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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mmtc pct" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Comparison of TCLP and long-term PCT performance on low-level mixed waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating technologies for conversion of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) into a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification is one of the preferred technologies since it is capable of consistently producing a durable, leach resistant wasteform, while simultaneously minimizing disposal volumes. Since vitrification of LLMW is a relatively new concept, final wasteform specifications have not been developed. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed the Product Consistency Test (PCI), which is a 7-day leaching procedure for glass. Comparison indicates that both tests have merit where LLMW glasses are concerned. The TCLP is an important test for determining the release of metals and for allowing the wasteform to be delisted while the PCT is more useful for determining consistent production of durable glass. It is a better indicator of the behavior of glass in disposal site conditions. Most aggressive leaching of common oxide glasses occurs under caustic rather than acidic conditions, therefore it is necessary to perform both tests. Further tests will be conducted using additional glass compositions and variations in the TCLP and the PCT.

Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Solidification of hypereutectic Al-38 wt pct Cu alloy in microgravity and in unit gravity  

SciTech Connect

Solidification in microgravity aboard the space shuttle Endeavour resulted in a dramatic change in the morphology of the primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase compared to ground-based solidification in unit gravity. An Al-38 wt pct Cu ingot directionally solidified at a rate of 0.015 mm/s with a temperature gradient of 1.69 K/mm exhibited large, well-formed dendrites of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase. Ingots solidified under similar conditions in unit gravity contained primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase with smooth, faceted surfaces. The primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase spacing in the microgravity ingot was much greater than that in the unit gravity ingot, 670 {micro}m compared to 171 {micro}m. It is suggested that thermosolutal mixing in the unit gravity ingot reduces the buildup of an Al-rich layer at the solid/liquid interface, which increases the stability of the interface resulting in smooth, faceted particles of Al{sub 2}Cu phase. It is also suggested that the large difference in primary phase spacings is due mostly to the difference in morphology rather than changes in parameters that might influence dendrite ripening mechanisms. The presence or absence of gravity had no effect on the interlamellar spacing of the inter-Al{sub 2}Cu phase eutectic. The ingot solidified in microgravity exhibited almost no longitudinal macrosegregation, in agreement with the theory of inverse segregation in the absence of thermosolutal convection. The ingot solidified in unit gravity exhibited considerable longitudinal macrosegregation, with the chilled end having about 6 wt pct more Cu than the average composition. It is not clear whether the segregation results from thermosolutal convection during solidification or from sedimentation during melting.

Yu, H.; Tandon, K.N.; Cahoon, J.R. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Final Report - IHLW PCT, Spinel T1%, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity Model Development, VSL-07R1240-4  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last in a series of currently scheduled reports that presents the results from the High Level Waste (HLW) glass formulation development and testing work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America (CUA) and the development of IHLW property-composition models performed jointly by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. The models presented in this report may be augmented and additional validation work performed during any future immobilized HLW (IHLW) model development work. Completion of the test objectives is addressed.

Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Landmesser, S. M.; Pegg, I. L.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

4

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iron and Steel Industry Iron and Steel Industry Carbon Emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 3312) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 39.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 10.7% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 22.2 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 1,649 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 7.6% Nonfuel Use of Energy: 886 trillion Btu (53.7%) -- Coal: 858 trillion Btu (used to make coke) Carbon Intensity: 24.19 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 39.9 Coal 22.7

5

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

6

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Refining Industry Petroleum Refining Industry Carbon Emissions in the Petroleum Refining Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 2911) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 79.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.5% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 16.5 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 6,263 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 28.9% Nonfuel Use of Energy Sources: 3,110 trillion Btu (49.7%) -- Naphthas and Other Oils: 1,328 trillion Btu -- Asphalt and Road Oil: 1,224 trillion Btu -- Lubricants: 416 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 12.75 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey", "Monthly Refinery Report" for 1994, and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998.

7

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

8

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

9

High-pressure hydrogen apparatus for PCT studies up to approx. 700 MPa and 200/sup 0/C: preliminary results on LaCo/sub 5/H/sub 9/ /sub 0/ at 21/sup 0/C  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus has been developed to react samples with hydrogen at pressures of up to 689.5 MPa (6805 atm) and temperatures of up to 200/sup 0/C. It is being used to determine whether RT/sub 5/ and RT/sub 3/ compounds (where R is a lanthanide element and T is a 3-d transition element, usually cobalt or nickel) ''fill up'' with hydrogen when subjected to high hydrogen pressures. Preliminary experiments with LaCo/sub 5/ in this apparatus showed a new (third) plateau at 126.7 MPa (1250 atm) in the PCT diagram; only two plateaus have previously been reported. There is an abrupt upturn at an H/LaCo/sub 5/ ratio of approximately 8.23. A second run showed an upturn at 8.76. The maximum loading is nine atoms of hydrogen.

Lakner, J.F.; Steward, S.A.; Uribe, F.

1976-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

10

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

SIC Code Industry Group Total Net Electricity Natural Gas Petro-leum Coal Other (MMTC/ Quadrillion Btu) Total: 371.7: 131.1: 93.5: 87.3: 56.8: 3.1: ...

