o no d'un subconjunt finit de valors propis dominants. En una propera fase de la tesi, es pret

  5. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Nigg, Principal Investigator; Kevin A. Steuhm, Project Manager

    2012-09-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance, and to some extent, experiment management, are inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are difficult, if not impossible, to properly verify and validate (V&V) according to modern standards. Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In late 2009, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort, the ATR Core Modeling Update Project, to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). The ATR Core Modeling Update Project, targeted for full implementation in phase with the next anticipated ATR Core Internals Changeout (CIC) in the 2014-2015 time frame, began during the last quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, and has just completed its third full year. Key accomplishments so far have encompassed both computational as well as experimental work. A new suite of stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and their supporting nuclear data libraries (HELIOS, KENO6/SCALE, NEWT/SCALE, ATTILA, and an extended implementation of MCNP5) has been installed at the INL under various licensing arrangements. Corresponding models of the ATR and ATRC are now operational with all five codes, demonstrating the basic feasibility of the new code packages for their intended purpose. Of particular importance, a set of as-run core depletion HELIOS calculations for all ATR cycles since August 2009, Cycle 145A through Cycle 151B, was successfully completed during 2012. This major effort supported a decision late in the year to proceed with the phased incorporation of the HELIOS methodology into the ATR Core Safety Analysis Package (CSAP) preparation process, in parallel with the established PDQ-based methodology, beginning late in Fiscal Year 2012. Acquisition of the advanced SERPENT (VTT-Finland) and MC21 (DOE-NR) Monte Carlo stochastic neutronics simulation codes was also initiated during the year and some initial applications of SERPENT to ATRC experiment analysis were demonstrated. These two new codes will offer significant additional capability, including the possibility of full-3D Monte Carlo fuel management support capabilities for the ATR at some point in the future. Finally, a capability for rigorous sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI system has been implemented and initial computational results have been obtained. This capability will have many applications as a tool for understanding the margins of uncertainty in the new models as well as for validation experiment design and interpretation.

  6. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Nigg

    2013-09-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance, and to some extent, experiment management, are inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are difficult, if not impossible, to verify and validate (V&V) according to modern standards. Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for effective application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In late 2009, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort, the ATR Core Modeling Update Project, to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF).

  7. West Pearl Queen CO2 sequestration pilot test and modeling project 2006-2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Symons, Neill Phillip; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Byrer, Charles (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Elbring, Gregory Jay; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Aldridge, David Franklin; Lorenz, John Clay

    2008-08-01

    The West Pearl Queen is a depleted oil reservoir that has produced approximately 250,000 bbl of oil since 1984. Production had slowed prior to CO{sub 2} injection, but no previous secondary or tertiary recovery methods had been applied. The initial project involved reservoir characterization and field response to injection of CO{sub 2}; the field experiment consisted of injection, soak, and venting. For fifty days (December 20, 2002, to February 11, 2003) 2090 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into the Shattuck Sandstone Member of the Queen Formation at the West Pearl Queen site. This technical report highlights the test results of the numerous research participants and technical areas from 2006-2008. This work included determination of lateral extents of the permeability units using outcrop observations, core results, and well logs. Pre- and post-injection 3D seismic data were acquired. To aid in interpreting seismic data, we performed numerical simulations of the effects of CO{sub 2} replacement of brine where the reservoir model was based upon correlation lengths established by the permeability studies. These numerical simulations are not intended to replicate field data, but to provide insight of the effects of CO{sub 2}.

  8. The! Community! Earth! System! Model! (CESM)! Large! Ensemble! Project:! A! Community!3! Resource!for!Studying!Climate!Change!in!the!Presence!of!Internal!Climate!Variability!4!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Jennifer

    !1! !2! The! Community! Earth! System! Model! (CESM)! Large! Ensemble! Project:! A! Community!3!Earth!System!Model!(CESM)!community!designed!the!CESM!Large!Ensemble!39! (CESMWLE)!with!the!explicit

  9. Development of a Toolkit for Calculating Linear, Change-Point Linear and Multiple-Linear Inverse Building Energy Analysis Models, ASHRAE Research Project 1050-RP, Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, J. K.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of ASHRAE Research Project 1050: Development of a Toolkit for Calculating Linear, Change-Point Linear and Multiple Linear Inverse Building Energy Analysis Models. The Inverse Modeling ...

  10. EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -LET Risks to Low Doses and Low Dose Rates .................................................. 15 2.1.5 Low ............................................................... 18 3. EPA Risk Projections for Low-LET Radiation ............................... 21 3.1 Introduction in Projections of LAR for Low-LET Radiation .............. 59 4.1 Introduction

  11. A stabilized stochastic finite element second-order projection method for modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    of freedom. Because of the porosity dependence of the pressure gradient term in the governing flow equations-order projection method is presented based on a pressure gradient projection. A two- dimensional stochastic problem occurring in var- ious applications such as fluidized beds, solidification of alloys, geothermal energy

  12. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  13. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  14. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA FOR THE SMALL ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-09-12

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum bounding cesium loading considered possible based on current knowledge regarding CST media and the anticipated feed compositions. Since this cesium loading was considerably higher than the nominal loading conditions in SRS waste, cases with lower loading were also evaluated. Modeling parameters were the same as those used previously unless otherwise indicated. The current model does not capture multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. This feature is conservative in the sense that it does not account for the large cooling effects associated with phase transfer. However, the potential transfer of heat to the plenum region associated with vertical bubble ascension through the column during boiling is also neglected. Thermal modeling calculations were also performed for the entire waste storage tank for the case where loaded and ground CST was transferred to the tank. The modeling domain used for the in-tank calculations is provided in Figure 2. The in-tank domain is based on SRS Tank 41, which is a Type-IIIA tank. Temperature distributions were evaluated for cylindrical, ground CST mounds located on the tank floor. Media grinding is required prior to vitrification processing of the CST in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The location of the heat source region on the tank floor due to the accumulation of CST material was assumed to be just under the grinder. The shape of the CST mound was assumed to be cylindrical. This shape is believed to be most representative of the actual mound shape formed in the tank, given that submersible mixing pumps will be available for media dispersion. Alternative configurations involving other geometrical shapes for the CST mound were evaluated in the previous work. Sensitivity analysis for the in-tank region was performed for different amounts of CST media. As was the case for the in-column model, the in-tank model does not include multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. The in-column and the in-tank evaluations incorporated recently updated maximum cesi

  16. ICRCCM Phase 2: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1992-01-01

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, our team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). The data collected during SPECTRE form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities of our group during the project's Third year to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: SPECTRE Activities, ICRCCM Activities, and summary information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes our initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  17. Downscaling Global Land Cover Projections from an Integrated Assessment Model for Use in Regional Analyses: Results and Evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Huang, Maoyi; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-06-05

    Projections of land cover change generated from Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at subregional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land use at the sub-continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5 degree).

  18. Projected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: a multi-model analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    IPSL), the COSMOS Earth System Model from the Max-PlanckCSM1.4) of the four Earth System models used in this study.productivity MPIM The Earth System Model employed at the

  19. Regional climate effects of irrigation and urbanization in the western united states: a model intercomparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    water, and the urban heat island. ” International Journal ofthe nocturnal urban heat island: Comparison of scale modelexchange, and the urban heat island have been extensively

  20. ClimateCarbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4 Model Intercomparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    . MATTHEWS,g,n T. RADDATZ,o P. RAYNER,a C. REICK,o E. ROECKNER,p K.-G. SCHNITZLER,p R. SCHNUR,p K. STRASSMANN, Canada h University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California i Lawrence Livermore National, Boulder, Colorado n University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada o Max Planck Institute

  1. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBartheExpansionSciTech ConnectDynamicBASIS OFthe

  2. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBartheExpansionSciTech ConnectDynamicBASIS

  3. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBartheExpansionSciTech ConnectDynamicBASISthe ARM

  4. ICRCCM Phase 2: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models. Technical report, 1 November 1991--1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1992-12-31

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, our team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). The data collected during SPECTRE form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities of our group during the project`s Third year to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: SPECTRE Activities, ICRCCM Activities, and summary information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes our initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  5. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias-correcting (BC) Global Climate Model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables(evapotranspiration, ET; runoff; snow water equivalent, SWE; and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were firstly dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolutions with WRF model. Then a quantile mapping based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16th degree resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two series climate data were generated according to the option of bias-correction (i.e. with bias-correction (BC) and without bias-correction, NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological datasets. These im20 pact models include a macro-scale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrologic model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However, significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  6. The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn

    2013-09-30

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

  7. Project Year Project Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    Project Year 2001 Project Team Faculty: Grace Brush, Geography & Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering Fellow: Dan Bain, Geography & Environmental Engineering, Whiting School. Through this project, the team proposes to develop a variety of resources: a set of general, web

  8. Inverse Modeling and Geostatistics Project 17/04/2008DTU Geophysics research group meeting -2010-09-102 DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    Inverse Modeling and Geostatistics Project #12;17/04/2008DTU Geophysics research group meetingModelingandGeostatisticsProject #12;17/04/2008DTU Geophysics research group meeting - 2010-09-103 DTU Informatics, Technical #12;17/04/2008DTU Geophysics research group meeting - 2010-09-105 DTU Informatics, Technical

  9. The H-Cube Project: Hydrodynamics, Heterogeneity and Homogenization in CO2 storage modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    descriptors), and in proposing suitable modeling and statistical workflows for assessing uncertainty analysis geological models typically contain many more cells than can be accommodated by reservoir simulation due studies of static earth reservoir models with different geological contexts [4]. References [1] Mouche E

  10. Modeling, Analysis, Predictions, and Projections Email: oar.cpo.mapp@noaa.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth system models to better simulate the climate system? Can we improve intraseasonal to seasonal mission, MAPP supports the development of advanced Earth system models that can predict climate variations, and the external research community. MAPP Objectives · Improve Earth system models · Achieve an integrated Earth

  11. Final Report. DOE Computational Nanoscience Project DE-FG02-03ER46096: Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, Peter [Vanderbilt University] [Vanderbilt University

    2009-11-15

    The document is the final report of the DOE Computational Nanoscience Project DE-FG02-03ER46096: Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices. It included references to 62 publications that were supported by the grant.

  12. Sacks R. (1998), `Issues in the Development and Implementation of a Building Project Model for an Automated Building System', International Journal of Construction Information Technology, Salford University, Salford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    of an Automated, Computer Integrated Building Realization System is to automatically generate all. Keywords: Building Project Model, Computer Integrated Construction, Automated Building System. INTRODUCTION for an Automated Building System', International Journal of Construction Information Technology, Salford University

  13. Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrderNATIONALofDefineEnergy NationalDepartmentProjectNE

  14. Un-modeled search for black hole binary systems in the NINJA project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Cadonati; Shourov Chatterji; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Riccardo Sturani; Andrea Viceré

    2010-10-24

    The gravitational wave signature from binary black hole coalescences is an important target for LIGO and VIRGO. The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project brought together the numerical relativity and gravitational wave data analysis communities, with the goal to optimize the detectability of these events. In its first instantiation, the NINJA project produced a simulated data set with numerical waveforms from binary black hole coalescences of various morphologies (spin, mass ratio, initial conditions), superimposed to Gaussian colored noise at the design sensitivity for initial LIGO and VIRGO. We analyzed this simulated data set with the Q-pipeline burst algorithm. This code, designed for the all-sky detection of gravitational wave bursts with minimal assumptions on the shape of the waveform, filters the data with a bank of sine-Gaussians, or sinusoids with Gaussian envelope. The algorithm's performance was compared to matched filtering with ring-down templates. The results are qualitatively consistent; however due to the low simulation statistics in the first NINJA project, it is premature to draw quantitative conclusions at this stage.

