National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for model evaluation study

  1. Modelling and Evaluating Longevity Risk A Case Study UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Stefan

    Modelling and Evaluating Longevity Risk A Case Study UK Dr. Claudia Prévôt LUH with Longevity #12;Modelling and Evaluating Longevity Risk4 Mortality risk · Misestimation/error risk, Solvency II,...) Risks associated with Longevity #12;Modelling and Evaluating Longevity Risk5 Mortality

  2. Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 2006 Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report, December 2006 Docket No. EO-05-01. Order No. 202-07-02: As you are aware, Mirant Potomac River,...

  3. Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1985-07-16

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs.

  4. AN ARSCL-BASED CLOUD TYPE CLIMATOLOGY FROM RETRIEVALS AND IT'S USE IN MODEL EVALUATION STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN ARSCL-BASED CLOUD TYPE CLIMATOLOGY FROM RETRIEVALS AND IT'S USE IN MODEL EVALUATION STUDIES Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT A climatology of cloud types is developed using long in tandem with satellite observations for model cloud layering and property evaluation. Therefore, satellite

  5. Evaluating alternatives for housing India's urban poor : design studies, model and application in Ahmedabad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palamadai, Rajagopalan M

    1982-01-01

    The study evaluates the three alternatives identified by the (National) Planning Commission for housing the Urban Poor in India: Upgrading, site and services, and housing. The basis for evaluation is the relationship of ...

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of various sensitivity analysis methods: A case study with a hydrological model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gan, Yanjun; Duan, Qingyun; Gong, Wei; Tong, Charles; Sun, Yunwei; Chu, Wei; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Di, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a commonly used approach for identifying important parameters that dominate model behaviors. We use a newly developed software package, a Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE), to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of ten widely used SA methods, including seven qualitative and three quantitative ones. All SA methods are tested using a variety of sampling techniques to screen out the most sensitive (i.e., important) parameters from the insensitive ones. The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, which has thirteen tunable parameters, is used for illustration. The South Branch Potomac River basin nearmoreSpringfield, West Virginia in the U.S. is chosen as the study area. The key findings from this study are: (1) For qualitative SA methods, Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), and Gaussian Process (GP) screening methods are shown to be not effective in this example. Morris One-At-a-Time (MOAT) screening is the most efficient, needing only 280 samples to identify the most important parameters, but it is the least robust method. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Delta Test (DT) and Sum-Of-Trees (SOT) screening methods need about 400600 samples for the same purpose. Monte Carlo (MC), Orthogonal Array (OA) and Orthogonal Array based Latin Hypercube (OALH) are appropriate sampling techniques for them; (2) For quantitative SA methods, at least 2777 samples are needed for Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) to identity parameter main effect. McKay method needs about 360 samples to evaluate the main effect, more than 1000 samples to assess the two-way interaction effect. OALH and LP? (LPTAU) sampling techniques are more appropriate for McKay method. For the Sobol' method, the minimum samples needed are 1050 to compute the first-order and total sensitivity indices correctly. These comparisons show that qualitative SA methods are more efficient but less accurate and robust than quantitative ones.less

  7. Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: A case study in the vehicle repair industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Wilson, Michael P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated three exposure models with data obtained from measurements among workers who use"aerosol" solvent products in the vehicle repair industry and with field experiments using these products to simulate the same exposure conditions. The three exposure models were the: 1) homogeneously-mixed-one-box model, 2) multi-zone model, and 3) eddy-diffusion model. Temporally differentiated real-time breathing zone volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration measurements, integrated far-field area samples, and simulated experiments were used in estimating parameters, such as emission rates, diffusivity, and near-field dimensions. We assessed differences in model input requirements and their efficacy for predictive modeling. The One-box model was not able to resemble the temporal profile of exposure concentrations, but it performed well concerning time-weighted exposure over extended time periods. However, this model required an adjustment for spatial concentration gradients. Multi-zone models and diffusion-models may solve this problem. However, we found that the reliable use of both these models requires extensive field data to appropriately define pivotal parameters such as diffusivity or near-field dimensions. We conclude that it is difficult to apply these models for predicting VOC exposures in the workplace. However, for comparative exposure scenarios in life-cycle assessment they may be useful.

  8. Evaluating the Use of Ocean Models of Different Complexity in Climate Change Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.

    The study of the uncertainties in future climate projections requires large ensembles of simulations with different values of model characteristics that define its response to external forcing. These characteristic include ...

  9. Quick evaluation of multiple geostatistical models using upscaling with coarse grids: A practical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemouzy, P.

    1997-08-01

    In field delineation phase, uncertainty in hydrocarbon reservoir descriptions is large. To quickly examine the impact of this uncertainty on production performance, it is necessary to evaluate a large number of descriptions in relation to possible production methods (well spacing, injection rate, etc.). The method of using coarse upscaled models was first proposed by Ballin. Unlike other methods (connectivity analysis, tracer simulations), it considers parameters such as PVT, well management, etc. After a detailed review of upscaling issues, applications to water-injection cases (either with balance or imbalance of production, with or without aquifer) and to depletion of an oil reservoir with aquifer coning are presented. Much more important than the method of permeability upscaling far from wells, the need of correct upscaling of numerical well representation is pointed out Methods are proposed to accurately represent fluids volumes in coarse models. Simple methods to upscale relative permeabilities, and methods to efficiently correct numerical dispersion are proposed. Good results are obtained for water injection. The coarse upscaling method allows the performance of sensitivity analyses on model parameters at a much lower CPU cost than comprehensive simulations. Models representing extreme behaviors can be easily distinguished. For depletion of an oil reservoir showing aquifer coning, however, the method did not work property. It is our opinion that further research is required for upscaling close to wells. We therefore recombined this method for practical use in the case of water injection.

  10. Evaluation Study for Large Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Designs Using Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2009-05-01

    Addresses battery requirements for electric vehicles using a model that evaluates physical-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries, from atomic variations to vehicle interface controls.

  11. Evaluation of atmospheric transport models for use in Phase II of the historical public exposures studies at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; Killough, G.G.; Till, J.E.

    1999-08-01

    Five atmospheric transport models were evaluated for use in Phase II of the Historical Public Exposures Studies at the Rocky Flats Plant. Models included a simple straight-line Gaussian plume model (ISCST2), several integrated puff models (RATCHET, TRIAD, and INPUFF2), and a complex terrain model (TRAC). Evaluations were based on how well model predictions compared with sulfur hexafluoride tracer measurements taken in the vicinity of Rocky Flats in February 1991. Twelve separate tracer experiments were conducted, each lasting 9 hr and measured at 140 samplers in arcs 8 and 16 km from the release point at Rocky Flats. Four modeling objectives were defined based on the endpoints of the overall study: (1) the unpaired maximum hourly average concentration, (2) paired time-averaged concentration, (3) unpaired time-averaged concentration, and (4) arc-integrated concentration. Performance measures were used to evaluate models and focused on the geometric mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-observed ratio and the correlation coefficient between predicted and observed concentrations. No one model consistently outperformed the others in all modeling objectives and performance measures. The overall performance of the RATCHET model was somewhat better than the other models.

  12. Climate Models and Their Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, Jason E.

    8 Climate Models and Their Evaluation Coordinating Lead Authors: David A. Randall (USA), Richard A and Their Evaluation. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M

  13. Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM) Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model (GETEM) Development Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM) Development Project objective: Provide a tool for estimating the performance and...

  14. Assessing the CAM5 Physics Suite in the WRF-Chem Model: Implementation, Resolution Sensitivity, and a First Evaluation for a Regional Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-05-06

    A suite of physical parameterizations (deep and shallow convection, turbulent boundary layer, aerosols, cloud microphysics, and cloud fraction) from the global climate model Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) has been implemented in the regional model Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry (WRF-Chem). A downscaling modeling framework with consistent physics has also been established in which both global and regional simulations use the same emissions and surface fluxes. The WRF-Chem model with the CAM5 physics suite is run at multiple horizontal resolutions over a domain encompassing the northern Pacific Ocean, northeast Asia, and northwest North America for April 2008 when the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ISDAC field campaigns took place. These simulations are evaluated against field campaign measurements, satellite retrievals, and ground-based observations, and are compared with simulations that use a set of common WRF-Chem Parameterizations. This manuscript describes the implementation of the CAM5 physics suite in WRF-Chem provides an overview of the modeling framework and an initial evaluation of the simulated meteorology, clouds, and aerosols, and quantifies the resolution dependence of the cloud and aerosol parameterizations. We demonstrate that some of the CAM5 biases, such as high estimates of cloud susceptibility to aerosols and the underestimation of aerosol concentrations in the Arctic, can be reduced simply by increasing horizontal resolution. We also show that the CAM5 physics suite performs similarly to a set of parameterizations commonly used in WRF-Chem, but produces higher ice and liquid water condensate amounts and near-surface black carbon concentration. Further evaluations that use other mesoscale model parameterizations and perform other case studies are needed to infer whether one parameterization consistently produces results more consistent with observations.

  15. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with the FLUENT{trademark} codes. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along the flow paths from the material feed inlet. The modeling results show that when the two-stage agitator consisting of a 45{sup o} pitched propeller and radial flat-plate blades is run at 140 rpm speed with 28 in diameter, the agitator provides an adequate stirring of the feed materials for a wide range of yield stresses (1 to 21 Pa) and the vortex system is shed into the remote region of the tank boundary by the blade passage in an efficient way. The results of this modeling study were used to develop the design guidelines for the agitator stirring and dispersion of the Saltstone feed materials in a hopper tank.

  16. Confidence Measures for Evaluating Pronunciation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Gethin; Renals, Steve

    In this paper, we investigate the use of confidence measures for the evaluation of pronunciation models and the employment of these evaluations in an automatic baseform learning process. The confidence measures and ...

  17. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  18. GETEM -Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    guide to providing input to GETEM, the Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model. GETEM is designed to help the Geothermal Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of...

  19. Extremal Financial Risk Models and Portfolio Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengjun

    Extremal Financial Risk Models and Portfolio Evaluation Zhengjun Zhang Department of Statistics assets. An important application of the proposed method is to calculate VaRs (Value at Risk) and evaluate, financial risk, portfolio evaluation. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 60G70, 62G32, 62P20. 0 #12

  20. Recommendations concerning energy information model documentation, public access, and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David O.

    1979-01-01

    In this study we provide an analysis of the factors underlying Congressional concern regarding model documentation, policies for public access, and evaluation procedures of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and ...

  1. Model based dependability evaluation for automotive control functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlingloff, Holger

    Model based dependability evaluation for automotive control functions Sasa Vulinovic 1 , Bernd@informatik.hu-berlin.de Abstract In this paper, we study the evaluation of reliability for embedded functions in automotive. In order to assess fault tolerant designs for automotive software it is essential to be able to predict

  2. Construction and Evaluation of Actuarial Models Exam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOA USER

    2012-10-10

    The Construction and Evaluation of Actuarial Models exam is called Exam C by the SOA and. Exam 4 by the CAS. This three-and-a-half hour exam consists of...

  3. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  4. An Evaluation of Unsaturated Flow Models in an Arid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, J.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two unsaturated flow models in arid regions. The area selected for the study was the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. The two models selected for this evaluation were HYDRUS-1D [Simunek et al., 1998] and the SHAW model [Flerchinger and Saxton, 1989]. Approximately 5 years of soil-water and atmospheric data collected from an instrumented weighing lysimeter site near the RWMS were used for building the models with actual initial and boundary conditions representative of the site. Physical processes affecting the site and model performance were explored. Model performance was based on a detailed sensitivity analysis and ultimately on storage comparisons. During the process of developing descriptive model input, procedures for converting hydraulic parameters for each model were explored. In addition, the compilation of atmospheric data collected at the site became a useful tool for developing predictive functions for future studies. The final model results were used to evaluate the capacities of the HYDRUS and SHAW models for predicting soil-moisture movement and variable surface phenomena for bare soil conditions in the arid vadose zone. The development of calibrated models along with the atmospheric and soil data collected at the site provide useful information for predicting future site performance at the RWMS.

  5. Development of a Thermoacoustic Model for Evaluating Passive Damping Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehman, Syed; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2005-01-01

    The calculation of thermoacoustic oscillations. J. Sound008 "Development of a Thermoacoustic Model for EvaluatingDevelopment of a Thermoacoustic Model for Evaluating Passive

  6. Models and Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Models and Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs Webinar Models and Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs Webinar May...

  7. WMC Database Evaluation. Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palounek, Andrea P. T

    2015-10-29

    The WMC Database is ultimately envisioned to hold a collection of experimental data, design information, and information from computational models. This project was a first attempt at using the Database to access experimental data and extract information from it. This evaluation shows that the Database concept is sound and robust, and that the Database, once fully populated, should remain eminently usable for future researchers.

  8. Evaluation of a Vector Hypercube for Seismic Modelling Seismic modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaut, Rosemary

    Evaluation of a Vector Hypercube for Seismic Modelling Abstract Seismic modelling is a computationally to produce realistic seismic traces intensive problem. A 2D syn- Rosemary Renautt and Johnny equation is the first step in the generation of a synthetic seismogram as an aid in the interpretation

  9. OUTDOOR PV PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THREE DIFFERENT MODELS: SINGLE-DIODE, SAPM AND LOSS FACTOR MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OUTDOOR PV PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THREE DIFFERENT MODELS: SINGLE-DIODE, SAPM AND LOSS FACTOR.steveransome.com ABSTRACT: This study examines the accuracy and value of three different PV module performance modeling. The equivalent circuit diode models (e.g., PVsyst, PV*SOL, CEC, etc.) are popular, but include technology

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF CLOUD REGIMES FOR SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF CLOUD MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ESTABLISHMENT OF CLOUD REGIMES FOR SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF CLOUD MODELING Wuyin Lin1 , Yangang Liu Distinct cloud regimes can exist locally and globally. Such cloud regimes usually have close association, the classification of cloud regimes may be based on cloud properties and/or meteorological conditions. This study

  11. Development, evaluation, and design applications of an AMTEC converter model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Cliff Alan

    2002-01-01

    An AMTEC converter model was developed and its effectiveness as a design tool was evaluated. To develop the model, requirements of the model were defined, modeling equations were selected, and a methodology for model development was established...

  12. Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using Arm Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Continuous Evaluation of Fast...

  13. Study of vorticity in an exact rotating hydro model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. P. Csernai; J. H. Inderhaug

    2015-03-11

    We study a semianalytic exact solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions, and evaluate some observable signs of the rotation.

  14. Study of vorticity in an exact rotating hydro model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csernai, L P

    2015-01-01

    We study a semianalytic exact solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions, and evaluate some observable signs of the rotation.

  15. Checklist for Managing a General Program Evaluation Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This checklist for managing a general program evaluation study provides action items covering the following topics: initial planning; evaluation design and procurement; implementation of study;...

  16. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies-- Appendix 9

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lessons learned from critiques of past EERE evaluation studies are provided to help improve the planning, design, and conduct of EERE evaluation studies.

  17. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Development of model evaluation criteria. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the usefulness and effectiveness of currently existing models that simulate the release of uranium hexafluoride from UF{sub 6}-handling facilities, subsequent reactions of UF{sub 6} with atmospheric moisture, and the dispersion of UF{sub 6} and reaction products in the atmosphere. The study evaluates screening-level and detailed public-domain models that were specifically developed for UF{sub 6} and models that were originally developed for the treatment of dense gases but are applicable to UF{sub 6} release, reaction, and dispersion. The model evaluation process is divided into three specific tasks: model-component evaluation; applicability evaluation; and user interface and quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) evaluation. Within the model-component evaluation process, a model`s treatment of source term, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion are considered and model predictions are compared with actual observations. Within the applicability evaluation process, a model`s applicability to Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis, and to site-specific considerations are assessed. Finally, within the user interface and QA/QC evaluation process, a model`s user-friendliness, presence and clarity of documentation, ease of use, etc. are assessed, along with its handling of QA/QC. This document presents the complete methodology used in the evaluation process.

  18. Evaluation of Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and 6) coupled thermal-mechanical (TM) and thermo-hydrological (TH) modeling in salt. Evaluation of Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Implications to EBS...

  19. Modeling for System Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orwig, K. D.

    2012-05-01

    This presentation describes some the data requirements needed for grid integration modeling and provides real-world examples of such data and its format. Renewable energy integration studies evaluate the operational impacts of variable generation. Transmission planning studies investigate where new transmission is needed to transfer energy from generation sources to load centers. Both use time-synchronized wind and solar energy production and load as inputs. Both examine high renewable energy penetration scenarios in the future.

  20. Using Hidden Markov Models to Evaluate the Risks of Intrusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigna, Giovanni

    Using Hidden Markov Models to Evaluate the Risks of Intrusions System Architecture and Model limited to manual risk evaluations that are not suitable for real-time use. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate network and system risk. These approaches are generally limited to manual processes

  1. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; Hyun, Sinjae

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code in the parallel computing platform in Mercer University. Recommended operational guidance was developed assuming that local shear rates and flow patterns related to radial spread along the SDU floor can be used as a measure of grout performance and spatial dispersion affected by the grout height and viscosity. The 5 ft height baseline results show that when the 150 gpm grout flow with a 5 Pa yield stress and a 60 cp viscosity is poured down through a 3 inch discharge port, the grout is spread radially up to about 64 ft distance from the pouring center after 2 hours' pouring time. The air volume fraction of the grout layer is about 29% at 5 minutes' transient time, and it is reduced by about 9% in 2 hours' pouring time, resulting in the grout density consisting of about 80% grout and 20% air volume fractions. The sensitivity results show that when the discharge port is located at a higher position, a larger amount of air is trapped inside the layer formed below the discharge port at the early transient time of less than 30 minutes because of the higher impinging momentum of the grout flow on the floor, resulting in the formation of less smooth layer. The results clearly indicate that the radial spread for the 43 ft discharge port is about 10% faster than that of the 5 ft discharge port for the early transient period of 5 minutes. However, for the pouring time longer than half an hour, the discharge port height does not affect the radial distance spread on the disposal floor. When grout quality is related to grout volume fraction, the grout volume fraction for the 43 ft discharge port has lower volume fraction than the 5 ft discharge port for the transient period of the first 5 minutes. However, for the pouring time longer than half an hour, the discharge port height does not affect the grout volume fraction for the layer accumulated on the disposal floor. A modified Bingham plastic model coupled with time-dependent viscosity behavior was developed for conducting the initial scoping calculations to assess the impact of fluid residence time on radial

  2. Experimental Evaluation of a Model for Oxygen Exchange in a Pulsating Intravascular Artificial Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Experimental Evaluation of a Model for Oxygen Exchange in a Pulsating Intravascular Artificial Lung an intravascular hollow fiber artificial lung that uses a pulsating balloon located within the fiber bundle in pulsating intravascular artificial lungs. In this study we evaluate the O2 exchange model with gas exchange

  3. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies-- Appendix 10

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a model evaluation plan that is typical but also flexible. Its elements may be grouped differently or placed in a different order.

  4. A Model to Evaluate Online Educational Resources in Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ooms, Ann; Garfield, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Improving Online Educational Resources. Doctoral Thesis,Model to Evaluate Online Educational Resources in Statisticsusing online educational resources has steadily increased.

  5. Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper Compounds Under Steam Generation Conditions The loss in efficiency of power plants with mixed metallurgy,...

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Temporary Covered Nitinol Stent Placement in the Prostatic Urethra: Short-Term Study in the Canine Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisostomo, Veronica [Avda. de la Universidad, s/n Campus Universitario, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center (Spain)], E-mail: crisosto@ccmi.es; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan Collage of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Maynar, Manuel; Sun, Fei; Soria, Federico; Lima, Juan Rafael [Avda. de la Universidad, s/n Campus Universitario, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center (Spain); Yoon, Chang Jin [Bundang Hospital Seoul, Republic of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Uson-Gargallo, Jesus [Avda. de la Universidad, s/n Campus Universitario, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of temporary stent placement on the canine prostatic urethra. Methods. Retrievable PTFE-covered nitinol stents were placed in the prostatic urethras of 8 beagle dogs under fluoroscopic guidance. Retrograde urethrography was obtained before and after stenting. Retrograde urethrography and endoscopy were performed 1 and 2 months after deployment. The endoscopic degree of hyperplasia was rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (0 absence, 4 = occlusion). On day 60, stents were removed and urethrography was performed immediately before euthanasia. Pathologic analysis was performed to determine the degree of glandular atrophy, periurethral fibrosis, and urethral dilation. Results. Stent deployment was technically successful in 7 animals, and failed in 1 dog due to a narrow urethral lumen. Complete migration was seen in 2 animals at 1 month, and an additional stent was deployed. On day 30, endoscopy showed slight hyperplasia (grade 1) in 3 animals. On day 60, moderate hyperplasia (grade 2) was evidenced in 4 cases. No impairment of urinary flow was seen during follow-up. Retrieval was technically easy to perform, and was successful in all dogs. The major histologic findings were chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates; prostate glandular atrophy, with a mean value of 1.86 (SD 0.90); periurethral fibrosis, with a mean ratio of 29.37 (SD 10.41); and dilatation of the prostatic urethra, with a mean ratio of 6.75 (SD 3.22). Conclusion. Temporary prostatic stent placement in dogs is safe and feasible, causing marked enlargement of the prostatic urethral lumen. Retrievable covered stents may therefore be an option for bladder outlet obstruction management in men.

  7. What is the Recent Controversy in Evaluating Risk Prediction Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brent, Roger

    What is the Recent Controversy in Evaluating Risk Prediction Models All About? Margaret Sullivan Pepe #12;Controversy about Risk Reclassification Techniques Purpose: To evaluate the addition cases controls C-index = P(riskevent > risknonevent) Should not be used to evaluate or compare risk

  8. Decision Analytic Modelling in the Economic Evaluation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    Decision Analytic Modelling in the Economic Evaluation of Health Technologies A Consensus Statement when used for the economic evaluation of health technologies; there is limited guidanceforgoodmodelling developed in the context of broader healthcare and economic evaluations, for which ex- plicit guidelines

  9. High performance APCS conceptual design and evaluation scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, N.; Liekhus, K.; Chambers, A.; Anderson, G.

    1998-02-01

    This Air Pollution Control System (APCS) Conceptual Design and Evaluation study was conducted to evaluate a high-performance (APC) system for minimizing air emissions from mixed waste thermal treatment systems. Seven variations of high-performance APCS designs were conceptualized using several design objectives. One of the system designs was selected for detailed process simulation using ASPEN PLUS to determine material and energy balances and evaluate performance. Installed system capital costs were also estimated. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the incremental cost and benefit of added carbon adsorber beds for mercury control, specific catalytic reduction for NO{sub x} control, and offgas retention tanks for holding the offgas until sample analysis is conducted to verify that the offgas meets emission limits. Results show that the high-performance dry-wet APCS can easily meet all expected emission limits except for possibly mercury. The capability to achieve high levels of mercury control (potentially necessary for thermally treating some DOE mixed streams) could not be validated using current performance data for mercury control technologies. The engineering approach and ASPEN PLUS modeling tool developed and used in this study identified APC equipment and system performance, size, cost, and other issues that are not yet resolved. These issues need to be addressed in feasibility studies and conceptual designs for new facilities or for determining how to modify existing facilities to meet expected emission limits. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation with current and refined input assumptions and calculations can be used to provide system performance information for decision-making, identifying best options, estimating costs, reducing the potential for emission violations, providing information needed for waste flow analysis, incorporating new APCS technologies in existing designs, or performing facility design and permitting activities.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Bioenergetics Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    189 Preliminary Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Bioenergetics Model Charles whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model by applying the model to size-at-age data for lake bioenergetics model with previously published estimates of GGE for bloater (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan

  11. Climate change uncertainty evaluation, impacts modelling and resilience of farm scale dynamics in Scotland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivington, Michael

    2011-06-28

    This Thesis explored a range of approaches to study the uncertainty and impacts associated with climate change at the farm scale in Scotland. The research objective was to use a process of uncertainty evaluation and simulation modelling to provide...

  12. Evaluation of a theoretical model of perceptual accuracy and self-management behavior in pediatric diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, Mariella Marie

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluated a model of perceptual accuracy and self-management behavior in pediatric diabetes. Participants were 169 children and adolescents (10-18 years) attending diabetes summer camps. Error grid analysis quantified global perceptual...

  13. Tropical precipitation simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3): an evaluation based on TRMM satellite measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Jonathan Craig

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluates the simulation of tropical precipitation by the Community Climate Model, Version 3, developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. For an evaluation of the annual cycle of precipitation, ...

  14. Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project March 2012. [1] Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared and Assimilation System models. Citation: Johnson, M., et al. (2012), Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness

  15. Hybrid fuzzy and optimal modeling for water quality evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dong; Singh, Vijay P.; Zhu, Yuansheng

    2007-05-08

    modeling for water quality evaluation Dong Wang, 1 Vijay P. Singh, 2 and Yuansheng Zhu 3 Received 1 September 2006; revised 16 December 2006; accepted 19 January 2007; published 8 May 2007. [1] Water quality evaluation entails both randomness and fuzziness..., the proposed models are flexible and adaptable for diagnosing the eutrophic status. Citation: Wang, D., V. P. Singh, and Y. Zhu (2007), Hybrid fuzzy and optimal modeling for water quality evaluation, Water Resour. Res., 43, W05415, doi:10.1029/2006WR005490. 1...

  16. An Integrative Framework of Model Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonifay, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    log-odds ratio differences between the 11 PISA mathematicsfit plots of each of the PISA mathematics items. The redunidimensional 3PL model of the PISA data . . . 112 Bayesian

  17. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M.; Newbery, J.D.H.

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  18. Multi-perspective Evaluation of Self-Healing Systems Using Simple Probabilistic Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Javier

    Politcnica de Catalunya alonso@ac.upc.edu ABSTRACT In this paper we construct an evaluation framework for mitigating these limitations in system-deployments. Whereas we use VM-Rejuv as the subject of our evaluation there are a number of well-studied modeling formalisms and associated an- alytical techniques that can be used

  19. An evaluation of the ORNL residential energy use model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the architecture, empirical foundation, and applications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) residential energy use model. A particular effort is made to identify the strengths ...

  20. WIND POWER SIMULATION MODEL FOR RELIABILITY EVALUATION Rajesh Karki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    WIND POWER SIMULATION MODEL FOR RELIABILITY EVALUATION Rajesh Karki Rajesh.Karki@usask.ca Po Hu poh The rapidly increasing contribution of wind power to electric power generation around the world has motivated a need to develop more widely applicable methodologies for evaluating the actual benefits of adding wind

  1. Modeling Micro-Scale Park-Cooling Effects Within the ASU Campus: An Evaluation of the Envi-Met Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Modeling Micro-Scale Park-Cooling Effects Within the ASU Campus: An Evaluation of the Envi-documented through measurements by temperature sensors (e.g. Spronken-Smith and Oke 1998); however, modeling. This is contingent on model evaluations with observed data under different conditions and urban contexts. This study

  2. The Development of Goat Models to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Negative Pressure in Promoting Tissue Ingrowth into Porous Metal Implants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamping, Jeffrey William

    2012-05-31

    The repair of large segmental bone defects is problematic with a high risk of infection, large amounts of soft tissue damage, and fracture stabilization difficulties. This preliminary study evaluates three large animal caprine models. These models...