11

Lessons Learned from Natural and Industrial Analogues for Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Geological Formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MMTC Total Global Crude Oil Reserves 1998, U.S. DOE 2000,Total Global Crude Oil Reserves - 1999 Total Global Natural1998 Total US Crude Oil Reserves - 1998 Largest Single US

Benson, Sally M.; Hepple, Robert; Apps, John; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Lippmann, Marcelo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Final Report - ILAW PCT, VHT, Viscosity, and Electrical Conductivity Model Development, VSL-07R1230-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of work and testing specified by the Test Specifications (24590-LAW-TSP-RT-01-013 Rev.1 and 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-02-001 Rev.0), Test Plans (VSL-02T4800-1 Rev.1 & TP-RPP-WTP-179 Rev.1), and Text Exception (24590-WTP-TEF-RT-03-040). The work and any associated testing followed established quality assurance requirements and conducted as authorized. The descriptions provided in this test report are an accurate account of both the conduct of the work and the data collected. Results required by the Test Plans are reported. Also reported are any unusual or anomalous occurrences that are different from the starting hypotheses. The test results and this report have been reviewed and verified.

Kruger, Albert A.; Cooley, S. K.; Joseph, I.; Pegg, I. L.; Piepel, G. F.; Gan, H.; Muller, I.

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

14

Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Usability Evaluation of Mobile Medical Treatment Carts: Another Explanation by Information Engineers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthcare services integration is a critical task as it attempts to reform the user practices. In response to the request of facilities upgrade, we perform a usability evaluation of the mobile medical treatment carts (MMTC) installed in the Emergency ... Keywords: Healthcare informatics, Human-computer interaction, Information management, Mission critical, Wireless network

Tsan-Nan Chien; Sung-Huai Hsieh; Po-Hsun Cheng; Ying-Pei Chen; Sao-Jie Chen; Jer-Junn Luh; Heng-Shuen Chen; Jin-Shin Lai

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Essays in labor economics and the economics of education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robust SE t P>t Pct. B.A. in zip code College graduate inHH*Pct. B.A. in zip code Pct.unemployed in zip code Per-capita income in zip code College

Thomas, Jaime Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Superalloy Recycling 1976-1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 1, 2008... and 10 pct (5.5 million pounds) was sold to refineries. The average element content of superalloy scrap processed in 1986 was about 44 pct ...

18

PARTLY CLOUDY WITH NUMEROUS SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS. MAX TEMPERATURE...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ABOVE 8000 FT....69-74. BELOW 8000 FT....80-85. 24 HR TREND......LITTLE CHANGE. MIN HUMIDITY... ABOVE 8000 FT....32-42 PCT. BELOW 8000 FT....28-38 PCT. 24 HR TREND......DOWN...

19

The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector  

SciTech Connect

The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

Greene, D.L.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Final_Tech_Session_Schedule_and_Location.xls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Ecosystems in the MRCSP Region Presentation to: Fourth Annual Conference for Carbon Sequestration Alexandria Virginia May 2-5, 2005 MRSCP Land-Uses Analyzed and Team * Non-eroded Cropland - The Ohio State University: Rattan Lal * Eroded Cropland - Purdue University: William McFee and Larry Biehl * Marginal Land - Pennsylvania State University: Sjoerd Duiker * Mineland - West Virginia University: Mark Sperow * Wetland and Marshland - University of Maryland: Brian Needelman * Modeling all Land Classifications - Michigan State University: Peter Grace MRCSP Land-use, Area, and Potential C Storage Land-Use Area (Mha) C Storage (MMTC yr -1 ) Non-Eroded Cropland 10.7 3.7 Eroded Cropland 1.6 3.1 Marginal Land 6.5 26.9 Mineland 0.6 1.5 Wetland/Peatland 3.4 3.9 Total 22.8 39.1 MRCSP CO 2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mmtc pct" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net  

SciTech Connect

Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Numerical Simulation of Carbon and Nitrogen Profiles Produced by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In advance of the nitrogen diffusion zone the carbon concentration is as high as 10 at. pct. ... Discovery of Efficient Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

23

Met and Mat Trans Abstracts A: July 1997 - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microstructure of three 12 pct cr steel weld metals with different nickel and .... solidification of single-crystal Ni-base superalloys is numerically simulated.

24

Programmable Communicating Thermostats: Proliphix Internet Thermostat NT20e  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This assessment is of a PCT (model NT20e) from the Basic Series line of network thermostats made by Proliphix.

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

25

Fuels I - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Homogenization of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct Molybdenum Alloy Monolithic Fuel Foils: Amy Clarke1; Kester Clarke1; David Alexander1; ...

26

Barrier Coatings for U-Mo Microspheres Created Via Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Establishment of a Rotating Electrode System for Production of Uranium Alloy ... Homogenization of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct Molybdenum Alloy ...

27

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Superalloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 1, 2008 ... About 55 million pounds of clean and contaminated superalloy scrap were processed in 1986; about 92 pct (50 million pounds) went to ...