  15. 1989 neutron and gamma personnel dosimetry intercomparison study using RADCAL (Radiation Calibration Laboratory) sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.; Patterson, G.R. ); Murakami, H. . Dept. of Health Physics); Liu, J.C. )

    1990-10-01

    The fourteenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (i.e., PDIS 14) was conducted during May 1-5, 1989. A total of 48 organizations (33 from the US and 15 from abroad) participated in PDIS 14. Participants submitted by mail a total of 1,302 neutron and gamma dosimeters for this mixed field study. The type of neutron dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD-albedo (40%), direct interaction TLD (22%), track (20%), film (7%), combination (7%), and bubble detectors (4%). The type of gamma dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD (84%) and film (16%). Radiation sources used in the six PDIS 14 exposures included {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm D{sub 2}O, {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm polyethylene (gamma-enhanced with {sup 137}Cs), and {sup 238}PuBe. Neutron dose equivalents ranged from 0.44--2.63 mSv and gamma doses ranged from 0. 01-1.85 mSv. One {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O) exposure was performed at a 60{degree} angle of incidence (most performance tests are at perpendicular incidence). The average neutron dosimeter response for this exposure was 70% of that at normal incidence. The average gamma dosimeter response was 96% of that at normal incidence. A total of 70% of individual reported neutron dosimeter measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. If the 0.01 mSv data are omitted, approximately 90% of the individual reported gamma measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

    2010-10-22

    This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics that were explored in the SST preliminary modeling. The reviews determined the level of detail necessary to perform the analyses of the SSTs. To guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort, preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. Conclusions were derived from case studies on one of the tank types when no additional runs of similar cases on other types of tanks were found necessary to derive those conclusions. The document reviews provided relatively complete temperature histories for Type IV tanks. The temperature history data for Type I, II, and III tanks was almost nonexistent for years prior to 1975. Document reviews indicate that there might be additional useful data in the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) records in Seattle, WA, and these records need to be reviewed to extract data that might have been disregarded during previous reviews. Thermal stress analyses were conducted using different temperature distribution scenarios on Type IV tanks. Such studies could not be carried out for other tank types due to lack of temperature history data. The results from Type IV tank analyses indicate that factors such as temperature distribution in the tank waste and rate of rise in waste temperature have a significant impact on the thermal stresses in the tank structures. Overall, the conclusion that can drawn from the thermal stress analyses is that these studies should be carried out for all tank types during the detailed analysis phase with temperature values that are reasonably close to the typical temperature histories of the respective tank types. If and/or when additional waste temperature data

  17. HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT ENHANCED MISSION PLANNING THROUGH INNOVATIVE TOOLS LIFECYCLE COST MODELING AND AQUEOUS THERMODYNAMIC MODELING - 12134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIERSON KL; MEINERT FL

    2012-01-26

    Two notable modeling efforts within the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) are currently underway to (1) increase the robustness of the underlying chemistry approximations through the development and implementation of an aqueous thermodynamic model, and (2) add enhanced planning capabilities to the HTWOS model through development and incorporation of the lifecycle cost model (LCM). Since even seemingly small changes in apparent waste composition or treatment parameters can result in large changes in quantities of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass, mission duration or lifecycle cost, a solubility model that more accurately depicts the phases and concentrations of constituents in tank waste is required. The LCM enables evaluation of the interactions of proposed changes on lifecycle mission costs, which is critical for decision makers.

  18. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997.

  19. MHK Projects/Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5 < MHK ProjectsHawaii <| OpenThermal Energy

  20. Project Profile: Predictive Physico-Chemical Modeling of Intrinsic Degradation Mechanisms for Advanced Reflector Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NREL, under the Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Program will be developing a physics-based computational degradation model to assess the kinetic oxidation rates; realistic model light attenuation and transport; and multi-layer treatment with variable properties Simulation based experimental design.

  1. Translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask grating mark used in a linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu Zicheng; Wang Xiangzhao; Bi Qunyu; Yuan Qiongyan; Peng Bo; Duan Lifeng

    2009-07-01

    A linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations is studied numerically based on the Hopkins theory of partially-coherent imaging and positive resist optical lithography (PROLITH) simulation. In this linearity model, the correlation between the mark's structure and its sensitivities to aberrations is analyzed. A method to design a mark with high sensitivity is proved and declared. By use of this method, a translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask (Alt-PSM) grating mark is redesigned with all of the even orders, {+-}3rd and {+-}5th order diffraction light missing. In the evaluation simulation, the measurement accuracies of aberrations prove to be enhanced apparently by use of the redesigned mark instead of the old ones.

  2. Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public-private partnership has helped one Air Force base reduce its energy costs and convert to 25 percent renewable energy. Nellis Air Force Base, just north of Las Vegas, took a big step in 2007 when it installed a 14.2-megawatt, 70,000-panel photovoltaic solar array that reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 24,000 tons a year. Built partly on a landfill, the field of solar panels takes advantage of two resources plentiful in Nevada: sunshine and empty land. At its unveiling in December of 2007, the Nellis array was the largest solar panel installation in North America. The project was originally expected to produce about 30,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per year, but Steven Dumont, Air Combat Command Energy Manager, says it’s actually producing closer to 32,000 megawatt-hours, which is about 8 percent above expectations. Despite this success, Dumont said he nearly didn’t pursue the project.

  3. SU-F-18C-15: Model-Based Multiscale Noise Reduction On Low Dose Cone Beam Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, W; Farr, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve image quality of low dose cone beam CT for patient positioning in radiation therapy. Methods: In low dose cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging systems, Poisson process governs the randomness of photon fluence at x-ray source and the detector because of the independent binomial process of photon absorption in medium. On a CBCT projection, the variance of fluence consists of the variance of noiseless imaging structure and that of Poisson noise, which is proportional to the mean (noiseless) of the fluence at the detector. This requires multiscale filters to smoothen noise while keeping the structure information of the imaged object. We used a mathematical model of Poisson process to design multiscale filters and established the balance of noise correction and structure blurring. The algorithm was checked with low dose kilo-voltage CBCT projections acquired from a Varian OBI system. Results: From the investigation of low dose CBCT of a Catphan phantom and patients, it showed that our model-based multiscale technique could efficiently reduce noise and meanwhile keep the fine structure of the imaged object. After the image processing, the number of visible line pairs in Catphan phantom scanned with 4 ms pulse time was similar to that scanned with 32 ms, and soft tissue structure from simulated 4 ms patient head-and-neck images was also comparable with scanned 20 ms ones. Compared with fixed-scale technique, the image quality from multiscale one was improved. Conclusion: Use of projection-specific multiscale filters can reach better balance on noise reduction and structure information loss. The image quality of low dose CBCT can be improved by using multiscale filters.

  4. Notice of Intent to Develop DOE G 415.1-1, Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-03-06

    The proposed guide will support consistent and effective implementation of DOE O 415.1 and will assist IT Program and Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT projects subject to that order.

  5. The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project Phase 1: Pre-stimulation coupled geomechanical modeling to guide stimulation and monitoring plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.; Dobson, P.F.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Garcia, J.; Walters, M.

    2010-10-20

    This paper presents activities and results associated with Phase 1 (pre-stimulation phase) of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The paper presents development of a 3-D geological model, coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) modeling of proposed stimulation injection as well as current plans for stimulation and monitoring of the site. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths of {approx}3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring initiated before the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS and monitoring changes in microseismicity. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11) located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir, in agreement with the conclusions of Nielson and Moore (2000).

  6. Modeling the solar thermal receiver for the CSPonD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees, Jennifer A. (Jennifer Anne)

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to create an accurate steady state thermal model of a molten salt receiver prototype with a horizontal divider plate in the molten salt for Concentrated Solar Power on Demand (CSPonD). The purpose of the ...

  7. A reduced-form statistical climate model suitable for coupling with economic emissions projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we use models based on past data and scientific analysis to determine possible future states of the environment. We attempt to improve the equations for temperature and greenhouse gas concentration used in ...

  8. Project Profile: Physics-Based Reliability Models for Supercritical-CO2 Turbomachinery Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GE, under the Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Program will be leveraging internally developed models to predict the reliability of hybrid gas bearing (HGB) and dry gas seal (DGS) components in the turboexpander of a supercritical CO2 turbine. The Bayesian model is to include phase changes, low cycle fatigue/high cycle fatigue, dynamic instabilities, and corrosion processes.

  9. The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project Phase 1: Pre-stimulation coupled geomechanical modeling to guide stimulation and monitoring plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2012-01-01

    THE NORTHWEST GEYSERS EGS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT PHASE 1:Middletown, California Key words – EGS, Geysers, Injection,an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at

  10. Retrieval of Optical And Size Parameters of Aerosols Utilizing a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and MICROTOPS Sun Photometer Antonio Aguirre Radiometer (MFRSR) and comparing with data from a CIMEL Sun Photometer and a MICROTOPS Sun Photometer. Using the inverse cosine of the angle between the sun and the vertical. A Langley plot provides a linear regression

  11. Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate water availability concerns for thermal power plant cooling, which is responsible for 41% of U.S. water withdrawals. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) data are applied to surface water rights available to new generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water rights. The mean climate projection has only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water rights to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states that purchase fewer water rights and obtain a greater share from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  12. Development of custom fire behavior fuel models from FCCS fuelbeds for the Savannah River fuel assessment project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Joe, H.

    2009-07-23

    The purpose of this project is to create fire behavior fuel models that replicate the fire behavior characteristics (spread rate and fireline intensity) produced by 23 candidate FCCS fuelbeds developed for the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge. These 23 fuelbeds were created by FERA staff in consultation with local fuel managers. The FCCS produces simulations of surface fire spread rate and flame length (and therefore fireline intensity) for each of these fuelbeds, but it does not produce maps of those fire behavior characteristics or simulate fire growth—those tasks currently require the use of the FARSITE and/or FlamMap software systems. FARSITE and FlamMap do not directly use FCCS fuelbeds, but instead use standard or custom fire behavior fuel models to describe surface fuel characteristics for fire modeling. Therefore, replicating fire growth and fire behavior potential calculations using FCCS?simulated fire characteristics requires the development of custom fuel models that mimic, as closely as possible, the fire behavior characteristics produced by the FCCS for each fuelbed, over a range of fuel moisture and wind speeds.

  13. Equilibrium Response and Transient Dynamics Datasets from VEMAP: Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.

  14. A multiperiod optimization model to schedule large-scale petroleum development projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husni, Mohammed Hamza

    2009-05-15

    are to be selected subject to a number of resources constraints in several periods. The constraints may occur from limitations in various resources such as capital budgets, operating budgets, and drilling rigs. The model also accounts for a number of assumptions...

  15. CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING SWERA PROJECT IN BRAZIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    between two different core radiation transfer models that will be applied during the SWERA (Solar and Wind ­ 048°31'42"W / 10m) 2. BASIC DESCRIPTION OF SOLAR RADIATION SITES The two sites were chosen because they provide high quality radiation data and represent different climatic/environmental regions and different

  16. The Indigenous Health Outcomes Patient Evaluation (IHOPE) project uses advanced statistical modelling techniques, and "real-world" whole-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    The Indigenous Health Outcomes Patient Evaluation (IHOPE) project uses advanced statistical students have worked on the project to date, with three of these now having been awarded their degrees. The IHOPE project is funded by a Project Grant from the National Health and Medical Research Council

  17. Comparing the performance of a set of global chemistry-transport models for the West African region highlights the diverse behavior exhibited for convective uplift, advective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frédéric

    radiation in the tropics results in a highly active chemical regime, which determines the atmospheric multimodel interComparison projeCt by Jason Edward williams, rinus schEElE, PEtEr van vElthovEn, idir bouarar

  18. Cloudnet Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hogan, Robin

    2008-01-15

    Cloudnet is a research project supported by the European Commission. This project aims to use data obtained quasi-continuously for the development and implementation of cloud remote sensing synergy algorithms. The use of active instruments (lidar and radar) results in detailed vertical profiles of important cloud parameters which cannot be derived from current satellite sensing techniques. A network of three already existing cloud remote sensing stations (CRS-stations) will be operated for a two year period, activities will be co-ordinated, data formats harmonised and analysis of the data performed to evaluate the representation of clouds in four major european weather forecast models.

  19. Cloudnet Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hogan, Robin

    Cloudnet is a research project supported by the European Commission. This project aims to use data obtained quasi-continuously for the development and implementation of cloud remote sensing synergy algorithms. The use of active instruments (lidar and radar) results in detailed vertical profiles of important cloud parameters which cannot be derived from current satellite sensing techniques. A network of three already existing cloud remote sensing stations (CRS-stations) will be operated for a two year period, activities will be co-ordinated, data formats harmonised and analysis of the data performed to evaluate the representation of clouds in four major european weather forecast models.

  20. Modeling vertical and horizontal solute transport for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.

    1992-11-01

    This technical memorandum presents a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of a contaminant that originates as a liquid release, moves vertically downward through a vadose zone, mixes with initially clean groundwater in an unconfined aquifer, and ends at a downgradient extraction well. Vertical and horizontal segments of the contaminant pathway are coupled by assuming that the breakthrough curve of the contaminant at the water table acts as a contaminant source for the unconfined aquifer. For simplicity, this source is assumed to be a time-shifted unit square wave having an amplitude equal to the peak breakthrough concentration at the water table and a duration equal to the full width of the breakthrough curve at the half-maximum concentration value. The effects of dilution at the water-table interface are evaluated with a simple mass-balance equation. Comparing the model results for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site near St. Louis, Missouri, and the Envirocare facility located near Salt Lake City, Utah, with those obtained from a solution formulated with the real and imaginary parts of a Fourier series in Laplace space indicates that the model provides a conservative estimate of the contaminant breakthrough curve at the receptor.

  1. Conditional stochastic modeling of transport of contaminant in the vadose zone. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, T.C.J.; Harter, T.

    1995-06-01

    Spatial heterogeneity media leads to uncertainty in predicting both flow and transport in the vadose zone. In this work an efficient and flexible, combined analytical-numerical Monte Carlo approach is developed for the analysis of steady-state flow and transient transport processes in highly heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media. The approach is also used for the investigation of the validity of linear, first order analytical stochastic models. A combined analytical-numerical conditional simulation algorithm is developed to estimate the impact of in-situ soil hydraulic measurements on reducing the uncertainty of concentration and solute flux predictions.