  3. CONTROL-RELEVANT SOFC MODELING AND MODEL EVALUATION Rambabu Kandepu, Lars Imsland, Bjarne A. Foss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    CONTROL-RELEVANT SOFC MODELING AND MODEL EVALUATION Rambabu Kandepu, Lars Imsland, Bjarne A. Foss, a dynamic, lumped model of a Solide Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is described, as a step towards developing control relevant models for a SOFC integrated in a gas turbine process. Several such lumped models can

  4. AN INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDY ON SOA QUALITY EVALUATION Riad Belkhatir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Distinguishing itself from the competition. (iv) Leading to certifications (standards). (v) Preventing any future for the evaluation of software quality, the ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001 [1] (which has recently been updated to the SQuaRE standard ISO/IEC 25010:2011 [2]) serves as a basis for our work. Correlatively, we work with a model

  5. The Unified Approach for Model Evaluation in Structural Equation Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud

    2014-08-31

    hypothesized model M. The discrepancy (FM) between the two means and covariance matrices can be computed using Equation 1.1 (Kenny & McCoach, 2003): FM = tr { ? [?M] ?1 } ? log ? ? ?? [?M] ?1 ? ? ??N +[ ?M]? [?M]?1 [ ?M] , (1.1) where N is sample size. FM...- crepancy function is defined by Equation 1.2 (Browne & Cudeck, 1992; Satorra & Saris, 1985; Saris & Satorra, 1993): ?M = (N?1)FM. (1.2) That is, the discrepancy value can be calculated by dividing the chi-square value by sample size minus 1. Most fit...

  6. General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies Zhao Cheng, Mark Perillo, and Wendi B. Heinzelman, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In multihop wireless sensor to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. Sensors closer to a data sink are usually required

  7. ENHANCED CLOUD REGIME CLASSIFICATION FOR EVALUATION OF MODEL FAST PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENHANCED CLOUD REGIME CLASSIFICATION FOR EVALUATION OF MODEL FAST PHYSICS Wuyin Lin1 , Yangang Liu1 of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 ABSTRACT Distinct cloud regimes exist locally and globally helps identify the meteorological conditions that are closely associated with specific cloud regimes

  8. Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Robert J [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

  9. Centroid-based summarization of multiple documents: sentence extraction, utility-based evaluation, and user studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    document summaries. Finally, we describe two user studies that test our models of multi relevance, or language generation. Finally, evaluation of multi-document summaries is a difficult problem.ibm.com Abstract We present a multi-document summarizer, called MEAD, which generates summaries using cluster

  10. Centroidbased summarization of multiple documents: sentence extraction, utilitybased evaluation, and user studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radev, Dragomir R.

    document summaries. Finally, we describe two user studies that test our models of multi relevance, or language generation. Finally, evaluation of multidocument summaries is a difficult problem.ibm.com Abstract We present a multidocument summarizer, called MEAD, which generates summaries using cluster

  11. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  12. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  13. Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

    2007-06-06

    This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a states nuclear program. Evaluation of a countrys nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

  14. Research Article Study and Evaluation of Innovative Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is properly cited. he research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium-cooled fast reactorResearch Article Study and Evaluation of Innovative Fuel Handling Systems for Sodium-Cooled Fast (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) sets out to demonstrate advances

  15. Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program evaluation: case studies. Volume III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    A non-random sample of the Appropriate Technology Program grantees was selected to ensure that the basic goals of the evaluation study were met. Case studies of selected outstanding projects could provide with respect to the Program dynamics associated with success. It was believed that the non-random case study approach would assist us in assessing which approaches have the potential to impact a reduction in our nation's use of non-renewal energy. From this group of projects, 20 projects were selected to highlight in a case study format which illustrates the various types of projects approaches the Program supported.

  16. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 34 Table 6. Selection of Evaluation Research Design for Impact Evaluations... 35 Table 7. Example:...

  17. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  18. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Details and explains the 5 types of general program evaluations. Provides guidance on selecting the appropriate type of evaluation, and offers clean advice on managing the selected evaluation.

  19. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies-- Appendix 11

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Evaluation Association developed the ethical principles in this Appendix to guide the professional practice of evaluators. EERE expects evaluation experts who perform general program evaluations of its programs to be governed by these principles.

  20. An Energy Model for Simulation Studies of Wireless Sensor Networks using OMNeT++

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    An Energy Model for Simulation Studies of Wireless Sensor Networks using OMNeT++ Feng Chen, Isabel for the simulation frame- work OMNeT++. The model allows to accurately evaluate the energy performance (in terms Simulation is frequently used to evaluate the performance of networking algorithms and techniques in wireless

  1. BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Chris Lindsey; Vitali Lissianski

    2000-01-28

    This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the ninth reporting period (September 27--December 31, 1999), EER prepared a paper Kinetic Model of Biomass Reburning and submitted it for publication and presentation at the 28th Symposium (International) on Combustion, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, July 30--August 4, 2000. Antares Group Inc, under contract to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, evaluated the economic feasibility of biomass reburning options for Dunkirk Station. A preliminary report is included in this quarterly report.

  2. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  3. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson; Polly, Ben; Collis, Jon

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  4. Influence of FRAPCON-1 evaluation models on fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, R.; Laats, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary set of nine evaluation models (EMs) was added to the FRAPCON-1 computer code, which is used to calculate fuel rod behavior in a nuclear reactor during steady-state operation. The intent was to provide an audit code to be used in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing activities when calculations of conservative fuel rod temperatures are required. The EMs place conservatisms on the calculation of rod temperature by modifying the calculation of rod power history, fuel and cladding behavior models, and materials properties correlations. Three of the nine EMs provide either input or model specifications, or set the reference temperature for stored energy calculations. The remaining six EMs were intended to add thermal conservatism through model changes. To determine the relative influence of these six EMs upon fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors, a sensitivity study was conducted. That study is the subject of this paper.

  5. Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics K. Matsumoto,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drange, Helge

    Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics K. Matsumoto,1 J. L. Sarmiento,2 R), Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07303, doi:10 of quantitative, data-based metrics of model skill. Further complications arise because models have different

  6. Multiple regression models: A methodology for evaluating trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    Multiple regression models: A methodology for evaluating trihalomethane concentrations in drinking of these substances on human health. A multiple regression model was developed to estimate THM concentrations Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Multiple regression model; Trihalomethanes; Drinking water

  7. Evaluation of a mathematical model in predicting intake of growing and finishing cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourg, Brandi Marie

    2009-05-15

    energy (ME) value was conducted. A meta-analysis of growing and finishing steers evaluated to models accuracy in predicting DMR of individually fed steers, and the relationships between several model-predicted variables and actual performance...

  8. Evaluation of per-record identification risk by additive modeling of interaction for contingency table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takemura, Akimichi

    Evaluation of per-record identification risk by additive modeling of interaction for contingency. Introduction In evaluating the disclosure risk of a given microdata set, the number (or the pro- portion, it is likely to be a population unique. One way of evaluating the per-record identification risk is modeling

  9. PET: A PErsonalized Trust Model with Reputation and Risk Evaluation for P2P Resource Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Weisong

    PET: A PErsonalized Trust Model with Reputation and Risk Evaluation for P2P Resource Sharing the construction of a good cooperation, especially in the context of economic-based solutions for the P2P resource sharing. The trust model consists of two parts: reputation evaluation and risk evaluation. Reputation

  10. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid: A Stochastic Model Checking Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Zhu, Huibiao; Huang, Heqing

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology functions to the physical elements of a system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues that require novel methods and applications. In this context, an important issue is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this technical report, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker.

  11. Design of a test apparatus to study a proposed dynamic tissue puncture model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Kathleen Marie

    2013-01-01

    Two test apparatuses were designed, built, and evaluated in order to study a proposed dynamic tissue puncture model. The test apparatuses were designed to improve existing experiments used previously to experimentally ...

  12. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  13. The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Daskalakis, N. [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Patras (Greece); Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Kanakidou, M. [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; ; Adams, P. J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy; Artaxo, Paulo [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept of Applied Physics; Bahadur, R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Balkanski, Y. [Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bauer, S. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Bellouin, N. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Benedetti, Angela [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Bergman, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Berntsen, T. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geosciences; CICERO, Oslo (Norway); Beukes, J. P. [North-West Univ., Potchestroom (South Africa). Environmental Sciences and Management; Bian, Huisheng [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD (United States). Joint Center for Environmental Technology; Carslaw, K. S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Chin, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Curci, Gabriele [Univ. of L'Aquila (Italy). Dept of Physics CETEMPS; Diehl, Thomas [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Easter, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gong, S. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto (Canada). Air Quality Research Branch; Hodzic, Alma [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoyle, Christopher R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) - Inst. for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF), Davos (Switzerland); Iversen, T. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geosciences; Norwegian Meteorological Inst., Oslo (Norway); Jathar, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Jimenez, J. L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Kaiser, J. W. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); King's College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry; ; Kirkevag, A. [Norwegian Meteorological Inst., Oslo (Norway); Koch, Dorothy [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Kokkola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Lee, Y. H. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lin, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Science; Liu, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Luo, Gan [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Ma, Xiaoyan [Environment Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mann, G. W. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). National Centre for Atmospheric Science and School of Earth and Environment; Mihalopoulos, Nikos [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; Morcrette, J. -J. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Muller, J. F. [Belgian Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Myhre, G. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO), Oslo (Norway)

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) occurrence in the troposphere and analyzes the differences calculated between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA/OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34 - 144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio of is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a-1 (range 28-209 Tg a-1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition.

  14. Advanced Reactor Innovation Evaluation Study (ARIES) Properties Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARIES stands for Advanced Reactor Innovation Evaluation Study. It is a program and a team that explores the commercial potential of fusion as an energy resource. Though it is a multi-institutional program, ARIES is led by the University of California at San Diego. ARIES studies both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE), using an approach that integrates theory, experiments, and technology. The ARIES team proposes fusion reactor designs and works to understand how technology, materials and plasma physics processes interact and influence each other. A 2005 report to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee ("Scientific Challenges, Opportunities, and Priorities for the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program") noted on page 98 an example of the importance of this materials properties aspect: "For instance, effects on plasma edge by various plasma facing materials and effects on various plasma stabilization and control techniques by highly conducting liquid metal blankets are being considered by physicists." This web page is an archive of material properties collected here for the use of the ARIES Fusion Power Plant Studies Team.

  15. EMGRIE : Ergonomic Microgesture Recognition and Interaction Evaluation, a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Way, David (David H.)

    2014-01-01

    Given the recent success of hand pose gesture recognition via wrist-worn camera based sensors, specific hand pose interaction evaluation is needed. In order to evaluate such interactions, we built EMGRIE: a quick-prototype ...

  16. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies-- Appendix 8

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Statement of Work (SOW) for a general program evaluation consists of a description of the objectives of the evaluation and specifications on how the objectives should be achieved.

  17. An evaluation of models for diotic and dichotic detection in reproducible noises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Laurel H.

    An evaluation of models for diotic and dichotic detection in reproducible noises Sean A. Davidson psychophysical models for masked detection were evaluated using reproducible noises. The data were hit and false deviations of interaural time and level differences; however, these models offered no predictions for noise

  18. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of...

  19. Seasonal versus Episodic Performance Evaluation for an Eulerian Photochemical Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Brown, Nancy J.; Harley, Robert A.; Bao, Jian-Wen; Michelson, Sara A; Wilczak, James M

    2010-04-16

    This study presents detailed evaluation of the seasonal and episodic performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system applied to simulate air quality at a fine grid spacing (4 km horizontal resolution) in central California, where ozone air pollution problems are severe. A rich aerometric database collected during the summer 2000 Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) is used to prepare model inputs and to evaluate meteorological simulations and chemical outputs. We examine both temporal and spatial behaviors of ozone predictions. We highlight synoptically driven high-ozone events (exemplified by the four intensive operating periods (IOPs)) for evaluating both meteorological inputs and chemical outputs (ozone and its precursors) and compare them to the summer average. For most of the summer days, cross-domain normalized gross errors are less than 25% for modeled hourly ozone, and normalized biases are between {+-}15% for both hourly and peak (1 h and 8 h) ozone. The domain-wide aggregated metrics indicate similar performance between the IOPs and the whole summer with respect to predicted ozone and its precursors. Episode-to-episode differences in ozone predictions are more pronounced at a subregional level. The model performs consistently better in the San Joaquin Valley than other air basins, and episodic ozone predictions there are similar to the summer average. Poorer model performance (normalized peak ozone biases <-15% or >15%) is found in the Sacramento Valley and the Bay Area and is most noticeable in episodes that are subject to the largest uncertainties in meteorological fields (wind directions in the Sacramento Valley and timing and strength of onshore flow in the Bay Area) within the boundary layer.

  20. Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity 7 April 2007. [1] Groundwater interacts with soil moisture through the exchanges of water between, groundwater is not explicitly represented in climate models. This paper developed a simple groundwater model

  1. An Eta-model output study of frontogenesis conditions favoring development of a troposphere-spanning front

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Jeffrey Paul

    1999-01-01

    the formation of a troposphere spanning front, tilting, confluent and shear deformation terms of the Petterssen and other applicable frontogenesis equations were evaluated utilizing numerical model output of the Eta model. The outcome of this study indicates...

  2. Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: Evaluation of SNL-SWAN and Sensitivity Studies in Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Magalen, Jason; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    A modified version of an indust ry standard wave modeling tool was evaluated, optimized, and utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters a nd wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deployment scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that wave direction and WEC device type we r e most sensitive to the variation in the model parameters examined in this study . Generally, the changes in wave height we re the primary alteration caused by the presence of a WEC array. Specifically, W EC device type and subsequently their size directly re sult ed in wave height variations; however, it is important to utilize ongoing laboratory studies and future field tests to determine the most appropriate power matrix values for a particular WEC device and configuration in order to improve modeling results .

  3. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  4. Algebra of systems: A metalanguage for model synthesis and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Benjamin H. Y.

    This paper represents system models as algebraic entities and formulates model transformation activities as algebraic operations. We call this modeling framework ldquoalgebra of systemsrdquo (AoS). To show that AoS can ...

  5. Evaluation of the Suitability of Polarimetric Scattering and Emissivity Models with Scene Generation Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gartley, Michael G.

    Evaluation of the Suitability of Polarimetric Scattering and Emissivity Models with Scene models and hardware based infrared scene projectors commonly utilize analytical forms of polarized bi, polarimetric imaging sensors and payloads can benefit greatly from polarization capable synthetic image

  6. An evaluation of finite element models of stiffened plates subjected to impulsive loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedatzur, Omri

    2004-01-01

    Different finite element models are evaluated for two very common structures, a cantilever beam and a stiffened plate, subjected to impulsive loading. For the cantilever beam case, the finite element models are one, two ...

  7. Using designer confidence and a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation tool to evaluate uncertainty in system models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Jeffrey M. (Jeffrey Michael), 1973-

    2000-01-01

    As the use of distributed engineering models becomes more prevalent, engineers need tools to evaluate the quality of these models and understand how subsystem uncertainty affects predictions of system behavior. This thesis ...

  8. The ICF, Inc. coal and electric utilities model : an analysis and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David O.

    1981-01-01

    v.1. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is sponsoring a series of evaluations of important energy policy and electric utility industry models by the MIT Energy Model Analysis Program (EMAP). The subject of this ...

  9. Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, Rafael

    Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering Rafael (IT); Concrete, precast; Economic factors; Three-dimensional models. Introduction "The application to this; but the funda- mental reason undoubtedly was economic." (Mitchell 1977). Intuitive assessments

  10. Phosphorus water quality model evaluation and comparison for natural and constructed wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paasch, Mary Margaret

    1998-01-01

    model, and the detailed ecosystem model, were evaluated at three wetland sites across the U.S. The three sites included: Boney Marsh Experimental Area, Florida; Jackson Bottom Experimental Wetlands, Oregon; and the Des Plaines River Wetland Demonstration...

  11. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for...

  12. HIV virus spread and evolution studied through computer modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HIV and evolution studied through computer modeling HIV virus spread and evolution studied through computer modeling This approach distinguishes between susceptible and infected...

  13. Shell model study of the pairing correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Sheikh; P. A. Ganai; R. P. Singh; R. K. Bhowmick; S. Frauendorf

    2007-12-19

    A systematic study of the pairing correlations as a function of temperature and angular momentum has been performed in the sd-shell region using the spherical shell model approach. The pairing correlations have been derived for even-even, even-odd and odd-odd systems near N=Z and also for the asymmetric case of N=Z+4. The results indicate that the pairing content and the behavior of pair correlations is similar in even-even and odd-mass nuclei. For odd-odd N=Z system, angular momentum I=0 state is an isospin, t=1 neutron-proton paired configuration. Further, these t=1 correlations are shown to be dramatically reduced for the asymmetric case of N=Z+4. The shell model results obtained are qualitatively explained within a simplified degenerate model.

  14. Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pompilio, L. M.; DePaoli, D. W.; Spencer, B. B.

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Labs Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and predictive capability. Recommended improvements include: greater flexibility for input of mass transfer parameters, time-variable gas inlet concentration, direct output of loading and temperature profiles along the bed, and capability to conduct simulations of beds in series.

  15. Evaluation of a Pump and Reeled Hose System for Studying the Vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    545 Evaluation of a Pump and Reeled Hose System for Studying the Vertical Distribution of Small Evaluation of a Pump and Reeled Hose System for Studying the Vertical Distribution of Small Plankton Advantages and limitations of a pump and reeled hose system 8 Literature cited 9 #12;#12;Evaluation of a Pump

  16. Introduction to Model-based Reliability Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    Introduction to Model-based Reliability Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks C. Jaggle J: A high level of reliability is a significant requirement for using wireless sensor networks in industrial environments. Model-based evaluation is usually applied in conventional systems to estimate the reliability

  17. From Performance Evaluation, vol. 24, no. 1, Oct. Nov. 1995. THE UltraSAN MODELING ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, William H.

    ed using stochastic activity networks, a stochastic variant of Petri nets, using a graphical X: Stochastic Petri Nets, Stochastic Activity Networks, Model-Based Evaluation, Per- formance, Dependability 85721 fobal, krisnadig@ece.arizona.edu ABSTRACT Model-based evaluation of computer systems and networks

  18. A Diagnostic Suite of Models for the Evaluation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy Parameterizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    A Diagnostic Suite of Models for the Evaluation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy Parameterizations by S. D of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy Parameterizations written by S. D. Bachman has been approved for the Department and Oceanic Sciences) A Diagnostic Suite of Models for the Evaluation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy

  19. Efficient Models for the Evaluation and Estimation of the Gravity Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, George

    models. Problem Cubed-Sphere Gravity Model Designed for Fast Evaluation Orbit Propagation/FORMOSAT-3 4 #12;The spherical harmonic gravity model dominates force model execution time 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Two-Body + Overhead Precession Nutation Gravity (36x36) Lunar-Solar Drag SRP Jacobian (36x36

  20. EERE Quality Assurance Guidance for General Program Evaluation Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This appendix provides two tables: options for implementing a third party quality assurance review panel; and key evaluation activities that should benefit from a QA review, identifying related QA factors and QA review participants.

  1. Constitutive modelling approach for evaluating the triggering of flow slides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    The paper presents a methodology to evaluate flow slide susceptibility in potentially liquefiable sandy slopes. The proposed approach accounts for both contractive and dilative volumetric behaviour during shearing using ...

  2. Evaluation of an Accounting Model for Dynamic Virtual Organizations Martin Waldburger Matthias Gohner Helmut Reiser Gabi Dreo Rodosek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of an Accounting Model for Dynamic Virtual Organizations Martin Waldburger Matthias Gohner Helmut Reiser Gabi Dreo Rodosek Burkhard Stiller Abstract Accounting of Grid resource and service-oriented computing in Dy- namic Virtual Organizations (DVO). An all-embracing study of existing Grid accounting

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Generalized River/Reservoir System Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.

    2005-01-01

    modeling systems that simulate the storage, flow, and diversion of water in a system of reservoirs and river reaches. Generalized means that a computer modeling system is designed for application to a range of concerns dealing with river basin systems...

  4. Association of macroscopic laboratory testing and micromechanics modelling for the evaluation of the poroelastic parameters of a hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghabezloo, Siavash

    2010-01-01

    The results of a macro-scale experimental study performed on a hardened class G cement paste [Ghabezloo et al. (2008) Cem. Con. Res. (38) 1424-1437] are used in association with the micromechanics modelling and homogenization technique for evaluation of the complete set of poroelastic parameters of the material. The experimental study consisted in drained, undrained and unjacketed isotropic compression tests. Analysis of the experimental results revealed that the active porosity of the studied cement paste is smaller than its total porosity. A multi-scale homogenization model, calibrated on the experimental results, is used to extrapolate the poroelastic parameters to cement pastes prepared with different water-to-cement ratio. The notion of cement paste active porosity is discussed and the poroelastic parameters of hardened cement paste for an ideal, perfectly drained condition are evaluated using the homogenization model.

  5. Association of macroscopic laboratory testing and micromechanics modelling for the evaluation of the poroelastic parameters of a hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siavash Ghabezloo

    2010-06-25

    The results of a macro-scale experimental study performed on a hardened class G cement paste [Ghabezloo et al. (2008) Cem. Con. Res. (38) 1424-1437] are used in association with the micromechanics modelling and homogenization technique for evaluation of the complete set of poroelastic parameters of the material. The experimental study consisted in drained, undrained and unjacketed isotropic compression tests. Analysis of the experimental results revealed that the active porosity of the studied cement paste is smaller than its total porosity. A multi-scale homogenization model, calibrated on the experimental results, is used to extrapolate the poroelastic parameters to cement pastes prepared with different water-to-cement ratio. The notion of cement paste active porosity is discussed and the poroelastic parameters of hardened cement paste for an ideal, perfectly drained condition are evaluated using the homogenization model.

  6. Software Dependability Evaluation Based on Markov Usage Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutjahr, Walter

    for computing optimal state transition probabilities for software tests, based on a Markov usage model; this distribution may also be used in the more general context of structural statistical testing of software, software usage models, software testing. 1 Introduction 1.1 Markov Software Usage Models In the last years

  7. Further evaluations of the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system for the estimation of the fate of atmospheric nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, M.; Gill, S.; Sherwell, J.

    1999-07-01

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system has been used to estimate nitrogen deposition in an area surrounding Baltimore and the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay. Comprehensive NO{sub x} emissions inventories and meteorological data bases have been developed to conduct the modeling. A previous study reported on an evaluation of predicted non-ammonia, inorganic nitrogen wet deposition rates compared to measured rates at two NADP/NTN sites in Maryland. This paper presents the results of an expanded evaluation of the performance of the modeling system. Data collected at a total of 38 monitoring stations located in or near the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, including NADP/NTN, CASTNET, and AIRS sites, have been used to conduct evaluations of the model's ability to predict concentrations of nitric acid, particulate nitrate, and NO{sub x} in addition to wet nitrate deposition. This expanded evaluation has allowed for the testing of additional model technical options in an attempt to improve the performance when compared to measured data. Results of this evaluation are expected to allow for better estimates of the impacts of nitrogen species formed from utility and other anthropogenic sources of NO{sub x} on the environment in Maryland.

  8. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  9. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  10. Neutrons used to study model vascular systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(MillionNature andNeutrinosNeutrons used to study model

  11. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  12. SDU 6 MODELING STUDY TO SUPPORT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.

    2012-05-02

    In response to Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0017 (1), SRNL performed modeling studies to evaluate alternative design features for the 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) referred to as SDU 6. This initial modeling study was intended to assess the performance of major components of the structure that are most significant to the PA. Information provided by the modeling will support the development of a SDU 6 Preliminary Design Model and Recommendation Report to be written by SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority. Key inputs and assumptions for the modeling were provided to SRNL in SRR-SPT-2011-00113 (2). A table reiterates the base case and four sensitivity case studies requested in this reference. In general, as shown in Table 4, when compared to Vault 2 Case A, the Base Case SDU 6 design produced higher peak fluxes to the water table during the 10,000 year period of analysis but lower peak fluxes within a 15,000 to 20,000 time frame. SDU 6 will contain approximately ten times the inventory of a single Vault 2 and the SDU 6 footprint is comparable to that of a group of four Vault 2 disposal units. Therefore, the radionuclide flux from SDU 6 and that from a single Vault 2 are not directly comparable. A more direct comparison would be to compare the maximum dose obtained at the 100 m boundary from the seven SDU's that will replace the 64 FDC's analyzed in the 2009 PA. This analysis will be performed in the next set of calculations planned for SDU design evaluation. Aquifer transport and dose calculations were not intended to be part of this initial scoping study. However, results from this study do indicate that replacement of the FDC design with SDU would not yield significantly higher peak doses. If the thickness of the SDU 6 floor is increased, peak doses would not occur during the 10,000 year period of analysis.

  13. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dufek, Eric J.

    2014-08-28

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF? shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  14. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Dufek

    2014-08-01

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF6 shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  15. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  16. Evaluation of Building Models Ildiko Suveg, George Vosselman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vosselman, George

    . The strategy presented in this paper uses Geographic Information System (GIS) maps and domain knowledge, evaluation function, mutual information, geometric constraints. Abstract This paper presents a knowledge-based approach for automatic 3D building reconstruction. By combining the aerial image analysis with information

  17. Biometrics 61, 3645 Model Evaluation and Spatial Interpolation by Bayesian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    @stat.washington.edu Summary. Constructing maps of dry deposition pollution levels is vital for air quality management, there are two main sources of information for dry deposition levels in the United States: one is pollution by the models. Key words: Air pollution; Deterministic simulation models; Environmental statistics

  18. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JACKSON VL

    2011-08-31

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  19. Boise State University Foundational Studies Review Committee: Course Application Evaluation Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Responsibility: Evaluation (explaining the causes and consequences) of economic policies from an ethical pointBoise State University Foundational Studies Review Committee: Course Application Evaluation Form and evaluate human behavior and institutions. Reasoning, inquiry and problem-solving: Requires the analysis

  20. The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, Angela; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, Huisheng; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, Gabriele; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Gong, S.; Hodzic, Alma; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; Ma, Xiaoyan; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Morcrette, J. -J.; Muller, J. F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, Nga L.; O'Donell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, Lynn; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, O.; Shindell, Drew; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D. V.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Wang, Zaizi; Wang, Zhilli; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) occurrence in the troposphere and analyzes the differences calculated between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA/OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34 - 144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio of is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a-1 (range 28-209 Tg a-1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition.

  1. The Ideal Evaluation of a Risk Prediction Model: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brent, Roger

    The Ideal Evaluation of a Risk Prediction Model: A Randomized Clinical Trial Holly Janes Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1/25 #12;Context Often a risk prediction model is developed to identify high risk subjects who can benefit from preventative therapy E.g. Framingham risk model to identify

  2. Evaluation of Semantic Graph based on Model Checking Mahdi Gueffaz, Sylvain Rampacek and Christophe Nicolle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    floods. Model checking is a powerful tool for system verification because it can reveal errors that were to describe the properties checking the system model. 395 hal-00617998,version1-31Aug2011 Author manuscriptSCALESEM Evaluation of Semantic Graph based on Model Checking Mahdi Gueffaz, Sylvain Rampacek

  3. NOISE ADAPTIVE SPEECH RECOGNITION WITH ACOUSTIC MODELS TRAINED FROM NOISY SPEECH EVALUATED ON AURORA-2 DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOISE ADAPTIVE SPEECH RECOGNITION WITH ACOUSTIC MODELS TRAINED FROM NOISY SPEECH EVALUATED that acoustic models are trained from noisy speech. We justify it by that the noise adaptive speech recognition includes itera- tive processes between a noise parameter estimation step and a model adaptation step, which

  4. Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for the preceding month, including the hourly average heat input in the MMBtu for each unit and the exit velocity (or exhaust volume) for each unit; (2) verification that the...

  5. Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report, December

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoft Word1 2 - 2 0 1 5Department of2006 |

  6. Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report, November

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoft Word1 2 - 2 0 1 5Department of2006

  7. Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report, February

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy6-09.doc MicrosoftMinisterialMinoritiesMinutes:

  8. Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report, January

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy6-09.doc MicrosoftMinisterialMinoritiesMinutes:2007 |

  9. Mirant Potomac River, LLC, Monthly Model Evaluation Study Report, March

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy6-09.doc MicrosoftMinisterialMinoritiesMinutes:2007

  10. Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD...