28

Mechanical and Wear Properties of Ultrasonically Processed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Similar castings are made using carbon black inoculation alone. With the addition of 0.5 wt pct carbon black nanoparticles and application of high intensity

29

Category:Maps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in category "Maps" The following 2 files are in this category, out of 2 total. 3pct csp sw.jpg 3pct csp sw.jpg 1.43 MB Us windmap 80meters.jpg Us windmap 80meters.jpg 4.07 MB...

30

Resilient Image Fusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes a distributed spectral-screening PCT algorithm for fusing hyper-spectral images in remote sensing applications. The algorithm provides intrusion tolerance from information warfare attacks using the notion of computational resiliency. ...

Tiranee Achalakul; Joohan Lee; Stephen Taylor

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Number of Interactions Involved in Software Failures ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Table 2. Number of variables in avionics software branches. Vars, Count, Pct, Cumulative. 1, 5691, 74.1%, 74.1%. 2, 1509, 19.6%, 93.7%. ...

32

Presentation to the EAC - Impact of Smart Grid Projects Funded...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in 2012 Customers with PCT reduced electricity usage by 20% Customers with IHD reduced electricity usage by 17% Price Level Residential VPP- CP Price Number of days in summer...

33

The Relationship of Lightning Activity with Microwave Brightness Temperatures and Spaceborne Radar Reflectivity Profiles in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the relationship of lightning activity in the central and eastern Mediterranean with the 85-GHz polarization-corrected temperature (PCT) and radar reflectivity provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite is ...

D. K. Katsanos; K. Lagouvardos; V. Kotroni; A. A. Argiriou

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Formation of delta ferrite in 9 wt.% Cr steel investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements using high energy synchrotron radiation were performed to monitor in real time the formation of delta ferrite in a martensitic 9 wt pct chromium steel under simulated weld thermal ...

Mayr, P.

35

Met and Mat Trans Abstracts B: October 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reduction of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-FeO slags containing less than 10 wt pct FeO by solid carbonaceous materials such as graphite, coke, and coal char was ...

36

Met and Mat Trans Abstracts A: April 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Matrix-lattice mismatches of 0.5 to 1 pct at the / ' interface and {100} growth ..... Fourteen SiC particulates from five different suppliers, of green (high purity) and ...

37

Met and Mat Trans Contents A: June 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hyeon-Sang Shin, Jeong-Seog Kim, Duk-Yong Yoon, and Young-Duh Song ... A Comparison of Shear Localization Susceptibility in U-0.75 Wt Pct Ti and ...

38

Relating Passive 37-GHz Scattering to Radar Profiles in Strong Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and precipitation radar measurements are examined for strong convective systems. Storms having similar values of minimum 37-GHz polarization-corrected temperature (PCT) are grouped ...

Daniel J. Cecil

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Wettability of MnxSiyOz by Liquid Zn-Al Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 6, 2010 ... >99.9 pct purity were mixed in a nylon jar with a zirconia ball for 24 hours and then dried in a box furnace for 24 hours. The sample then was ...

40

materials processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

C.E. JORDAN and A.R. MARDER A study was conducted on the effect of a uniform oxide layer on the galvanizing reaction in 0.20 wt pct Al-Zn and pure Zn baths ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mmtc pct" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1993" Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1993" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_pct_dc_nus_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_pct_dc_nus_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"11/25/2013 11:23:48 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Refinery Yield" "Sourcekey","MLRRYUS3","MGFRYUS3","MGARYUS3","MKJRYUS3","MKERYUS3","MDIRYUS3","MRERYUS3","MNFRYUS3","MOTRYUS3","MNSRYUS3","MLURYUS3","MWXRYUS3","MCKRYUS3","MAPRYUS3","MSGRYUS3","MMSRYUS3","MPGRYUS3"

42

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Total Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Manufacturing Industries, 1994 Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) Carbon Intensity SIC Code Industry Group Total Net Electricity Natural Gas Petro- leum Coal Other (MMTC/ Quadrillion Btu) Total 371.7 131.1 93.5 87.3 56.8 3.1 17.16 20 Food and Kindred Products 24.4 9.8 9.1 W W 0.1 20.44 21 Tobacco Products W 0.1 W W W W W 22 Textile Mill Products 8.7 5.5 1.7 0.6 1.0 * 28.21 23 Apparel and Other Textile Products W 1.3 0.4 W W W W 24 Lumber and Wood Products 4.9 3.4 0.7 W W 0.2 9.98 25 Furniture and Fixtures 1.6 1.1 0.3 * 0.1 0.1 23.19 26 Paper and Allied Products 31.6 11.0 8.3 4.3 7.8 0.3 11.88

43

THE PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TEST HOW AND WHY IT WAS DEVELOPED  

SciTech Connect

The Product Consistency Test (PCT), American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard C1285, is currently used world wide for testing glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for high level waste (HLW), low level waste (LLW), and hazardous wastes. Development of the PCT was initiated in 1986 because HLW glass waste forms required extensive characterization before actual production began and required continued characterization during production ({ge}25 years). Non-radioactive startup was in 1994 and radioactive startup was in 1996. The PCT underwent extensive development from 1986-1994 and became an ASTM consensus standard in 1994. During the extensive laboratory testing and inter- and intra-laboratory round robins using non-radioactive and radioactive glasses, the PCT was shown to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, to distinguish between glasses of different durability and homogeneity, and to easily be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. In 1997, the scope was broadened to include hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste glasses. In 2002, the scope was broadened to include glass-ceramic waste forms which are currently being recommended for second generation nuclear wastes yet to be generated in the nuclear renaissance. Since the PCT has proven useful for glass-ceramics with up to 75% ceramic component and has been used to evaluate Pu ceramic waste forms, the use of this test for other ceramic/mineral waste forms such as geopolymers, hydroceramics, and fluidized bed steam reformer mineralized product is under investigation.