  2. Physics Case for the ILC Project: Perspective from Beyond the Standard Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Baer; Mikael Berggren; Jenny List; Mihoko M. Nojiri; Maxim Perelstein; Aaron Pierce; Werner Porod; Tomohiko Tanabe

    2013-07-19

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has recently proven its technical maturity with the publication of a Technical Design Report, and there is a strong interest in Japan to host such a machine. We summarize key aspects of the Beyond the Standard Model physics case for the ILC in this contribution to the US High Energy Physics strategy process. On top of the strong guaranteed physics case in the detailed exploration of the recently discovered Higgs boson, the top quark and electroweak precision measurements, the ILC will offer unique opportunities which are complementary to the LHC program of the next decade. Many of these opportunities have connections to the Cosmic and Intensity Frontiers, which we comment on in detail. We illustrate the general picture with examples of how our world could turn out to be and what the ILC would contribute in these cases, with an emphasis on value-added beyond the LHC. These comprise examples from Supersymmetry including light Higgsinos, a comprehensive bottom-up coverage of NLSP-LSP combinations for slepton, squark, chargino and neutralino NLSP, a stau-coannihilation dark matter scenario and bilinear R-parity violation as explanation for neutrino masses and mixing, as well as generic WIMP searches and Little Higgs models as non-SUSY examples.

  3. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed (a primary heat transfer mechanism), inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The calculation results showed that for a wet CST column with active cooling through one central and four outer tubes and 35 C ambient external air, the peak temperature for the fully-loaded column is about 63 C under the loss of fluid flow accident, which is well below the supernate boiling point. The peak temperature for the naturally-cooled (no active, engineered cooling) wet column is 156 C under fully-loaded conditions, exceeding the 130 C boiling point. Under these conditions, supernate boiling would maintain the column temperature near 130 C until all supernate was vaporized. Without active engineered cooling and assuming a dry column suspended in unventilated air at 35 C, the fully-loaded column is expected to rise to a maximum of about 258 C due to the combined loss-of coolant and column drainage accidents. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. Results for the in-tank modeling calculations clearly indicate that when realistic heat transfer boundary conditions are imposed on the bottom surface of the tank wall, as much as 450 gallons of ground CST (a volume equivalent to two ion exchange processing cycles) in an ideal hemispherical shape (the most conservative geometry) can be placed in the tank without exceeding the 100 C wall temperature limit. Furthermore, in the case of an evenly-distributed flat layer, the tank wall reaches the temperature limit after the ground CST material reaches a height of approximately 8 inches.

  4. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganicmore »carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.« less

  5. A simple object-oriented and open source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system–Hector v1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model’s terrestrial carbon cycle includes respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector’s actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways with high correlations (R >0.7) with current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector is freely available under an open source license, and its modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  6. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Terry

    2014-12-02

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y?¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.

  7. Model Solar Guidelines: A Resource for North Carolina Homeowners Associations to Facilitate Solar Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As North Carolina's residential solar market grows, more homeowners associations are facing uncertainties about how to deal with solar installations in their communities. As part of an effort between the State Energy Program, NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and members of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Solar Outreach Partnership (The Solar Foundation and the NC Clean Energy Technology Center), two new resources have been developed to help North Carolina homeowners associations (HOAs) and their architectural review committees work through these issues. The first is a short brochure detailing the benefits of solar energy, with particular emphasis on benefits to HOAs and homeowners, as well as the role that HOAs can play in facilities solar installations in their communities. The second is Model HOA solar design guidelines, developed specifically for North Carolina communities, which allow for solar installations to occur in a way that balances a homeowner's ability to install a solar energy system and legitimate community concerns about these systems.

  8. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  9. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  10. LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.; Moss, Richard H.; Kim, Son H.

    2014-01-19

    In this paper, we assess future water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors, by incorporating water demands into a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change – the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Base-year water demands—both gross withdrawals and net consumptive use—are assigned to specific modeled activities in a way that maximizes consistency between bottom-up estimates of water demand intensities of specific technologies and practices, and top-down regional and sectoral estimates of water use. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. We assess future water demands representing six socioeconomic scenarios, with no constraints imposed by future water supplies. The scenarios observe increases in global water withdrawals from 3,578 km3 year-1 in 2005 to 5,987 – 8,374 km3 year-1 in 2050, and to 4,719 – 12,290 km3 year-1 in 2095. Comparing the projected total regional water withdrawals to the historical supply of renewable freshwater, the Middle East exhibits the highest levels of water scarcity throughout the century, followed by India; water scarcity increases over time in both of these regions. In contrast, water scarcity improves in some regions with large base-year electric sector withdrawals, such as the USA and Canada, due to capital stock turnover and the almost complete phase-out of once-through flow cooling systems. The scenarios indicate that: 1) water is likely a limiting factor in climate change mitigation policies, 2) many regions can be expected to increase reliance on non-renewable groundwater, water reuse, and desalinated water, but they also highlight an important role for development and deployment of water conservation technologies and practices.

  11. 14th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes 2-6 October 2011, Kos, Greece THE "VOTRE AIR" PROJECT : DEVELOPMENT OF A MODELLING TOOL TO ASSESS THE REAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    resolution modelling tools like Urban'Air well reproduce the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants OF THE SYSTEM The "Votre Air" project has been designed to monitor the atmospheric pollution over Paris center of pollutants concentrations computed by the air dispersion model are immediately corrected by the assimilation

  12. Final Technical Report for Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models, DE-FG02-07ER64429

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyth, Padhraic

    2013-07-22

    This is the final report for a DOE-funded research project describing the outcome of research on non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. The main results consist of extensive development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to downscaling of rainfall projections over India; identification and analysis of decadal climate signals in data and models; and, studies of climate variability in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric flow regimes.

  13. Inverse Modeling and Geostatistics Project 17/04/2008DTU Geophysics research group meeting -2010-05-052 DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    Inverse Modeling and Geostatistics Project #12;17/04/2008DTU Geophysics research group meeting Geophysics research group meeting - 2010-05-053 DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark Bayesian PROBLEM? #12;17/04/2008DTU Geophysics research group meeting - 2010-05-054 DTU Informatics, Technical

  14. Final Report of project entitled "A metabolomics and mouse models approach to study inflammatory and immune responses to radiation"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornace, Albert J.; Li, Henghong

    2013-12-02

    The three-year project entitled ?A Metabolomics and Mouse Models Approach to Study Inflammatory and Immune Responses to Radiation? was initiated in September 2009. The overall objectives of this project were to investigate the acute and persistent effects of low dose radiation on T cell lymphocyte function and physiology, as well the contributions of these cells to radiation-induced inflammatory responses. Inflammation after ionizing radiation (IR), even at low doses, may impact a variety of disease processes, including infectious disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other potentially inflammatory disorders. There were three overall specific aims: 1. To investigate acute and persistent effects of low dose radiation on T cell subsets and function; 2. A genetic approach with mouse models to investigate p38 MAPK pathways that are involved in radiation-induced inflammatory signaling; 3. To investigate the effect of radiation quality on the inflammatory response. We have completed the work proposed in these aims. Below are our major accomplishments: ? Our data show that T cells from low dose irradiated animals have lower proliferation potency and cytokine production upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. This effect was observed as early as 4 hours after radiation, and lasted up to two weeks. ? Using our ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with highly sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF) metabolomics method, we demonstrated the global changes of metabolites in T cells upon TCR stimulation in a time-dependent pattern. ? We found that the TCR activation induced metabolome changes are remarkably altered in a dose-dependent manner after radiation. At a dose of 0.5 Gy and above, IR mitigated TCR activation induced metabolome changes while at the dose of as low as 0.1Gy IR had a mild stimulatory effect on some of the metabolome changes. ? We revealed the mechanism for how radiation affects T cell activation by showing that the energy supply pathways in activated T cells are greatly compromised after radiation. ? We demonstrated that low dose ionizing radiation has a variety of effects on different T cell subsets, and p38 plays an important role in these effects. ? The study with low dose proton radiation shows similar effects on T cell proliferation upon TCR activation. Our dose rate study with proton radiation indicates that at low dose rates, proton exposure has less detrimental effects on T cell activation. ? We have one published paper and several manuscripts submitted or in preparation. ? We presented our findings at multiple DOE low dose program workshops, RRS annual meetings and other conferences. Our project is the first to apply a cutting-edge metabolomics approach to study the effects of radiation on immune cell function. Our findings demonstrate that metabolomics is a powerful method, which not only has higher sensitivity than the classical immune cell biology endpoints, but also helps to reveal the underlying mechanisms providing evidence that T cell activation is a metabolically dynamic process. Our T cell subset study sheds light on the effects of radiation on different T cell subsets and relevant signaling pathways mediating these effects. We have proved that our metabolomics platform and the T cell subset differentiation methods are useful and informative approaches for investigation and assessment of immune cell function after radiation. Our mechanistic findings on metabolic pathways may help to identify potential targets for intervention.

  15. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1°. The model, currently running on the ‘‘Tianhe 1A’’ supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonalmore »and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10?? mm d?¹. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.« less

  16. Ice-sheet model sensitivities to environmental forcing and their use in projecting future sea level (the SeaRISE project)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) that supplies gridded dataor a linear relation (2) None CISM 2.0 Linear viscous (usingmodels (ISSM, AIF and CISM-2) initialize to the present

  17. INTEGRATING PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS AS WEB SERVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    INTEGRATING PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS AS WEB SERVICES Jinxing Cheng1 , Kincho H. Law2 of distributed software applications as Web services. Specifically, information modeling for project management applications as Web services. Specifically, information modeling for project management applications

  18. Dispersion Modeling Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    via curves - Pasquill curves (which are prairie grass 3 cm based) + Time Dependent Wind Speed, x & Stability Class as a function of (y, z) Input MACCs Output Wind data...

  19. ICRCCM phase II: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models. Final report, 1 May 1990--30 April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1993-12-31

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, the team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). SPECTRE was to establish an absolute standard against which to compare models, and aimed to remove the hidden variables (unknown humidities, aerosols, etc.) which radiation modelers had invoked to excuse disagreements with observation. The data collected during SPECTRE were to form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities during the project`s Third year to meet stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: (1) SPECTRE Activities, (2) ICRCCM Activities, and (3) Summary Information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes their initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  20. New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-06-05

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

  1. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  2. Evaluating the ability of process based models to project sea-level change This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    Evaluating the ability of process based models to project sea-level change This article has been) 014051 (8pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014051 Evaluating the ability of process based models to project for publication 13 March 2013 Published 27 March 2013 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/014051 Abstract We evaluate

  3. "Stable Water Isotope Intercomparison Group" Summary Report from the 1st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    of a consortium of international well-known scientists with expertise on both stable water isotope modelling the linkage between the stable water isotope modelling community and the International Atomic Energy Agency quantity within a closed "model world" where all other relevant climate parameters are known, too

  4. Project Year Project Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    & Sciences Project Title Visualize Physical Principles with Virtual Lab Modules Audience Undergraduate provide easy access to digital information, but don't provide experience with right- hand screws, electric of the last generation of physics students. The result is that today's students don't have an intuitive

  5. Project Year Project Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    . Pedagogical Issue One of the challenges in teaching the Introduction to Computer Music course is the lack flow and practices. These resources will provide an online space through which students will be able piece of this project will be an animated studio walkthrough requiring user interaction and providing

  6. Modeling uncertainty in the New York City no. 7 subway line extension project using Decision Aids for Tunnelling (DAT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Vinnie

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent cost overruns and schedule delays associated with underground construction projects, it is imperative that a detailed estimate of both be developed and considered prior to starting construction. The ...

  7. Resurrection of the Bombay trans-harbour link project by using Wheaton's monocentric models of urban land use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhave, Shubhada

    1987-01-01

    BOMBAY TRANS-HARBOUR LINK PROJECT: A possible solution to Bombay's seemingly unsurmountable social problems. The primary idea behind this thesis is to present a new technique for the appraisal of large scale urban ...

  8. Evaluation and Intercomparison of Cloud Fraction and Radiative Fluxes in Recent1 Reanalyses over the Arctic using BSRN Surface Observations2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    , forcing data for numerous user models,48 examining forecast skill, estimation of renewable energy), (iii) NOAA's Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project (20CR), (iv)27 ECMWF's Reanalysis Interim (ERA for a variety of applications including as a source for the47 development and verification of climate models

  9. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

    2012-04-01

    Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  10. Minimal subspace rotation on the Stiefel manifold for stabilization and enhancement of projection-based reduced order models for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balajewicz, Maciej; Dowell, Earl

    2015-01-01

    For a projection-based reduced order model (ROM) to be stable and accurate, the dynamics of the truncated subspace must be taken into account. This paper proposes an approach for stabilizing and enhancing projection-based fluid ROMs in which truncated modes are accounted for \\textit{a priori} via a minimal rotation of the projection subspace. Attention is focused on the full non-linear compressible Navier-Stokes equations in specific volume form as a step toward a more general formulation for problems with generic non-linearities. Unlike traditional approaches, no empirical turbulence modeling terms are required, and consistency between the ROM and the full order model from which the ROM is derived is maintained. Mathematically, the approach is formulated as a quadratic matrix program on the Stiefel manifold. The reproductive as well as predictive capabilities of the method are evaluated on several compressible flow problems, including a problem involving laminar flow over an airfoil with a high angle of atta...