  11. R&D for computational cognitive and social models : foundations for model evaluation through verification and validation (final LDRD report).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slepoy, Alexander; Mitchell, Scott A.; Backus, George A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2008-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investing in projects that aim to develop computational modeling and simulation applications that explore human cognitive and social phenomena. While some of these modeling and simulation projects are explicitly research oriented, others are intended to support or provide insight for people involved in high consequence decision-making. This raises the issue of how to evaluate computational modeling and simulation applications in both research and applied settings where human behavior is the focus of the model: when is a simulation 'good enough' for the goals its designers want to achieve? In this report, we discuss two years' worth of review and assessment of the ASC program's approach to computational model verification and validation, uncertainty quantification, and decision making. We present a framework that extends the principles of the ASC approach into the area of computational social and cognitive modeling and simulation. In doing so, we argue that the potential for evaluation is a function of how the modeling and simulation software will be used in a particular setting. In making this argument, we move from strict, engineering and physics oriented approaches to V&V to a broader project of model evaluation, which asserts that the systematic, rigorous, and transparent accumulation of evidence about a model's performance under conditions of uncertainty is a reasonable and necessary goal for model evaluation, regardless of discipline. How to achieve the accumulation of evidence in areas outside physics and engineering is a significant research challenge, but one that requires addressing as modeling and simulation tools move out of research laboratories and into the hands of decision makers. This report provides an assessment of our thinking on ASC Verification and Validation, and argues for further extending V&V research in the physical and engineering sciences toward a broader program of model evaluation in situations of high consequence decision-making.

  12. Reliability Modeling and Evaluation in Aging Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hag-Kwen

    2010-01-14

    Carlo simulation is introduced. Power Law Process is modeled as the failure rate function of aging components. Power system reliability analysis can be made at the generation capacity level where transmission constraints may be included. The simulation...

  13. Review and evaluation of national airspace system models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1979-01-01

    Abstract from Technical Report Documentation Page: This report is intended to serve as a guide to the availability and capability of state-of-the-art analytical and simulation models of the National Airspace System (NAS). ...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Latent Variable Models for Dimensionality Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Renals, Steve

    1998-01-01

    We use electropalatographic (EPG) data as a test bed for dimensionality reduction methods based in latent variable modelling, in which an underlying lower dimension representation is inferred directly from the data. Several ...

  15. FINREG : a financialregulatory model for utility capacity expansion plan evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosowicz, Peter C.

    1981-01-01

    A corporate financial/regulatory model, called FINREG, is presented to simulate a utility's accounting practices, financial policy and constraints, and ratemaking environment. For each year of simulation FINREG will yield ...

  16. Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

  17. Laboratory studies evaluating CO2 flood impact on the geomechanics of whole core samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, William K.

    2005-06-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2, whether by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery, or saline aquifer injection is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. While tremendous experience exists for EOR, and CBM recovery has been demonstrated in existing fields, saline aquifer injection studies have only recently been initiated. Studies evaluating the availability of saline aquifers suitable for CO2 injection show great potential, however, the long-term fate of the injected CO2 in these ancient aqueous systems is still uncertain. Migration of the CO2 beyond the natural reservoir seals could become problematic, thus the identification of means to enhance the natural seals may help lead to the utilization of this sequestration methodology. Co-injection of a mineral reactant slurry, either with the CO2 or in separate, secondary injection wells, could provide a means to enhance the natural reservoir seals by providing the necessary cations for precipitation of mineral carbonates along the periphery of the injection plume. The subject study evaluates the merit of several mineral slurry co-injection strategies, by conduct of a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin. By conducting these tests on whole core samples rather than crushed core, an evaluation of the impact of the CO2 flood on the rock mechanics properties as well as the geochemistry of the core and brine solution has been possible. This empirical data could provide a valuable resource for the validation of reservoir models under development for these engineered CO2 systems.

  18. Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

  19. 2D evaluation A single NACA hydrofoil is modelled in deep water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbester, Andrs

    2D evaluation A single NACA hydrofoil is modelled in deep water Hydrofoils are suitable since.furth@soton.ac.uk - School of Engineering Sciences Supervisors Dr. Mingyi Tan and Dr. Zhimin Chen Aim To develop

  20. Residential energy demand modeling and the NIECS data base : an evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowing, Thomas G.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the 1978-79 National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) data base in terms of its usefulness for estimating residential energy demand models based on household appliance ...

  1. Evaluation of CALPUFF nitrogen deposition modeling in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Area using NADP data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, M.; Mayes, P.; Sherwell, J.

    1998-12-31

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system has been used to estimate nitrogen deposition in an area surrounding Baltimore and the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay. Comprehensive NO{sub x} emissions inventories and meteorological data bases have been developed to conduct the modeling. This paper discusses the results of an evaluation of predicted nitrogen wet deposition rates compared to measured rates at two NADP/NTN sites in Maryland, Wye and White Rock. Underprediction of wet deposition rates is investigated through the use of sensitivity and diagnostic evaluations of model performance. A suggested change to the calculation of NO{sub x} transformation rates involving an alternative specification of minimum NO{sub x} concentrations was made to CALPUFF and the performance evaluation was re-done. Results of the new evaluation show significantly improved model performance, and therefore the modification is tentatively proposed for use in further applications of CALPUFF to the assessment of nitrogen deposition in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  2. Evaluation of cirrus statistics produced by general circulation models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) Wigner Home ·the EffectEvaluation

  3. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; et al

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemicalmoreand optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a1 (range 34144 Tg a?1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a1 (range 13121 Tg a?1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a1 (range 16121 Tg a?1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a1; range 1320 Tg a1, with one model at 37 Tg a?1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.62.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.89.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a1 (range 28209 Tg a?1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition. Fine aerosol organic carbon (OC) and OA observations from continuous monitoring networks and individual field campaigns have been used for model evaluation. At urban locations, the modelobservation comparison indicates missing knowledge on anthropogenic OA sources, both strength and seasonality. The combined modelmeasurements analysis suggests the existence of increased OA levels during summer due to biogenic SOA formation over large areas of the USA that can be of the same order of magnitude as the POA, even at urban locations, and contribute to the measured urban seasonal pattern. Global models are able to simulate the high secondary character of OA observed in the atmosphere as a result of SOA formation and POA aging, although the amount of OA present in the atmosphere remains largely underestimated, with a mean normalized bias (MNB) equal to 0.62 (0.51) based on the comparison against OC (OA) urban data of all models at the surface, 0.15 (+0.51) when compared with remote measurements, and 0.30 for marine locations with OC data. The mean temporal correlations across all stations are low when compared with OC (OA) measurements: 0.47 (0.52) for urban stations, 0.39 (0.37) for remote stations, and 0.25 for marine stations with OC data. The combination of high (negative) MNB and higher correlation at urban stations when compared with the low MNB and lower correlation at remote sites suggests that knowledge about the processes that govern aerosol processing, transport and removal, on top of their sources, is important at the remote stations. There is no clear change in model skill with increasing model complexity with regard to OC or OA mass concentration. As a

  4. A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave of sensors and probes (see, e.g., [9]) is very limited here because of high (up to hundreds degrees Celsius the development of suitable means of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of powder samples under microwave 978

  5. Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors Marcelo A analysis of the key factors impacting on the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors-of-merit offers to the research community and to potential users the possibility to evaluate with an objective

  6. DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION, AND APPLICATION OF A FOOD WEB BIOACCUMULATION MODEL FOR PCBS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION, AND APPLICATION OF A FOOD WEB BIOACCUMULATION MODEL FOR PCBS IN THE STRAIT Management Title of Research Project: Development, Evaluation, and Application of a Food Web Bioaccumulation In an effort to enhance the understanding of persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation in the Strait

  7. Evolution of a Visual Impact Model to Evaluate Nuclear Plant Siting and Design Option1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of a Visual Impact Model to Evaluate Nuclear Plant Siting and Design Option1 2/ Brian A/ The method can be used to train evaluators to use explicit criteria (vividness, intactness and unity) to assess change in a setting's visual quality as the result of construction of a nuclear facility, or any

  8. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  9. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of the Performance of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and comfort. DOEGO-102014-4481 * November 2014 BUILDING AMERICA CASE STUDY: TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR NEW AND EXISTING HOMES Lessons Learned * Ensure the dehumidifier...

  10. DEMAND-DRIVEN LAND EVALUATION With case studies in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEMAND-DRIVEN LAND EVALUATION With case studies in Santa Catarina, Brazil Ivan Luiz Zilli Bacic #12. Verheye, University of Gent, Belgium Dr. G. Sparovek, University of So Paulo (USP), Brazil. #12;DEMAND-DRIVEN LAND EVALUATION With case studies in Santa Catarina, Brazil Ivan Luiz Zilli Bacic Thesis to fulfill

  11. Evaluating the Conventional Wisdom in Clone Removal: A Genealogy-based Empirical Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Kevin A.

    Evaluating the Conventional Wisdom in Clone Removal: A Genealogy-based Empirical Study Minhaz F study based on the clone genealogies from a significant num- ber of releases of six software systems

  12. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Sukanta

    are thus needed for precise assessment of wind resources, reliable prediction of power generation and robust design of wind turbines. However, mesoscale numerical weather prediction models face a chal- lenge: Implications for Wind Energy Brandon Storm*, Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech

  13. Evaluation and Selection of Models for Attrition Nonresponse Adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    Bailey1 This article considers a longitudinal survey like the U.S. Survey of Income and Program distinguished cells (which are then also randomly re-ordered); and the average over re-orderings of the maximal-sample behavior of model-based nonresponse weight adjustment methods. One recent example is Kim and Kim (2007

  14. Energy Storage R&D - Thermal Management Studies and Modeling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage R&D - Thermal Management Studies and Modeling Energy Storage R&D - Thermal Management Studies and Modeling Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies...

  15. Standards vary in studies using rainfall simulators to evaluate erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grismer, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Degrad Dev 9:487511. Van Dijk AJM, Bruijnzeel LA, Rosewellnozzle velocities. Van Dijk et al. (2002) reviewed studiesJ/m 2 -mm. Overlooked by van Dijk et al. (2002) were earlier

  16. Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.

  17. Case Study Impact Evaluations of the Industrial Energy Savings Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilly, P.; Pearson, D.

    1999-01-01

    , the type of fuel being burned in the kiln, and change in the chemical composition of the cement ingredients. The data gathering effort needed to complete these emissions regression models at Lafarge was as great as that needed to complete the kW and k... for: I. the raw mill drive motor 2. the indirect, but attributable effects on finish mill #2 3. the effects of the ASD on the slurry pump motor 4. the indirect effects of the raw mill conversion on the cement kiln drying process, and 5...

  18. An integrative modeling framework to evaluate the productivity and sustainability of biofuel crop production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X [University of Maryland; Izaurralde, R. C. [University of Maryland; Manowitz, D. [University of Maryland; West, T. O. [University of Maryland; Thomson, A. M. [University of Maryland; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Bandaru, Vara Prasad [ORNL; Nichols, Jeff [ORNL; Williams, J. [AgriLIFE, Temple, TX

    2010-10-01

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: (1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, (2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and (3) an evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a nine-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to (1) simulate biofuel crop production, (2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and (3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  19. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  20. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF{sub 6}-) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6}, Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF{sub 6} released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF{sub 6}-specific models, using field data on releases of UF{sub 6} and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF{sub 6}-specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF{sub 6} reaction with water.

  1. effective evaluation of viscoelastic responses of arbitrarily stratified Earth models to surface loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    The Aim effective evaluation of viscoelastic responses of arbitrarily stratified Earth models to surface loading Physical Model Maxwell viscoelastic pre-stressed self-gravitating sphere, compressible et al., 1996] taking into account the block diagonal structure of and desirable (see next panel

  2. OLAF ---A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fliege, Jrg

    OLAF --- A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air Polluting.2 The Air Dispersion Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3 Ecology and Chemokinetics 17 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.3 Meteorological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.4 Pollutant Data

  3. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rdsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  4. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface that an important part of the future expansion of wind energy utilisation at least in Europe will come from offshore

  5. Evaluation of chemical-kinetics models for n-heptane combustion using a multidimensional CFD code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Evaluation of chemical-kinetics models for n-heptane combustion using a multidimensional CFD code September 2011 Accepted 20 October 2011 Available online 7 November 2011 Keywords: Heptane combustion-dimensional, CFD model known as UNICORN. The first mecha- nism is the San Diego (SD) mechanism (52 species and 544

  6. An Evaluation of Cooperation Transmission Considering Practical Energy Models and Passive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, Mary Ann

    An Evaluation of Cooperation Transmission Considering Practical Energy Models and Passive Reception parameter sets. Index Terms--Cooperative Transmission, Energy Models, Wireless Sensor Networks I). Cooperative Transmission (CT) has been considered as an energy-saving technique for WSNs because it provides

  7. Evaluating Florida's Coastal Protected Areas: A Model for Coastal Management Plan Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Sarah Praeger

    2011-02-22

    . CMPAs are established to protect a single species, such as the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, or to protect entire ecosystems such as in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia. CMPAs protect coral reefs, estuaries... more recent case study, Agardy (2004) addresses specific deficiencies in actual strategies for planning, an overemphasis on monitoring and mapping, and a lack of engagement of non-governmental stakeholders in its construction of the U.S. Coral Reef...

  8. Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; West, Tristram O.; Thomson, Allison M.; Xu, Min; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales represents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially-explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identification and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the computationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 20002008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By performing crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies between GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area representation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input data and by designing more efficient parallel computing capability to quantitatively assess errors associated with the simulation of C budget components. The modularized design of the GAMS makes it flexible to be updated and adapted for different agricultural models so long as they require similar input data, and to be linked with socio-economic models to understand the effectiveness and implications of diverse C management practices and policies.

  9. Implementation and Evaluation of the Virtual Fields Method: Determining Constitutive Model Parameters From Full-Field Deformation Data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Sharlotte Lorraine Bolyard; Scherzinger, William M.

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Fields Method (VFM) is an inverse method for constitutive model parameter identication that relies on full-eld experimental measurements of displacements. VFM is an alternative to standard approaches that require several experiments of simple geometries to calibrate a constitutive model. VFM is one of several techniques that use full-eld exper- imental data, including Finite Element Method Updating (FEMU) techniques, but VFM is computationally fast, not requiring iterative FEM analyses. This report describes the im- plementation and evaluation of VFM primarily for nite-deformation plasticity constitutive models. VFM was successfully implemented in MATLAB and evaluated using simulated FEM data that included representative experimental noise found in the Digital Image Cor- relation (DIC) optical technique that provides full-eld displacement measurements. VFM was able to identify constitutive model parameters for the BCJ plasticity model even in the presence of simulated DIC noise, demonstrating VFM as a viable alternative inverse method. Further research is required before VFM can be adopted as a standard method for constitu- tive model parameter identication, but this study is a foundation for ongoing research at Sandia for improving constitutive model calibration.

  10. Resolution studies and performance evaluation of the LHCb VELO upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hynds, Daniel Peter McFarlane; Soler, Paul; Parkes, Christopher

    2015-03-25

    The LHCb detector at CERN is scheduled to undergo an upgrade during the second long shutdown of the LHC. As part of this upgrade, the vertex detector (VELO) will be replaced with a new hybrid pixel detector, based on an evolution of the Timepix ASIC. The performance of this detector should improve upon that achieved by the current VELO, in addition to facilitating the complete detector readout at 40 MHz. As part of the preparation for this upgrade, this thesis presents the results of studies carried out on the single hit resolution of silicon hybrid pixel detectors. The development of a particle beam telescope has been carried out to allow these studies, shown to operate with track rates in excess of 45 kHz and with a pointing resolution at the device under test of less than 2 ?m. A wide range of sensor types, thicknesses and resistivities have then been tested under different operating conditions and the results presented, with single hit resolutions varying between 4 ?m and 12 ?m depending on the conditi...

  11. Evaluating the FITTEST Automated Testing Tools in SOFTEAM: an Industrial Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Evaluating the FITTEST Automated Testing Tools in SOFTEAM: an Industrial Case Study Etienne Brosse shown the ability to automate testing within a real industry case. I. INTRODUCTION Software testing.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;Evaluating the FITTEST Automated Testing Tools in SOFTEAM

  12. Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Global 3-D Model Analysis Including Evaluation of Arctic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Carey

    We use the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to simulate long-range atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To evaluate the models ability to simulate PAHs with different volatilities, ...

  13. A parametric study of directional sea modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whatley, Christopher Paul

    1990-01-01

    from -s to rr at each frequency. If a certain functional form for the directional distribution of wave energy, D(8) is assumed, the covariances of the data, determined from a method like the Fourier series analysis mentioned above, can be used... to researchers. Still, no universally accepted model of this complex physical phenomena has yet evolved. Researchers have opted for selecting a functional form to describe the directional distribution of wave energy rather than using a Fourier series model...

  14. Using Noncompensatory Models in Cognitive Diagnostic Mathematics Assessments: An Evaluation Based on Empirical Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Fei

    2013-08-31

    Using Noncompensatory Models in Cognitive Diagnostic Mathematics Assessments: An Evaluation Based on Empirical Data By Fei Zhao Submitted to the graduate degree program in the Department of Psychology and Research in Education and the Graduate... precisely identify the aspects that need to be evaluated and conduct assessments on these aspects. Cognitive theories have played many important roles in educational and psychological settings according to several measurement specialists (e.g., Embretson...

  15. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.;...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE GENDER PAY EQUITY STUDY AND EQUITY OF FACULTY SALARIES POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    EVALUATION OF THE GENDER PAY EQUITY STUDY AND EQUITY OF FACULTY SALARIES POLICY AT THE UNIVERSITY............................................................................................................. 4 Equity in Faculty Salaries policy the salaries of women faculty and establishing a precedent for regular reviews of faculty gender pay equity (UW

  17. Scoping Study to Evaluate Feasibility of National Databases for EM&V Documents and Measure Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-06-01

    Presents the results of a scoping study to assess the need for national databases that can support best practices in energy efficiency program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V).

  18. Application of price uncertainty quantification models and their impacts on project evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fariyibi, Festus Lekan

    2006-10-30

    This study presents an analysis of several recently published methods for quantifying the uncertainty in economic evaluations due to uncertainty in future oil prices. Conventional price forecasting methods used in the industry typically...

  19. Evaluating forest fire prevention programs: an analysis of three case studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigsby, Shelley Renee

    1980-01-01

    EVALUATING FOREST FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMS; AN ANALYSIS OF THREE CASE STUDIES A Thesi. s by Shelley Renee Rigsby Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 jor Subject: Sociology EVALUATING FOREST FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF THREE CASE STUDIES A Thesis by S. Ranee Rigsby Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) p~ (Memb r) (Head f partment...

  20. Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis using Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models MIKE WEST of individual neuro transmitter release sites at nerve junctions. Models attempt to capture scientific features, with result ing neurophysiological insights in some recently generated experimental contexts. Further

  1. Study of Possible Applications of Currently Available Building Information Modeling Tools for the Analysis of Initial Costs and Energy Costs for Performing Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherji, Payal Tapandev

    2011-02-22

    forms the core, it has become necessary to use computer building models for examining these changes. The building modeling softwares are enumerated. The case studies have highlighted that the evaluation of the alternatives are primarily to achieve energy...

  2. Discrimination discovery in scientific project evaluation: A case study$ Andrea Romei, Salvatore Ruggieri and Franco Turini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruggieri, Salvatore

    Discrimination discovery in scientific project evaluation: A case study$ Andrea Romei, Salvatore, experimentation with real data. This paper contributes by presenting a case study on gender discrimination in a dataset of scientific research proposals, and by distilling from the case study a general discrimination

  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen R; Markel, Lawrence C; Hadley, Stanton W; Hinds, Shaun; DeVault, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

  4. Evaluation of an emergency response model for the Rocky Flats Plant: Charter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This Charter provides a basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to evaluate the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code for emergency response and emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant. This document establishes the foundation for the project entitled, Evaluation of an Emergency Response Model for the Rocky Flats Plant'' (to be referred to as the Project). This document meets the following objectives: Identify the Project; establish the project management structure, organizational responsibilities, and organizational commitments for reaching the goals of the Project, and identify a process for model revision and revelation for acceptance. 2 figs.

  5. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Meck, Robert A.

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  6. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  7. Model Complexes for Studying Heterometallic Effects Relevant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the development of efficient fuel cells to convert fuels obtained from renewable sources into power. Fuel cells. This project focuses on the development of models of metal catalyst systems known to carry out these reactions The introduction of alternative energy sources to fossil fuels is the touchstone of a sustainable approach

  8. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  9. Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  10. Modeling and performance evaluation of flexible manufacturing systems using Petri nets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callotta, M.P.; Cimenez, C.; Tazza, M.

    1996-12-31

    A timed Petri net approach is used to model resource allocation-utilization-release patterns for performance evaluation. First, simple resource utilization sequences are derived from a directed graph representing the process plan of parts. Second, the place-transitions sequences are connected introducing places whose marking models the resources needed to perform the manufacturing operation indicated in the process plan. Time is introduced as a permanence time of tokens at the place-transition sequence, modeling the utilization time of resources. The corresponding model leads to a simultaneous resource possession problem. Finally, flow equations for the description of the quantitative behavior of the resulting timed Petri net are presented. A major conclusion of the paper is that performance evaluation can be adequately abstracted and analytically solved, in a simple way, even in presence of complicating factors like resource sharing and routing flexibility in process plans.

  11. Possible future projection of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) with the evaluation of model performance in Coupled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phipps, Steven J.

    Possible future projection of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) with the evaluation of model assessment of future projected rainfall will be important for policy framework. Evaluation of models performance in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) P. Parth Sarthi , Soumik Ghosh, Praveen

  12. A model study of articulated mat stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Tetsu

    1990-01-01

    characteristics of. model articulated mat revetrrient svith respect to different revetmert slope con- ditions. In this experirrent three diFierent slope permeabilities were investigated by layering geotextile filter on the revetment frame. The stability... EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 12 18 A. Geotextile filter B. Stability experiment V WAVE RUNUP 18 21 33 VI VII VIII WAVE RUNDOWN UPLIFTING FORCE SLIDE-UP FORCE 44 IX SLIDE-DOWN FORCE 77 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION REFERENCES . APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL...

  13. Scale model studies of displacement ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okutan, Galip Mehmet

    1995-01-01

    Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

  14. Experimental Evaluations of Expert and Non-expert Computer Users' Mental Models of Security Risks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camp, L. Jean

    Experimental Evaluations of Expert and Non-expert Computer Users' Mental Models of Security Risks risks and thereby enable informed decisions by naive users. Yet computer security has not been en- gaged with the scholarship of risk communication. While the existence of malicious actors may appear at first to distinguish

  15. Thesis: Modeling and Evaluation of the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ;Motivation The residential sector consumes over 20% of the total energy use in the U.S. Net zero energy buildings reduce energy consumption and reduce dependence on non- renewable energy sources. As interestThesis: Modeling and Evaluation of the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility Liz Balke M

  16. A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors Nicky Kern, Stavros Antifakos, Bernt Schiele Perceptual Computing and Computer Vision ETH Zurich sensors. It is scalable for a large number of sensors, contexts, and situations and allows for online

  17. Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models Accepted 13 March 2013 Available online 26 March 2013 Keywords: Snow Energy-balance Temperature that both the Isnobal energy-balance and calibrated temperature-index methods adequately reproduce snow

  18. Using models and satellite observations to evaluate the strength of snow albedo feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using models and satellite observations to evaluate the strength of snow albedo feedback; revised 9 May 2012; accepted 10 May 2012; published 15 June 2012. [1] Snow albedo feedback (SAF to the albedo contrast of snow covered and snow-free land (SNC), and 20% was related to the temperature

  19. Use of Empirically-Based Models to Evaluate the Potential of Energy Efficiency and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Use of Empirically-Based Models to Evaluate the Potential of Energy Efficiency and Forest Carbon of Energy Efficiency and Forest Carbon Sequestration for Mitigating Climate Change Examining Committee in energy efficiency and increasing carbon sequestration in forests. Analysts using what is known

  20. Project Title Improved Emission Models for Project Evaluation (MOVES-Matrix) University Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Title Improved Emission Models for Project Evaluation (MOVES-Matrix) University Georgia or organization) DOT - $92,292.15 Total Project Cost $92,292.15 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and End Dates November 1, 2013 June 30, 2015 Brief Description of Research Project Local governments

  1. Evaluating the Cisco Networking Academy Program's Instructional Model against Bloom's Taxonomy for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Evaluating the Cisco Networking Academy Program's Instructional Model against Bloom's Taxonomy the use of Bloom's learning taxonomy to help address this lack of theoretical basis. The paper further's taxonomy. Keywords: Information Security Education, Bloom's Taxonomy, Blended Learning, E-learning 1

  2. Multi-Layer Prefetching for Hybrid Storage Systems: Algorithms, Models, and Evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    Multi-Layer Prefetching for Hybrid Storage Systems: Algorithms, Models, and Evaluations Mais Nijim1, Atlanta, GA, USA. Abstract: Parallel storage systems have been highly scalable and widely used in support, hybrid storage systems opt for a solution to fulfill a variety of demands such as large storage capacity

  3. A Comprehensive Energy Model and Energy-Quality Evaluation of Wireless Transceiver Front-Ends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    1 A Comprehensive Energy Model and Energy-Quality Evaluation of Wireless Transceiver Front-Ends Y and a multi-user CDMA based system with respect to RF front end energy consumption and communication quality section of a wireless transceiver consumes more energy than the digital part. For better understanding

  4. Evaluation of Reconstructed Images of Regional Lung Changes Using a Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    Evaluation of Reconstructed Images of Regional Lung Changes Using a Model Robert P, Patterson1 A and Patterson 2004, Yang and Patterson 2010). In order to answer questions about regional lung changes, two regions were created in the posterior portion of the right lung where the resistivity can be independently

  5. An Evaluation of High Order Spatial Accuracy Algorithms for Modeling Fixed and Rotary Wing Tip regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 An Evaluation of High Order Spatial Accuracy Algorithms for Modeling Fixed and Rotary Wing Tip Nielsen Engineering and Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA 94043-2212 Yi Liu, Radhika Gupta, and L. N. Sankar School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 ABSTRACT Several high order

  6. Evaluation of Hydration Free Energy by Level-Set Variational Implicit-Solvent Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo

    Evaluation of Hydration Free Energy by Level-Set Variational Implicit-Solvent Model with Coulomb free energy but also the polar and nonpolar contributions individually. The correlation between VISM-CFA and experiments is R2 = 0.763 for total hydration free energy, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1

  7. Ris-R-1174(EN) RTMOD: Real-Time MODel Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ris-R-1174(EN) RTMOD: Real-Time MODel Evaluation Giovanni Graziani and Stefano Galmarini JRC January 2000 #12;Abstract. The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis

  8. Evaluating carbon sequestration efficiency in an ocean circulation model by adjoint sensitivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Evaluating carbon sequestration efficiency in an ocean circulation model by adjoint sensitivity the application of the adjoint method to develop three-dimensional maps of carbon sequestration efficiency. Sequestration efficiency (the percentage of carbon injected at a continuous point source that remains

  9. Evaluating variable switching and flash methods in modeling carbon sequestration in deep geologic formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    Evaluating variable switching and flash methods in modeling carbon sequestration in deep geologic performance computing to assess the risks involved in carbon sequestration in deep geologic formations-thermal- chemical processes in variably saturated, non-isothermal porous media is applied to sequestration

  10. An ex vivo co-culture model system to evaluate stromalepithelial interactions in breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    An ex vivo co-culture model system to evaluate stromalepithelial interactions in breast cancer T, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. High breast cancer incidence and mortality rates, especially in obese patients, emphasize

  11. Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated threedimensional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wuhu

    Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated threedimensional model study Chipperfield winterspring chemical ozone loss from 1991 2003, its observed correlation with low temperatures. CTM throughout studied. The model reproduces large column winters also captures shape of ozone loss profile

  12. Library Service Models Self-Study Team April 18, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    1 Library Service Models Self-Study Team Overviews April 18, 2012 Access to Collections;2 Library Service Models Self-Study Team - Overviews Below are overviews of the options that the Library Libraries and their collections have long been intertwined, with the size of one a key indicator

  13. Multiaxial cyclic ratcheting in coiled tubing -- Part 2. Experimental program and model evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolovic, R.; Tipton, S.M.