Jantzen, C; Ned Bibler, N

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Positron emission tomography of the heart  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission computed tomography (PCT) represents an important new tool for the noninvasive evaluation and, more importantly, quantification of myocardial performance. Most currently available techniques permit assessment of only one aspect of cardiac function, i.e., myocardial perfusion by gamma scintillation camera imaging with Thallium-201 or left ventricular function by echocardiography or radionuclide angiocardiography. With PCT it may become possible to study all three major segments of myocardial performance, i.e., regional blood flow, mechanical function and, most importantly, myocardial metabolism. Each of these segments can either be evaluated separately or in combination. This report briefly describes the principles and technological advantages of the imaging device, reviews currently available radioactive tracers and how they can be employed for the assessment of flow, function and metabolism; and, lastly, discusses possible applications of PCT for the study of cardiac physiology or its potential role in the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Development of High Efficacy, Low Cost Phosphorescent Oled Lightning Luminaire  

SciTech Connect

In this two year program, UDC together with Armstrong World Industries, Professor Stephen Forrest (University of Michigan) and Professor Mark Thompson (University of Southern California) planned to develop and deliver high efficiency OLED lighting luminaires as part of an integrated ceiling illumination system that exceed the Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 performance projections. Specifically the UDC team in 2010 delivered two prototype OLED ceiling illumination systems, each consisting of four individual OLED lighting panels on glass integrated into Armstrong's novel TechZone open architecture ceiling systems, at an overall system efficacy of 51 lm/W, a CRI = 85 and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 10,000 hours. This accomplishment represents a 50% increase in luminaire efficacy and a factor of two in lifetime over that outlined in the solicitation. In addition, the team has also delivered one 15cm x 15cm lighting panel fabricated on a flexible metal foil substrate, demonstrating the possibility using OLEDs in a range of form factors. During this program, our Team has pursued the commercialization of these OLED based ceiling luminaires, with a goal to launch commercial products within the next three years. We have proven that our team is ideally suited to develop these highly novel and efficient solid state lighting luminaires, having both the technical experience and commercial strategy to leverage work performed under this contract. Our calculations show that the success of our program could lead to energy savings of more than 0.5 quads or 8 MMTC (million metric tons of carbon) per year by 2016.

Michael Hack

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

46

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

% Change from Year Ago " % Change from Year Ago " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Working Gas % Change from Year Ago ",36,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1973" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_stor_sum_a_epg0_sah_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_stor_sum_a_epg0_sah_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

47

Guidelines for Payroll Cost Transfers on Sponsored Funds Sponsored Projects Accounting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guidelines for Payroll Cost Transfers on Sponsored Funds Sponsored Projects Accounting February (generally 90 days following the project end date). Implications for cost transfers completed following to this type of adjustment as a Payroll Cost Transfer (PCT). PCTs are processed and posted to the HRMS system

48

Journal of Materials Education Vol. 33 (1-2): 37 -52 (2011) POLYMER CONCRETES: A DESCRIPTION AND METHODS FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

limitations, including low tensile strength, poor environmental durability (resistance to freeze-thaw bond strength (bonding to previously existing concrete); increased freeze-thaw resistance; high as Polymer concrete (PCt) and boast several advantages such as higher strength and a shorter curing process

North Texas, University of

49

NANOCORALtm R&D 100 Entry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Song, Medforth, Miller, Li (Toyota). 7. US Patent Application #11/840,067, Aug. 16, 2007, DENDRITIC NANOSTRUCTURES FOR FUEL CELLS AND OTHER APPLICATIONS, (Toyota, PCT published), Shelnutt, Miller, Song, Hickner, Medforth, Takahashi (Toyota), Muldoon (Toyota), Kawamura (Toyota), Nagami (Toyota), Li (Toyota). 9. US

50

Estimates of Rainfall over the United Kingdom and Surrounding Seas from the SSM/I Using the Polarization Corrected Temperature Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 85-GHz polarization corrected temperature (PCT85) algorithm, using the V85 and H85 channels of the SSM/I sensor, is evaluated for estimation of midlatitude rainfall. The algorithm ? parameter and rain/no-rain thresholds are examined and found ...

Martin C. Todd; John O. Bailey

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Met and Mat Trans Abstracts B: June 1995 - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinetics of Roasting of Chromium Oxide with Sodium Nitrate Flux ... Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were .... by an electrochemical technique using LiCl-KCl + 5 wt pct CdCl2 as the molten salt electrolyte.