  11. The human genome project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, T.D.; Zewert, T.E.; Hood, L.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a coordinated worldwide effort to precisely map the human genome and the genomes of selected model organisms. The first explicit proposal for this project dates from 1985 although its foundations (both conceptual and technological) can be traced back many years in genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The HGP has matured rapidly and is producing results of great significance.

  12. Project Controls

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Project controls are systems used to plan, schedule, budget, and measure the performance of a project/program. The cost estimation package is one of the documents that is used to establish the baseline for project controls. This chapter gives a brief description of project controls and the role the cost estimation package plays.

  13. Assessment of the effectiveness of the advanced programmatic risk analysis and management model (apram) as a decision support tool for construction projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imbeah, William Kweku Ansah

    2007-09-17

    Construction projects are complicated and fraught with so many risks that many projects are unable to meet pre-defined project objectives. Managers of construction projects require decision support tools that can be used ...

  14. Advanced Numerical Methods for Complex Environmental Models: Needs and Availability, 2013, 301-326 301 Istvn Farag, gnes Havasi and Zahari Zlatev (Eds.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimov, Ivan

    investigations related to air pollution in Bulgaria ([6, 7]), Denmark ([8-11]), England ([12]), Europe ([2, 4 been used in some inter-comparisons of European large-scale air pollution models ([20, 21]). Recently Publishers CHAPTER 4 Part C: Sensitivity of European Pollution Levels to Changes of Human-Made Emissions

  15. Project financial evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  16. Projection Augmented Physical Visualizations Simon Stusak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), fabrication (e.g. 3D printer, laser cutter), size and space for the projection should be taken into account is well-suited for projection augmentation. Based on web technologies 3D models for the projection and 2D

  17. SimHydro 2012: Hydraulic modeling and uncertainty, 12-14 September 2012, Sophia Antipolis N. Jean-Baptiste, C. Dore, P-O. Malaterre, J. Sau -Data assimilation for hydraulic state estimation of a development project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SimHydro 2012: Hydraulic modeling and uncertainty, 12-14 September 2012, Sophia Antipolis ­ N. Jean-Baptiste, C. Dorée, P-O. Malaterre, J. Sau - Data assimilation for hydraulic state estimation of a development project Data assimilation for hydraulic state estimation of a development project Assimilation de données

  18. Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-02-26

    Brochure on the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for calculating the economic impacts of wind development.

  19. Using CORE Model-Based Systems Engineering Software to Support Program Management in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.; Simpkins, P.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes how a model-based systems engineering software, CORE, is helping the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Biomass Program assist with bringing biomass-derived biofuels to the market. This software tool provides information to guide informed decision-making as biomass-to-biofuels systems are advanced from concept to commercial adoption. It facilitates management and communication of program status by automatically generating custom reports, Gantt charts, and tables using the widely available programs of Microsoft Word, Project and Excel.

  20. Guest Project: Personal Information Title of the Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ! ! Guest Project: Personal Information ! ! Title of the Project: ! ! Project Coordinator: ! Name? ! 1. 2. 3... #12;! Rules and Acceptance: ! The primary purpose of the ICTP SciFabLab is to support, models, and codes developed within the ICTP Scientific FabLab as open source / open hardware

  1. Final report on LDRD project: A phenomenological model for multicomponent transport with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHEN,KEN S.; EVANS,GREGORY H.; LARSON,RICHARD S.; NOBLE,DAVID R.; HOUF,WILLIAM G.

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological model was developed for multicomponent transport of charged species with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions, and was applied to model processes in a thermal battery cell. A new general framework was formulated and implemented in GOMA (a multidimensional, multiphysics, finite-element computer code developed and being enhanced at Sandia) for modeling multidimensional, multicomponent transport of neutral and charged species in concentrated solutions. The new framework utilizes the Stefan-Maxwell equations that describe multicomponent diffusion of interacting species using composition-insensitive binary diffusion coefficients. The new GOMA capability for modeling multicomponent transport of neutral species was verified and validated using the model problem of ternary gaseous diffusion in a Stefan tube. The new GOMA-based thermal battery computer model was verified using an idealized battery cell in which concentration gradients are absent; the full model was verified by comparing with that of Bernardi and Newman (1987) and validated using limited thermal battery discharge-performance data from the open literature (Dunning 1981) and from Sandia (Guidotti 1996). Moreover, a new Liquid Chemkin Software Package was developed, which allows the user to handle manly aspects of liquid-phase kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport (particularly in terms of computing properties). Lastly, a Lattice-Boltzmann-based capability was developed for modeling pore- or micro-scale phenomena involving convection, diffusion, and simplified chemistry; this capability was demonstrated by modeling phenomena in the cathode region of a thermal battery cell.

  2. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, C.; Liou, K.-N.; Takano, Y.; Zhang, R.; Zamora, M. L.; Yang, P.; Li, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-07-20

    A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by soluble material, and BC particles undergoing further hygroscopic growth. The geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach is employed to compute the BC single-scattering properties at each aging stage, which are subsequently compared with laboratory measurements. Theoretical calculations are consistent with measurements in extinction and absorption cross sections for fresh BC aggregates, but overestimate the scattering cross sections for BC mobility diameters of 155, 245, and 320 nm, because of uncertainties associated with theoretical calculations for small particles as wellmore »as laboratory scattering measurements. The measured optical cross sections for coated BC by sulfuric acid and for those undergoing further hygroscopic growth are captured by theoretical calculations using a concentric core-shell structure, with differences of less than 20 %. This suggests that the core-shell shape represents the realistic BC coating morphology reasonably well in this case, which is consistent with the observed strong structure compaction during aging. We find that the absorption and scattering properties of fresh BC aggregates vary by up to 60 % due to uncertainty in the BC refractive index, which, however, is a factor of two smaller in the case of coated BC particles. Sensitivity analyses on the BC morphology show that the optical properties of fresh BC aggregates are more sensitive to fractal dimension than primary spherule size. The absorption and scattering cross sections of coated BC particles vary by more than a factor of two due to different coating structures. We find an increase of 20–250 % in absorption and a factor of 3–15 in scattering during aging, significantly depending on coating morphology and aging stages. Applying the aging model to CalNex 2010 field measurements, we show that the resulting BC direct radiative forcing (DRF) first increases from 1.5 to 1.7 W m-2 and subsequently decreases to 1.0 W m-2 during the transport from the Los Angeles Basin to downwind regions, as a result of the competition between absorption enhancement due to coating and dilution of BC concentration. The BC DRF can vary by up to a factor of two due to differences in BC coating morphology. Thus, an accurate estimate of BC DRF requires the incorporation of a dynamic BC aging process that accounts for realistic morphology in climate models, particularly for the regional analysis with high atmospheric heterogeneity.« less

  3. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, C.; Liou, K.-N.; Takano, Y.; Zhang, R.; Levy Zamora, M.; Yang, P.; Li, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-10-28

    A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, BC coated by soluble material, and BC particles undergoing further hygroscopic growth. The geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach is employed to compute the BC single-scattering properties at each aging stage, which are subsequently compared with laboratory measurements. Theoretical calculations are consistent with measurements in extinction and absorption cross sections for fresh BC aggregates with different BC sizes (i.e., mobility diameters of 155, 245, and 320 nm), with differences of ? 25 %. The measured optical cross sections for BC coated bymore »sulfuric acid and for that undergoing further hygroscopic growth are generally captured (differences i) and lower (1.75–0.63i) bounds of BC refractive index, while the variations are « less

  4. PoPe (Projection on Proper elements) for code control: verification, numerical convergence and reduced models. Application to plasma turbulence simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartier-Michaud, T; Sarazin, Y; Abiteboul, J; Bufferand, H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Garbet, X; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G; Norscini, C; Passeron, C; Tamain, P

    2015-01-01

    The Projection on Proper elements (PoPe) is a novel method of code control dedicated to 1) checking the correct implementation of models, 2) determining the convergence of numerical methods and 3) characterizing the residual errors of any given solution at very low cost. The basic idea is to establish a bijection between a simulation and a set of equations that generate it. Recovering equations is direct and relies on a statistical measure of the weight of the various operators. This method can be used in any dimensions and any regime, including chaotic ones. This method also provides a procedure to design reduced models and quantify the ratio costs to benefits. PoPe is applied to a kinetic and a fluid code of plasma turbulence.

  5. PCC 587 Project 2: Write-up due December 3, 2009 Climate Model Simulations of Real and Imaginary Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frierson, Dargan

    of precipitation, the surface winds, temperatures, etc. One of the big advantages of numerical models. Aquaplanet AM2: A. Control run (uses equinox solar radiation profile, has no seasonal cycle but it has

  6. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  7. ARM Observations Projected onto CCSM Results Projected onto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    ARM Observations Projected onto ARM States CCSM Results Projected onto ARM States 1Oak Ridge to Comparing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data with Global Climate Model (GCM) Results Atmospheric state contained only in model results Atmospheric states contained only in ARM observations ARM

  8. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  9. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  10. project management

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Project Management and Systems Support http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsapmprojectmanagementandsystemssupport

  11. Project Complete

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has published its Record of Decision announcing and explaining DOE’s chosen project alternative and describing any commitments for mitigating potential environmental impacts. The NEPA process...

  12. Project Construction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrating renewable energy into Federal new construction or major renovations requires effective structuring of the construction team and project schedule. This overview discusses key construction team considerations for renewable energy as well as timing and expectations for the construction phase. The project construction phase begins after a project is completely designed and the construction documents (100%) have been issued. Construction team skills and experience with renewable energy technologies are crucial during construction, as is how the integration of renewable energy affects the project construction schedule.

  13. Research Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    projects that involve UCSD faculty members and graduate students from the structural engineering (SE), mechanical and aerospace engineering (MAE), electrical and computer...

  14. Diagnosing Northern Hemisphere Jet Portrayal in 17 CMIP3 Global Climate Models: Twenty-First-Century Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    an intensified midlatitude jet stream and an elevated tropopause, as well as a poleward-shifted jet. While both to impact modeled Northern Hemisphere jet stream changes. In particular, El Nin~o­Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere zonal wind response to climate change. 1. Background Understanding how jet streams

  15. RESEARCH PROJECTS February 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    RESEARCH PROJECTS FP7 February 13 #12; FP7 COOPERATION #12; INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROJECTS FP7 COOPERATION ENERGY PROJECT ACRONYM: EFONET PROJECT TITLE: Energy foresight network PROJECT

  16. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

    2014-01-01

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

  17. Final Report for the portion performed in the University of Illinois on the project entitled "Optimizing the Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Ensemble Modeling System to Improve Future Climate Change Projections at Regional to Local Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Xin-Zhong

    2011-01-31

    This is the final report for the closure of the research tasks on the project that have performed during the entire reporting period in the University of Illinois. It contains a summary of the achievements and details of key results as well as the future plan for this project to be continued in the University of Maryland.

  18. Basement Fill Model Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Concentrations for Initial Suite of Radionuclides. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Terry

    2014-12-10

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y?¹ as specified in 10 CFR 20 Subpart E. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on radionuclide concentrations in the fill material and the water in the interstitial spaces of the fill. (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use by ZSRP in selecting ROCs for detailed dose assessment calculations.

  19. The Python Development Project 5.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David N.

    Chapter 5 The Python Development Project 5.1 Introduction This chapter describes the calibration of the Product Development Project Model to a specific development project and its use to investigate a project management policy. The project will be referred to as the Python development project and International Chip

  20. Structure finance for hybrid infrastructure models : the application of project finance into public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patramanis, Theodoros

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the application of project finance as the most efficient financing method for the construction and operation of infrastructure projects such as motorways, airports, power plants, pipelines, wastewater/sewage ...

  1. Development of models and online diagnostic monitors of the high-temperature corrosion of refractories in oxy/fuel glass furnaces : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Gupta, Amul; Walsh, Peter M.; Rice, Steven F.; Velez, Mariano; Allendorf, Mark D.; Pecoraro, George A.; Nilson, Robert H.; Wolfe, H. Edward; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Bugeat, Benjamin American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Spear, Karl E.; Marin, Ovidiu American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Ghani, M. Usman

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-year effort to understand the mechanisms and develop models that predict the corrosion of refractories in oxygen-fuel glass-melting furnaces. Thermodynamic data for the Si-O-(Na or K) and Al-O-(Na or K) systems are reported, allowing equilibrium calculations to be performed to evaluate corrosion of silica- and alumina-based refractories under typical furnace operating conditions. A detailed analysis of processes contributing to corrosion is also presented. Using this analysis, a model of the corrosion process was developed and used to predict corrosion rates in an actual industrial glass furnace. The rate-limiting process is most likely the transport of NaOH(gas) through the mass-transport boundary layer from the furnace atmosphere to the crown surface. Corrosion rates predicted on this basis are in better agreement with observation than those produced by any other mechanism, although the absolute values are highly sensitive to the crown temperature and the NaOH(gas) concentration at equilibrium and at the edge of the boundary layer. Finally, the project explored the development of excimer laser induced fragmentation (ELIF) fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of gas-phase alkali hydroxides (e.g., NaOH) that are predicted to be the key species causing accelerated corrosion in these furnaces. The development of ELIF and the construction of field-portable instrumentation for glass furnace applications are reported and the method is shown to be effective in industrial settings.