    2000-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the plasticity model proposed in a separate paper (Part 1). Constant pressure, cyclic bend-straighten tests were performed to identify material parameters required by the analytical model. Block pressure, bend-straighten tests were conducted to evaluate the proposed model. Experiments were performed on full-size coiled steel tubing samples using a specialized test machine. Two commonly used coiled tubing materials and four specimen sizes were subjected to load histories consisting of bending-straightening cycles with varying levels of internal pressure. It was observed that cyclic ratcheting rates can be reversed without reversing the mean stress, i.e., diametral growth of coiled tubing can be followed by diametral shrinkage even when the internal pressure is kept positive, depending on the loading history. This material behavior is explained in the context of the new theory. The correlation between the predictions and the test data is very good.

  14. Three-Stage Production Cost Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Benefits of Intra-Hour Scheduling between Balancing Authorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Guo, Tao

    2015-07-30

    This paper introduces a Production Cost Modeling (PCM) approach to evaluate the benefits of intra-hour scheduling between Balancing Authorities (BAs). The system operation is modeled in a three-stage sequential manner: day ahead (DA)-hour ahead (HA)-real time (RT). In addition to contingency reserve, each BA will need to carry out up and down load following and regulation reserve capacity requirements in the DA and HA time frames. In the real-time simulation, only contingency and regulation reserves are carried out as load following is deployed. To model current real-time operation with hourly schedules, a new constraint was introduced to force each BA net exchange schedule deviation from HA schedules to be within NERC ACE limits. Case studies that investigate the benefits of moving from hourly exchange schedules between WECC BAs into 10-min exchange schedules under two different levels of wind and solar penetration (11% and 33%) are presented.

  15. The Retrieval of Ice Water Content from Radar Reflectivity Factor and Temperature and Its Use in Evaluating a Mesoscale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    in Evaluating a Mesoscale Model ROBIN J. HOGAN, MARION P. MITTERMAIER,* AND ANTHONY J. ILLINGWORTH Department-GHz radar with the values held in the Met Office mesoscale forecast model, for eight precipitating

  16. Model studies of hydrodesulfurization by Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friend, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of surface modifiers (Co, S) on activity and selectivity of Mo(110) for desulfurization processes were studied. S generally increases the selectivity for desulfurization while decreasing overall reactivity. Co promots C-H activation processes on Mo(110). The Mo(110)-(9x2)-Co surface affects the desulfurization of 2,5- dihydrothiophene and methanethiol. Vibrational spectroscopy is being used for determining molecular orientation; vibrational frequencies were calculated for four labeled 2-propoxide isomers on Mo(110) and found to agree with experiment.

  17. Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Ming-ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China); Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China); Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)

    2013-10-15

    Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

  18. MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) Version 2: Model Description and Baseline Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.

    The MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) is designed for analyzing the global environmental changes that may result from anthropogenic causes, quantifying the uncertainties associated with the projected changes, and ...

  19. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation andpredictions from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparisonusing the Community Earth System ModelBiogeochemistry (

  20. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    predictions from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparisonin the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation andusing the Community Earth System ModelBiogeochemistry (

  1. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Wasiolek; P. Rogers

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the corresponding technical basis for the excluded FEPs and the descriptions of how the included FEPs were incorporated in the biosphere model. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report concern characteristics of the reference biosphere, the receptor, and the environmental transport and receptor exposure pathways for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios considered in biosphere modeling. This revision provides the summary of the implementation of included FEPs in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included); for excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report is one of the 10 documents constituting the biosphere model documentation suite. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' describes in detail the biosphere conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters and their development. Outputs from these six reports are used in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis and Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' to generate the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' analyzes the output of these two BDCF reports.

  2. Evaluating Clouds, Aerosols, and their Interactions in Three Global Climate Models using COSP and Satellite Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, George; Jin, Ling; Bauer, S.; Bennartz, Ralph; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Ming, Yi; Guo, Huan; Jiang, Jonathan

    2014-09-23

    Accurately representing aerosol-cloud interactions in global climate models is challenging. As parameterizations evolve, it is important to evaluate their performance with appropriate use of observations. In this work we compare aerosols, clouds, and their interactions in three climate models (AM3, CAM5, ModelE) to MODIS satellite observations. Modeled cloud properties were diagnosed using the CFMIP Observations Simulator Package (COSP). Cloud droplet number concentrations (N) were derived using the same algorithm for both satellite-simulated model values and observations. We find that aerosol optical depth tau simulated by models is similar to observations. For N, AM3 and CAM5 capture the observed spatial pattern of higher values in near-coast versus remote ocean regions, though modeled values in general are higher than observed. In contrast, ModelE simulates lower N in most near-coast versus remote regions. Aerosol- cloud interactions were computed as the sensitivity of N to tau for marine liquid clouds off the coasts of South Africa and Eastern Asia where aerosol pollution varies in time. AM3 and CAM5 are in most cases more sensitive than observations, while the sensitivity for ModelE is statistically insignificant. This widely used sensitivity could be subject to misinterpretation due to the confounding influence of meteorology on both aerosols and clouds. A simple framework for assessing the N tau sensitivity at constant meteorology illustrates that observed sensitivity can change from positive to statistically insignificant when including the confounding influence of relative humidity. Satellite simulated values of N were compared to standard model output and found to be higher with a bias of 83 cm-3.

  3. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-11-23

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

  4. The macroeconomic module of the Energy Policy Evaluation Model of Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, S.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Cancino, R. (Direccion General de Planificacion y Desarrollo Energetico, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of the macroeconomic module of the Energy Policy Evaluation Model of Guatemala (MEPEG). This effort was conducted jointly by the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Guatemala and Los Alamos National Laboratory under the Central American Energy and Resources Project of Los Alamos, funded by the US Agency for International Development. The data, theory, empirical specification, and simulation results of the macroeconomic module are described. 10 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Preliminary Studies Using Remote Sensing to Evaluate I/M Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    monoxide, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrocarbons, and a dispersive ultraviolet (UV) spectrometerPreliminary Studies Using Remote Sensing to Evaluate I/M Effectiveness Sajal S. Pokharel, Gary A by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Carbon monoxide (CO) levels become elevated primarily due to direct

  6. A Pilot Study to Evaluate Development Effort for High Performance Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basili, Victor R.

    1 A Pilot Study to Evaluate Development Effort for High Performance Computing Victor Basili1 the development time for programs written for high performance computers (HPC). To attack this relatively novel students in a graduate level High Performance Computing class at the University of Maryland. We collected

  7. A Key Technology Evaluation Case Study: Applying a New Middleware Architecture on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdun, Uwe

    A Key Technology Evaluation Case Study: Applying a New Middleware Architecture on the Enterprise in (all) the new key technology areas, it was hard for the management to estimate which new technologies, fgoedickejuzdung@informatik.uni-essen.de Abstract Decisions for key technologies, like middleware, for large scale

  8. Quantitative Study of the Value of Research Libraries: A Foundation for the Evaluation of Digital Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantitative Study of the Value of Research Libraries: A Foundation for the Evaluation of Digital Libraries Paul B. Kantor and Tefko Saracevic LIS and Rutgers Distributed Laboratory for Digital Libraries, tefko}@diglib.rutgers.edu Abstract In anticipation of the explosive growth of digital libraries

  9. O`ahu Grid Study: Validation of Grid Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O`ahu Grid Study: Validation of Grid Models Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask 7.2 Deliverable By GE Global Research Niskayuna, New York

  10. Studies of climate variability in a simple coupled model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiven, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of variability of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model are investigated through the study of two coupled configurations: an aquaplanet in which gyres are absent, and an aquaplanet in which a ridge extending from ...

  11. OAK FOREST CARBON AND WATER SIMULATIONS: MODEL INTERCOMPARISONS AND EVALUATIONS AGAINST INDEPENDENT DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Paul J; Amthor, Jeffrey S; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wilson, K.; Grant, Robert F.; Hartley, Anne; Hui, D.; HuntJr., E. Raymond; Johnson, Dale W.; Kimball, John S.; King, Anthony Wayne; Luo, Yiqi; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, G.; Thornton, Peter; Wang, S.; Williams, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Cushman, Robert Michael

    2004-01-01

    Models represent our primary method for integration of small-scale, processlevel phenomena into a comprehensive description of forest-stand or ecosystem function. They also represent a key method for testing hypotheses about the response of forest ecosystems to multiple changing environmental conditions. This paper describes the evaluation of 13 stand-level models varying in their spatial, mechanistic, and temporal complexity for their ability to capture intra- and interannual components of the water and carbon cycle for an upland, oak-dominated forest of eastern Tennessee. Comparisons between model simulations and observations were conducted for hourly, daily, and annual time steps. Data for the comparisons were obtained from a wide range of methods including: eddy covariance, sapflow, chamber-based soil respiration, biometric estimates of stand-level net primary production and growth, and soil water content by time or frequency domain reflectometry. Response surfaces of carbon and water flux as a function of environmental drivers, and a variety of goodness-of-fit statistics (bias, absolute bias, and model efficiency) were used to judge model performance. A single model did not consistently perform the best at all time steps or for all variables considered. Intermodel comparisons showed good agreement for water cycle fluxes, but considerable disagreement among models for predicted carbon fluxes. The mean of all model outputs, however, was nearly always the best fit to the observations. Not surprisingly, models missing key forest components or processes, such as roots or modeled soil water content, were unable to provide accurate predictions of ecosystem responses to short-term drought phenomenon. Nevertheless, an inability to correctly capture short-term physiological processes under drought was not necessarily an indicator of poor annual water and carbon budget simulations. This is possible because droughts in the subject ecosystem were of short duration and therefore had a small cumulative impact. Models using hourly time steps and detailed mechanistic processes, and having a realistic spatial representation of the forest ecosystem provided the best predictions of observed data. Predictive ability of all models deteriorated under drought conditions, suggesting that further work is needed to evaluate and improve ecosystem model performance under unusual conditions, such as drought, that are a common focus of environmental change discussions.

  12. Aircraft Landing Gear Thermo-Tribomechanical Model and Sensitivity Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aircraft Landing Gear Thermo-Tribomechanical Model and Sensitivity Study Laurent Heirendt and Hugh-tribomechanical response of an aircraft landing gear shock absorber is presented. Structural damage has been reported sources and sinks in the landing gear shock absorber is developed. The thermo-tribomechanical model

  13. Quantitative evaluation of wrist posture and typing performance: A comparative study of 4 computer keyboards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burastero, S.

    1994-05-01

    The present study focuses on an ergonomic evaluation of 4 computer keyboards, based on subjective analyses of operator comfort and on a quantitative analysis of typing performance and wrist posture during typing. The objectives of this study are (1) to quantify differences in the wrist posture and in typing performance when the four different keyboards are used, and (2) to analyze the subjective preferences of the subjects for alternative keyboards compared to the standard flat keyboard with respect to the quantitative measurements.

  14. Building risk prediction models -with a focus on Genome-Wide Association Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brent, Roger

    Kooperberg Charles Kooperberg Predictive models for GWAS #12;Risk prediction models Based on data: (Di , Xi1;Selection of predictors. Selection of predictors on the same data as training and/or evaluating models can data to evaluate your model as is part of your cross-validation procedure biases your results

  15. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, S.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1994-03-01

    This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of CO2 Thickeners Designed with Molecular Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Enick; Erick Beckman; J. Karl Johnson

    2009-08-31

    The objective of this research was to use molecular modeling techniques, coupled with our prior experimental results, to design, synthesize and evaluate inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. The first type of thickener that was considered was associating polymers. Typically, these thickeners are copolymers that contain a highly CO{sub 2}-philic monomer, and a small concentration of a CO{sub 2}-phobic associating monomer. Yale University was solely responsible for the synthesis of a second type of thickener; small, hydrogen bonding compounds. These molecules have a core that contains one or more hydrogen-bonding groups, such as urea or amide groups. Non-fluorous, CO{sub 2}-philic functional groups were attached to the hydrogen bonding core of the compound to impart CO{sub 2} stability and macromolecular stability to the linear 'stack' of these compounds. The third type of compound initially considered for this investigation was CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants. These surfactants contain conventional ionic head groups and composed of CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers (short polymers) or small compounds (sugar acetates) previously identified by our research team. Mobility reduction could occur as these surfactant solutions contacted reservoir brine and formed mobility control foams in-situ. The vast majority of the work conducted in this study was devoted to the copolymeric thickeners and the small hydrogen-bonding thickeners; these thickeners were intended to dissolve completely in CO{sub 2} and increase the fluid viscosity. A small but important amount of work was done establishing the groundwork for CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants that reduced mobility by generating foams in-situ as the CO{sub 2}+surfactant solution mixed with in-situ brine.

  17. Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C. L.; Pringle, K. J.; Schulz, M.; Asmi, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Ridley, D. A.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Lee, L. A.; Zhang, Kai; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Stier, P.; Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Bauer, S.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Strunk, A.; Vignati, E.; Bellouin, N.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; Bergman, T.; Kokkola, H.; Von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Petzold, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Clarke, A. D.; Ogren, J. A.; Gras, J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kaminski, U.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D. C.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Ulevicius, V.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Zdimal, V.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Swietlicki, E.; Henzing, J. S.

    2014-05-13

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by twelve global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the results suggest that most global aerosol microphysics models simulate the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree of skill, but some models are in poor agreement with the observations. Further work is required to better constrain size-resolved primary and secondary particle number sources, and an improved understanding of nucleation and growth (e.g. the role of nitrate and secondary organics) will improve the fidelity of simulated particle size distributions.

  18. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Borowski, S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center); Motloch, C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Helms, I. (Nuclear Utility Services, Damascus, MD (United States)); Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)); Latham, T. (United

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Large Kaplan Hydro Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2005-11-30

    BioIndex testing of hydro-turbines is sought as an analog to the hydraulic index testing conducted on hydro-turbines to optimize their power production efficiency. In BioIndex testing the goal is to identify those operations within the range identified by Index testing where the survival of fish passing through the turbine is maximized. BioIndex testing includes the immediate tailrace region as well as the turbine environment between a turbine's intake trashracks and the exit of its draft tube. The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of Energy have been evaluating a variety of means, such as numerical and physical turbine models, to investigate the quality of flow through a hydro-turbine and other aspects of the turbine environment that determine its safety for fish. The goal is to use these tools to develop hypotheses identifying turbine operations and predictions of their biological performance that can be tested at prototype scales. Acceptance of hypotheses would be the means for validation of new operating rules for the turbine tested that would be in place when fish were passing through the turbines. The overall goal of this project is to evaluate the performance of numerical blade strike models as a tool to aid development of testable hypotheses for bioIndexing. Evaluation of the performance of numerical blade strike models is accomplished by comparing predictions of fish mortality resulting from strike by turbine runner blades with observations made using live test fish at mainstem Columbia River Dams and with other predictions of blade strike made using observations of beads passing through a 1:25 scale physical turbine model.

  20. EXTENSION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION MODEL CODE EMPIRE TO ACTINIDES NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAPOTE,R.; SIN, M.; TRKOV, A.; HERMAN, M.; CARLSON, B.V.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2007-04-22

    Recent extensions and improvements of the EMPIRE code system are outlined. They add new capabilities to the code, such as prompt fission neutron spectra calculations using Hauser-Feshbach plus pre-equilibrium pre-fission spectra, cross section covariance matrix calculations by Monte Carlo method, fitting of optical model parameters, extended set of optical model potentials including new dispersive coupled channel potentials, parity-dependent level densities and transmission through numerically defined fission barriers. These features, along with improved and validated ENDF formatting, exclusive/inclusive spectra, and recoils make the current EMPIRE release a complete and well validated tool for evaluation of nuclear data at incident energies above the resonance region. The current EMPIRE release has been used in evaluations of neutron induced reaction files for {sup 232}Th and {sup 231,233}Pa nuclei in the fast neutron region at IAEA. Triple-humped fission barriers and exclusive pre-fission neutron spectra were considered for the fission data evaluation. Total, fission, capture and neutron emission cross section, average resonance parameters and angular distributions of neutron scattering are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.

  1. Evaluating Parameterizations in General Circulation Models: Climate Simulation Meets Weather Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, T J; Potter, G L; Williamson, D L; Cederwall, R T; Boyle, J S; Fiorino, M; Hnilo, J J; Olson, J G; Xie, S; Yio, J J

    2004-05-06

    To significantly improve the simulation of climate by general circulation models (GCMs), systematic errors in representations of relevant processes must first be identified, and then reduced. This endeavor demands that the GCM parameterizations of unresolved processes, in particular, should be tested over a wide range of time scales, not just in climate simulations. Thus, a numerical weather prediction (NWP) methodology for evaluating model parameterizations and gaining insights into their behavior may prove useful, provided that suitable adaptations are made for implementation in climate GCMs. This method entails the generation of short-range weather forecasts by a realistically initialized climate GCM, and the application of six-hourly NWP analyses and observations of parameterized variables to evaluate these forecasts. The behavior of the parameterizations in such a weather-forecasting framework can provide insights on how these schemes might be improved, and modified parameterizations then can be tested in the same framework. In order to further this method for evaluating and analyzing parameterizations in climate GCMs, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding a joint venture of its Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT). This article elaborates the scientific rationale for CAPT, discusses technical aspects of its methodology, and presents examples of its implementation in a representative climate GCM.

  2. Evaluation of an interactive technique for creating site models from range data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, F.W.; Hoff, W.A.; King, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Recognizing and locating objects is crucial to robotic operations in unstructured environments. To satisfy this need, we have developed an interactive system for creating object models from range data based on simulated a annealing and supervisory control This interactive modeling system maximizes the advantages of both manual and autonomous methods while minimizing their weaknesses. Therefore, it should outperform purely autonomous or manual techniques. We have designed and executed experiments for the purpose of evaluating the performance of our application as compared to an identical but purely manually driven application. These experiments confirmed the following hypotheses: (1) Interactive modeling should outperform purely manual modeling in total task time and fitting accuracy. (2) Operator effort decreases significantly when utilizing interactive modeling. (3) User expertise does not have a significant effect on interactive modeling task time. (4) Minimal human interaction will increase performance on {open_quotes}easy{close_quotes} scenes. Using 14 subjects and 8 synthetically generated scenes, we recorded the task times and pose data and, from them, used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test a set of hypotheses.

  3. Scoping Study to Evaluate Feasibility of National Databases for EM&V Documents and Measure Savings: Appendices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is the appendices to the Scoping Study to Evaluate Feasibility of National Databases for EM&V Documents and Measure Savings document.

  4. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The second year of this three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study are to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions where fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. Simulation studies have been conducted with a dual porosity simulator capable of simulating the performance of vertical and horizontal wells. Each simulation model has been initialized with properties typical of the Austin Chalk reservoir in Pearsall Field, Texas. During year one, simulations of both vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure charge. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. During the second year the performances of the same vertical and horizontal wells were evaluated with the assumption that fracture permeability was a function of reservoir pressure. This required repetition of most of the natural depletion cases simulated in year one while invoking the pressure-sensitive fracture permeability option. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, two stress conditions were simulated for each primary variable. The water injection cases, begun in year one, were extended to include most of the reservoir parameters investigated for natural depletion, including fracture permeability as a function of net stress and the use of horizontal wells. The results thus far confirm that pressure-sensitive fractures degrade well performance and that the degradation is reduced by water injection pressure maintenance. Furthermore, oil recovery can be significantly increased by water injection pressure maintenance.

  5. Evaluation of metal artifacts in MVCT systems using a model based correction method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paudel, M. R.; Mackenzie, M.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S. [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a model based image reconstruction method in reducing metal artifacts in the megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images of a phantom representing bilateral hip prostheses and to compare with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) technique. Methods: An iterative maximum likelihood polychromatic algorithm for CT (IMPACT) is used with an additional model for the pair/triplet production process and the energy dependent response of the detectors. The beam spectra for an in-house bench-top and TomoTherapy Trade-Mark-Sign MVCTs are modeled for use in IMPACT. The empirical energy dependent response of detectors is calculated using a constrained optimization technique that predicts the measured attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses (0-24 cm) of solid water slabs. A cylindrical (19.1 cm diameter) plexiglass phantom containing various cylindrical inserts of relative electron densities 0.295-1.695 positioned between two steel rods (2.7 cm diameter) is scanned in the bench-top MVCT that utilizes the bremsstrahlung radiation from a 6 MeV electron beam passed through 4 cm solid water on the Varian Clinac 2300C and in the imaging beam of the TomoTherapy Trade-Mark-Sign MVCT. The FBP technique in bench-top MVCT reconstructs images from raw signal normalized to air scan and corrected for beam hardening using a uniform plexiglass cylinder (20 cm diameter). The IMPACT starts with a FBP reconstructed seed image and reconstructs the final image in 150 iterations. Results: In both MVCTs, FBP produces visible dark shading in the image connecting the steel rods. In the IMPACT reconstructed images this shading is nearly removed and the uniform background is restored. The average attenuation coefficients of the inserts and the background are very close to the corresponding values in the absence of the steel inserts. In the FBP images of the bench-top MVCT, the shading causes 4%-9.5% underestimation of electron density at the central inserts with an average of (6.3 {+-} 1.8)% for the range of electron densities studied. In the uniform plexiglass background, the shadow creates 0.8%-4.7% underestimation of electron density with an average of (2.9 {+-} 1.2)%. In the corresponding IMPACT images, the underestimation in the shaded plexiglass background is 0.3%-1.8% with an average of (0.9 {+-} 0.5)% and 1.4%-6.8% with an average of (2.8 {+-} 2.7)% in the central insert region. In the FBP images of the TomoTherapy Trade-Mark-Sign MVCT, this shading creates 2.6%-6.7% underestimation of electron density with an average of (3.7 {+-} 1.4)% at the central inserts and 5.9%-7.2% underestimation in the background with an average of (6.4 {+-} 0.5)%. In the IMPACT images, the uniform background between the steel rods is restored with 0.3%-1.0% underestimation of electron density with an average of (0.7 {+-} 0.3)%. The corresponding underestimation at the central inserts of the IMPACT images is -0.4%-0.1% with an average of (-0.1 {+-} 0.2)%. Conclusions: The shading metal artifact has been nearly removed in MVCT images using the IMPACT algorithm with the accurate geometry of the system, proper modeling of energy dependent response of detectors, and all relevant photon interaction processes. This results less than 1% difference in electron density in the background plexiglass and less than 3% averaged over the range of electron densities investigated.

  6. Evaluation of the accuracy of the EPA model for BOD5 prediction in various climatic regions of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutny, Jessica Leigh

    2000-01-01

    model demonstrated removal rates for BOD?, TSS, fecal coliform, ammonium, and phosphorus of 80.0%, 70.9%, 87.1%, 34.7%, and 22.7%, respectively. These data provided the basis for evaluating the EPA model. A sensitivity analysis of the EPA model...

  7. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Process Design and Economic Evaluation A DissertationProcess Design and Economic Evaluation by Xiaoming Lu Doctorprocess simulation and economic evaluation methodology is

  8. A power sensitivity model for electromechanical oscillation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deckmann, S.M.; Costa, V.F. da (Unicamp, Campinas (Brazil))

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes the derivation of a power sensitivity model for dynamic studies of power systems, subjected to normal operation disturbances. The need of an infinite bus representation is avoided with the linearized nodal power balance approach. This permits the model to be easily extended to any number of network buses. In the linearized form, the resulting Power Sensitivity Model (PSM), presents some interesting features, such as decoupled modeling and time scale decomposition properties. For presentation reasons, the PSM is first derived for a single generator connected to an infinite bus. Its performance is then compared with the classical Heffron-Phillips Model (HPM), as described by de Mello and Concordia. It is then extended for multinodal networks.

  9. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on the results of the pilot study, the recommendations for the revision of the work plan are as follows: characterize the surface soil using field portable XRF measurements with confirmatory inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy sampling for the remedial investigation establish decision units of similar defined areas establish a process for field investigation of soil concentrations exceeding the screening criteria at the border of the 100-OL-1 OU define data quality objectives for the work plan using the results of the pilot study and refining the sampling approach for the remedial investigation.

  10. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  11. Synthetic thrombus model for in vitro studies of laser thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermes, R.E.; Trajkovska, K.

    1998-07-01

    Laser thrombolysis is the controlled ablation of a thrombus (blood clot) blockage in a living arterial system. Theoretical modeling of the interaction of laser light with thrombi relies on the ability to perform in vitro experiments with well characterized surrogate materials. A synthetic thrombus formulation may offer more accurate results when compared to in vivo clinical experiments. The authors describe the development of new surrogate materials based on formulations incorporating chick egg, guar gum, modified food starch, and a laser light absorbing dye. The sound speed and physical consistency of the materials were very close to porcine (arterial) and human (venous) thrombi. Photographic and videotape recordings of pulsed dye laser ablation experiments under various experimental conditions were used to evaluate the new material as compared to in vitro tests with human (venous) thrombus. The characteristics of ablation and mass removal were similar to that of real thrombi, and therefore provide a more realistic model for in vitro laser thrombolysis when compared to gelatin.

  12. A process for evaluation and state approval of an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model for Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1991-11-06

    This document contains copies of the vugraphs used by C. R. Hodgin for the November 6, 1991 presentation summarizing the process to be used for evaluation of the Emergency Response Dispersion Model. (MHB)

  13. A design tool architecture for the rapid evaluation of product design tradeoffs in an Inernet-based system modeling environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wronski, Jacob (Jacob Andrzej)

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a computer-aided design tool for the rapid evaluation of design tradeoffs in an integrated product modeling environment. The goal of this work is to provide product development organizations with better ...

  14. Evaluation of the capability of local helioseismology to discern between monolithic and spaghetti sunspot models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felipe, T.; Crouch, A. D.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-06-20

    The helioseismic properties of the wave scattering generated by monolithic and spaghetti sunspots are analyzed by means of numerical simulations. In these computations, an incident f- or p {sub 1}-mode travels through the sunspot model, which produces absorption and phase shift of the waves. The scattering is studied by inspecting the wavefield, computing travel-time shifts, and performing Fourier-Hankel analysis. The comparison between the results obtained for both sunspot models reveals that the differences in the absorption coefficient can be detected above noise level. The spaghetti model produces a steep increase of the phase shift with the degree of the mode at short wavelengths, while mode mixing is more efficient for the monolithic model. These results provide a clue for what to look for in solar observations to discern the constitution of sunspots between the proposed monolithic and spaghetti models.

  15. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shibahara, Yuji; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2012-07-01

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered. Establishment of the calculation formula for dismantling of each kind of equipment makes it possible to evaluate manpower for dismantling the whole facility. However, it is not easy to prepare calculation formula for all kinds of equipment that exist in the facility. Therefore, a simpler evaluation method was considered to calculate manpower based on facility characteristics. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. For dismantling of contaminated equipment, a GH has been used for protection of the spread of contamination. The use of a GH increases manpower for installation and removal of GH etc. Moreover, structural materials of the GH such as plastic sheets, adhesive tape become a burnable secondary waste. To create an effective dismantling plan, it is necessary to carefully consider use of a GH preliminarily. Thus, an evaluation method of project management data such as manpower and secondary waste generation was considered. The results showed promise for evaluating project management data of GH by using established calculation formula. (authors)

  16. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

  17. Evaluating soil resilience in long-term cultivation: a study of pre-Columbian terraces from the Paca Valley, Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, Brian M.