52

Investigation of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch 4) Glass Sample Anomalous Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass samples from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) (Macrobatch 4) were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on February 23, 2005. One sample, S02244, was designated for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and elemental and radionuclide analyses. The second sample, S02247, was designated for archival storage. The samples were pulled from the melter pour stream during the feeding of Melter Feed Tank (MFT) Batch 308 and therefore roughly correspond to feed from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Batches 306-308. During the course of preparing sample S02244 for PCT and other analyses two observations were made which were characterized as ''unusual'' or anomalous behavior relative to historical observations of glasses prepared for the PCT. These observations ultimately led to a series of scoping tests in order to determine more about the nature of the behavior and possible mechanisms. The first observation was the behavior of the ground glass fraction (-100 +200 mesh) for PCT analysis when contacted with deionized water during the washing phase of the PCT procedure. The behavior was analogous to that of an organic compound in the presence of water: clumping, floating on the water surface, and crawling up the beaker walls. In other words, the glass sample did not ''wet'' normally, displaying a hydrophobic behavior in water. This had never been seen before in 18 years SRNL PCT tests on either radioactive or non-radioactive glasses. Typical glass behavior is largely to settle to the bottom of the water filled beaker, though there may be suspended fines which result in some cloudiness to the wash water. The typical appearance is analogous to wetting sand. The second observation was the presence of faint black rings at the initial and final solution levels in the Teflon vessels used for the mixed acid digestion of S02244 glass conducted for compositional analysis. The digestion is composed of two stages, and at both the intermediate and the final content levels in the digestion vessel the rings were present. The rings had not been seen previously during glass digestions and were not present in the Analytical Reference Glass (ARG) standard samples digested, in separate vessels, along with the DWPF glass. What follows in this report are the results and analyses from various scoping experiments done in order to explain the anomalous behavior observed with DWPF glass S02244, along with a comparison with tests on sample S02247 where the anomalous wetting behavior was not observed.

Bannochie, C. J.; Bibler, N. E.; Peeler, D. K.

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil - Composite " Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil - Composite " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil - Composite ",6,"Monthly","10/2013","1/15/1974" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_rac2_a_epc0_pct_dpbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_rac2_a_epc0_pct_dpbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

54

Comparison of Three Ni-Hard I Alloys  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Comparison of Three Ni-Hard I Alloys Comparison of Three Ni-Hard I Alloys Ă–. N. Do-an 1 , J.A. Hawk 1 , and J.Rice 2 1 U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon 2 Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas Keywords: Ni-Hard white irons, Bainite, Martensite, Austenite, Abrasion resistant iron Abstract This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and

55

,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

56

TRAC large-break loss-of-coolant accident analysis for the AP600 design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses a TRAC model of the Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design which has been developed for analyzing large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) transients. A preliminary LBLOCA calculation of a 80% cold-leg break has been performed with TRAC-PF1/MOD2. The 80% break size was calculated by Westinghouse to be the most severe large-break size. The LBLOCA transient was calculated to 92 s. Peak clad temperatures (PCT) were well below the Appendix K limit of 1478 K (2200{degrees}F). Transient event times and PCT for the TRAC calculation were in reasonable agreement with those calculated by Westinghouse using their WCOBRA/TRAC code.

Lime, J.F.; Boyack, B.E.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries " Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries ",52,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1993" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_cons_pns_a_epg0_vrp_pct_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_cons_pns_a_epg0_vrp_pct_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

59

Hanford Low-Level Waste Form Performance for Meeting Land Disposal Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Immobilized Low-activity waste (ILAW) from the Hanford site will be disposed of in near-surface burial grounds and must be processed into a chemically durable waste form to prevent release of hazardous constituents to the environment. To meet his goal, the LAW will be immobilized in borosilicate glass. the DOE office of River Protection and the Rive Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project have agreed on testing requirements that the immobilized LAW glass must meet to demonstrate chemically durability. Two of the tests are the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This paper provides results of RPP-WTP PCT and TCLP testing on both actual radioactive and non-radioactive simulant LAW glasses to show they meet the associated land disposal requirements.

Crawford, C.L.

2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

Development of a RELAP5-3D three-dimensional model of a VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plant for analysis of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to analyze the benefits of the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling capability of the RELAP5-3D system code in the VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plant, a three-dimensional model of the core, downcomer, and lower plenum have been created to replace their one-dimensional counterparts in a complete plant model. This multi-dimensional model has been validated with plant operational data and other computer simulations of a thermal-hydraulic transient. The simulated transient considered was a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LB LOCA). A validated, one-dimensional control of the nuclear power plant, for the study of the effects of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, was modified to include a standard fuel loading of UO?. The development of the three-dimensional sections of the reactor vessel consisted of ensuring geometrical fidelity with the design of the modeled plant, the Balacovo Unit 4, Nuclear Power Plant in Saratov, Russia. A stable operational steady-state was obtained and the calculated plant conditions compared well with the design values of the Balacovo Plant. Transient results verified that the simulated thermal-hydraulic conditions of the multi-dimensional model agreed well with both the control and analyses that have been performed separately from this report. It was found that the multi-dimensional model has shown a reduction in the calculated hot-spot peak-clad temperature (PCT) during the blowdown stage of a LB LOCA and an increase in PCT during the reflood stage. A preliminary uncertainty analysis of the PCT during blowdown stage was performed using a response surface method of the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty Method and a significant number of relevant input variables. From the preliminary analysis, the PCT reduction during blowdown appears to be significant, but a further, more detailed analysis should be performed, along with an uncertainty analysis of the PCT during the reflood stage. The enhanced depiction of the flow patterns and temperature distributions in the transient situation allowed the user further understanding of the thermal-hydraulic conditions throughout the transient. The developed model proved to be suitable for analysis of the VVER-1000 plant, but to further the applicability of the model a three-dimensional kinetics model of the neutronics and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of the horizontal steam generators should be included.