  2. A comparison of general circulation model predictions to sand drift and dune orientations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, D.G.; Greeley, R.

    1996-12-01

    The growing concern over climate change and decertification stresses the importance of aeolian process prediction. In this paper the use of a general circulation model to predict current aeolian features is examined. A GCM developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was used in conjunction with White`s aeolian sand flux model to produce a global potential aeolian transport map. Surface wind shear stress predictions were used from the output of a GCM simulation that was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project on 1979 climate conditions. The spatial resolution of this study (as driven by the GCM) is 4{degrees} X 5{degrees}; instantaneous 6-hourly wind stress data were saved by the GCM and used in this report. A global map showing potential sand transport was compared to drift potential directions as inferred from Landsat images from the 1980s for several sand seas and a coastal dune field. Generally, results show a good correlation between the simulated sand drift direction and the drift direction inferred for dune forms. Discrepancies between the drift potential and the drift inferred from images were found in the North American deserts and the Arabian peninsula. An attempt to predict the type of dune that would be formed in specific regions was not successful. The model could probably be further improved by incorporating soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation information for a better assessment of sand threshold conditions. The correlation may permit use of a GCM to analyze {open_quotes}fossil{close_quotes} dunes or to forecast aeolian processes. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Project Dynamics and Emergent Complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    The present paper presents theoretical and empirical analyses of project dynamics and emergent complexity in new product development (NPD) projects. A model-driven approach was taken and a vector autoregression (VAR) model of cooperative task processing was formulated. The model is explained and validated based on an empirical study carried out in a industrial company. Furthermore, concepts and measures of complex systems science were reviewed and applied to project management. To evaluate emergent complexity in NPD projects, an information-theory quantity -termed "effective measure complexity" (EMC)- was selected, because it can be derived from first principles and therefore has high construct validity. Furthermore, EMC can be calculated efficiently from generative models of task processing or purely from historical data, without intervening models. EMC measures the mutual information between the infinite past and future histories of a stochastic process. According to this principle, it is particularly inter...

  4. Most Comprehensive Projections for West Antarctica's Future Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Most Comprehensive Projections for West Antarctica's Future Revealed Ice Sheet Model Reveals Most Comprehensive Projections for West Antarctica's Future BISICLES Simulations Run at...

  5. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity versus turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-09-07

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into four categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), of both the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for five models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. For dead carbon pools, themore »situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This response arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully coupled, biogeochemically coupled, and radiatively coupled 1 % yr?1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, initial productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter-model spread in carbon changes arising from initial conditions is dominated by model disagreement on turnover times, whereas inter-model spread in carbon changes from fractional changes to these terms is dominated by model disagreement on changes to productivity in response to both warming and CO2 fertilization. However, the lack of changing turnover time control on carbon responses, for both live and dead carbon pools, in response to the imposed forcings may arise from a common lack of process representation behind changing turnover times (e.g., allocation and mortality for live carbon; permafrost, microbial dynamics, and mineral stabilization for dead carbon), rather than a true estimate of the importance of these processes.« less

  6. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity vs. turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-04-16

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into 4 categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), and apply the analysis separately to the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for 5 models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. Formore »dead carbon pools, the situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This responses arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully-coupled, biogeochemically-coupled, and radiatively-coupled 1% yr?1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally-integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, inital productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter-model spread in carbon changes arising from initial conditions is dominated by model disagreement on turnover times, whereas inter-model spread in carbon changes from fractional changes to these terms is dominated by model disagreement on changes to productivity in response to both warming and CO2 fertilization. However, the lack of changing turnover time control on carbon responses, for both live and dead carbon pools, in response to the imposed forcings may indicate a common lack of process representation behind changing turnover times (e.g., allocation and mortality for live carbon; permafrost, microbial dynamics, and mineral stabilization for dead carbon), rather than a true estimate of the uncertainty in these processes.« less

  7. PROJECT MANGEMENT PLAN EXAMPLES

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    accelerates the project schedule and significantly reduces the project total life cycle cost. Current Baseline (FY99 MYWP) Revised Project Baseline Project Scope: ...

  8. Project Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference) | SciTechProjectITER Project

  9. Project Tour

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)Project Tour Project Tour See NMSSUP from

  10. Evaluation and Intercomparison of Cloud Fraction and Radiative Fluxes in Recent Reanalyses over the Arctic Using BSRN Surface Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    Reanalysis Project (20CR), (iv) ECMWF's Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), and (v) NCEP­Department of Energy (DOE of renewable energy resources, investigation of extreme weather and climatic events, and health risk conditions. Reanalyses are used for a variety of applications, including as a source for the development

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  12. The MSc Strategic Project Management prepares graduates to be future leaders in project-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Management Strategic Change Operations Management Leadership Project Economics and Finance Business ModelsAbout The MSc Strategic Project Management prepares graduates to be future leaders in project-based environments by developing knowledge and skills in both business strategy and project management

  13. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  14. Evaluating the utility of dynamical downscaling in agricultural impacts projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluating the utility of dynamical downscaling in agricultural impacts projections Michael evaluate here whether this computationally intensive approach significantly alters projections circulation model (GCM) output--to produce fine-spatial-scale climate projections for impacts assessments. We

  15. Lemon Project Spring Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fashing, Norman

    Lemon Project: A Journey of Reconciliation." The BOV defined Lemon "as a long- term research project

  16. Hydropower Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  17. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT P - . . -Pathways)PROJECT SUMMARY 1 TITLE

  18. Hallmark Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing Programs |ReferencePowerHaier: OrderProject

  19. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitin S. Baliga and Leroy Hood

    2008-11-12

    The proposed overarching goal for this project was the following: Data integration, simulation and visualization will facilitate metabolic and regulatory network prediction, exploration, and formulation of hypotheses. We stated three specific aims to achieve the overarching goal of this project: (1) Integration of multiple levels of information such as mRNA and protein levels, predicted protein-protein interactions/associations and gene function will enable construction of models describing environmental response and dynamic behavior. (2) Flexible tools for network inference will accelerate our understanding of biological systems. (3) Flexible exploration and queries of model hypotheses will provide focus and reveal novel dependencies. The underlying philosophy of these proposed aims is that an iterative cycle of experiments, experimental design, and verification will lead to a comprehensive and predictive model that will shed light on systems level mechanisms involved in responses elicited by living systems upon sensing a change in their environment. In the previous years report we demonstrated considerable progress in development of data standards, regulatory network inference and data visualization and exploration. We are pleased to report that several manuscripts describing these procedures have been published in top international peer reviewed journals including Genome Biology, PNAS, and Cell. The abstracts of these manuscripts are given and they summarize our accomplishments in this project.

  20. Custom Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRailCurrent ResearchInnovationCustom-Projects

  1. Project Title

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrderNATIONALofDefineEnergy NationalDepartmentProjectNE I&C

  2. Project Gnome

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference) | SciTechProject Gnome Double Beta Decay

  3. Project Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference) | SciTechProjectITERFebruaryStorage

  4. About Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery Act Recovery ActARM OverviewAbout GEDOE Projects

  5. Line Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H2015Tray and|Projects Pages default

  6. Use of a GIS-Based Model of Habitat Cores and Landscape Corridors for VDOT Transportation Project Planning and Environmental Scoping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Bridget M. Donaldson; Weber, Joseph T.

    2007-01-01

    U se of a GIS-B ased M odel of H abitat C ores and L2545, joseph.weber@dcr.virginia.gov), GIS Projects Manager/Program is creating a GIS tool, the Virginia Natural

  7. PROJECT MANGEMENT PLAN EXAMPLES Project Organization Examples

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    is responsible for supporting the FDH and RL project offices with adequate day-to-day planning and review technical management, coordination, control, and reporting of project...

  8. Research scientist ChuanLi Jiang has dedicated her career to investigating the ocean's role in climate variations. She shares some insights into the role air-sea exchanges play in climate change dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, ChuanLi

    ) Earth System Models (ESM). Four of these indicated excessive partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) values to be a part of this community. What do you consider to be the greatest challenge facing earth systems modelling and projections? We examined eight of the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5

  9. The iron budget in ocean surface waters in the 20th and 21st centuries: projections by the Community Earth System Model version 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    M. : The Community Earth System Model: A framework forexperiments with the Earth System Model CESM1- (BGC), J.in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1-BGC), J. Climate,

  10. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations: Association of Collegiate Computing Services) Project Management Institute (PMI) Events & Training: UVA Local Support Partners (LSP) program training Project Management Institute webinars Project Management Institute events Scrum Alliance events Learning

  11. Project Management Lessons Learned

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-05

    The guide supports DOE O 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, and aids the federal project directors and integrated project teams in the execution of projects.

  12. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations: Project Management Institute International Association of Project and Program Management (IAPPM) Events & Training: UVa Center for Leadership Excellence classes SkillSoft classes PMO Symposium through PMI Project Management Institute (PMI) webinars American

  13. Perspectives on Project Finance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary III: Project Finance and Investment Perspectives on Project Finance John May, Managing Partner, Stern Brothers & Co.

  14. Community Renewables Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covered introduction and barriers to individual renewable projects, resources for community and group buy projects, and permitting guidelines.

  15. Computer Vision Project Topics Project Reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhigang

    (contour projection?). step5: choose a tolerance value(3 or 5 pixels) to evaluate the image with eachComputer Vision Project Topics CSc I6716 Spring2011 #12;Project Reports 1. Introduction (problem up with Nikolaos Markou? · Key Components ­ The project is to find a target image from bunch

  16. Project Final Report UBC LBS Project Services1 Project Final Report UBC LBS Project Services2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is used as a foundation for all development, land use, and transportation activities at UBC. LBS Project Services is a fee-for-service provider of development, design, and project management servicesProject Final Report UBC LBS Project Services1 #12;Project Final Report UBC LBS Project Services2

  17. Equation of State Project Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-11

    A general overview of the Equation of State (EOS) Project will be presented. The goal is to provide the audience with an introduction of what our more advanced methods entail (DFT, QMD, etc.. ) and how these models are being utilized to better constrain the thermodynamic models. These models substantially reduce our regions of interpolation between the various thermodynamic limits. I will also present a variety example of recent EOS work.

  18. Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    characteristics. Using projected ocean condition changes from three different Earth System Models, we simulated

  19. Journal of Engineering Valuation and Cost Analysis, Vol. 2, pp. 285-301 Risk Analysis for Large Engineering Projects: Modeling Cost Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dorp, Johan René

    Journal of Engineering Valuation and Cost Analysis, Vol. 2, pp. 285-301 1 Risk Analysis for Large Carlo simulation of activity networks has generated interest as a method for cost/schedule risk analysis risk analysis is now widely available as extensions to many popular project management

  20. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozeman, Jeffrey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  1. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO?) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore »(1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹? g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr?¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr?¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO? and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity, nutrient limitation, and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil C fluxes in this study. In addition, a major source of systematic error in model estimations relates to nonmodeled SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands, as well as to old C storage in deep soil layers.« less

  2. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter; Austin, Phillip A.; Bacmeister, J.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; Del Genio, Anthony D.; De Roode, Stephan R.; Endo , Satoshi; Franklin, Charmaine N.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hannay, Cecile; Heus, Thijs; Isotta, Francesco A.; Jean-Louis, Dufresne; Kang, In-Sik; Kawai, Hideaki; Koehler, M.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Yangang; Lock, Adrian; Lohmann, U.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Molod, Andrea M.; Neggers, Roel; Rasch, Philip J.; Sandu, Irina; Senkbeil, Ryan; Siebesma, A. P.; Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Colombe; Stevens, Bjorn; Suarez, Max; Xu, Kuan-Man; Von Salzen, Knut; Webb, Mark; Wolf, Audrey; Zhao, M.

    2013-12-26

    Large Eddy Models (LES) and Single Column Models (SCM) are used in a surrogate climate change 101 to investigate the physical mechanism of low cloud feedbacks in climate models. Enhanced surface-102 driven boundary layer turbulence and shallow convection in a warmer climate are found to be 103 dominant mechanisms in SCMs.

  3. Geobacter Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derek Lovley; Maddalena Coppi; Stacy Ciufo; Barbara Methe; Pablo, Pomposiello; Steve Sandler; Cinthia Nunez; Daniel Bond; Susan Childers; Carol Giometti; Julia Krushkal; Christophe Shilling; Bernard Palsson

    2004-03-17

    Analysis of the Genetic Potential and Gene Expression of Microbial Communities Involved in the In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium and Harvesting Electrical Energy from Organic Matter The primary goal of this research is to develop conceptual and computational models that can describe the functioning of complex microbial communities involved in microbial processes of interest to the Department of Energy. Microbial Communities to be Investigated: (1) Microbial community associated with the in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater; and (2) Microbial community that is capable of harvesting energy from waste organic matter in the form of electricity.

  4. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  5. Colorado: Energy Modeling Products Support Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Modeling Products Support Energy Efficiency Projects Colorado: Energy Modeling Products Support Energy Efficiency Projects May 1, 2014 - 11:04am Addthis Xcel Energy, a...