    Evaluating soil resilience in long-term cultivation: a study of pre-Columbian terraces from Received in revised form 31 May 2008 Accepted 4 June 2008 Keywords: Agriculture Andes Geoarchaeology Soil micromorphology Resilience Terraces a b s t r a c t This study evaluated the soil properties of pre-Hispanic stone

  18. An Urban Parameterization for a Global Climate Model. Part I: Formulation and Evaluation for Two Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleson, Keith W.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Vertenstein, M.; Grimmond, C.S.B.

    2008-01-01

    stream_size 70935 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Feddema_Urban_Parameterization_Climate Model_PtI.pdf.txt stream_source_info Feddema_Urban_Parameterization_Climate Model_PtI.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type..., all of these studies have focused on land use/land cover re- lated to changes in vegetation types. Urbanization, or the expansion of built-up areas, is an important yet less studied aspect of anthropogenic land use/land cover change in climate science...

  19. A study of different horizons in inhomogeneous LTB cosmological model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subenoy Chakraborty; Subhajit Saha

    2015-03-04

    This work deals with a detailed study of the dynamics of the apparent, event and particle horizons in the background of the inhomogeneous LTB spacetime. The comparative study among these horizons shows a distinct character for apparent horizon compared to the other horizons. The apparent horizon will be a trapping horizon if its acceleration is positive. The Kodama vector is also defined and its causal character is found to be similar to that in the FRW model.

  20. A. Dias and P.G. Ioannou Company and Project Evaluation Model for Privately-Promoted Infrastructure Projects Page 1 of 16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Dias and P.G. Ioannou Company and Project Evaluation Model for Privately-Promoted Infrastructure Projects Page 1 of 16 COMPANY AND PROJECT EVALUATION MODEL FOR PRIVATELY-PROMOTED INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS and project profiles. Example applications of the model include the evaluation of the Eurotunnel

  1. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  2. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcys approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  3. Methodology and results of the impacts of modeling electric utilities ; a comparative evaluation of MEMM and REM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baughman, Martin L.

    1981-01-01

    This study compares two models of the U.S. electric utility industry including the EIA's electric utility submodel in the Midterm Energy Market Model (MEMM), and the Baughman-Joskow Regionalized Electricity Model (REM). ...

  4. Use of element model to evaluate transmissibility reduction due to barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svanes, T.; South, D.; Dronen, O.M.

    1997-08-01

    Water breakthrough has been observed a year earlier than expected in the productive Oseberg Formation in the Veslefrikk Field. Production data revealed extensive water override, whereas the opposite situation was expected based on a homogeneous and coarse flow simulation model. A new model was developed to include geological heterogeneities using a simple upscaling method. The Oseberg Fm. consists of an upper homogeneous unit (zone 2) and a lower unit containing thin barriers of shale and calcite cemented sandstone (zone 1). The barrier content varies laterally. When barriers are distributed in a complex 3D pattern, they reduce the upscaled horizontal transmissibility more than what is obtained by multiplying the sand permeability by the net-to-gross ratio (N/G). However, the transmissibility reduction strongly depends on the spatial distribution of barriers and their geometry. Therefore, a fine scale element model was used to derive the average transmissibility reduction as a function of N/G for alternative geological descriptions of the barriers. A geo-statistical method called General Marked Point Process was used to generate the fine scale descriptions. This work has resulted in a simple upscaling routine for horizontal transmissibility, which represents an effective bridge between geological evaluation of uncertainties and fluid flow simulation. The method combines geo-statistical and deterministic modelling in an elegant manner, recognising that most often these methods complement one another.

  5. ComputerBased Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  6. Small Buoys for Energy Harvesting : Experimental and Numerical Modeling Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grilli, Stphan T.

    Small Buoys for Energy Harvesting : Experimental and Numerical Modeling Studies Stephan T. Grilli for wave energy harvesting (free-floating or slackly moored), to produce about 1 KW per unit at full scale-contained (water tight) resonating multiple-spar buoy (or Starspar), in which a longer central spar houses the LEG

  7. STUDIES ON MODELING AND CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS BIOTECHNICAL PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    STUDIES ON MODELING AND CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS BIOTECHNICAL PROCESSES by Ying Zhao A T hesis grandmother, Youlian Huya on her centennial birth anniversary , 1 #12; #12; i ABSTRACT Continuous bioreactors to the development of advanced control strategies for continuous bioreactors. Therefore, the field of continuous

  8. Small Buoys for Energy Harvesting : Experimental and Numerical Modeling Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grilli, Stphan T.

    Small Buoys for Energy Harvesting : Experimental and Numerical Modeling Studies Stephan T. Grilli, Inc., Cranston, RI, USA ABSTRACT We present the development and application of small buoy systems climates, of two new types of buoy systems equipped with an embedded Linear Electric Generator (LEG; made

  9. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study M. Mench, J. Scott, S. Thynell boundary Fuel cell performance Current density distribution measurements Conclusions #12;3 Method, flow rate, species inlet and fuel cell temperature, and humidity. Transparent polycarbonate windows

  10. A regional modeling study of the entraining Mediterranean outflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozgkmen, Tamay M.

    A regional modeling study of the entraining Mediterranean outflow X. Xu,1,2 E. P. Chassignet,3 J. Fdependent entrainment parameterization of Xu et al. (2006). Given realistic topography and sufficient resolution of the outflow plume, and most importantly, the localized, strong entrainment that has been observed to occur

  11. Bayesian failure probability model sensitivity study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-05-30

    The Office of the Manager, National Communications System (OMNCS) has developed a system-level approach for estimating the effects of High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) on the connectivity of telecommunications networks. This approach incorporates a Bayesian statistical model which estimates the HEMP-induced failure probabilities of telecommunications switches and transmission facilities. The purpose of this analysis is to address the sensitivity of the Bayesian model. This is done by systematically varying two model input parameters--the number of observations, and the equipment failure rates. Throughout the study, a non-informative prior distribution is used. The sensitivity of the Bayesian model to the noninformative prior distribution is investigated from a theoretical mathematical perspective.

  12. A Renormalization Group Study of Asymetrically Coupled Minimal Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. -A. Lewis; P. Simon

    1998-05-04

    We investigate the renormalization group flows and fixed point structure of many coupled minimal models. The models are coupled two by two by energy-energy couplings. We take the general approach where the bare couplings are all taken to be independent. New fixed points are found for N models (N>3). At these fixed points, the coupling constants all have the same magnitude, but some are positive while others are negative. By analogy with spin lattices, these can be interpreted as non-frustrated configurations with a maximal number of antiferromagnetic links. The stability of the different fixed points is studied. We compute the critical exponents and spin-spin correlation functions between different models. Our classification is shown to be complete.

  13. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva-Rodrguez, Jess Aguiar, Pablo; Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela , 15782, Galicia; Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigacin Sanitarias , Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia ; Snchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Vctor; Corts, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, lvaro; Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigacin Sanitarias , Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia; Fundacin Tejerina, 28003, Madrid

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  14. Utilization of 4-Dimensional Data Visualization Modeling to Evaluate Burial Ground Contaminants at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brindley, T. L.; Tarantino, J. J.; Locke, A. L. [CDM, 325 Kentucky Ave., Kevil, Kentucky 42053 (United States); Dollins, D. W. [Department of Energy, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah Kentucky 42001 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes how 4-Dimensional (4D) Data Visualization Modeling was used to evaluate historical data and to help guide the decisions for the sampling necessary to complete a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the burial ground sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). DOE at the Paducah Site is primarily involved in environmental cleanup and landlord activities. The scope of this project was to prepare a work plan for identifying the data available and the data required to conduct an RI/FS for the Burial Ground Operable Unit (BGOU) located within and near PGDP. The work plan focuses on collecting existing information about contamination in and around the burial grounds and determining what additional data are required to support an assessment of risks to human health and the environment and to support future decisions regarding actions to reduce these risks. (authors)

  15. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-18

    Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in July and August 2012 as part of a model evaluation well program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radiological data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to obtain data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test MILK SHAKE, conducted in Emplacement Hole U-5k in 1968, which were considered to be uncertain due to the unknown extent of a basalt lava-flow aquifer present in this area. Well ER-5-5 is expected to provide information to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The 31.1-centimeter (cm) diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 331.3 meters (m). The completion string, set at the depth of 317.2 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval open to the basalt lava-flow aquifer and limited intervals of the overlying and underlying alluvial aquifer. A piezometer string was also installed in the annulus between the completion string and the borehole wall. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing suspended from 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing. The piezometer string was landed at 319.2 m, to monitor the basalt lava-flow aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, preliminary water quality measurements, and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 331.3 m of QuaternaryTertiary alluvium, including an intercalated layer of saturated basalt lava rubble. No well development or hydrologic testing was conducted in this well immediately after completion; however, a preliminary water level was measured in the piezometer string at the depth of 283.4 m on September 25, 2012. No tritium above the minimum detection limit of the field instruments was detected in this hole. Future well development, sampling, and hydrologic testing planned for this well will provide more accurate hydrologic information for this site. The stratigraphy, general lithology, and water level were as expected, though the expected basalt lava-flow aquifer is basalt rubble and not the dense, fractured lava as modeled. The lack of tritium transport is likely due to the difference in hydraulic properties of the basalt lava-flow rubble encountered in the well, compared to those of the fractured aquifer used in the flow and transport models.

  16. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Meeks; A. U. Modak; C.V. Naik; K. V. Puduppakkam; C. Westbrook; F. N. Egolfopoulos; T. Tsotsis; S. H. Roby

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of biodiesel fuels and appropriately associated model fuels that may represent biodiesels in automotive engineering simulation. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were BQ-9000 certified biodiesel fuels that are certified for use in automotive engine applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multi-dimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in reciprocating engines. Such reliable kinetics models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal engines, engine operation and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics. During this project, we completed a major and thorough validation of a set of biodiesel surrogate components, allowing us to begin to evaluate the fundamental combustion characteristics for B100 fuels.

  17. Investigation of techniques to build generation system models for reliability evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubbala, Nagalakshmi V.

    1994-01-01

    of the Proposed Method 1. Two State Unit 2. Three State Unit . 3. n State Unit B. Results and Discussion 1. Case Studies Using IEEE-RTS 2. Case Studies Using EPRI Synthetic System 3. The System Described in Reference [8] 4. CPU Times for Different Models... Transform 1. Count of Operations 3 7 10 11 12 13 16 16 17 20 24 25 27 30 33 39 39 40 43 44 46 48 50 VJn CHAPTER Page 2. Derivation D. Mathematical Comparison E. System Studies 1. IEEE-RTS 2. EPRI Synthetic 3. Results 4...

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 2, JUNE 2013 1087 Reliability Modeling and Evaluation of Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 2, JUNE 2013 1087 Reliability Modeling and Evaluation, and Mirrasoul J. Mousavi, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Smart grid technologies leveraging advancements of smart grid monitoring and proposes a mathemat- ical model to assess its impact on power grid reliability

  19. Flow modeling in Pelton turbines by an accurate Eulerian and a fast Lagrangian evaluation method. Panagiotopoulos A.a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    1 Title: Flow modeling in Pelton turbines by an accurate Eulerian and a fast Lagrangian evaluation Fluids Dynamics (CFD) has allowed the flow modeling in impulse hydro turbines that includes complex-parametric design optimization of the turbine's runner. In the present work, a CFD Eulerian approach is applied

  20. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.

  1. Alternating-phase focusing: A model to study nonlinear dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss a new model to study alternating-phase focusing (APF). Our approach is based on representing the accelerating electric field with a continuous phase modulated traveling wave. The resulting nonlinear equations of motion can be solved analytically to predict the regions of stable APF motion. We also identify the key parameters which adequately describe the physics of APF. The model is believed to be applicable to low-{beta} ion linacs with short independently-controlled superconducting cavities being developed at ANL.

  2. Alternating-phase focusing: A model to study nonlinear dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss a new model to study alternating-phase focusing (APF). Our approach is based on representing the accelerating electric field with a continuous phase modulated traveling wave. The resulting nonlinear equations of motion can be solved analytically to predict the regions of stable APF motion. We also identify the key parameters which adequately describe the physics of APF. The model is believed to be applicable to low-{beta} ion linacs with short independently-controlled superconducting cavities being developed at ANL.

  3. Empirical Earth rotation model: a consistent way to evaluate Earth orientation parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Petrov

    2006-11-26

    It is customary to perform analysis of the Earth's rotation in two steps: first, to present results of estimation of the Earth orientation parameters in the form of time series based on a simplified model of variations of the Earth's rotation for a short period of time, and then to process this time series of adjustments by applying smoothing, re-sampling and other numerical algorithms. Although this approach saves computational time, it suffers from self-inconsistency: total Earth orientation parameters depend on a subjective choice of the apriori Earth orientation model, cross-correlations between points of time series are lost, and results of an operational analysis per se have a limited use for end users. An alternative approach of direct estimation of the coefficients of expansion of Euler angle perturbations into basis functions is developed. These coefficients describe the Earth's rotation over entire period of observations and are evaluated simultaneously with station positions, source coordinates and other parameters in a single LSQ solution. In the framework of this approach considerably larger errors in apriori EOP model are tolerated. This approach gives a significant conceptual simplification of representation of the Earth's rotation.

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Building Energy Efficiency Based on Rough Sets Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, L.; Ruan, X.; Huang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the objectivity of building energy efficiency evaluation, this paper uses a new method to evaluate building energy efficiency on the basis of rough sets theory. The contribution of different subentry evaluation indicators...

  5. The Evaluation of Transportation and Land Use Plans Using Linked Economic and GIS Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    urban economyand and economic evaluations. for devlsing andAttempts to base the economic evaluation travel no state isEvaluation of Transportation and Land Use Plans Using Linked Economic

  6. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-22

    Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in August 2012 as part of a model evaluation program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radionuclide data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to provide data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test PIN STRIPE, conducted in borehole U-11b in 1966. Well ER-11-2 will provide information that can be used to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The main 31.1-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 399.6 meters (m). A completion casing string was not set in Well ER-11-2. However, a piezometer string was installed in the 31.1-cm open hole. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing hung on 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. The piezometer string was landed at 394.5 m, for monitoring the lower tuff confining unit. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other test-related radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 42.7 m of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium and 356.9 m of Tertiary volcanic rock. The water-level measured in the piezometer string on September 25, 2012, was 353.8 m below ground surface. No tritium above levels detectable by field methods were encountered in this hole. No well development or hydrologic testing was conducted in this well immediately after completion, and future well development, sampling, and hydrologic testing planned for this well will be limited due to the diameter of the piezometer string. The stratigraphy, general lithology, and the water level are as expected, but the section of geology encountered is higher than expected due to faulting. No tritium above the minimum detection limit of the field equipment was detected because the target aquifer (the Topopah Spring aquifer) at Well ER-11-2 is structurally higher than expected and thus unsaturated.

  7. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical analyses and hypothesis tests as a part of the validation step to provide feedback to analysts and modelers. Decisions on how to proceed in making model-based predictions are made based on these analyses together with the application requirements. Updating modifying and understanding the boundaries associated with the model are also assisted through this feedback. (4) We include a ''model supplement term'' when model problems are indicated. This term provides a (bias) correction to the model so that it will better match the experimental results and more accurately account for uncertainty. Presumably, as the models continue to develop and are used for future applications, the causes for these apparent biases will be identified and the need for this supplementary modeling will diminish. (5) We use a response-modeling approach for our predictions that allows for general types of prediction and for assessment of prediction uncertainty. This approach is demonstrated through a case study supporting the assessment of a weapons response when subjected to a hydrocarbon fuel fire. The foam decomposition model provides an important element of the response of a weapon system in this abnormal thermal environment. Rigid foam is used to encapsulate critical components in the weapon system providing the needed mechanical support as well as thermal isolation. Because the foam begins to decompose at temperatures above 250 C, modeling the decomposition is critical to assessing a weapons response. In the validation analysis it is indicated that the model tends to ''exaggerate'' the effect of temperature changes when compared to the experimental results. The data, however, are too few and to restricted in terms of experimental design to make confident statements regarding modeling problems. For illustration, we assume these indications are correct and compensate for this apparent bias by constructing a model supplement term for use in the model-based predictions. Several hypothetical prediction problems are created and addressed. Hypothetical problems are used because no guidance was provided concern

  8. A study of discrete and continuum joint modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, J.; Brown, S.R.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental study in which finite element and discrete element techniques were used to analyze a layered polycarbonate plate model subjected to uniaxial compression. Also, the two analysis techniques were used to compute the response of an eight meter diameter drift in jointed-rock. The drift was subjected to in-situ and far-field induced thermal stresses. The finite element analyses used a continuum rock model to represent the jointed-rock. A comparison of the analyses showed that the finite element continuum joint model consistently predicted less joint slippage than did the discrete element analyses, although far-field displacements compared well.

  9. Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-21

    The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

  10. In Vivo Evaluation of Lung Microwave Ablation in a Porcine Tumor Mimic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Planche, Olivier; Teriitehau, Christophe; Boudabous, Sana; Robinson, Joey Marie; Rao, Pramod; Deschamps, Frederic; Farouil, Geoffroy; Baere, Thierry de

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the microwave ablation of created tumor mimics in the lung of a large animal model (pigs), with examination of the ablative synergy of multiple antennas. Fifty-six tumor-mimic models of various sizes were created in 15 pigs by using barium-enriched minced collected thigh muscle injected into the lung of the same animal. Tumors were ablated under fluoroscopic guidance by single-antenna and multiple-antenna microwaves. Thirty-five tumor models were treated in 11 pigs with a single antenna at 75 W for 15 min, with 15 measuring 20 mm in diameter, 10 measuring 30 mm, and 10 measuring 40 mm. Mean circularity of the single-antenna ablation zones measured 0.64 {+-} 0.12, with a diameter of 35.7 {+-} 8.7 mm along the axis of the antenna and 32.7 {+-} 12.8 mm perpendicular to the feeding point. Multiple-antenna delivery of 75 W for 15 min caused intraprocedural death of 2 animals; modified protocol to 60 W for 10 min resulted in an ablation zone with a diameter of 43.0 {+-} 7.7 along the axis of the antenna and 54.8 {+-} 8.5 mm perpendicular to the feeding point; circularity was 0.70 {+-} 0.10. A single microwave antenna can create ablation zones large enough to cover lung tumor mimic models of {<=}4 cm with no heat sink effect from vessels of {<=}6 mm. Synergic use of 3 antennas allows ablation of larger volumes than single-antenna or radiofrequency ablation, but great caution must be taken when 3 antennas are used simultaneously in the lung in clinical practice.

  11. Evaluation of the Atmospheric Transport Model in the MACCS2 Code...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Terrain effects (CALPUFF) Gaussian Plume Model Lagrangian Puff Model Turbulence Characterization - Atmospheric Stability Classical GP models use a classification...

  12. SELF-REFERENTIAL EVALUATIONS OF TRAITS AND VALUES DO NOT RELY ON EPISODIC MEMORY: AN ERP STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    SELF-REFERENTIAL EVALUATIONS OF TRAITS AND VALUES DO NOT RELY ON EPISODIC MEMORY: AN ERP STUDY of Psychology, Queens College and The Graduate Center of CUNY DISCUSSION Tasks ERP Session: Trait evaluation (including 150 ms baseline) Rejection of trials with EOG and other artifacts ERP Recordings INTRODUCTION

  13. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Lynn M

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual case study approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gasforced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) data.

  14. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Dentener, Frank; McConnell, J.R.; Ro, C-U; Shaw, Mark; Vet, Robert; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Dalsoren, S.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, David; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Zeng, G.; Curran, M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Das, S.; Fritzsche, D.; Nolan, M.

    2013-08-20

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States, but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching >1300 mgN/m2/yr averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, ~30-50% larger than the values in any region currently (2000). Despite known issues, the new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  15. Technical Note: On the Use of Nudging for Aerosol-Climate Model Intercomparison Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kai; Wan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Con- straining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the artificial forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the relatively strong sensitivity of homogeneous ice nucleation to aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests that nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy, especially for studies that involve both warm and cold clouds.

  16. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 65 (2007) 315328 The sensual evaluation instrument: Developing a trans-cultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isbister, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 65 (2007) 315328 The sensual evaluation instrument: Developing, 16429 Kista, Sweden Available online 9 January 2007 Abstract In this paper we describe the development

  17. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  18. Wide range modeling study of dimethyl ether oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Dagaut, P.; Boettner, J-C; Cathonnet, M.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model has been used to study dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation over a wide range of conditions. Experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at I and 10 atm, 0.2 < 0 < 2.5, and 800 < T < 1300 K were modeled, in addition to those generated in a shock tube at 13 and 40 bar, 0 = 1.0 and 650 :5 T :5 1300 K. The JSR results are particularly valuable as they include concentration profiles of reactants, intermediates and products pertinent to the oxidation of DME. These data test the Idnetic model severely, as it must be able to predict the correct distribution and concentrations of intermediate and final products formed in the oxidation process. Additionally, the shock tube results are very useful, as they were taken at low temperatures and at high pressures, and thus undergo negative temperature dependence (NTC) behavior. This behavior is characteristic of the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbon fuels, (e.g. the primary reference fuels, n-heptane and iso- octane) under similar conditions. The numerical model consists of 78 chemical species and 336 chemical reactions. The thermodynamic properties of unknown species pertaining to DME oxidation were calculated using THERM.

  19. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is targeted for Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17, regardless of the addition of SCIX or SWPF streams. This indicates that the blending strategy for these sludge batches should be reevaluated by Savannah River Remediation (SRR). (2) In general, candidate frits were available to accommodate CST additions to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. A larger number of candidate frits were typically available for the sludge batches when CST is added to Tank 51 rather than Tank 40, meaning that more compositional flexibility would be available for frit selection and DWPF operation. Note however that for SB8 and SB17, no candidate frits were available to accommodate CST going to Tank 40 with and without SWPF streams. The addition of SWPF streams generally improves the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. (3) The change in production rate from 40 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batches per year (i.e., the current production rate) to 75 SRAT batches per year, without SWPF streams included, had varied results in terms of the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. Therefore, this variable is not of much concern in terms of incorporating the SCIX streams. Note that the evaluation at 75 SRAT batches per year (approximately equivalent to 325 canisters per year) is more conservative in terms of the impact of SCIX streams as compared to a production rate of 400 canisters per year. Overall, the outcome of this paper study shows no major issues with the ability to identify an acceptable glass processing window when CST from the SCIX process is transferred to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. The assumptions used and the model limitations identified in this report must be addressed through further experimental studies, which are currently being performed. As changes occur to the planned additions of MST and CST, or to the sludge batch preparation strategy, additional evaluations will be performed to determine the potential impacts. As stated above, the issues with Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17 should be further evaluated by SRR. A

  20. Kiwi: An Evaluated Library of Uncertainties in Nuclear Data and Package for Nuclear Sensitivity Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruet, J

    2007-06-23

    This report describes Kiwi, a program developed at Livermore to enable mature studies of the relation between imperfectly known nuclear physics and uncertainties in simulations of complicated systems. Kiwi includes a library of evaluated nuclear data uncertainties, tools for modifying data according to these uncertainties, and a simple interface for generating processed data used by transport codes. As well, Kiwi provides access to calculations of k eigenvalues for critical assemblies. This allows the user to check implications of data modifications against integral experiments for multiplying systems. Kiwi is written in python. The uncertainty library has the same format and directory structure as the native ENDL used at Livermore. Calculations for critical assemblies rely on deterministic and Monte Carlo codes developed by B division.

  1. Lessons learned from the tokamak Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study (ARIES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1994-07-01

    Lessons from the four-year ARIES (Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study) investigation of a number of commercial magnetic-fusion-energy (MFE) power-plant embodiments of the tokamak are summarized. These lessons apply to physics, engineering and technology, and environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) characteristics of projected tokamak power plants. Summarized herein are the composite conclusions and lessons developed in the course of four conceptual tokamak power-plant designs. A general conclusion from this extensive investigation of the commercial potential of tokamak power plants is the need for combined, symbiotic advances in both physics, engineering, and materials before economic competitiveness with developing advanced energy sources can be realized. Advances in materials are also needed for the exploitation of environmental advantages otherwise inherent in fusion power.

  2. Modeling aerosols and their interactions with shallow cumuli during the 2007 CHAPS field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Laskin, Alexander; Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2013-02-07

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate relationships between aerosols and clouds in the vicinity of Oklahoma City during the June 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The regional scale simulation completed using 2 km horizontal grid spacing evaluates four important relationships between aerosols and shallow cumulus clouds observed during CHAPS. First, the model reproduces the trends of higher nitrate volume fractions in cloud droplet residuals compared to interstitial non-activated aerosols, as measured using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Comparing simulations with cloud chemistry turned on and off, we show that nitric acid vapor uptake by cloud droplets explains the higher nitrate content of cloud droplet residuals. Second, as documented using an offline code, both aerosol water and other inorganics (OIN), which are related to dust and crustal emissions, significantly affect predicted aerosol optical properties. Reducing the OIN content of wet aerosols by 50% significantly improves agreement of model predictions with measurements of aerosol optical properties. Third, the simulated hygroscopicity of aerosols is too high as compared to their hygroscopicity derived from cloud condensation nuclei and particle size distribution measurements, indicating uncertainties associated with simulating size-dependent chemical composition and treatment of aerosol mixing state within the model. Fourth, the model reasonably represents the observations of the first aerosol indirect effect where pollutants in the vicinity of Oklahoma City increase cloud droplet number concentrations and decrease the droplet effective radius. While previous studies have often focused on cloud-aerosol interactions in stratiform and deep convective clouds, this study highlights the ability of regional-scale models to represent some of the important aspects of cloud-aerosol interactions associated with fields of short-lived shallow cumuli.

  3. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of {tau}{sub a}, and parameterization assumptions such as a lower bound on N{sub d}. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}. In an alternative approach, the radiative flux perturbation due to anthropogenic aerosols can be broken down into a component over the cloud-free portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol direct effect) and a component over the cloudy portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol indirect effect). An estimate obtained by scaling these simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic {tau}{sub a} and satellite-retrieved Nd - {tau}{sub a} regression slopes, respectively, yields a global, annual-mean aerosol direct effect estimate of -0.4 {+-} 0.2 Wm{sup -2} and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, with a total estimate of -1.2 {+-} 0.4 Wm{sup -2}.

  4. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) staff evaluation of the General Electric Company Nuclear Reactor Study (''Reed Report'')

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-07-01

    In 1975, the General Electric Company (GE) published a Nuclear Reactor Study, also referred to as ''the Reed Report,'' an internal product-improvement study. GE considered the document ''proprietary'' and thus, under the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), exempt from mandatory public disclosure. Nonetheless, members of the NRC staff reviewed the document in 1976 and determined that it did not raise any significant new safety issues. The staff also reached the same conclusion in subsequent reviews. However, in response to recent inquiries about the report, the staff reevaluated the Reed Report from a 1987 perspective. This re-evaluation, documented in this staff report, concluded that: (1) there are no issues raised in the Reed Report that support a need to curtail the operation of any GE boiling water reactor (BWR); (2) there are no new safety issues raised in the Reed Report of which the staff was unaware; and (3) although certain issues addressed by the Reed Report are still being studied by the NRC and the industry, there is no basis for suspending licensing and operation of GE BWR plants while these issues are being resolved.