Clarno, Kevin Taylor

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mmtc pct" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Round-robin testing of a reference glass for low-activity waste forms  

SciTech Connect

A round robin test program was conducted with a glass that was developed for use as a standard test material for acceptance testing of low-activity waste glasses made with Hanford tank wastes. The glass is referred to as the low-activity test reference material (LRM). The program was conducted to measure the interlaboratory reproducibility of composition analysis and durability test results. Participants were allowed to select the methods used to analyze the glass composition. The durability tests closely followed the Product Consistency Test (PCT) Method A, except that tests were conducted at both 40 and 90 C and that parallel tests with a reference glass were not required. Samples of LRM glass that had been crushed, sieved, and washed to remove fines were provided to participants for tests and analyses. The reproducibility of both the composition and PCT results compare favorably with the results of interlaboratory studies conducted with other glasses. From the perspective of reproducibility of analysis results, this glass is acceptable for use as a composition standard for nonradioactive components of low-activity waste forms present at >0.1 elemental mass % and as a test standard for PCTS at 40 and 90 C. For PCT with LRM glass, the expected test results at the 95% confidence level are as follows: (1) at 40 C: pH = 9.86 {+-} 0.96; [B] = 2.30 {+-} 1.25 mg/L; [Na] = 19.7 {+-} 7.3 mg/L; [Si] = 13.7 {+-} 4.2 mg/L; and (2) at 90 C: pH = 10.92 {+-} 0.43; [B] = 26.7 {+-} 7.2 mg/L; [Na] = 160 {+-} 13 mg/L; [Si] = 82.0 {+-} 12.7 mg/L. These ranges can be used to evaluate the accuracy of PCTS conducted at other laboratories.

Ebert, W. L.; Wolf, S. F.

1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

Lavernia, Enrique J. (University of California, Davis); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D. (Whithworth University, Spokane, WA)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

An Innovative Approach Towards National Peak Load Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An innovative approach was developed and implemented in eight governmental buildings to reduce their load during the peak demand hours in summer of 2007. The innovative approach implemented in these buildings included pre-closing treatment (PCT) between 13:00 and 14:00 h and time-of-day control (TDC) after 14:00 h for air conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems. PCT realized an overall reduction of 3.43 MW, a saving of 11.7% of the buildings peak power demand; while TDC realized a total savings of 8.67 MW at 15:00 h, a saving of 30.7% of the buildings peak power demand at that hour. The temperature build up inside the buildings due to PCT and TDC was within the acceptable range, which validated the technical viability of these measures. The implementation of the innovative approach in the eight governmental buildings with a total measured peak demand of 29.3 MW achieved a reduction of 8.89 MW. This power is now available to other users leading to financial savings of $13.5 million for the nation towards the cost of constructing new power plants and distribution network equipment. More importantly, this reduction in peak power demand of well over 30% involved zero or limited expenditure. A nationwide implementation of this innovative approach in all the governmental and institutional buildings is likely to reduce the national peak power demand by 154 MW which amounts to a capital savings of $232 million towards the cost of new power generation equipment and distribution network.

Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; ElSherbini, A.; Alghimlas, F.; Al-Taqi, H.; Al-Hadban, Y.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Results from Point Contact Tunnelling Spectroscopy and Atomic Layer Deposition  

SciTech Connect

We have shown previously that magnetic niobium oxides can influence the superconducting density of states at the surface of cavity-grade niobium coupons. We will present recent results obtained by Point Contact Tunneling spectroscopy (PCT) on coupons removed from hot and cold spots in a niobium cavity, as well as a comparative study of magnetic oxides on mild baked/unbaked electropolished coupons. We will also describe recent results obtained from coated cavities, ALD films properties and new materials using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

Proslier, Th. [Illinois Institute of Technology; Zasadzinski, J. [Illinois Institute of Technology; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Elam, J. W. [ANL; Norem, J. [ANL; Pellin, M. J. [ANL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Vitrification and Product Testing of AW-101 and AN-107 Pretreated Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective for vitrifying the LAW samples is to generate glass products for subsequent product testing. The work presented in this report is divided into 6 work elements: 1) Glass Fabrication, 2) Chemical Composition, 3) Radiochemical Composition, 4) Crystalline and Non-crystalline Phase Determination, and 5) Release Rate (Modified PCT). These work elements will help demonstrate the RPP-WTP projects ability to satisfy the product requirements concerning, chemical and radionuclide reporting, waste loading, identification and quantification of crystalline and non-crystalline phases, and waste form leachability. VOA, SVOA, dioxins, furans, PCBs, and total cyanide analyses will be reported in as separate document (WTP-RPT-005).