  6. Projective ML Didier Remy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rémy, Didier

    Projective ML Didier Remy INRIA-Rocquencourt Apr 10, 1992 Abstract We propose a projective lambda calculus as the ba- sis for operations on records. Projections operate on elevations, that is, records projective ML from this calculus by adding the ML Let typing rule to the simply typed projective calculus. We

  7. Project Reports for Haida Corporation- 2010 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Reynolds Creek Hydroelectric Project ("Reynolds Creek" or the "Project") is a 5 MW hydroelectric resource to be constructed on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, approximately 10 miles east of Hydaburg.

  8. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a ���¢��������real-world���¢������� retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation���¢��������s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations with a focus on safe, convenient, fast-fills. These potential areas were then compared to and overlaid with suitable sites from various energy companies and other potential station operators. Work continues to match vehicle needs with suitable fueling station locations. Once a specific site was identified, the necessary agreements could be completed with the station operator and expected station users. Detailed work could then begin on the site drawings, permits, safety procedures and training needs. Permanent stations were successfully installed in Irvine (delivered liquid hydrogen), Torrance (delivered pipeline hydrogen) and Fountain Valley (renewable hydrogen from anaerobic digester gas). Mobile fueling stations were also deployed to meet short-term fueling needs in Long Beach and Placerville. Once these stations were brought online, infrastructure data was collected and reported to DOE using Air Products���¢�������� Enterprise Remote Access Monitoring system. Feedback from station operators was incorporated to improve the station user���¢��������s fueling experience.

  9. TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO 2 fluxes, 1988-2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    by 0.41 PgC yr À1 more outgassing in the tropics. In termsa 0.62 PgC yr À1 greater outgassing in the tropical oceans.at P = 0.01 (Table 4). The outgassing spike seen globally at

  10. TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO 2 fluxes, 1988-2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    variability (var) and weight (wts) files, added to arsd’’ column of the GLOBALVIEW ‘‘wts’’ file for the year incolumn of the GLOBALVIEW ‘‘wts’’ file. The g + (1 À g)*b

  11. TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO 2 fluxes, 1988-2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuelH.1: World carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption andof A. L. Brenkert (Carbon dioxide emission estimates from

  12. An Initial Intercomparison of Atmospheric and Oceanic Climatology for the ICE-5G and ICE-4G Models of LGM Paleotopography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltier, W. Richard

    Institut für Meereswissenschaften, IfM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany W. R. PELTIER Department of Physics on both present and past climates regimes (e.g. Peltier and Solheim 2004; Vettoretti et al. 2000; Kitoh on the climate during the last glacial period (Jus- tino et al. 2005; Peltier and Solheim 2004; Vettoretti et al

  13. TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO 2 fluxes, 1988-2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementthe consumption and flaring of fossil fuels, 1980 – present,of the increase: fossil fuel burning and deforestation.

  14. TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO 2 fluxes, 1988-2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    East Pacific South Pacific Northern Ocean North AtlanticEast Pacific South Pacific Northern Ocean North Atlanticand South Pacific, and the Northern Ocean) for which there

  15. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climateOverview of Arctic cloud and radiation characteristics. J.of Arctic low-level clouds observed during the FIRE Arctic

  16. Projective simulation for artificial intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans J. Briegel; Gemma De las Cuevas

    2013-02-08

    We propose a model of a learning agent whose interaction with the environment is governed by a simulation-based projection, which allows the agent to project itself into future situations before it takes real action. Projective simulation is based on a random walk through a network of clips, which are elementary patches of episodic memory. The network of clips changes dynamically, both due to new perceptual input and due to certain compositional principles of the simulation process. During simulation, the clips are screened for specific features which trigger factual action of the agent. The scheme is different from other, computational, notions of simulation, and it provides a new element in an embodied cognitive science approach to intelligent action and learning. Our model provides a natural route for generalization to quantum-mechanical operation and connects the fields of reinforcement learning and quantum computation.

  17. Project Selection - Record Keeping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    4-H members have many project areas to choose from, depending on where they live. Members should consult with their parents and 4-H leaders when choosing a project. This publication outlines project considerations.

  18. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwater resources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact on groundwater systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan, Preston; Zhang, K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-01-01

    storage on shallow groundwater and pressure-controlled72 5.2. Modeling of Regional Groundwater2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources Large-Scale

  19. Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

  20. 2016 Technology Innovation Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects FY 2016 Technology Innovation Project Briefs Demand Response TIP 292: Advanced Heat Pump Water Heater Research TIP 336: Scaled Deployment and Demonstration of Demand...

  1. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2011 Target FY 2011 Actual & Forecast FY 2011...

  2. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2011 Target FY 2011 Forecast FY 2011 Pre- &...

  3. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2010 Target FY 2010 Actual FY 2010 Pre- &...

  4. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2010 Target FY 2010 Forecast FY 2010 Pre- &...

  5. Contract/Project Management

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2012 Target FY 2012 Forecast FY 2012 Pre- & Post-CAP...

  6. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2012 Target FY 2012 Final FY 2012 Pre- & Post-CAP Final...

  7. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 nd Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2009 Target FY 2009 Actual Comment 1....

  8. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 st Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2009 Target FY 2009 Actual Comment 1....

  9. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 rd Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2009 Target FY 2009 Actual Comment 1....

  10. Contract/Project Management

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Third Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2012 Target FY 2012 Forecast...

  11. Project 1640 Palomar Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Project 1640 Palomar Procedures Version 0.1 7/7/08 2:11:08 PM #12;2 Project 1640 Design..................................................................................................................... 1 Palomar Procedures

  12. Project Finance and Investments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary III: Project Finance and Investment Project Finance and Investments Chris Cassidy, National Business Renewable Energy Advisor, U.S. Department of Agriculture

  13. Falls Creek Hydroelectric Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavus Electric Company; Richard Levitt; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-06-12

    This project was for planning and construction of a 700kW hydropower project on the Fall River near Gustavus, Alaska.

  14. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.

    2012-05-01

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  15. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  16. Advanced engineering environment collaboration project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Pomplun, Alan R.; Kiba, Grant W.; Dutra, Edward G.; Dankiewicz, Robert J.; Marburger, Scot J.

    2008-12-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a model for an engineering design and communications system that will enhance project collaboration throughout the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) worked together on a prototype project to evaluate the suitability of a portion of PTC's Windchill 9.0 suite of data management, design and collaboration tools as the basis for an AEE. The AEE project team implemented Windchill 9.0 development servers in both classified and unclassified domains and used them to test and evaluate the Windchill tool suite relative to the needs of the NWC using weapons project use cases. A primary deliverable was the development of a new real time collaborative desktop design and engineering process using PDMLink (data management tool), Pro/Engineer (mechanical computer aided design tool) and ProductView Lite (visualization tool). Additional project activities included evaluations of PTC's electrical computer aided design, visualization, and engineering calculations applications. This report documents the AEE project work to share information and lessons learned with other NWC sites. It also provides PTC with recommendations for improving their products for NWC applications.

  17. Sandia Energy - Reference Model Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documents Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Reference Model Project (RMP) Reference Model Documents Reference Model DocumentsTara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-...

  18. Moloka`i Secure Renewable Microgrid Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moloka`i Secure Renewable Microgrid Project Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute | School of Ocean The Molokai Microgrid Project focuses on improving power system operation with high penetration levels, power system monitoring, modeling, planning, and design support for microgrid components. Challenge

  19. Final report for %22High performance computing for advanced national electric power grid modeling and integration of solar generation resources%22, LDRD Project No. 149016.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Riehm, Andrew Charles; Hoekstra, Robert John; Munoz-Ramirez, Karina; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Phillips, Laurence R.; Adams, Brian M.; Russo, Thomas V.; Oldfield, Ron A.; McLendon, William Clarence, III; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Hansen, Clifford W.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stein, Joshua S.; Schoenwald, David Alan; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.

    2011-02-01

    Design and operation of the electric power grid (EPG) relies heavily on computational models. High-fidelity, full-order models are used to study transient phenomena on only a small part of the network. Reduced-order dynamic and power flow models are used when analysis involving thousands of nodes are required due to the computational demands when simulating large numbers of nodes. The level of complexity of the future EPG will dramatically increase due to large-scale deployment of variable renewable generation, active load and distributed generation resources, adaptive protection and control systems, and price-responsive demand. High-fidelity modeling of this future grid will require significant advances in coupled, multi-scale tools and their use on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This LDRD report demonstrates SNL's capability to apply HPC resources to these 3 tasks: (1) High-fidelity, large-scale modeling of power system dynamics; (2) Statistical assessment of grid security via Monte-Carlo simulations of cyber attacks; and (3) Development of models to predict variability of solar resources at locations where little or no ground-based measurements are available.

  20. Identification of Owner’s Project Value Interests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunby, Molly Gaynell

    2011-02-22

    the parameter estimates show specific project characteristics are significant in explaining the importance of individual value interests to a project. The model was developed through binary logistic regression of industry survey data, and validated... the applicability of individual value interests to a project. The methodology required to develop the mathematical model and test the hypothesis included the following activities: 1. Generation of data. In this step, the value interests and project...

  1. Long-term projections of national, regional, and state population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, J.F.; South, D.W.

    1986-07-01

    The projections prepared by the US Bureau of the Census are the best available projections of total US population. The DRI projections of population at the regional and state level to the year 2008 are the best available and are consistent with the US Bureau of the Census projections of total US population. The DRI regional and state projections can be extended from 2008 to 2030 with a simple model based on economic opportunity, although an even simpler model - constant shares - is used for the 1985 test runs. The US Bureau of the Census prepares the best available projections of the US age-sex distribution.

  2. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-10-15

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

  3. 5, 911936, 2005 Intercomparison of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is of interest because ozone is one of the most important trace gases in the atmosphere. Ozone is a green house gas and provides shielding from UV ra- diation. Following the discovery of the ozone hole (Farman et

  4. 7, 93199365, 2007 Intercomparison of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    warming than CO2. Like N2O, CH4 is a tropospheric green- house gas, but it is not as long lived as N2O, and ozone-depletion processes in the lower stratosphere. As the most effective greenhouse gas Meteorological Organization, 2003). It is also a greenhouse gas with a much larger specific effect on global

  5. A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private and Non-Profit Project Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private and Non-Profit Project Development provides information on various community solar project models, state policies that support community solar projects, and tax policies and incentives.

  6. PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 Global soil carbon projections are improved by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Steven D.

    Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon cycle feedbacks. However

  7. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 28 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 Global soil carbon projections are improved by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks

  8. Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 271293, 2014 www.earth-syst-dynam.net/5/271/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    Antarctica. Basal ice-shelf melting induced by a warming ocean has been identified as a major cause historically constrained emulations with the MAGICC-6.0 (Model for the Assessment of Green- house gas Induced warming from 19 comprehensive climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5) and two

  9. Expansion of the world's deserts due to vegetation-albedo feedback under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    -ocean-land model with a dynamic vegetation component that predicts surface albedo change, here we simulate, the model simulated an increase in the world's `warm desert' area of 2.5 million km2 or 10% at the end Coupled- Carbon-Cycle-Climate Model Intercomparison Project [Friedlingstein et al., 2006] (C4MIP) has

  10. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  11. Abstract--We report on an industrial project in which we developed an inventory model to provide decision support for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Stephen C.

    . There is now an emerging literature on models for reverse logistics, within which this paper should fit (see of the central facility and the regional depots. Index Terms-- inventory planning, remanufacturing, reverse logistics, multi-echelon systems, supply chain planning. I. INTRODUCTION The supply chains for more and more

  12. Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM) Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model (GETEM) Development Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM) Development Project objective: Provide a tool for estimating the performance and...

  13. Livingston Campus Geothermal Project The Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, Mauricio

    Livingston Campus Geothermal Project The Project: Geothermal power is a cost effective, reliable is a Closed Loop Geothermal System involving the removal and storage of approximately four feet of dirt from the entire Geothermal Field and the boring of 321 vertical holes reaching a depth of 500 feet. These holes

  14. The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawloski, G A; Wurtz, J; Drellack, S L

    2009-12-29

    Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa is particularly difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and structure caused by multiple calderas in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and overprinting of Basin and Range faulting. Included in overall Phase II goals is the need to reduce the uncertainty and improve confidence in modeling results. New characterization efforts are underway, and results from the first year of a three-year well drilling plan are presented.

  15. Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeepDecemberCornstalks Cost

  16. SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis L.Smith; Ted S. Wood

    2010-03-01

    This project is being conducted at the request of the DOE and the NRC. The INL has been requested by the NRC to improve and maintain the Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluation (SAPHIRE) tool set concurrent with the changing needs of the user community as well as staying current with new technologies. Successful completion will be upon NRC approved release of all software and accompanying documentation in a timely fashion. This project will enhance the SAPHIRE tool set for the user community (NRC, Nuclear Power Plant operations, Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model developers) by providing improved Common Cause Failure (CCF), External Events, Level 2, and Significance Determination Process (SDP) analysis capabilities. The SAPHIRE development team at the Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for successful completion of this project. The project is under the supervision of Curtis L. Smith, PhD, Technical Lead for the SAPHIRE application. All current capabilities from SAPHIRE version 7 will be maintained in SAPHIRE 8. The following additional capabilities will be incorporated: • Incorporation of SPAR models for the SDP interface. • Improved quality assurance activities for PRA calculations of SAPHIRE Version 8. • Continue the current activities for code maintenance, documentation, and user support for the code.