  5. Performance evaluation of interpolation methods for incorporating rain gauge measurements into NEXRAD precipitation data: A case study in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Hongjie; Zhang, Xuesong; Yu, Beibei; Sharif, Hatim

    2011-04-21

    High spatial and temporal resolution of precipitation data is critical input for hydrological budget estimation and flash flood modeling. This study evaluated four methods (Bias Adjustment (BA), Simple Kriging with varying Local Means (SKlm), Kriging with External Drift (KED), and Regression Kriging (RK)) for their performances in incorporating gauge rainfall measurements into NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar) Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) (hourly and 4 x 4 km{sup 2}). Measurements from a network of 50 gauges at the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas and MPE data for the year 2004 were used in the study. We used three evaluation coefficients Percentage Bias (PB), Coefficient of Determination (R2), and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) to examine the performance of the four methods for preserving regional and local scale characteristics of observed precipitation data. The results show that the two Kriging-based methods (SKlm and RK) are in generally better than BA and KED and that the PB and NSE criteria are better than the R2 criterion in assessing the performance of the four methods. It is also worth noting that the performance of one method at regional scale may be different from its performance at local scale. Critical evaluation of the performance of different methods at local or regional scale should be conducted according to the different purposes. The results obtained in this study are expected to contribute to the development of more accurate spatial rainfall products for hydrologic budget and flash flood modeling.

  6. Low frequency eddy current benchmark study for model validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mooers, R. D.; Boehnlein, T. R. [University of Dayton Research Institute, Structural Integrity Division, Dayton, OH, 45469 (United States); Cherry, M. R.; Knopp, J. S. [Air Force Research Lab, NDE Division, Wright Patterson, OH 45433 (United States); Aldrin, J. C. [Computational Tools, Gurnee, IL 60031 (United States); Sabbagh, H. A. [Victor Technologies LLC, Bloomington, IN 47401 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    This paper presents results of an eddy current model validation study. Precise measurements were made using an impedance analyzer to investigate changes in impedance due to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) notches in aluminum plates. Each plate contained one EDM notch at an angle of 0, 10, 20, or 30 degrees from the normal of the plate surface. Measurements were made with the eddy current probe both scanning parallel and perpendicular to the notch length. The experimental response from the vertical and oblique notches will be reported and compared to results from different numerical simulation codes.

  7. Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS FORMULATION MODEL SENSITIVITY STUDY 2009 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL VERSUS 1996 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BELSHER JD; MEINERT FL

    2009-12-07

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  9. Study of Two-Loop Neutrino Mass Generation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We study the models with the Majorana neutrino masses generated radiatively by two-loop diagrams due to the Yukawa $\\rho \\bar \\ell_R^c \\ell_R$ and effective $\\rho^{\\pm\\pm} W^\\mp W^\\mp$ couplings along with a scalar triplet $\\Delta$, where $\\rho$ is a doubly charged singlet scalar, $\\ell_R$ the charged lepton and $W$ the charged gauge boson. A generic feature in these types of models is that the neutrino mass spectrum has to be a normal hierarchy. Furthermore, by using the neutrino oscillation data and comparing with the global fitting result in the literature, we find a unique neutrino mass matrix and predict the Dirac and two Majorana CP phases to be $1.40\\pi$, $1.11\\pi$ and $1.47\\pi$, respectively. We also discuss the model parameters constrained by the lepton flavor violating processes and electroweak oblique parameters. In addition, we show that the rate of the neutrinoless double beta decay $(0\

  10. Implementation and evaluation of online gas-phase chemistry within a regional climate model (RegCM-CHEM4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shalaby, A. K.; Zakey, A. S.; Tawfik, A. B.; Solmon, F.; Giorgi, Filippo; Stordal, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Steiner, A. L.

    2012-05-22

    The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online climate-chemistry model based on the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4). Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism (CBM-Z; Zaveri and Peters, 1999) with a fast solver based on radical balances. We evaluate the model over Continental Europe for two different time scales: (1) an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2) a climatological analysis of a sixyear simulation (2000-2005). For the episode analysis, model simulations show good agreement with European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the August 2003 heat wave event. For long-term climate simulations, the model captures the seasonal cycle of ozone concentrations with some over prediction of ozone concentrations in non-heat wave summers. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  11. A Feasibility Study to Evaluate Wind Energy Potential on the Navajo Nation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Battiest

    2012-11-30

    The project, A Feasibility Study to Evaluate Wind Energy Potential on the Navajo Nation, is funded under a solicitation issued by the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program. Funding provided by the grant allowed the Navajo Nation to measure wind potential at two sites, one located within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation and the other off-reservation during the project period (September 5, 2005 - September 30, 2009). The recipient for the grant award is the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA). The grant allowed the Navajo Nation and NTUA manage the wind feasibility from initial site selection through the decision-making process to commit to a site for wind generation development. The grant activities help to develop human capacity at NTUA and help NTUA to engage in renewable energy generation activities, including not only wind but also solar and biomass. The final report also includes information about development activities regarding the sited included in the grant-funded feasibility study.

  12. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P.; Iwaarden, J. Freek van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ? Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ? Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ? A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ? A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  13. Hierarchical Models for Batteries: Overview with Some Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Mukherjee, Partha P; Allu, Srikanth; Nanda, Jagjit; Martha, Surendra K; Dudney, Nancy J; Turner, John A

    2012-01-01

    Batteries are complex multiscale systems and a hierarchy of models has been employed to study different aspects of batteries at different resolutions. For the electrochemistry and charge transport, the models span from electric circuits, single-particle, pseudo 2D, detailed 3D, and microstructure resolved at the continuum scales and various techniques such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory to resolve the atomistic structure. Similar analogies exist for the thermal, mechanical, and electrical aspects of the batteries. We have been recently working on the development of a unified formulation for the continuum scales across the electrode-electrolyte-electrode system - using a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulation. This formulation accounts for any spatio-temporal variation of the different properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. In this talk the following will be presented: The background and the hierarchy of models that need to be integrated into a battery modeling framework to carry out predictive simulations, Our recent work on the unified 3D formulation addressing the missing links in the multiscale description of the batteries, Our work on microstructure resolved simulations for diffusion processes, Upscaling of quantities of interest to construct closures for the 3D continuum description, Sample results for a standard Carbon/Spinel cell will be presented and compared to experimental data, Finally, the infrastructure we are building to bring together components with different physics operating at different resolution will be presented. The presentation will also include details about how this generalized approach can be applied to other electrochemical storage systems such as supercapacitors, Li-Air batteries, and Lithium batteries with 3D architectures.

  14. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  15. Short-term Wind Power Prediction for Offshore Wind Farms -Evaluation of Fuzzy-Neural Network Based Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Short-term Wind Power Prediction for Offshore Wind Farms - Evaluation of Fuzzy-Neural Network Based of offshore farms and their secure integration to the grid. Modeling the behavior of large wind farms presents the new considerations that have to be made when dealing with large offshore wind farms

  16. Advances in Life-Cycle Cost Analysis and Design of Civil Infrastructure Systems LIFE CYCLE COST MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepech, Michael D.

    ). Cement production accounts for 5% of all global anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions #12;AdvancesAdvances in Life-Cycle Cost Analysis and Design of Civil Infrastructure Systems 143 LIFE CYCLE COST and cost model was developed to evaluate infrastructure sustainability, and compare alternative materials

  17. Evaluation of a new model to calculate direct normal irradiance based on satellite images of Meteosat Second Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Evaluation of a new model to calculate direct normal irradiance based on satellite images irradiance DNI from MSG data. For this we apply the Heliosat method to extract cloudiness from the satellite of the irradiance is introduced to calculate DNI. The clear sky irradiance is mainly determined by the aerosol

  18. An evaluation of models for partitioning eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange into photosynthesis and respiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rights reserved. Keywords: Eddy covariance; Information theory; Net ecosystem exchange; Gross ecosystemAn evaluation of models for partitioning eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange Abstract We measured net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) using the eddy covariance (EC) technique for 4 years

  19. Towards evaluating the map literacy of planners in 2D maps and 3D models in South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ltekin, Arzu

    1 Towards evaluating the map literacy of planners in 2D maps and 3D models in South Africa, Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Metereology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa 2 GIScience Center, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Abstract South Africa is faced

  20. A modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented in a watershed in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of polluted water bodies, the United States * Corresponding author. Tel.: C1 2547746000; fax: C1 2547746001. E water quality standards, allocates pollution control responsibilities among pollution sourcesA modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented

  1. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation uses a vehicle simulator and economics model called the Battery Ownership Model to examine the levelized cost per mile of conventional (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in comparison with the cost to operate an electric vehicle (EV) under a service provider business model. The service provider is assumed to provide EV infrastructure such as charge points and swap stations to allow an EV with a 100-mile range to operate with driving profiles equivalent to CVs and HEVs. Battery cost, fuel price forecast, battery life, and other variables are examined to determine under what scenarios the levelized cost of an EV with a service provider can approach that of a CV. Scenarios in both the United States as an average and Hawaii are examined. The levelized cost of operating an EV with a service provider under average U.S. conditions is approximately twice the cost of operating a small CV. If battery cost and life can be improved, in this study the cost of an EV drops to under 1.5 times the cost of a CV for U.S. average conditions. In Hawaii, the same EV is only slightly more expensive to operate than a CV.

  2. Alaska North Slope Tundra Travel Model and Validation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry R. Bader; Jacynthe Guimond

    2006-03-01

    The Alaska Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Division of Mining, Land, and Water manages cross-country travel, typically associated with hydrocarbon exploration and development, on Alaska's arctic North Slope. This project is intended to provide natural resource managers with objective, quantitative data to assist decision making regarding opening of the tundra to cross-country travel. DNR designed standardized, controlled field trials, with baseline data, to investigate the relationships present between winter exploration vehicle treatments and the independent variables of ground hardness, snow depth, and snow slab thickness, as they relate to the dependent variables of active layer depth, soil moisture, and photosynthetically active radiation (a proxy for plant disturbance). Changes in the dependent variables were used as indicators of tundra disturbance. Two main tundra community types were studied: Coastal Plain (wet graminoid/moist sedge shrub) and Foothills (tussock). DNR constructed four models to address physical soil properties: two models for each main community type, one predicting change in depth of active layer and a second predicting change in soil moisture. DNR also investigated the limited potential management utility in using soil temperature, the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants, and changes in microphotography as tools for the identification of disturbance in the field. DNR operated under the assumption that changes in the abiotic factors of active layer depth and soil moisture drive alteration in tundra vegetation structure and composition. Statistically significant differences in depth of active layer, soil moisture at a 15 cm depth, soil temperature at a 15 cm depth, and the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation were found among treatment cells and among treatment types. The models were unable to thoroughly investigate the interacting role between snow depth and disturbance due to a lack of variability in snow depth cover throughout the period of field experimentation. The amount of change in disturbance indicators was greater in the tundra communities of the Foothills than in those of the Coastal Plain. However the overall level of change in both community types was less than expected. In Coastal Plain communities, ground hardness and snow slab thickness were found to play an important role in change in active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. In the Foothills communities, snow cover had the most influence on active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. Once certain minimum thresholds for ground hardness, snow slab thickness, and snow depth were attained, it appeared that little or no additive effect was realized regarding increased resistance to disturbance in the tundra communities studied. DNR used the results of this modeling project to set a standard for maximum permissible disturbance of cross-country tundra travel, with the threshold set below the widely accepted standard of Low Disturbance levels (as determined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). DNR followed the modeling project with a validation study, which seemed to support the field trial conclusions and indicated that the standard set for maximum permissible disturbance exhibits a conservative bias in favor of environmental protection. Finally DNR established a quick and efficient tool for visual estimations of disturbance to determine when investment in field measurements is warranted. This Visual Assessment System (VAS) seemed to support the plot disturbance measurements taking during the modeling and validation phases of this project.

  3. Designability, thermodynamic stability, and dynamics in protein folding: A lattice model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    Designability, thermodynamic stability, and dynamics in protein folding: A lattice model study Re October 1998 In the framework of a lattice-model study of protein folding, we investigate the interplay model. Lattice models have been widely used in the study of protein folding dynamics.28 The main

  4. Deadtime Correction and Hydride Evaluation for Atom-Probe Data, with Applications for Studies of Nanoscale Grains and Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deadtime Correction and Hydride Evaluation for Atom-Probe Data, with Applications for Studies for Atom-Probe Tomography, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston hydride formation [3]. Measurements for this study are made with a Cameca LEAP 4000X Si atom

  5. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.

  6. Implications of Model Structure and Detail for Utility Planning. Scenario Case Studies using the Resource Planning Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, Trieu; Barrows, Clayton; Lopez, Anthony; Hale, Elaine; Dyson, Mark; Eurek, Kelly

    2015-04-23

    We examine how model investment decisions change under different model configurations and assumptions related to renewable capacity credit, the inclusion or exclusion of operating reserves, dispatch period sampling, transmission power flow modeling, renewable spur line costs, and the ability of a planning region to import and export power. For all modeled scenarios, we find that under market conditions where new renewable deployment is predominantly driven by renewable portfolio standards, model representations of wind and solar capacity credit and interactions between balancing areas are most influential in avoiding model investments in excess thermal capacity. We also compare computation time between configurations to evaluate tradeoffs between computational burden and model accuracy. From this analysis, we find that certain advanced dispatch representations (e.g., DC optimal power flow) can have dramatic adverse effects on computation time but can be largely inconsequential to model investment outcomes, at least at the renewable penetration levels modeled. Finally, we find that certain underappreciated aspects of new capacity investment decisions and model representations thereof, such as spur lines for new renewable capacity, can influence model outcomes particularly in the renewable technology and location chosen by the model. Though this analysis is not comprehensive and results are specific to the model region, input assumptions, and optimization-modeling framework employed, the findings are intended to provide a guide for model improvement opportunities.

  7. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially devised based on various assumptions about (1) subbasin carrying capacity, (2) survival rates for selected life history stages, and (3) historic and current escapements of wild, natural, and hatchery stocks of anadromous salmonids to the Hood River subbasin. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife began funding a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) project in December 1991 to collect the quantitative biological information needed to (1) more accurately assess the validity of these assumptions and (2) evaluate the proposed hatchery supplementation component of the HRPP. Bonneville Power Administration assumed funding of the M&E project in August 1992. The M&E project was initially confined to sampling anadromous salmonids escaping to an adult trapping facility operated at Powerdale Dam; which is located at River Mile (RM) 4.5 on the mainstem of the Hood River. Stock specific life history and biological data was collected to (1) monitor subbasin spawner escapements and (2) collect pre-implementation data critical to evaluating the newly proposed HRPP's potential biological impact on indigenous populations of resident fish. The scope of the M&E project was expanded in 1994 to collect the data needed to quantify (1) subbasin smolt production and carrying capacity, (2) smolt to adult survival rates, and (3) the spatial distribution of indigenous populations of summer and winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon. A creel was incorporated into the M&E project in December 1996 to evaluate the HRPP with respect to its defined subbasin and spawner escapement objectives for Hood River stocks of wild and hatchery summer and winter steelhead and for natural and Deschutes stock hatchery spring chinook salmon. In 1996, the M&E project also began monitoring streamflow at various locations in the Hood River subbasin. Streamflow data will be used to correlate subbasin smolt production with summer streamflows. Data collected from 1991-1999 is reported in the following annual progress reports: Olsen et al. (1994), Olsen et al

  8. Evaluation of Experimentally Measured and Model-Calculated pH for Rock-Brine-CO2 Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-14

    Reliable pH estimation is essential for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies of formation reactivities conducted under geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH; however, the accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In this study, we expanded the measurement range of a spectrophotometric method for pH determination, and we applied the method to measure the pH in batch-reactor experiments utilizing rock samples from five ongoing GCS demonstration projects. A combination of color-changing pH indicators, bromophenol blue and bromocresol green, was shown to enable measurements over the pH range of 2.5-5.2. In-situ pH measurements were compared with pH values calculated using geochemical models. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. For rocks comprised of carbonate, siltstone, and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models failure to fully account for certain proton consuming and producing reactions that occur between the basalt minerals and CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  9. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    rights. LBL-7847 RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESSABSTRACT A range of cellulosic raw materials in the form ofas a representative raw material for a preliminary process

  10. Evaluation of the Highway Safety Manual Crash Prediction Model for Rural Two-Lane Highway Segments in Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubliner, Howard

    2011-12-31

    While there have been numerous previous studies performed to develop the rural two-lane segment crash prediction models as part of the Highway Safety Manual (HSM), no previous study has been developed to validate the accuracy of the current model...

  11. Implementation and Initial Evaluation of the Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model in the Community Earth System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, Andreas

    2013) ABSTRACT The Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model (Glimmer-CISM) has been implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Glimmer-CISM is forced by a surface mass balance (SMB) computed

  12. A Geometric Study of Ringed Ribosome Flow Model Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yirmeyahu J. Kaminski

    2015-10-12

    We perform a geometric study of the equilibrium locus of the Ribosome Flow Model on a Ring. We prove that when considering the set of all possible values of the parameters, the equilibrium locus is a smooth manifold with boundaries, while for a given value of the parameters, it is an embedded smooth and connected curve. For different values of the parameters, the curves are all isomorphic. Moreover, we show how to build a homotopy between different curves obtained for different values of the parameter set. This procedure allows the efficient computation of the equilibrium point for each value of some first integral of the system. This point would have been otherwise difficult to be computed for higher dimensions. We illustrate this construction by some numerical experiments.

  13. A Geometric Study of Ringed Ribosome Flow Model Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yirmeyahu J. Kaminski

    2015-09-25

    We perform a geometric study of the equilibrium locus of the Ribosome Flow Model on a Ring. We prove that the for the set of all possible values of the parameters, the equilibrium locus is a smooth manifold with boundaries, while for a given value of the parameters, it is an embedded smooth and connected curve. For different values of the parameters, the curves are all isomorphic. Moreover, we show how to build a homotopy between different curves obtained for different values of the parameter set. This procedure allows the efficient computation of the equilibrium point for each value of some first integral of the system. This point would have been otherwise difficult to be computed for higher dimensions. We illustrate this construction by some numerical experiments.

  14. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2010-02-19

    Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  15. A Programming Model Performance Study Using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Blagojevi?, Filip; Min, Seung-Jai; Hargrove, Paul; Jin, Haoqiang; Fuerlinger, Karl; Koniges, Alice; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Harnessing the power of multicore platforms is challenging due to the additional levels of parallelism present. In this paper we use the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to study three programming models, MPI, OpenMP and PGAS to understand their performance and memory usage characteristics on current multicore architectures. To understand these characteristics we use the Integrated Performance Monitoring tool and other ways to measure communication versus computation time, as well as the fraction of the run time spent in OpenMP. The benchmarks are run on two different Cray XT5 systems and an Infiniband cluster. Our results show that in general the threemoreprogramming models exhibit very similar performance characteristics. In a few cases, OpenMP is significantly faster because it explicitly avoids communication. For these particular cases, we were able to re-write the UPC versions and achieve equal performance to OpenMP. Using OpenMP was also the most advantageous in terms of memory usage. Also we compare performance differences between the two Cray systems, which have quad-core and hex-core processors. We show that at scale the performance is almost always slower on the hex-core system because of increased contention for network resources.less

  16. Architecture, Data Model and Real-Time Performance Evaluation of the Streamonas Data Stream Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, Panayiotis Adamos

    2015-01-01

    in active databases: Model and implementation. In VLDB,Bassam Islam, "Stack Database Model/View of Multimedia Data"implementing a fragmented database model of Spatio-Temporal

  17. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-66 AN EVALUATION OF GREAT LAKES HYDRAULIC ROUTING MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    model and the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory's Hydrologic Response Model (HRM). Although the model solution techniques produce equivalent results, the HRM reduces cpu requirements by 94%. The HRM

  18. Detailed Modeling, Design, and Evaluation of a Scalable Multi-level Checkpointing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, A T; Bronevetsky, G; Mohror, K M; de Supinski, B R

    2010-04-09

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more hardware components. As the system mean-time-before-failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint more frequently to make progress. However, as the system memory sizes grow faster than the bandwidth to the parallel file system, the cost of checkpointing begins to dominate application run times. A potential solution to this problem is to use multi-level checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints with different costs and different levels of resiliency in a single run. The goal is to design light-weight checkpoints to handle the most common failure modes and rely on more expensive checkpoints for less common, but more severe failures. While this approach is theoretically promising, it has not been fully evaluated in a large-scale, production system context. To this end we have designed a system, called the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes checkpoints to storage on the compute nodes utilizing RAM, Flash, or disk, in addition to the parallel file system. We present the performance and reliability properties of SCR as well as a probabilistic Markov model that predicts its performance on current and future systems. We show that multi-level checkpointing improves efficiency on existing large-scale systems and that this benefit increases as the system size grows. In particular, we developed low-cost checkpoint schemes that are 100x-1000x faster than the parallel file system and effective against 85% of our system failures. This leads to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35%, and it reduces the the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two on current and future systems.

  19. Decontamination Techniques and Fixative Coatings Evaluated in the Building 235-F Legacy Source Term Removal Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAYNE, FARRELL

    2005-04-21

    Savannah River Site Building 235-F was being considered for future plutonium storage and stabilization missions but the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) noted that large quantities of Plutonium-238 left in cells and gloveboxes from previous operations posed a potential hazard to both the existing and future workforce. This material resulted from the manufacture of Pu-238 heat sources used by the NASA space program to generate electricity for deep space exploration satellites. A multi-disciplinary team was assembled to propose a cost- effective solution to mitigate this legacy source term which would facilitate future DOE plutonium storage activities in 235-F. One aspect of this study involved an evaluation of commercially available radiological decontamination techniques to remove the legacy Pu-238 and fixative coatings that could stabilize any residual Pu-238 following decontamination activities. Four chemical methods were identified as most likely to meet decontamination objectives for this project and are discussed in detail. Short and long term fixatives will be reviewed with particular attention to the potential radiation damage caused by Pu-238, which has a high specific activity and would be expected to cause significant radiation damage to any coating applied. Encapsulants that were considered to mitigate the legacy Pu-238 will also be reviewed.

  20. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  1. EVALUATION OF A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR SOFT CLAY USING THE CENTRIFUGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, R.Y.K.; Tse, E.C.; Kuhn, M.R.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    gravity field in the centrifuge is radial and the verticalADVANCES IN GEOTECHNICAL CENTRIFUGE MODELING A symposium onAdvances in Geotechnical Centrifuge Modeling was held on

  2. Evaluation of experimentally measured and model-calculated pH for rock-brine-CO2 systems under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-01

    pH is an essential parameter for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies conducted under geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH. The accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In our previous work, we have developed a method for pH determination by in-situ spectrophotometry. In the present work, we expanded the applicable pH range for this method and measured the pH of several rock-brine-CO2 systems at GCS conditions for five rock samples collected from ongoing GCS demonstration projects. Experimental measurements were compared with pH values calculated using several geochemical modeling approaches. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. Results indicate that the accuracy of model calculations is rock-dependent. For rocks comprised of carbonate and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models failure to fully account for certain reaction occurring between the basalt minerals the CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  3. Centroid-based summarization of multiple documents: sentence extraction, utility-based evaluation, and user studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applied to the evaluation of both single and multiple document summaries. Finally, we describe two user generation. Finally, evaluation of multi-document summaries is a difficult problem. There is not yet a widely, called MEAD, which generates summaries using cluster centroids produced by a topic detection and tracking

  4. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  5. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  6. Investigation of North American vegetation variability under recent climate: A study using the SSiB4/TRIFFID biophysical/dynamic vegetation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z; Xue, Y; Macdonald, G; Cox, PM; Collatz, GJ

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of CMIP5 Earth System Models in Reproducing LeafHemisphere. Part II: Earth System Models. Remote Sensing, 5,

  7. Modelling renewable electric resources: A case study of wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Hall, J.; Singh, D.

    1994-07-01

    The central issue facing renewables in the integrated resource planning process is the appropriate assessment of the value of renewables to utility systems. This includes their impact on both energy and capacity costs (avoided costs), and on emissions and environmental impacts, taking account of the reliability, system characteristics, interactions (in dispatch), seasonality, and other characteristics and costs of the technologies. These are system-specific considerations whose relationships may have some generic implications. In this report, we focus on the reliability contribution of wind electric generating systems, measured as the amount of fossil capacity they can displace while meeting the system reliability criterion. We examine this issue for a case study system at different wind characteristics and penetration, for different years, with different system characteristics, and with different modelling techniques. In an accompanying analysis we also examine the economics of wind electric generation, as well as its emissions and social costs, for the case study system. This report was undertaken for the {open_quotes}Innovative IRP{close_quotes} program of the U.S. Department of Energy, and is based on work by both Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and Tellus Institute, including America`s Energy Choices and the UCS Midwest Renewables Project.

  8. Model Evaluation Report for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruskauff, Greg; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Model evaluation focused solely on the PIN STRIPE and MILK SHAKE underground nuclear tests contaminant boundaries (CBs) because they had the largest extent, uncertainty, and potential consequences. The CAMBRIC radionuclide migration experiment also had a relatively large CB, but because it was constrained by transport data (notably Well UE-5n), there was little uncertainty, and radioactive decay reduced concentrations before much migration could occur. Each evaluation target and the associated data-collection activity were assessed in turn to determine whether the new data support, or demonstrate conservatism of, the CB forecasts. The modeling teamin this case, the same team that developed the Frenchman Flat geologic, source term, and groundwater flow and transport modelsanalyzed the new data and presented the results to a PER committee. Existing site understanding and its representation in numerical groundwater flow and transport models was evaluated in light of the new data and the ability to proceed to the CR stage of long-term monitoring and institutional control.

  9. Evaluation of chiller modeling approaches and their usability for fault detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreedharan, Priya

    2001-01-01

    turbines. The vapor-compression chiller models include algorithms for centrifugal, reciprocating, and screw

  10. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  11. Marine Studies Initiative, Oregon State University Learning Models Working Group Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Marine Studies Initiative, Oregon State University Learning Models Working Group Report January 15, 2015 Executive Summary (updated on March 19, 2015) Learning models within the Marine Studies that integrates marine literacy throughout OSU academic programs while expanding innovative marine education

  12. Reference Models and Incentive Regulation of Electricity Distribution Networks: An Evaluation of Swedens Network Performance Assessment Model (NPAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael G.

    (Capex), quality of service, and network losses in a single model. Aggregation of these important elements into a single model has useful efficiency and incentive properties. Firms can adjust their inputs and outputs more efficiently by weighting... long-term benchmarking model, the NPAM incorporates the main inputs and outputs of regulatory concern such as operating and maintenance expenditures (Opex), capital expenditures (Capex), service quality, and network energy losses. It is generally...

  13. Degradation of Bimetallic Model Electrocatalysts ___ an in situ XAS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-06-22

    One of the major challenges in the development of clean energy fuel cells is the performance degradation of the electrocatalyst, which, apart from poisoning effects, can suffer from corrosion due to its exposure to a harsh environment under high potentials. In this communication, we demonstrate how interactions of Pt with a transition metal support affect not only, as commonly intended, the catalytic activity, but also the reactivity of Pt towards oxide formation or dissolution. We use two well-defined single-crystal model systems, Pt/Rh(111) and Pt/Au(111) and a unique x-ray spectroscopy technique with enhanced energy resolution to monitor the potential-dependent oxidation state of Pt, and find two markedly different oxidation mechanisms on the two different substrates. This information can be of great significance for future design of more active and more stable catalysts. We have studied the potential-induced degradation of Pt monolayer model electrocatalysts on Rh(111) and Au(111) single-crystal substrates. The anodic formation of Pt oxides was monitored using in situ high energy resolution fluorescence detection x-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD XAS). Although Pt was deposited on both substrates in a three-dimensional island growth mode, we observed remarkable differences during oxide formation that can only be understood in terms of strong Pt-substrate interactions throughout the Pt islands. Anodic polarization of Pt/Rh(111) up to +1.6 V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) leads to formation an incompletely oxidized passive layer, whereas formation of PtO2 and partial Pt dissolution is observed for Pt/Au(111).