Smith, Gary L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

The effects of prolonged thermal exposure on the fracture and fatigue behavior of aluminum-lithium alloy 8090  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum-lithium alloys are currently being considered for applications at moderately elevated temperatures; accordingly, a study has been made on the effects of prolonged (100 and 1,000 hours overaging) thermal exposure at 149 C and 260 C on the mechanical properties of a peak-aged Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy 8090-T8771. In the as-received T8771 temper, the alloy exhibits an excellent combination of strength ([approximately]500 MPa) and toughness (35 MPa[radical]m) with moderate tensile elongation (4 pct). Overaging at 149 C results in a [approximately]50 pct reduction in ductility and toughness, primarily associated with the growth of equilibrium phases along grain/subgrain boundaries, resulting in formation of solute-depleted precipitate-free zones and coarsening of matrix [delta][prime] and S precipitates; strength levels and fatigue-crack growth rates, however, remain largely unchanged. Thermal exposures at 260 C, conversely, lead to dramatic reductions in strength (by [approximately]50 to 80 pct), toughness (by [approximately]30 pct) and fatigue-crack propagation resistance; crack-growth rates at all [Delta]K levels above [approximately]5 MPa[radical]m are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude faster. Microstructurally, this was associated with complete dissolution of [delta][prime], severe coarsening of S and T[sub 2] precipitates in the matrix, and formation of equilibrium Cu and Mg-rich intermetallic phases in the matrix and along grain boundaries. The resulting lack of planar-slip deformation and low yield strength of 8090 following overaging exposures at 260 C increase the cumulative crack-tip damage per cycle and reduce the tendency for crack-path deflection, thereby accelerating fatigue-crack growth rates. Despite this degradation in properties, the 8090-T8771 alloy has better strength retention and generally superior fatigue-crack growth properties compared to similarly overaged Al-Li-Cu-Zr 2090 and Al-Cu-Zn-Mg 7,150 alloys.

Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); McNulty, J.C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States). Materials Dept.)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines. Report of investigations/1994  

SciTech Connect

The mining industry and regulatory agencies have requested guidance on blasting near buried transmission pipelines and safe vibration levels. The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Company and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm diameter welded steel pipes and one 20-cm PVC water pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blast-holes. Analyses found low responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120-250 mm/s produced worst case strains of about 25 pct of those resulting from pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10-18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength.

Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schulz, D.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Simplified jet-A kinetic mechanism for combustor application  

SciTech Connect

Successful modeling of combustion and emissions in gas turbine engine combustors requires an adequate description of the reaction mechanism. For hydrocarbon oxidation, detailed mechanisms are only available for the simplest types of hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, acetylene, and propane. These detailed mechanisms contain a large number of chemical species participating simultaneously in many elementary kinetic steps. Current computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models must include fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, chemical reactions, and complicated boundary geometries. To simulate these conditions a very sophisticated computer model is required, which requires large computer memory capacity and long run times. Therefore, gas turbine combustion modeling has frequently been simplified by using global reaction mechanisms, which can predict only the quantities of interest: heat release rates, flame temperature, and emissions. Jet fuels are wide-boiling-range hydrocarbons with ranges extending through those of gasoline and kerosene. These fuels are chemically complex, often containing more than 300 components. Jet fuel typically can be characterized as containing 70 vol pct paraffin compounds and 25 vol pct aromatic compounds. A five-step Jet-A fuel mechanism which involves pyrolysis and subsequent oxidation of paraffin and aromatic compounds is presented here. This mechanism is verified by comparing with Jet-A fuel ignition delay time experimental data, and species concentrations obtained from flametube experiments. This five-step mechanism appears to be better than the current one- and two-step mechanisms.

Lee, Chiming; Kundu, K.; Ghorashi, B.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Notes on the Implementation of Non-Parametric Statistics within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA Evaluation Model (ASTRUM)  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, non-parametric or order statistics methods have been widely used to assess the impact of the uncertainties within Best-Estimate LOCA evaluation models. The bounding of the uncertainties is achieved with a direct Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertainty attributes, with the minimum trial number selected to 'stabilize' the estimation of the critical output values (peak cladding temperature (PCT), local maximum oxidation (LMO), and core-wide oxidation (CWO A non-parametric order statistics uncertainty analysis was recently implemented within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA evaluation model, also referred to as 'Automated Statistical Treatment of Uncertainty Method' (ASTRUM). The implementation or interpretation of order statistics in safety analysis is not fully consistent within the industry. This has led to an extensive public debate among regulators and researchers which can be found in the open literature. The USNRC-approved Westinghouse method follows a rigorous implementation of the order statistics theory, which leads to the execution of 124 simulations within a Large Break LOCA analysis. This is a solid approach which guarantees that a bounding value (at 95% probability) of the 95{sup th} percentile for each of the three 10 CFR 50.46 ECCS design acceptance criteria (PCT, LMO and CWO) is obtained. The objective of this paper is to provide additional insights on the ASTRUM statistical approach, with a more in-depth analysis of pros and cons of the order statistics and of the Westinghouse approach in the implementation of this statistical methodology. (authors)