  17. International Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leopando, Leonardo; Warnecke, Ernst

    2008-01-15

    Many research reactors have been or will be shut down and are candidates for decommissioning. Most of the respective countries neither have a decommissioning policy nor the required expertise and funds to effectively implement a decommissioning project. The IAEA established the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P) to help answer this need. It was agreed to involve the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) as model reactor to demonstrate 'hands-on' experience as it is just starting the decommissioning process. Other facilities may be included in the project as they fit into the scope of R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P and complement to the PRR-1 decommissioning activities. The key outcome of the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P will be the decommissioning of the PRR-1 reactor. On the way to this final goal the preparation of safety related documents (i.e., decommissioning plan, environmental impact assessment, safety analysis report, health and safety plan, cost estimate, etc.) and the licensing process as well as the actual dismantling activities could provide a model to other countries involved in the project. It is expected that the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P would initiate activities related to planning and funding of decommissioning activities in the participating countries if that has not yet been done.

  18. Judge Evaluation Scoring Form for Project Technical Report PROJECT .#.: ..Project Title......

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlberg, Teresa A.

    Judge Evaluation Scoring Form for Project Technical Report PROJECT .#.: ..Project Title of the project?) Excellent Very Good Good Fair Unsatisfactory COMMENTS: #12;Judge Evaluation Scoring Form for REU) #12;Judge Evaluation Scoring Form for Poster Presentation PROJECT.#.: ...Title.. PARTICIPANTS: DATE

  19. Sandia Energy - Sandia Transportation-Energy Research Project...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Response: Coupled Hierarchical Models for Thermal, Mechanical, Electrical and (Electro)chemical Processes" project under the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) for Electric Drive...

  20. Sample Project Execution Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project execution plan (PEP) is the governing document that establishes the means to execute, monitor, and control projects.  The plan serves as the main communication vehicle to ensure that...

  1. Haida Corporation- 2010 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Reynolds Creek Hydroelectric Project ("Reynolds Creek" or the "Project") is a 5 MW hydroelectric resource to be constructed on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, approximately 10 miles east of Hydaburg.

  2. Iskuulpa Watershed ProjectIskuulpa Watershed Project BPA Project # 199506001BPA Project # 199506001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basin Fish and Wildlife Mitigation ProjectMitigation Project Established by the CTUIR in 1995Established by the CTUIR in 1995 Provides dual benefit to fish and wildlifeProvides dual benefit to fish and wildlife while

  3. Rooftop Unit Network Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Network Project RTU Network Project Michael Brambley, Ph.D. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michael.Brambley@pnnl.gov (509) 375-6875 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies...

  4. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    100% Post-CAP This is based on a 3-year rolling average (FY10). TPC is Total Project Cost. 3. Certified EVM Systems: Post CD-3, 95% of line item projects and EM cleanup...

  5. Planning the Project Meeting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    Project group meetings must be planned well in advance. Members should be involved in completing some type of work before the next meeting. This helps the leader plan the next project meeting and makes efficient use of time.

  6. The 4-H Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    As a 4-H volunteer, you will find that projects are useful tools for teaching a wide variety of skills to young people. This publication will help you plan and evaluate 4-H learning projects.

  7. Contract/Project Management

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on a 3-year rolling average (FY09 to FY11). TPC is Total Project Cost. 2a. EM Cleanup (Soil and Groundwater Remediation, D&D, and Waste Treatment and Disposal) Projects: (Pre-...

  8. Rabbit Project Reference Manual 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wootton, Chad

    2000-05-04

    This publication explains how to raise rabbits for a 4-H rabbit project. It discusses project options; breeds; equipment; breeding and kindling; sanitation; diseases, parasites and illnesses; processing; marketing; and grooming and showing. Although...

  9. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    within 12 months of the original CD- 34 duration. 90% 91% FY10-FY12 Seventy completions to date. Schedule Compliance, Projects greater than 5 years Duration: Projects will...

  10. Infrastructure Projects | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions for many, as well as a change to the layout of the laboratory due to ancillary projects. The project has received approval to make early purchases in the...

  11. Information Technology Project Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-12-03

    The Order provides program and project management direction for the acquisition and management of IT projects, investments, and initiatives. Cancels DOE G 200.1-1. Admin Chg 1 approved 1-16-2013.

  12. Comprehensive Energy Assessment: EE and RE Project Optimization Modeling for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.

  13. GHPsRUS Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Battocletti, Liz

    The GHPsRUS Project's full name is "Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump Deployment." The dataset contains employment and installation price data collected by four economic surveys: (1)GHPsRUS Project Manufacturer & OEM Survey, (2) GHPsRUS Project Geothermal Loop Survey, (3) GHPsRUS Project Mechanical Equipment Installation Survey, and (4) GHPsRUS Geothermal Heat Pump Industry Survey

  14. WIPP Projects Interative Map

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View WIPP Projects in a larger map. To report corrections, please email WeatherizationInnovation@ee.doe.gov.

  15. GHPsRUS Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Battocletti, Liz

    2013-07-09

    The GHPsRUS Project's full name is "Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump Deployment." The dataset contains employment and installation price data collected by four economic surveys: (1)GHPsRUS Project Manufacturer & OEM Survey, (2) GHPsRUS Project Geothermal Loop Survey, (3) GHPsRUS Project Mechanical Equipment Installation Survey, and (4) GHPsRUS Geothermal Heat Pump Industry Survey

  16. Ferdinand Project Middleware List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://java.dzone.com/articles/case-study-how-lastfm-uses] - hornetq-vm: VM for testing of clustered scenarios [http://sourceforge.net/projects/hornetq-vm/] EvaluationFerdinand Project Middleware List Jaroslav Keznikl2 , Michal Malohlava1 , Lukás Marek1 , Petr Tma1 phone +420-266053831 #12;FERDINAND PROJECT MIDDLEWARE LIST PURPOSE The purpose of this report

  17. TEAM PROJECT: WORKING PROTOTYPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) Value: the report is worth 10% of the Team Project grade. #12;Next steps: You will evaluateTEAM PROJECT: WORKING PROTOTYPE Due: Week of April 5-8 at time to be scheduled with GTA Format that will be polished into the final project for which you will create a final report and give a final presentation

  18. Project Description 1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanDeGrift, Tammy

    Project Description 1 Introduction This project will investigate "commonsense computing": what, and 3. Apply our findings to changes in classroom pedagogy in ways that can be rigorously evalu- ated. 1 0736572 #12;In the exploratory part of this project, which we are proposing here, we will concentrate

  19. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  1. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% ? 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  2. Physics from Angular Projection of Rectangular Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashmeet Singh

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the angular projection of a rectangular arrangement of points in a grid. This simple, yet interesting problem, has both a scholarly value and applications for data extraction techniques to study the physics of various systems. Our work can interest undergraduate students to understand subtle points in the angular projection of a grid and describes various quantities of interest in the projection with completeness and sufficient rigour. We show that for certain angular ranges, the projection has non-distinctness, and calculate the details of such angles, and correspondingly, the number of distinct points and the total projected length. We focus on interesting trends obtained for the projected length of the grid elements and present a simple application of the model to determine the geometry of an unknown grid whose spatial extensions are known, using measurement of the grid projection at two angles only. Towards the end, our model is shown to have potential applications in various branches of physical sciences including crystallography, astrophysics and bulk properties of materials.

  3. Subsurface Uranium Fate and Transport: Integrated Experiments and Modeling of Coupled Biogeochemical Mechanisms of Nanocrystalline Uraninite Oxidation by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides - Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State University; Timothy, Ginn R. [University of California Davis; Sani, Rajesh K. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

    2013-08-14

    Subsurface bacteria including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO2. We have shown that SRB reduce U(VI) to nanometer-sized UO2 particles (1-5 nm) which are both intra- and extracellular, with UO2 inside the cell likely physically shielded from subsequent oxidation processes. We evaluated the UO2 nanoparticles produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 under growth and non-growth conditions in the presence of lactate or pyruvate and sulfate, thiosulfate, or fumarate, using ultrafiltration and HR-TEM. Results showed that a significant mass fraction of bioreduced U (35-60%) existed as a mobile phase when the initial concentration of U(VI) was 160 µM. Further experiments with different initial U(VI) concentrations (25 - 900 ?M) in MTM with PIPES or bicarbonate buffers indicated that aggregation of uraninite depended on the initial concentrations of U(VI) and type of buffer. It is known that under some conditions SRB-mediated UO2 nanocrystals can be reoxidized (and thus remobilized) by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides, common constituents of soils and sediments. To elucidate the mechanism of UO2 reoxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, we studied the impact of Fe and U chelating compounds (citrate, NTA, and EDTA) on reoxidation rates. Experiments were conducted in anaerobic batch systems in PIPES buffer. Results showed EDTA significantly accelerated UO2 reoxidation with an initial rate of 9.5?M day-1 for ferrihydrite. In all cases, bicarbonate increased the rate and extent of UO2 reoxidation with ferrihydrite. The highest rate of UO2 reoxidation occurred when the chelator promoted UO2 and Fe(III) (hydr)oxide dissolution as demonstrated with EDTA. When UO2 dissolution did not occur, UO2 reoxidation likely proceeded through an aqueous Fe(III) intermediate as observed for both NTA and citrate. To complement to these laboratory studies, we collected U-bearing samples from a surface seep at the Rifle field site and have measured elevated U concentrations in oxic iron-rich sediments. To translate experimental results into numerical analysis of U fate and transport, a reaction network was developed based on Sani et al. (2004) to simulate U(VI) bioreduction with concomitant UO2 reoxidation in the presence of hematite or ferrihydrite. The reduction phase considers SRB reduction (using lactate) with the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) solids, which is set to be microbially mediated as well as abiotically driven by sulfide. Model results show the oxidation of HS– by Fe(III) directly competes with UO2 reoxidation as Fe(III) oxidizes HS– preferentially over UO2. The majority of Fe reduction is predicted to be abiotic, with ferrihydrite becoming fully consumed by reaction with sulfide. Predicted total dissolved carbonate concentrations from the degradation of lactate are elevated (log(pCO2) ~ –1) and, in the hematite system, yield close to two orders-of-magnitude higher U(VI) concentrations than under initial carbonate concentrations of 3 mM. Modeling of U(VI) bioreduction with concomitant reoxidation of UO2 in the presence of ferrihydrite was also extended to a two-dimensional field-scale groundwater flow and biogeochemically reactive transport model for the South Oyster site in eastern Virginia. This model was developed to simulate the field-scale immobilization and subsequent reoxidation of U by a biologically mediated reaction network.

  4. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack reduced the wake size and enhanced the vortices in the flow downstream of the turbine-tower compared with the tower alone case. Mean and rms velocity distributions from hot wire anemometer data confirmed that in a downwind configuration, the wake of the tower dominates the flow, thus the flow fields of a tower alone and tower-turbine combinations are nearly the same. For the upwind configuration, the mean velocity shows a narrowing of the wake compared with the tower alone case. The downwind configuration wake persisted longer than that of an upwind configuration; however, it was not possible to quantify this difference because of the size limitation of the wind tunnel downstream of the test section. The water tunnel studies demonstrated that the scale model studies could be used to adequately produce accurate motions to model the motions of a wind turbine platform subject to large waves. It was found that the important factors that affect the platform is whether the platform is submerged or surface piercing. In the former, the loads on the platform will be relatively reduced whereas in the latter case, the structure pierces the wave free surface and gains stiffness and stability. The other important element that affects the movement of the platform is depth of the sea in which the wind turbine will be installed. Furthermore, the wildlife biology component evaluated migratory patterns by different monitoring systems consisting of marine radar, thermal IR camera and acoustic recorders. The types of radar used in the project are weather surveillance radar and marine radar. The weather surveillance radar (1988 Doppler), also known as Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), provides a network of weather stations in the US. Data generated from this network were used to understand general migratory patterns, migratory stopover habitats, and other patterns caused by the effects of weather conditions. At a local scale our marine radar was used to complement the datasets from NEXRAD and to collect additional monitoring parameters such as passage rates, flight paths, flight directi

  5. An Experiment to Improve Cost Estimation and Project Tracking for Software and Systems Integration Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Peter

    scales of many projects today. ICL has undertaken an experiment using an alternative life cycle model-diagram waterfall life cycle model to plan and control the development of platform software and systems. Estimates the estimates. A number of alternative life cycle models and development methods, [3] and [13] are examples

  6. BEACON SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT (08-AFC-2) Project Title: Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BEACON SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT (08-AFC-2) FACT SHEET Project Title: Beacon Solar Energy Project and operate the Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon). Location: The project is located in eastern Kern County;BEACON SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT (08-AFC-2) FACT SHEET Licensing: The Beacon project would have a nominal

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    wholesale electricity price projections as a model output.in natural gas prices projections over the past severalprojections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel price

  8. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  9. FutureGen Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabe, Jim; Elliott, Mike