  14. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistryclimate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We test the current generation of global chemistryclimate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1 1 grid cells, allowing commensurate modelmeasurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00 local time (LT)) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfullymorematched. The observed summertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions, where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80 % of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The models also match the observed linear relationship between episode size and a measure of episode intensity, which shows increases in ozone abundance by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes. We conclude that the skill of the models evaluated here provides confidence in their projections of future surface ozone.less

  15. Preconceptual Feasibility Study to Evaluate Alternative Means to Produce Plutonium-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Matthew S. Everson

    2013-02-01

    There is currently no large-scale production of 238Pu in the United States. Feasibility studies were performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the capability of developing alternative 238Pu production strategies. Initial investigations indicate potential capability to provision radioisotope-powered systems for future space exploration endeavors. For the short term production of 238Pu, sealed canisters of dilute 237Np solution in nitric acid could be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Targets in the large and medium I positions of the ATR were irradiated over a simulated period of 306 days and analyzed using MCNP5 and ORIGEN2.2. Approximately 0.5 kg of 238Pu could be produced annually in the ATR with purity greater than 92%. Optimization of the irradiation cycles could further increase the purity to greater than 98%. Whereas the typical purity of space batteries is between 80 to 85%, the higher purity 238Pu produced in the ATR could be blended with existing lower-purity inventory to produce useable material. Development of irradiation methods in the ATR provides the fastest alterative to restart United States 238Pu production. The analysis of 238Pu production in the ATR provides the technical basis for production using TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) nuclear reactors. Preliminary analyses envisage a production rate of approximately 0.7 kg annually using a single dedicated 5-MW TRIGA reactor with continuous flow loops to achieve high purity product. Two TRIGA reactors represent a robust means of providing at over 1 kg/yr of 238Pu annually using dilute solution targets of 237Np in nitric acid. Further collaboration and optimization of reactor design, radiochemical methods, and systems analyses would further increase annual 238Pu throughput, while reducing the currently evaluated reactor requirements.

  16. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, March--May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1994-06-01

    The project described in this report was the result of a Memorandum of Cooperation between the US and the former-USSR following the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. A joint program was established to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. The task of Working Group 7 was ``to develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (Biospheric Model Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains. In the future, this project will be considered separately from the Chernobyl Studies Project and the essential activities of former Task 7.1D will be folded within the broader umbrella of the BIOMOVS and VAMP projects. The Working Group Leader of Task 7.1D will continue to provide oversight for this project.

  17. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HPPD INHIBITION. Mathematical Medicine Study Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derks, Gianne

    tyrosine (referred to as tyrosinaemia) and the excretion of phenolic compounds in the urine. In rats construct a kinetic model of the tyrosine degradation pathway and the effects of a HPPD inhibitor. The model

  18. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen R; Hinds, Shaun; Hadley, Stanton W; McGill, Ralph N; Markel, Lawrence C; Ziegler, Richard E; Smith, David E; Smith, Richard L; Greene, David L; Brooks, Daniel L; Wiegman, Herman; Miller, Nicholas; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  19. Development and evaluation of an implantable chronic DC stimulation and measurement probe for nerve regeneration studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macha, Douglas Bryan

    1995-01-01

    isotropic. The actual field strength or current density induced by the applied current is seldom directly measured in-vivo. This research seeks to evaluate the design of an implantable DC stimulator capable of delivering a constant, stable and measurable...

  20. GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

    2010-06-17

    This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

  1. Verifying Hybrid Systems Modeled as Timed Automata: A Case Study?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Vaandrager timed automata model, of the Steam Boiler Controller problem, a hybrid systems benchmark. This pa- per

  2. Old standbys, new standards : evaluating LEED-ND through existing models of green urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Sophie C. (Sophie Christina)

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Green Building Council, the Congress for the New Urbanism, and the Natural Resources Defense Council are currently developing a rating system aimed at evaluating the environmental sustainability of new neighborhood ...

  3. Creating a practical model using real options to evaluate large-scale real estate development projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hengels, Adam (Adam P.)

    2005-01-01

    Real Options analysis has only begun to be recognized as way to evaluate real estate and is considered "beyond the cutting edge" of financial analysis. Several academic papers have looked at ways that real estate can be ...

  4. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) SUB-GRADE EE/CA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES A NEW MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2007-06-08

    An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was performed at the Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purpose of the EVCA was to identify the sub-grade items to be evaluated; determine the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) hazardous substances through process history and available data; evaluate these hazards; and as necessary, identify the available alternatives to reduce the risk associated with the contaminants. The sub-grade EWCA considered four alternatives for an interim removal action: (1) No Action; (2) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M); (3) Stabilize and Leave in Place (Stabilization); and (4) Remove, Treat and Dispose (RTD). Each alternative was evaluated against the CERCLA criteria for effectiveness, implementability, and cost.

  5. The necessities for building a model to evaluate Business Intelligence projects- Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrokhi, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    In recent years Business Intelligence (BI) systems have consistently been rated as one of the highest priorities of Information Systems (IS) and business leaders. BI allows firms to apply information for supporting their processes and decisions by combining its capabilities in both of organizational and technical issues. Many of companies are being spent a significant portion of its IT budgets on business intelligence and related technology. Evaluation of BI readiness is vital because it serves two important goals. First, it shows gaps areas where company is not ready to proceed with its BI efforts. By identifying BI readiness gaps, we can avoid wasting time and resources. Second, the evaluation guides us what we need to close the gaps and implement BI with a high probability of success. This paper proposes to present an overview of BI and necessities for evaluation of readiness. Key words: Business intelligence, Evaluation, Success, Readiness

  6. Global precipitation retrieval algorithm trained for SSMIS using a numerical weather prediction model: Design and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surussavadee, Chinnawat

    This paper presents and evaluates a global precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). It is based on those developed earlier for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

  7. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  8. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within 30 C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  9. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euling, Susan Y.; White, Lori D.; Kim, Andrea S.; Sen, Banalata; Wilson, Vickie S.; Keshava, Channa; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Hester, Susan; Ovacik, Meric A.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Gaido, Kevin W.

    2013-09-15

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available doseresponse data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals. - Highlights: ? We evaluate the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data for use in risk assessment. ? We focus on information about the mechanism of action for the developing testis. ? Multiple studies report effects on testosterone and insl3-related pathways. ? We identify additional affected pathways that may explain some testis effects. ? The case study is a template for evaluating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment.

  10. Extreme Value Mixture Modelling: evmix Package and Simulation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarrott, Carl

    using sample proportion which is the maximum likelihood estimate Classic GPD tail modelling approach 5 Notice that base mixture model has no requirement of density to be continuous at threshold Note: cdf is continuous, just density is not Usually physically sensible to have continuous density Some mixture models

  11. Extreme Value Mixture Modelling with Simulation Study and Applications in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarrott, Carl

    with threshold selection. However, it is not clear that how the proportion above the threshold or tail fraction models are proposed by extending some of the existing parametric form mixture models to have continuous a constraint of continuity at the threshold does not substantially improve the model fit in the upper tail

  12. Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

  13. Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Andrew; Lubliner, Michael; Howard, Luke; Kunkle, Rick; Salzberg, Emily

    2014-04-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  14. Addressing Uncertainties in Design Inputs: A Case Study of Probabilistic Settlement Evaluations for Soft Zone Collapse at SWPF

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addressing Uncertainties in Design Inputs: A Case Study of Probabilistic Settlement Evaluations for Soft Zone Collapse at SWPF Tom Houston, Greg Mertz, Carl Costantino, Michael Costantino, Andrew Maham Carl J. Costantino & Associates DOE NPH Conference Germantown, Maryland October 25-26 2011

  15. Fast Track for Undergraduate Selected Studies Students to a Master of Science in Instructional Design, Development & Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Fast Track for Undergraduate Selected Studies Students to a Master of Science in Instructional Design, Development & Evaluation IDD&E Master of Science Degree Handbook contains more information materials for children through adult populations using a variety of delivery platforms from face- to

  16. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The first of a three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The objectives of the study are to (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions where fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. Simulation studies were conducted with a dual porosity simulator capable of simulating the performance of vertical and horizontal wells. Each simulator was initialized using properties typical of the Austin Chalk reservoir in Pearsall Field, Texas. Simulations of both vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicate that the simulator is predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results to-date confirm that horizontal wells can increase both oil recovery rate and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. The year one simulation results will provide the baseline for the ongoing study which will evaluate the performance degradation caused by the sensitivity of fracture permeability to pressure change, and investigate fluid injection pressure maintenance as a means to improve oil recovery performance. The study is likely to conclude that fracture closure decreases oil recovery and that pressure support achieved through fluid injection could be beneficial in improving recovery.

  17. Testing for Suspected Impairments and Dissociations in Single-Case Studies in Neuropsychology: Evaluation of Alternatives Using Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, John R.

    Testing for Suspected Impairments and Dissociations in Single-Case Studies in Neuropsychology: Evaluation of Alternatives Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Revised Tests for Dissociations John R. Crawford, a patient is compared with a small control sample. Methods of testing for a deficit on Task X

  18. Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-03-01

    This report documents the efforts to perform dynamic model validation on the Eastern Interconnection (EI) by modeling governor deadband. An on-peak EI dynamic model is modified to represent governor deadband characteristics. Simulation results are compared with synchrophasor measurements collected by the Frequency Monitoring Network (FNET/GridEye). The comparison shows that by modeling governor deadband the simulated frequency response can closely align with the actual system response.

  19. Time Utility Functions for Modeling and Evaluating Resource Allocations in a Heterogeneous Computing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briceno, Luis Diego [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Khemka, Bhavesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Siegel, Howard Jay [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Maciejewski, Anthony A [ORNL; Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Koenig, Gregory A [ORNL; Okonski, Gene D [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study considers a heterogeneous computing system and corresponding workload being investigated by the Extreme Scale Systems Center (ESSC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ESSC is part of a collaborative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DoD) to deliver research, tools, software, and technologies that can be integrated, deployed, and used in both DOE and DoD environments. The heterogeneous system and workload described here are representative of a prototypical computing environment being studied as part of this collaboration. Each task can exhibit a time-varying importance or utility to the overall enterprise. In this system, an arriving task has an associated priority and precedence. The priority is used to describe the importance of a task, and precedence is used to describe how soon the task must be executed. These two metrics are combined to create a utility function curve that indicates how valuable it is for the system to complete a task at any given moment. This research focuses on using time-utility functions to generate a metric that can be used to compare the performance of different resource schedulers in a heterogeneous computing system. The contributions of this paper are: (a) a mathematical model of a heterogeneous computing system where tasks arrive dynamically and need to be assigned based on their priority, precedence, utility characteristic class, and task execution type, (b) the use of priority and precedence to generate time-utility functions that describe the value a task has at any given time, (c) the derivation of a metric based on the total utility gained from completing tasks to measure the performance of the computing environment, and (d) a comparison of the performance of resource allocation heuristics in this environment.

  20. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

  1. Critical Simulation Based Evaluation of Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) Design Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Chandrayee

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed without considering infiltration,levels of infiltration. The ultimate goal of this study is

  2. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    national and state energy policies, if concerns about programNational Laboratory study projected that energy efficiency programsNational Action Plan for Energy Efficiency 2007. Model Energy Efficiency Program

  3. Fault modeling, delay evaluation and path selection for delay test under process variation in nano-scale VLSI circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiang

    2006-04-12

    Delay test in nano-scale VLSI circuits becomes more difficult with shrinking technology feature sizes and rising clock frequencies. In this dissertation, we study three challenging issues in delay test: fault modeling, ...

  4. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01

    COAL MODEL Significant potential exists for carbon sequestration and enhanced methane recoverycoal zones within the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Assessment of the CO 2 sequestration and enhanced recovery

  5. Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using a Terahertz Wave Scanner...

  6. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry-climate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; et al

    2015-04-16

    We test the current generation of global chemistry-climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1 1 grid cells, allowing commensurate model-measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfully matched. The observedmoresummertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80% of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The observed linear relationship showing increases in ozone by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes is also matched.less

  7. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-30

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design`s capability for plutonium disposition.

  8. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-30

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design`s capability for plutonium disposition.

  9. Comparative Study of Modeling a Hydrogen Nonpremixed Turbulent Flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    of furnaces or gas turbines as well as for the prediction of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides. with different combustion models. The predictions are validated against existing experimental data provided [1, 2]. In particular, a comparison of two "advanced" turbulent combustion models is presented

  10. Architecture, Data Model and Real-Time Performance Evaluation of the Streamonas Data Stream Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, Panayiotis Adamos

    2015-01-01

    a new model and architecture for data stream management.Order Processing: A New Architecture for High- PerformanceDistributed Streamonas Architecture and its Performance

  11. What are the Starting Points? Evaluating Base-Year Assumptions in the Asian Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Clarke, Leon E.; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-12-01

    A common feature of model inter-comparison efforts is that the base year numbers for important parameters such as population and GDP can differ substantially across models. This paper explores the sources and implications of this variation in Asian countries across the models participating in the Asian Modeling Exercise (AME). Because the models do not all have a common base year, each team was required to provide data for 2005 for comparison purposes. This paper compares the year 2005 information for different models, noting the degree of variation in important parameters, including population, GDP, primary energy, electricity, and CO2 emissions. It then explores the difference in these key parameters across different sources of base-year information. The analysis confirms that the sources provide different values for many key parameters. This variation across data sources and additional reasons why models might provide different base-year numbers, including differences in regional definitions, differences in model base year, and differences in GDP transformation methodologies, are then discussed in the context of the AME scenarios. Finally, the paper explores the implications of base-year variation on long-term model results.

  12. A study on boundary separation in an idealized ocean model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dben, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    In numerical ocean models coast lines change the direction from one grid cell to its neighbor and the value for viscosity is set to be as small as possible. Therefore, model simulations are not converged with resolution and boundary separation points differ in essential properties from flow separation in continuous flow fields. In this paper, we investigate the quality of the representation of boundary separation points in global ocean models. To this end, we apply well established criteria for boundary separation within an idealized ocean model setup. We investigate an eddy-resolving as well as a steady test case with idealized and unstructured coast lines in a shallow water model that is based on a finite element discretization method. The results show that well established criteria for separation fail to detect boundary separation points due to an insufficient representation of ocean flows along free-slip boundaries. Along no-slip boundaries, most separation criteria provide adequate results. However, a ve...

  13. EVALUATING COLLABORATIVE PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF THE NORTH COAST LAND AND RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of British Columbia is a unique ecological region of 1.8 million hectares. Conflict over the management on the evaluation of the North Coast process based on a stakeholder participant survey using 25 process and outcome patience in editing my research project, for his passionate interest in the results of this work

  14. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Apps, J.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-11-05

    In this study, reactive transport simulations were used to assess the mobilization and transport of organics with supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCC), and the co-injection and transport of H{sub 2}S with SCC. These processes were evaluated at conditions of typical storage reservoirs, and for cases of hypothetical leakage from a reservoir to an overlying shallower fresh water aquifer. Modeling capabilities were developed to allow the simulation of multiphase flow and transport of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, as well as specific organic compounds (benzene), coupled with multicomponent geochemical reaction and transport. This included the development of a new simulator, TMVOC-REACT, starting from existing modules of the TOUGH2 family of codes. This work also included an extensive literature review, calculation, and testing of phase-partitioning properties for mixtures of the phases considered. The reactive transport simulations presented in this report are primarily intended to illustrate the capabilities of the new simulator. They are also intended to help evaluate and understand various processes at play, in a more qualitative than quantitative manner, and only for hypothetical scenarios. Therefore, model results are not intended as realistic assessments of groundwater quality changes for specific locations, and they certainly do not provide an exhaustive evaluation of all possible site conditions, especially given the large variability and uncertainty in hydrogeologic and geochemical parameter input into simulations. The first step in evaluating the potential mobilization and transport of organics was the identification of compounds likely to be present in deep storage formations, and likely to negatively impact freshwater aquifers if mobilized by SCC. On the basis of a literature review related to the occurrence of these organic compounds, their solubility in water and SCC, and their toxicity (as reflected by their maximum contaminant levels MCL), benzene was selected as a key compound for inclusion into numerical simulations. Note that considering additional organic compounds and/or mixtures of such compounds in the simulations was beyond the scope of this study, because of the effort required to research, calculate, and validate the phase-partitioning data necessary for simulations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was simulated, followed by modeling the leaching of benzene by SCC and transport of benzene to an overlying aquifer along a hypothetical leakage pathway. One- and two-dimensional models were set up for this purpose. The target storage formation was assumed to initially contain about 10{sup -4} ppm benzene. Model results indicate that: (1) SCC efficiently extracts benzene from the storage formation. (2) Assuming equilibrium, the content of benzene in SCC is roportional to the concentration of benzene in the aqueous and solid phases. (3) Benzene may co-migrate with CO{sub 2} into overlying aquifers if a leakage pathway is present. Because the aqueous solubility of benzene in contact with CO{sub 2} is lower than the aqueous solubility of CO{sub 2}, benzene is actually enriched in the CO{sub 2} phase as the plume advances. (4) For the case studied here, the resulting aqueous benzene concentration in the overlying aquifer is on the same order of magnitude as the initial concentration in the storage formation. This generic modeling study illustrates, in a semi-quantitative manner, the possible mobilization of benzene by SCC. The extent to which the mobilization of this organic compound evolves temporally and spatially depends on a large number of controlling parameters and is largely site specific. Therefore, for more 'truly' predictive work, further sensitivity studies should be conducted, and further modeling should be integrated with site-specific laboratory and/or field experimental data. The co-injection of H{sub 2}S with CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was also simulated. In addition, the model considered leakage of the supercritical CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}S mixture along a preferential p

  15. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near-shore Wave Fields: Model Generation Validation and Evaluation - Kaneohe Bay HI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.

  16. Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Ba/Rh NOx Traps for Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Harold; Vemuri Balakotaiah

    2010-05-31

    In this project a combined experimental and theoretical approach was taken to advance our understanding of lean NOx trap (LNT) technology. Fundamental kinetics studies were carried out of model LNT catalysts containing variable loadings of precious metals (Pt, Rh), and storage components (BaO, CeO{sub 2}). The Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor provided transient data under well-characterized conditions for both powder and monolith catalysts, enabling the identification of key reaction pathways and estimation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. The performance of model NOx storage and reduction (NSR) monolith catalysts were evaluated in a bench scale NOx trap using synthetic exhaust, with attention placed on the effect of the pulse timing and composition on the instantaneous and cycle-averaged product distributions. From these experiments we formulated a global model that predicts the main spatio-temporal features of the LNT and a mechanistic-based microkinetic models that incorporates a detailed understanding of the chemistry and predicts more detailed selectivity features of the LNT. The NOx trap models were used to determine its ability to simulate bench-scale data and ultimately to evaluate alternative LNT designs and operating strategies. The four-year project led to the training of several doctoral students and the dissemination of the findings as 47 presentations in conferences, catalysis societies, and academic departments as well 23 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. A condensed review of NOx storage and reduction was published in an encyclopedia of technology.

  17. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Lazaros Oreopoulos and Dr. Peter M. Norris

    2010-03-14

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be attainable, thus affecting public policy decisions with great impact to public life.

  18. Evaluation of the characterization of smoke plumes within the AIRPACT model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    are a major source of air pollution during the fire season in the Western US, yet are not well characterized within air quality forecasting models. It is increasingly important to improve modeling of smoke plumes of particulate matter during the fire season, it is important to correctly characterize smoke plumes within air

  19. The study of solar flares with the extended cellular automaton (XCA) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    ) at a temporal snapshot during a flare. explain the powerlaw frequency distributions of the solar flareThe study of solar flares with the extended cellular automaton (XCA) model H. Isliker 1 , A of cellular automaton (CA) model, the extended CA (XCA), for the study of solar flares. The XCA model

  20. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Asayama; Yukio Tachibana

    2007-09-30

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  1. A comparative study of continuous-time modelings for scheduling of crude oil operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    A comparative study of continuous-time modelings for scheduling of crude oil operations Xuan Chena and formulations for the crude oil scheduling problem. We compare the event-based model, the unit slot model on its efficient performance for industrial problems. Keywords: Crude oil scheduling; event-based model

  2. Learning Business Process Models: A case study Johny Ghattas, Pnina Soffer, Mor Peleg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peleg, Mor

    Learning Business Process Models: A case study Johny Ghattas, Pnina Soffer, Mor Peleg Management the application of LPM to a vaccination process. Keywords: Learning, business process model, generic process model the currently defined process model and the actual business process are detected. This forms the basis

  3. Seasonal versus Episodic Performance Evaluation for an Eulerian Photochemical Air Quality Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Quality Study Agency, California Energy Commission, the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas

  4. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Producer profits are for oil production from known fields,Actual Prudhoe Bay Oil Production, Historical and ModeledKaufmann, R. (1991) Oil production in the Lower 48 States:

  5. Residential model for steep slopes : case study, Ajaltoun, Lebanon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abourached, Toufic

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a residential model for steep slopes, in the mountain village of Ajaltoun. It is anticipated that this preliminary design would represent an alternative method for residential ...

  6. Model Discrimination at the LHC: a Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory Hallenbeck; Maxim Perelstein; Christian Spethmann; Julia Thom; Jennifer Vaughan

    2009-03-11

    We investigate the potential of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to discriminate between two theoretical models predicting anomalous events with jets and large missing transverse energy, minimal supersymmetry and Little Higgs with T Parity. We focus on a simple test case scenario, in which the only exotic particles produced at the LHC are heavy color-triplet states (squarks or T-quarks), and the only open decay channel for these particles is into the stable missing-energy particle (neutralino or heavy photon) plus a quark. We find that in this scenario, the angular and momentum distributions of the observed jets are sufficient to discriminate between the two models with a few inverse fb of the LHC data, provided that these distributions for both models and the dominant Standard Model backgrounds can be reliably predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    and deductions for oil company investments in the area. 11979) Capital investment models of the oil and gas industry:total facilities investment cost of oil production on the

  8. Hydrogeological study and modeling of the Kern Water Bank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meillier, Laurent M; Clark, Jordan F; Loaiciga, Hugo

    2001-01-01

    corner of each model layer, representing the Elk Hills.With the exception of the Elk Hills that act as a barrier tothis area is to the Elk Hills hydrological basin. 5.

  9. Finite element study of Lamb waves: modeling techniques and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdict, Gregory Scott

    1993-01-01

    and theoretical results. In addition, other finite element work shows the viability of using these modeling techniques as a tool for understanding the interaction of Lamb waves with physical defects. As a signal processing tool, neural networks will process...

  10. Architectural Model to Enable Power System Tradeoff Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chryssostomidis, Chryssostomos

    2011-01-01

    We continue the development of an overall architectural model for an all-electric ship using a physics-based simulation environment to perform fully-integrated simulation of electrical, hydrodynamic, thermal, and structural ...

  11. Evaluating and developing parameter optimization and uncertainty analysis methods for a computationally intensive distributed hydrological model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xuesong

    2009-05-15

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2008 Major Subject: Water Management and Hydrologic Sciences EVALUATING AND DEVELOPING PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS... OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Raghavan Srinivasan Committee Members, Faming Liang Patricia K. Smith Francisco Olivera Head of Department, Ronald Kaiser August 2008 Major Subject: Water Management and Hydrologic Sciences iii...

  12. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  13. Integrated reservoir study of the Monument Northwest field: a waterflood performance evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nduonyi, Moses Asuquo

    2009-05-15

    methodology for a deterministic approach. The data history of the wells in the field beginning from spud date were gathered and analyzed into information necessary for building an upscaled reservoir model of the field. Means of increasing production...

  14. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-08-01

    A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .

  15. A study on Modeling of Dependency between Configuration Parameters and Overall Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamyabpour, Najmeh

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a new approach to model the overall Energy Consumption (EC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). First, we extract parameters involving in the EC of WSNs. The dependency between configuration parameters and the average residual energy of a specific application is then investigated. Our approach has three key steps: profiling, parameter reduction, and modeling. In profiling, a sensor network simulator is re-run 800 times with different values of the configuration parameters in order to profile the average residual energy in nodes. In the parameter reduction, three statistical analyses (p-value, linear and non-linear correlation) are applied to the outcome of profiled experiments in order to separate the effective parameters on WSN residual energy. Finally, linear regression is used to model the relation between the chosen effective parameters and the residual energy. The evaluation based on running the simulator for another 200 times with different values of the effective parameters shows...

  16. Evaluating and Monitoring Energy Conservation in Multibuilding Clusters with Statistical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darwin, R. F.; Mazzucchi, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    A standardized method for modeling energy consumption in mixed clusters of residential and commercial buildings is described. The basic approach is to delineate energy consumption along three dimensions: time, day-length, and temperature...

  17. A chronological probabilistic production cost model to evaluate the reliability contribution of limited energy plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Tommy (Tommy Chun Ting)

    2012-01-01

    The growth of renewables in power systems has reinvigorated research and regulatory interest in reliability analysis algorithms such as the Baleriaux/Booth convolution-based probabilistic production cost (PPC) model. ...

  18. Beryllium Impregnation of Uranium Fuel: Thermal Modeling of Cylindrical Objects for Efficiency Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, Nicholas

    2011-08-04

    With active research projects related to nuclear waste immobilization and high conductivity nuclear fuels, a thermal model has been developed to simulate the temperature profile within a heat generating cylinder in order to imitate the behavior...

  19. OLAF _ A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fliege, Jrg

    ........................17 3.1.1The Standard Model ....................17 3.1.2Metabolism.1.2The Objective Function ..................40 5.1.3The Gradient of the Objective Function

  20. Beyond DCF analysis in real estate financial modeling : probabilistic evaluation of real estate ventures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Keith Chin-Kee

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces probabilistic valuation techniques and encourages their usage in the real estate industry. Including uncertainty and real options into real estate financial models is worthwhile, especially when there ...

  1. Integrating Multiple Geographic Information Systems to Create a Versatile Land Evaluation Site Assessment Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Grady

    2008-11-19

    GIS in Urban Planning Integrating Multiple Geographic Information Systems to Create a Versatile Land Suitability Analysis Model Grady Morrison Undergraduate Department of Geography University of Kansas gmorrisn@ku.edu Impervious Surface...

  2. Application of Real Options to Evaluate the Development Process of New Aircraft Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Investment decisions in the development and production of new aircraft models is difficult because of the technical and market uncertainties associated with such a complex process. The accompanying risks can be

  3. Incorporating and Evaluating Environmental Instream Flows in a Priority Order Based Surface Water Allocation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauls, Mark

    2014-03-18

    -step versions of the authorized use scenario water availability models using existing and recently added features of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP). Various metrics are developed by this research to characterize the degree to which the environmental...

  4. An evaluation of thermal modeling techniques utilized for nuclear fuel rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Jeffrey Warren

    1989-01-01

    for open gap conditions or increases the interfacial pressure for closed gap conditions. Therefore, an accurate prediction of fission gas behavior is an essential part of a fuel rod performance code. Theory Development Xenon and krypton are noble gases... the different thermal modeling techniques employed therein. Differences in fuel centerline temperature predictions caused by these identified differences in thermal modeling techniques were then determined using the integral conductivity method. Fission gas...

  5. Biomimetic Model Studies Reveal the Role of the Ca2+ Ion in Photosyste...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Model Studies Reveal the Role of the Ca2+ Ion in Photosystem II Friday, October 31, 2014 Fig 1 Figure 1. The biomimetic complexes that model the OEC in the final step of...

  6. Evaluation of PV performance models and their impact on project risk.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2010-12-01

    Photovoltaic systems are often priced in $/W{sub p}, where Wp refers to the DC power rating of the modules at Standard Test Conditions (1000 W/m{sup 2}, 25 C cell temperature) and $ refers to the installed cost of the system. However, the true value of the system is in the energy it will produce in kWhs, not the power rating. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, the annual energy yield (kWh/kW{sup p}) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. Understanding energy yield is a key part of understanding system value. System performance models are used during project development to estimate the expected output of PV systems for a given design and location. Performance modeling is normally done by the system designer/system integrator. Often, an independent engineer will also model system output during a due diligence review of a project. A variety of system performance models are available. The most commonly used modeling tool for project development and due diligence in the United States is probably PVsyst, while those seeking a quick answer to expected energy production may use PVWatts. In this paper, we examine the variation in predicted energy output among modeling tools and users and compare that to measured output.