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes the comprehensive siting, permitting, engineering, design, and costing activities completed by the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, the Department of Energy, and associated supporting subcontractors to develop a first of a kind near zero emissions integrated gasification combined cycle power plant and carbon capture and storage project (IGCC-CCS). With the goal to design, build, and reliably operate the first IGCC-CCS facility, FutureGen would have been the lowest emitting pulverized coal power plant in the world, while providing a timely and relevant basis for coal combustion power plants deploying carbon capture in the future. The content of this report summarizes key findings and results of applicable project evaluations; modeling, design, and engineering assessments; cost estimate reports; and schedule and risk mitigation from initiation of the FutureGen project through final flow sheet analyses including capital and operating reports completed under DOE award DE-FE0000587. This project report necessarily builds upon previously completed siting, design, and development work executed under DOE award DE-FC26- 06NT4207 which included the siting process; environmental permitting, compliance, and mitigation under the National Environmental Policy Act; and development of conceptual and design basis documentation for the FutureGen plant. For completeness, the report includes as attachments the siting and design basis documents, as well as the source documentation for the following: • Site evaluation and selection process and environmental characterization • Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permit Application including well design and subsurface modeling • FutureGen IGCC-CCS Design Basis Document • Process evaluations and technology selection via Illinois Clean Coal Review Board Technical Report • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance for slurry-fed gasifier configuration • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance for dry-fed gasifier configuration • Full capital cost report and cost category analysis (CAPEX) • Full operating cost report and assumptions (OPEX) Comparative technology evaluations, value engineering exercises, and initial air permitting activities are also provided; the report concludes with schedule, risk, and cost mitigation activities as well as lessons learned such that the products of this report can be used to support future investments in utility scale gasification and carbon capture and sequestration. Collectively, the FutureGen project enabled the comprehensive site specific evaluation and determination of the economic viability of IGCC-CCS. The project report is bound at that determination when DOE formally proposed the FutureGen 2.0 project which focuses on repowering a pulverized coal power plant with oxy-combustion technology including CCS.

  10. National Compact Stellarator Experiment Project Closeout Report PROJECT CLOSEOUT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Approved by Jeffrey Makiel DOE Federal Project Director for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment II.....................................................................................1 3. PROJECT HISTORY

  11. PROJECT MANGEMENT PLAN EXAMPLES Prepare Project Support Plans...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    addressing the following key elements of project management and control: Project Management Control System (PMCS) - Work breakdown structure - Baseline developmentupdate...

  12. Final Project Report - Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloriethylene Co-Metabolism: Co-Metabolic Enzyme Activity Probes and Modeling Co-Metabolism and Attenuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, Robert C; Orr, Brennon R; Lee, M Hope; Delwiche, Mark

    2010-02-26

    Trichloroethene (TCE) (also known as trichloroethylene) is a common contaminant in groundwater. TCE is regulated in drinking water at a concentration of 5 µg/L, and a small mass of TCE has the potential to contaminant large volumes of water. The physical and chemical characteristics of TCE allow it to migrate quickly in most subsurface environments, and thus large plumes of contaminated groundwater can form from a single release. The migration and persistence of TCE in groundwater can be limited by biodegradation. TCE can be biodegraded via different processes under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Anaerobic biodegradation is widely recognized, but aerobic degradation is less well recognized. Under aerobic conditions, TCE can be oxidized to non hazardous conditions via cometabolic pathways. This study applied enzyme activity probes to demonstrate that cometabolic degradation of TCE occurs in aerobic groundwater at several locations, used laboratory microcosm studies to determine aerobic degradation rates, and extrapolated lab-measured rates to in situ rates based on concentrations of microorganisms with active enzymes involved in cometabolic TCE degradation. Microcosms were constructed using basalt chips that were inoculated with microorganisms to groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory Test Area North TCE plume by filling a set of Flow-Through In Situ Reactors (FTISRs) with chips and placing the FTISRs into the open interval of a well for several months. A parametric study was performed to evaluate predicted degradation rates and concentration trends using a competitive inhibition kinetic model, which accounts for competition for enzyme active sites by both a growth substrate and a cometabolic substrate. The competitive inhibition kinetic expression was programmed for use in the RT3D reactive transport package. Simulations of TCE plume evolution using both competitive inhibition kinetics and first order decay were performed.

  13. THE NOP2 MODELING LANGUAGE Hermann Schichl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schichl, Hermann

    , convex relaxations. # supported by project COCONUT IST­2000­26063 285 #12; MODELING LANGUAGES stopped meantime, and authors work the COCONUT [40] project towards solver platform global optimization

  14. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2013-07-24

    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while the mostly dry mountain-breeze circulations force an additional component that results in semi-diurnal variations near the coast. A series of numerical tests, however, reveal sensitivity of the simulations to the choice of vertical grid, limiting the possibility of solid quantitative statements on the amplitudes and phases of the diurnal and semidiurnal components across the domain. According to our experiments, the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer scheme and the WSM6 microphysics scheme is the combination of schemes that performs best. For that combination, mean cloud cover, liquid water path, and cloud depth are fairly wellsimulated, while mean cloud top height remains too low in comparison to observations. Both microphysics and boundary layer schemes contribute to the spread in liquid water path and cloud depth, although the microphysics contribution is slightly more prominent. Boundary layer schemes are the primary contributors to cloud top height, degree of adiabaticity, and cloud cover. Cloud top height is closely related to surface fluxes and boundary layer structure. Thus, our study infers that an appropriate tuning of cloud top height would likely improve the low-cloud representation in the model. Finally, we show that entrainment governs the degree of adiabaticity, while boundary layer decoupling is a control on cloud cover. In the intercomparison study using WRF single-column model experiments, most parameterizations show a poor agreement of the vertical boundary layer structure when compared with large-eddy simulation models. We also implement a new Total-Energy/Mass- Flux boundary layer scheme into the WRF model and evaluate its ability to simulate both stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds. Result comparisons against large-eddy simulation show that this advanced parameterization based on the new Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach provides a better performance than other boundary layer parameterizations.

  15. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Combating Invasive Species Projects for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bioenergetics model that indicates Asian carp cannot survive in Lake Michigan given the available food types and bioenergetics modeling are providing information for the first two projects. Bioenergetics is the study

  17. MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL: TASK GROUP 4 OF THE IAEA PRISM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-03-02

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  18. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  19. Structuring small projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pistole, C.O.

    1995-11-01

    One of the most difficult hurdles facing small project developers is obtaining financing. Many major banks and institutional investors are unwilling to become involved in projects valued at less than $25 million. To gain the interest of small project investors, developers will want to present a well-considered plan and an attractive rate of return. Waste-to-energy projects are one type that can offer diversified revenue sources that assure maximum profitability. The Ripe Touch Greenhouse project, a $14.5 million waste tire-to-energy facility in Colorado, provides a case study of how combining the strengths of the project partners can help gain community and regulatory acceptance and maximize profit opportunities.

  20. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Bullock

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and ï?· Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  1. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  2. Microwave solidification project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  3. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  4. Mascoma: Frontier Biorefinery Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project involves the construction and operation of a biorefinery that produces ethanol and other co-products from cellulosic materials through advanced consolidated bioprocessing.

  5. Integrated Project Team RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    acquisition process and will be utilized during all phases of a project life cycle. The IPT is a team of professionals representing diverse disciplines with the specific...

  6. Mentors and Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ideas. Borovsky, Joe Mentor Joe Borovsky General Interests Magnetospheric physics, solar-wind physics, solar-windmagnetosphere coupling Suggested Project Topics Theory and...

  7. Penobscot Tribe- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With this award, the Penobscot Indian Nation will advance the preconstruction activities required to secure funding for the proposed 227-megawatt (MW) Alder Stream wind project.

  8. Bacteria TMDL Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    stream_source_info Bacteria TMDL projects.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2550 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Bacteria TMDL projects.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2O... of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper...

  9. Whistling Ridge Energy Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    build, own and operate the wind project and their associated facilities. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) has been issued for the proposed Whistling Ridge...

  10. TThe {\\sc Majorana} Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The MAJORANA collaboration

    2009-10-23

    The {\\sc Majorana} Project, a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment is described with an emphasis on the choice of Ge-detector configuration.

  11. The MAJORANA project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Majorana Project, a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment is described with an emphasis on the choice of Ge-detector configuration.

  12. Power Systems Past Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loop and its six associated substations. An upgrade of the INL loop, designed by Power Systems personnel, was completed in 1997. This project consists of transmission line...

  13. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following document describes the context of the EV Project, which partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. Project Reports for Kootznoowoo Incorporated- 2010 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Thayer Lake Hydropower Development (TLHD) consists of a 1 MW+ run of the river hydropower project located in the Tongass Forest in the Admiralty Island National Monument Park that will provide the energy to the City of Angoon and Angoon Community Association (traditional tribe as recognized by Indian Reorganization Act).

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report, USDOE Award DE-FG-02ER54684, Recipient: CompX, Project Title: Fokker-Planck/Ray Tracing for Electron Bernstein and Fast Wave Modeling in Support of NSTX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.W. Harvey, CompX, Del Mar, CA 92014

    2009-11-12

    This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. Magnetic fusion, exemplified by confinement of very hot ionized gases, i.e., plasmas, in donut-shaped tokamak vessels is a leading approach for this energy source. Thus far, a mixture of hydrogen isotopes has produced 10's of megawatts of fusion power for seconds in a tokamak reactor at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey. The research grant under consideration, ER54684, uses computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at PPPL. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak. CompX further developed and applied models for radiofrequency (rf) heating and current drive for applications to NSTX. These models build on a 30 year development of rf ray tracing (the all-frequencies GENRAY code) and higher dimensional Fokker-Planck rf-collisional modeling (the 3D collisional-quasilinear CQL3D code) at CompX. Two mainline current-drive rf modes are proposed for injection into NSTX: (1) electron Bernstein wave (EBW), and (2) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) modes. Both these current drive systems provide a means for the rf to access the especially high density plasma--termed high beta plasma--compared to the strength of the required magnetic fields. The CompX studies entailed detailed modeling of the EBW to calculate the efficiency of the current drive system, and to determine its range of flexibility for driving current at spatial locations in the plasma cross-section. The ray tracing showed penetration into NSTX bulk plasma, relatively efficient current drive, but a limited ability to produce current over the whole radial plasma cross-section. The actual EBW experiment will cost several million dollars, and remains in the proposal stage. The HHFW current drive system has been experimentally implemented on NSTX, and successfully drives substantial current. The understanding of the experiment is to be accomplished in terms of general concepts of rf current drive, and also detailed modeling of the experiment which can discern the various competing processes which necessarily occur simultaneously in the experiment. An early discovery of the CompX codes, GENRAY and CQL3D, was that there could be significant interference between the neutral beam injection fast ions in the machine (injected for plasma heating) and the HHFW energy. Under many NSTX experimental conditions, power which could go to the fast ions would then be unavailable for current drive by the desired HHFW interaction with electrons. This result has been born out by experiments; the modeling helps in understanding difficulties with HHFW current drive, and has enabled adjustment of the experiment to avoid interaction with neutral beam injected fast ions thereby achieving stronger HHFW current drive. The detailed physics modeling of the various competing processes is almost always required in fusion energy plasma physics, to ensure a reasonably accurate and certain interpretation of the experiment, enabling the confident design of future, more advanced experiments and ultimately a commercial fusion reactor. More recent work entails detailed investigation of the interaction of the HHFW radiation for fast ions, accounting for the particularly large radius orbits in NSTX, and correlations between multiple HHFW-ion interactions. The spherical aspect of the NSTX experiment emphasized particular physics such as the large orbits which are present to some degree in all tokamaks, but gives clearer clues on the resulting physics phenomena since competing physics effects are reduced.

  16. Building Energy Modeling Library

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    303-567-8609 April 2, 2013 Photo by : Dennis Schroeder, NREL 23250 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Project Overview Building Energy Modeling (BEM)...

  17. The Home Microbiome Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Jack

    2014-08-25

    The Home Microbiome Project is an initiative aimed at uncovering the dynamic co-associations between people's bacteria and the bacteria found in their homes.The hope is that the data and project will show that routine monitoring of the microbial diversity of your body and of the environment in which you live is possible.

  18. LEP Dismantling Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, John; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The LEP Dismantling Project has been in its operational phase since late in the year 2000. This report briefly reviews the development of the project and the current status. The report has been prepared for presentation to the Radiation Protection Committee in May 2001 and consequently it has a bias towards Radiation Protection activities.

  19. Project organizations and schedules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1990-07-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) faces the challenge of simultaneously carrying out a large-scale construction project with demanding cost, schedule, and performance goals; and creating a scientific laboratory capable of exploiting this unique scientific instrument. This paper describes the status of the laboratory organization developed to achieve these goals, and the major near-term schedule objectives of the project.

  20. TEAM PROJECT: USER TESTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEAM PROJECT: USER TESTING Due: Wed April 21 (section 2) Thu April 22 (section 1) Now that you have: usability inspection, Neilsen's heuristic evaluation, pluralistic walk through, or GOMS analysis (without part of your project. You might consider a joint session with another team! Format: 3-4 page report