  7. Aerosol Indirect Effect on the Grid-scale Clouds in the Two-way Coupled WRF-CMAQ: Model Description, Development, Evaluation and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shaocai; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Wong, David; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, Kiran; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-24

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQpredicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly-developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate CAM and RRTMG radiation schemes, was evaluated with the observations from the CERES satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNet, STN, and PRISM) over the continental U.S. (CONUS) (12-km resolution) and eastern Texas (4-km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the AQS surface sites show that in August, the NMB values for PM2.5 over the eastern/western U.S (EUS/WUS) and western U.S. (WUS) are 5.3% (?0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO4 2? by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the CASTNet, IMPROVE and STN sites, respectively. Both models (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean OC, EC and TC concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both models generally underestimated the cloud field (SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not considered when the model simulations were run at the 12 km resolution. This is in agreement with the fact that both models captured SWCF and LWCF very well for the 4-km simulation over the eastern Texas when all clouds were resolved by the finer domain. Both models generally overestimated the observed precipitation by more than 40% mainly because of significant overestimation in the southern part of the CONUS in August. The simulations of WRF-CMAQ/CAM and WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG show dramatic improvements for SWCF, LWCF, COD, cloud fractions and precipitation over the ocean relative to those of WRF default cases in August. The model performance in September is similar to that in August except for greater overestimation of PM2.5 due to the overestimations of SO4 2-, NH4 +, NO3 -, and TC over the EUS, less underestimation of clouds (SWCF) over the land areas due to about 10% lower SWCF values and less convective clouds in September.

  8. An experimental study on a model Stirling engine car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohma, Yutaka; Wu, Chungming; Isshiki, Seita; Ushiyama, Izumi

    1999-07-01

    A Stirling engine is a mechanical device that operates on a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle, with cyclic compression and expansion of the working fluid at different temperature levels. The flow is controlled by volume changes, and there exists a net conversion of the heat to work. Stirling engines are ideally suited to off-grid electric power generation because of their multi-fuel capability, potentially high efficiency and low noise. The first model Stirling Techno-rally was held in August 1997 for further promotion of the clean and quiet Stirling engine as one of the Centennial Anniversary events of JSME. In the race, more than one hundred cars competed for the time on a course of 13 meters length and 30 centimeters width. In Ashikaga Institute of Technology, a model Stirling engine car Ashikaga Gekkoh was made for this event. In this paper the authors report on this model car that won the championship of the Stirling Techno-rally.

  9. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  10. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  11. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: II. Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Wang, Guohui; Shao, Hongbo; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-08-04

    Large scale deployment of CO2 geological sequestration requires the assessment of the risks. One of the potential risks is the impact of CO2 leakage on shallow groundwater overlying the sequestration site.The understanding of the key chemical processes and parameters are critical for building numerical models for risk assessment. Model interpretation of laboratory and field tests is an effective way to enhance such understanding. Column experiments in which CO2 charged synthetic groundwater flowed through a column packed with material from High Plains aquifer was conducted and concentration of several constituents in the effluent water was analyzed. In this paper, reactive transport model was developed to interpret the observed concentration changes, attempting to shed light on the chemical reactions and key parameters that control the concentration changes of these constituents. The reactive transport model catches the concentration changes of pH, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cs, As and Pb fairly well. Calcite dissolution and Ca-driven cation exchange reactions are the major drivers for the concentration changes of Ca, Ba, Sr, and Cs. The pH-driven adsorption/desorption reactions lead to a concentration increase of As and Pb. The volume fraction and reactive surface area of calcite, CEC and sorption capacity are key parameters in determining the magnitude of concentration increase. Model results also show that the dissolution of calcite with Ba impurity could be an alternative explanation of the increase in Ba concentration.

  12. A taxonomic study of the Siphonaptera, or, fleas of Texas and an evaluation of their importance to public health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eads, Richard Bailey

    1949-01-01

    A TAXONOMIC STUDY OP THE SIPHDNAPTERA, OR FLEAS, OP TEXAS AND AN EVALUATION OF THEIR IMPORTANCE IN PUBLIC HEALTH A Dissertation By RICHARD BAILEY EADS Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Committee A TAXONOMIC STUDY... of Doctor of Philosophy by Richard Bailey Eads ' V \\ Major Subj ect: Entomology 1949 AA\\* ' r>; . A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S Any taxonomic work is of necessity a composite effort, a stag? nation of the labors of many hands. This treatise on fleas...

  13. Distributed energy resources in practice: A case study analysis and validation of LBNL's customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Owen; Creighton, Charles; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-02-01

    This report describes a Berkeley Lab effort to model the economics and operation of small-scale (<500 kW) on-site electricity generators based on real-world installations at several example customer sites. This work builds upon the previous development of the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment, and idealized operating schedule, that would minimize the site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a historic test period, usually a recent year. This study offered the first opportunity to apply DER-CAM in a real-world setting and evaluate its modeling results. DER-CAM has three possible applications: first, it can be used to guide choices of equipment at specific sites, or provide general solutions for example sites and propose good choices for sites with similar circumstances; second, it can additionally provide the basis for the operations of installed on-site generation; and third, it can be used to assess the market potential of technologies by anticipating which kinds of customers might find various technologies attractive. A list of approximately 90 DER candidate sites was compiled and each site's DER characteristics and their willingness to volunteer information was assessed, producing detailed information on about 15 sites of which five sites were analyzed in depth. The five sites were not intended to provide a random sample, rather they were chosen to provide some diversity of business activity, geography, and technology. More importantly, they were chosen in the hope of finding examples of true business decisions made based on somewhat sophisticated analyses, and pilot or demonstration projects were avoided. Information on the benefits and pitfalls of implementing a DER system was also presented from an additional ten sites including agriculture, education, health care, airport, and manufacturing facilities.

  14. Evaluation of the Indian Migration Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (IMS-PAQ): a cross-sectional study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Ruth; Kinra, Sanjay; Ekelund, Ulf; Av, Bharathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura; Collier, Tim; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Ebrahim, Shah; Kuper, Hannah

    2012-02-09

    - vant to both rural and urban locations in India and across gender as numerous activities are gender specific in India [13,14,16]. The IMS-PAQ was administered by trained interviewers at each study site to gather information on participants habitual PA...

  15. Performance Evaluation of a ground source heat pump system based on ANN and ANFIS models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, W.; Hu, P.; Lei, F.; Zhu, N.; Zhang,J.

    2014-01-01

    .H DONG," MATLAB neural network and application," Beijing: National Defense Industry Press, 2005. [10] S. A. Kalogirou, "Applications of artificial neural networks in energy systems," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 40, pp. 1073-1087, 1999. [11... stream_source_info ESL-IC-14-09-38.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 28204 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IC-14-09-38.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Performance evaluation of a...

  16. Evaluation of Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Modeling with ARM Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) Wigner Home ·the EffectEvaluation of

  17. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

  18. Proc. 4th St.Petersburg Workshop on Simulation, St.Petersburg, Russia, 2001, 233-238 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivulin, Nikolai K.

    and Performance Evaluation of Computer Systems Security Operation1 D. Guster2 St.Cloud State University3 N.K. Krivulin4 St.Petersburg State University5 Abstract A model of computer system security operation system security, security attack, security vul- nerability, performance evaluation, fork-join queueing

  19. Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    steady-state and dynamic conditions at a full-scale facility, the Rock Creek wastewater treatment plant throughout the year. Water Environ. Res., 77, 000 (2005). KEYWORDS: activated sludge, heat balance, hydraulics, modeling, temperature dynamics, wastewater treatment. Introduction An activated-sludge reactor

  20. The zebrafish pronephros: A model to study nephron segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tank, Jennifer L.

    . Achieving an understanding of the mechanisms that direct nephron segmentation has the potential to shed to direct segment fates during mammalian nephrogenesis. These findings present the zebrafish model) that transports the modified filtrate to a waste disposal site. In mammals and other amniotes, the pronephros

  1. Receptivity Studies on a Swept-Wing Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Matthew Jeffery

    2012-07-16

    A series of flight tests was performed using a swept-wing model mounted on a Cessna O-2 aircraft. The crossflow waves on the airfoil were excited by pneumatic spanwise-periodic distributed roughness elements (DREs). The objective of the experiment...

  2. A comparative study of analytical models to estimate the LNAPL mound formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Ashfaq

    1994-01-01

    developed. Even though these models are based on various as- sumptions, they are useful as tools in evaluating the spreading of the free oil phase during sn oil spill. The spreading depends on many factors, such as leak volume, type of petroleum product..., hydrogeological conditions, and hydraulic properties of the medium as well as the oil. Among the various modeling approaches to predict spill migration, the sharp interface approach has been widely examined due to its simplicity for homogeneous media...

  3. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A.

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  4. Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: A case study in the vehicle repair industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demou, Evangelia

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity in Life Cycle Assessment of Dwellings - PartInternational Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2005 a, 5,Radioactivity in Life Cycle Assessment of Dwellings - Part

  5. Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: A case study in the vehicle repair industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demou, Evangelia

    2010-01-01

    International Journal of LCA submitted. Schmidt, W. -P. ,to Chemicals with LCA: The Examples of Trichloroethylene andToxic Substances in the Frame of LCA-The Multi-Media Fate,

  6. Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: A case study in the vehicle repair industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demou, Evangelia

    2010-01-01

    International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2005 a, 5,Radioactivity in Life Cycle Assessment of Dwellings - PartInternational Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2005 b, 6,

  7. Modeling of gas and aerosol with WRF/Chem over Europe: Evaluation and sensitivity study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curci, Gabriele

    average temperature shows a very small negative bias, the relative humidity and the wind speed at curbside sites, 18 at near-city and urban background sites [Van Dingenen et al., 2004]. Chemical speciation

  8. Activity Diagrams for DEVS Models: A Case Study Modeling Health Care Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozmen, Ozgur; Nutaro, James J

    2015-01-01

    Discrete Event Systems Specification (DEVS) is a widely used formalism for modeling and simulation of discrete and continuous systems. While DEVS provides a sound mathematical representation of discrete systems, its practical use can suffer when models become complex. Five main functions, which construct the core of atomic modules in DEVS, can realize the behaviors that modelers want to represent. The integration of these functions is handled by the simulation routine, however modelers can implement each function in various ways. Therefore, there is a need for graphical representations of complex models to simplify their implementation and facilitate their reproduction. In this work, we illustrate the use of activity diagrams for this purpose in the context of a health care behavior model, which is developed with an agent-based modeling paradigm.

  9. Irreversible Electroporation Adjacent to the Rectum: Evaluation of Pathological Effects in a Pig Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoellnast, Helmut [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Comparative Pathology (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Comparative Pathology (United States); Ezell, Paula C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Research Animal Resource Center (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Research Animal Resource Center (United States); Single, Gordon [AngioDynamics Inc. (United States)] [AngioDynamics Inc. (United States); Maybody, Majid [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Weiser, Martin R.; Fong Yuman [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery (United States); Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the rectum wall after IRE applied adjacent to the rectum. CT-guided IRE adjacent to the rectum wall was performed in 11 pigs; a total of 44 lesions were created. In five pigs, ablations were performed without a water-filled endorectal coil (group A); in six pigs, ablation was performed with the coil to avoid displacement of the rectum wall (group B). The pigs were killed after 7-15 days and the rectums were harvested for pathological evaluation. There was no evidence of perforation on gross postmortem examination. Perirectal muscle lesions were observed in 18 of 20 ablations in group A and in 21 of 24 ablations in group B. Inflammation and fibrosis of the muscularis propria was observed in ten of 18 lesions in group A and in ten of 21 lesions in group B. In group A, findings were limited to the external layer of the muscularis propria except for one lesion; in group B, findings were transmural in all cases. Transmural necrosis with marked suppurative mucosal inflammation was observed in seven of 21 lesions in group B and in no lesion in group A. IRE-ablation adjacent to the rectum may be uneventful if the rectum wall is mobile and able to contract. IRE-ablation of the rectum may be harmful if the rectum wall is fixed adjacent to the IRE-probe.

  10. Modeling studies of mountain-scale radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Investigations at Yucca Mountain - The Potential Repositoryin the Unsaturated Zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ResourcesMODELING STUDIES OF MOUNTAIN-SCALE RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT IN

  11. Live Webinar on Better Buildings Case Competition: Energy Efficiency in the Restaurant Franchise Model Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "A Side of Savings: Energy Efficiency in the Restaurant Franchise Model Case Study."

  12. Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Study Using Multi-Physics Internal Short-Circuit Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-.H.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01

    This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.

  13. Evaluating Code Clone Genealogies at Release Level: An Empirical Study Ripon K. Saha, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Minhaz F. Zibran, Chanchal K. Roy, and Kevin A. Schneider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Kevin A.

    Evaluating Code Clone Genealogies at Release Level: An Empirical Study Ripon K. Saha, Muhammad.roy, kevin.schneider}@usask.ca Abstract Code clone genealogies show how clone groups evolve implications of clones. In this paper, we provide an in-depth empirical study for evaluating clone genealogies

  14. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Bell D, Towler B. Coal Gasification and Its Applications.C, Chaney R. Alaskan coal gasification feasibility studies -Task 2 Topical Report: Coke/Coal Gasification with Liquids

  15. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    in this study have more energy export as power due to largeenergy consumption further. As a result, the 90% overall carbon capture option leads less net export

  16. Models and Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this webinar, attendees will learn about the models and tools developed by DOE and its partners to assist Tribes in assessing renewable energy and energy efficiency project potential. The webinar is held from 11:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain Standard Time on May 27, 2015.

  17. Validation of and enhancements to an operating-speed-based geometric design consistency evaluation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Kent Michael

    1995-01-01

    .05 significance level. Analysis of observed 85th percentile speeds revealed that the current speed-profile model fits the observed data reasonably well. Hypothesis tests of mean observed 85th percentile speeds on tangents resulted in the conclusion that the mean...

  18. Evaluation of the CRITERIA Irrigation Scheme Soil Water Balance Model in Texas Initial Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaiti, G.; Fipps, G.

    2011-01-01

    High Plains, the model was calibrated and compared to lysimetric data for soybean production at the USDA-ARS Laboratory, Bushland, on soybean, over a two year period (2002 and 2003). In the LRGV, data was collected from a 27-ha sugarcane field within...

  19. Internship Parallel Computer Evaluation Parallelization of a Lagrangian Particle Diffusion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    use case is a nuclear accident like a core meltdown at a atomic power plant, where atomic radiation emits in the air. The Lagrangian model can predict how the nuclear cloud spreads under different that will be computed. Particle: One single molecule floating in the wind field. Compute unit: One unit that runs

  20. Evaluation of Models of Electrostatic Interactions in Proteins Alexandre V. Morozov, Tanja Kortemme, and David Baker*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morozov, Alexandre V.

    -protein complexes observed in nature must be low in free energy relative to alternative (not observed) conformations alternative models of electrostatic interactions in proteins by comparing the electrostatic free energies, and it is plausible (but not absolutely necessary) that the electrostatic free energies of experimentally observed

  1. Improving the Contribution of Economic Models in Evaluating Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laitner, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional representation of improved end-use efficiency in the manufacturing sector has tended to assume a net cost perspective. In other words, the assumption for many models is that any change within the energy end-use patterns must imply a...

  2. MODEL AND ALGORITHM EVALUATION FOR THE HYBRID UF6 CONTAINER INSPECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Benjamin S.; Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; Smith, Leon E.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2011-06-14

    ABSTRACT Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an automated UF6 cylinder verification station concept based on the combined collection of traditional enrichment-meter (186 keV photons from U-235) data and non-traditional, neutron-induced, high-energy gamma-signatures (3-8.5 MeV) with an array of collimated, medium-resolution scintillators. Previous (2010) work at PNNL demonstrated proof-of-principle that this hybrid method yields accurate, full-volume assay of the cylinder enrichment, reduces systematic errors when compared to several other enrichment assay methods, and provides simplified instrumentation and algorithms suitable for long-term unattended operations. We used Monte Carlo modeling with MCNP5 to support system design (e.g., number and configuration of detector arrays, and design of iron/poly collimators for enhanced (n,?) conversion) and enrichment algorithm development. We developed a first-generation modeling framework in 2010. These tools have since been expanded, refined and benchmarked against field measurements with a prototype system of a 30B cylinder population (0.2 to 4.95 weight % U-235). The MCNP5 model decomposes the radiation transport problem into a linear superposition of basis spectra representing contributions from the different uranium isotopes and gamma-ray generation mechanisms (e.g. neutron capture). This scheme accommodates fast generation of virtual assay signatures for arbitrary enrichment, material age, and fill variations. Ongoing (FY-2011) refinements to the physics model include accounting for generation of bremsstrahlung photons, arising primarily from the beta decay of Pa-234m, a U-238 daughter. We are using the refined model to optimize collimator design for the hybrid method. The traditional assay method benefits from a high degree of collimation (to isolate each detectors field-of-view) and relatively small detector area, while the non-traditional method benefits from a wide field-of-view, i.e. less collimation and larger detectors. We implement the enrichment-meter method by applying a square-wave digital filter to a raw spectrum and extracting the 186-keV peak area directly from the convolute spectrum. Ongoing enhancements to this approach include mitigating a systematic peak-area measurement deficit arising from curvature in the spectrum continuum shape. An optimized system prototype based on model results is utilized in a new set of 2011 field measurements, and model and measurement enrichment assay uncertainties are compared.

  3. Modeling study of deposition locations in the 291-Z plenum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The TEMPEST (Trent and Eyler 1991) and PART5 computer codes were used to predict the probable locations of particle deposition in the suction-side plenum of the 291-Z building in the 200 Area of the Hanford Site, the exhaust fan building for the 234-5Z, 236-Z, and 232-Z buildings in the 200 Area of the Hanford Site. The Tempest code provided velocity fields for the airflow through the plenum. These velocity fields were then used with TEMPEST to provide modeling of near-floor particle concentrations without particle sticking (100% resuspension). The same velocity fields were also used with PART5 to provide modeling of particle deposition with sticking (0% resuspension). Some of the parameters whose importance was tested were particle size, point of injection and exhaust fan configuration.

  4. Progress report on LBL's numerical modeling studies on Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halfman-Dooley, S.E.; Lippman, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1989-04-01

    An exploitation model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system is needed to assess the energy capacity of the field, estimate its productive lifetime and develop an optimal reservoir management plan. The model must consider the natural state (i.e., pre-exploitation) conditions of the system and be able to predict changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions (and fluid chemistry) in response to fluid production (and injection). This paper discusses the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the natural state conditions of the Cerro Prieto field and compares computed and observed pressure and temperature/enthalpy changes for the 1973--1987 production period. 16 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Quantum simulation of the Schwinger model: A study of feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Khn; J. Ignacio Cirac; Mari-Carmen Bauls

    2014-12-10

    We analyze some crucial questions regarding the practical feasibility of quantum simulation for lattice gauge models. Our analysis focuses on two models suitable for the quantum simulation of the Schwinger Hamiltonian, or QED in 1+1 dimensions, which we investigate numerically using tensor networks. In particular, we explore the effect of representing the gauge degrees of freedom with finite-dimensional systems and show that the results converge rapidly; thus even with small dimensions it is possible to obtain a reasonable accuracy. We also discuss the time scales required for the adiabatic preparation of the interacting vacuum state and observe that for a suitable ramping of the interaction the required time is almost insensitive to the system size and the dimension of the physical systems. Finally, we address the possible presence of noninvariant terms in the Hamiltonian that is realized in the experiment and show that for low levels of noise it is still possible to achieve a good precision for some ground-state observables, even if the gauge symmetry is not exact in the implemented model.

  6. Shock-tube and modeling study of ethane pyrolysis and oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidaka, Yoshiaki; Sato, Kazutaka; Hoshikawa, Hiroki; Nishimori, Toshihide; Takahashi, Rie; Tanaka, Hiroya; Inami, Koji; Ito, Nobuhiro

    2000-02-01

    Pyrolysis and oxidation of ethane were studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 950--1,900 K at pressures of 1.2--4.0 atm. Ethane decay rates in both pyrolysis and oxidation were measured using time-resolved infrared (IR) laser absorption at 3.39 {micro}m, and CO{sub 2} production rates in oxidation were measured by time-resolved thermal IR emission at 4.24 {micro}m. The product yields were also determined using a single-pulse method. The pyrolysis and oxidation of ethane were modeled using a reaction mechanism with 157 reaction steps and 48 species including the most recent submechanisms for formaldehyde, ketene, methane, acetylene, and ethylene oxidation. The present and previously reported shock tube data were reproduced using this mechanism. The rate constants of the reactions C{sub 2}H{sub 6} {yields} CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + H {yields} H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} were evaluated. These reactions were important in predicting the previously reported and the present data, which were for mixture compositions ranging from ethane-rich (including ethane pyrolysis) to ethane-lean. The evaluated rate constants of the reactions C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + H {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} were found to be significantly different from currently accepted values.

  7. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  8. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    and demand for US crude oil resources. A dichotomy formedmore of the common oil resource. The study by Kunce (2003)above the same oil resource. If multiple different lease-

  9. Channel Meander Migration in Large-Scale Physical Model Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Po Hung

    2010-10-12

    A set of large-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to study channel meander migration. Factors affecting the migration of banklines, including the ratio of curvature to channel width, bend angle, and the Froude number were tested...

  10. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

  11. Evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Volume 1. Analysis of case studies of supported projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rorke, M.G.; Bronfman, L.M.; Soderstrom, E.J.

    1983-02-01

    This volume reports the analysis of the results of 30 case studies of grantees funded by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). ERIP is one of several federal programs supporting invention and innovation in the private sector. It is a relatively small program with an annual budget of $5 to 6 million that focuses its attention on the independent inventor or small business with an energy-related invention. Support to the inventory or small business comes primarily in the form of a grant. The overall goal of the program is to stimulate innovation by individuals and small businesses and to assist in the development of promising energy-related inventions for eventual commercialization. This volume is an aggregation and synthesis of the data gathered in the case studies. (Volume 2 contains the case studies.) The case studies explore in-depth the characteristics, perceptions, and experiences of inventors and agency personnel who have participated in the ERIP. Thus they are a rich source of information for use in evaluating the process by which the program's goals and objectives are implemented and for evaluating the program;s usefulness in producing the results intended by the legislative mandate.

  12. Energy Storage R&D: Thermal Management Studies and Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    Here we summarize NREL's FY09 energy storage R&D studies in the areas of 1. thermal characterization and analysis, 2. cost, life, and performance trade-off studies, and 3. thermal abuse modeling.

  13. COMPUTER STUDIES OF THE QUENCH BEHAVIOR OF AN SSC MODEL-DIPOLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, G.

    2010-01-01

    Stevens, "Q.ench Studies on CBA in Forced Flow Cooling",Quench Protection Studies on CBA Magnets", IEEE Transactionsactual data on quenches in the CBA magnets and the LBL model

  14. A Case Study of Higher Education Competency Models Utilizing an Assessment Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uden, Jayme Robert

    2012-05-31

    The overall purpose of this study is to explore the creation and implementation of competency models in higher education masters level preparation programs. The study answers five research questions. Why and how did two ...

  15. Evaluation of dynamical parameters with a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouker, W. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1993-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere is introduced. The model is based on the full set of the primitive equations. It is designed to simulate a yearly cycle of the middle atmosphere. Results are presented for the solstice and equinox conditions. The model reproduces the main observed features of the middle atmospheric circulation: the stratospheric-mesospheric jet streams and the cold summer mesopause region at solstice with reversed zonal wind especially in the summer mesosphere, and the weak westerly circulation at equinox. The parameterized effects of breaking gravity waves in the mesosphere drive the atmosphere out of radiative balance. They lead to a meridional circulation with a one-cell structure at solstice with upward (downward) motion over the summer (winter) pole and a meridional flow towards the winter hemisphere and a two-cell structure at equinox with upward motion over the tropics and downward motion over the polar regions. Potential fields are presented for horizontal vector fields. They suggest that the stratospheric circulation can is dominated by horizontally nondivergent flow. This is modified by the results of a more quantitative view at the interaction of planetary waves on the zonal mean flow, which clearly identifies the essential role of horizontal divergence on the stratospheric circulation.

  16. Models to evaluate magnicon architectures and designs suitable for high-perveance beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rees, D.E.

    1994-03-01

    The magnicon, a new high-power, radio frequency (rf) deflection- modulated amplifier, was recently developed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The first magnicon achieved a peak output power of 2.6 MW for 50-{mu}s pulses at a frequency of 915 MHz with a dc-to-rf conversion efficiency of 73%. The conversion efficiency achieved by the original magnicon represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art conventional velocity- and density-modulated devices. Therefore, if properly exploited, the magnicon could substantially reduce the operating expenses of industrial, scientific, and military facilities that require large amounts of rf power. This dissertation describes the operational principles of the magnicon, provides small-signal analytical theory (where practical), presents a large-signal numerical model to characterize magnicon performance, and then utilizes this model to investigate the characteristics of the component magnicon structures. Using these modeling tools, the first-generation magnicon architecture is analyzed for its performance sensitivity to electron-beam size and is found to support beams of only limited diameter. Finally, an alternate magnicon geometry, called a ``uniform-field`` magnicon, is presented and shown to support beams of larger diameter.

  17. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  18. Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-06-13

    In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Modeling is currently being conducted to evaluate potential risks to groundwater associated with leakage of fluids from depleted oil reservoirs used for storage of CO2. Modeling results reported here focused on understanding how toxic organic compounds found in oil will distribute between the various phases within a storage reservoir after introduction of CO2, understanding the migration potential of these compounds, and assessing potential groundwater impacts should leakage occur. Two model scenarios were conducted to evaluate how organic components in oil will distribute among the phases of interest (oil, CO2, and brine). The first case consisted of 50 wt.% oil and 50 wt.% water; the second case was 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil. Several key organic compounds were selected for special attention in this study based upon their occurrence in oil at significant concentrations, relative toxicity, or because they can serve as surrogate compounds for other more highly toxic compounds for which required input data are not available. The organic contaminants of interest (COI) selected for this study were benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Partitioning of organic compounds between crude oil and supercritical CO2 was modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state over temperature and pressure conditions that represent the entire subsurface system (from those relevant to deep geologic carbon storage environments to near surface conditions). Results indicate that for a typical set of oil reservoir conditions (75C, and 21,520 kPa) negligible amounts of the COI dissolve into the aqueous phase. When CO2 is introduced into the reservoir such that the final composition of the reservoir is 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil, a significant fraction of the oil dissolves into the vapor phase. As the vapor phase moves up through the stratigraphic column, pressures and temperatures decrease, resulting in significant condensation of oil components. The heaviest organic components condense early in this process (at higher pressures and temperatures), while the lighter components tend to remain in the vapor phase until much lower pressures and temperatures are reached. Based on the model assumptions, the final concentrations of COI to reach an aquifer at 1,520 kPa and 25C were quite significant for benzene and toluene, whereas the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons that reach the aquifer were very small. This work demonstrates a methodology that can provide COI source term concentrations in CO2 leaking from a reservoir and entering an overlying aquifer for use in risk assessments.

  19. Geothermal energy market study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Ocean City, Maryland geothermal energy evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, C.E.

    1981-08-01

    This report is one of a series of studies that have been made by the Applied Physics Laboratory, or its subcontractors, to examine the technical and economic feasibility of the utilization of geothermal energy at the request of potential users.

  20. Evaluation of UV-Curable Coatings for Aluminum Can Production Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brady, R. E. Jr; Kowal, J.; Johnson, D. H.; Donhowe, E. T.

    1998-01-01

    This study was initiated to review the literature and technology applicable to coating beverage cans, to confirm previous assumptions made about the low air emissions impact of the UV can printing process, to determine energy estimates for thermal...