Frepoli, Cesare; Oriani, Luca [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA-15230-0350 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule  

SciTech Connect

Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Ignitions in mixtures of coal dust, air, and methane from abrasive impacts of hard minerals with pneumatic pipeline steel. Report of investigations 1976  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory equipment which simulated abrasive impacts between steel and minerals as might occur during pneumatic transport of coal was used by the Bureau of Mines to characterize the potential explosion hazard due to such collisions in an atmosphere of fine coal dust-air-methane. A variety of coal mine rock materials, including sandstone, limestone, and pyrite-bearing limestone, were impacted with specimens of pipeline steel. Tests were conducted in atmospheres containing zero to 6.4 vol-pct methane mixed with zero to 300 mg/l coal dust. Coal dust-air alone was not ignited by abrasive impacts, but additions of as little as 1 vol-pct methane to coal dust-air resulted in ignitions. Steel impacting against sandstone caused ignitions in coal-air-methane mixtures with the probability for ignitions increasing with an increase in methane. Ignitions in coal-air-methane were found to be caused by a hot friction-induced smear on the impacted rock at the impact site rather than by sparks. High-speed photography was used to verify this observation.

Kelley, J.E.; Forkner, B.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Testing of Large-Scale ICV Glasses with Hanford LAW Simulant  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary glass compositions for immobilizing Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) by the in-container vitrification (ICV) process were initially fabricated at crucible- and engineering-scale, including simulants and actual (radioactive) LAW. Glasses were characterized for vapor hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) responses and crystallinity (both quenched and slow-cooled samples). Selected glasses were tested for toxicity characteristic leach procedure (TCLP) responses, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. This testing showed that glasses with LAW loading of 20 mass% can be made readily and meet all product constraints by a far margin. Glasses with over 22 mass% Na2O can be made to meet all other product quality and process constraints. Large-scale testing was performed at the AMEC, Geomelt Division facility in Richland. Three tests were conducted using simulated LAW with increasing loadings of 12, 17, and 20 mass% Na2O. Glass samples were taken from the test products in a manner to represent the full expected range of product performance. These samples were characterized for composition, density, crystalline and non-crystalline phase assemblage, and durability using the VHT, PCT, and TCLP tests. The results, presented in this report, show that the AMEC ICV product with meets all waste form requirements with a large margin. These results provide strong evidence that the Hanford LAW can be successfully vitrified by the ICV technology and can meet all the constraints related to product quality. The economic feasibility of the ICV technology can be further enhanced by subsequent optimization.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Smith, Donald E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Yeager, John D.

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

INCORPORATION OF MONO SODIUM TITANATE AND CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE FEEDS IN HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE GLASS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. All of the glasses studied were considerably more durable than the benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses were compared with the predicted values from the current DWPF durability model. One of the KT01-series and two of the KT03-series glasses had measured PCT responses that were outside the lower bound of the durability model. All of the KT04 glasses had durabilities that were predictable regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. In general, the measured viscosity values of the KT01, KT03, and KT04-series glasses are well predicted by the current DWPF viscosity model. The results of liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) measurements for the KT01-series glasses were mixed with regard to the predictability of the T{sub L} for each glass. All of the measured T{sub L} values were higher than the model predicted values, although most fell within the 95% confidence intervals. Overall, the results of this study show a reasonable ability to incorporate the anticipated SCIX streams into DWPF-type glass compositions with TiO{sub 2} concentrations of 4-5 wt % in glass.

Fox, K.; Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

74

On discrete symmetries for a whole Abelian model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering the whole concept applied to gauge theory a nonlinear abelian model is derived. A next step is to understand on the model properties. At this work, it will be devoted to discrete symmetries. For this, we will work based in two fields reference systems. This whole gauge symmetry allows to be analyzed through different sets which are the constructor basis {l_brace}D{sub {mu}},X{sup i}{sub {mu}}{r_brace} and the physical basis {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Taking as fields reference system the diagonalized spin-1 sector, P, C, T and PCT symmetries are analyzed. They show that under this systemic model there are conservation laws driven for the parts and for the whole. It develops the meaning of whole-parity, field-parity and so on. However it is the whole symmetry that rules. This means that usually forbidden particles as pseudovector photons can be introduced through such whole abelian system. As result, one notices that the fields whole {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} manifest a quanta diversity. It involves particles with different spins, masses and discrete quantum numbers under a same gauge symmetry. It says that without violating PCT symmetry different possibilities on discrete symmetries can be accommodated.

Chauca, J.; Doria, R. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600 (Brazil)

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

Role of crack tip shielding in the initiation and growth of long and small fatigue cracks in composite microstructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of crack tip shielding in retarding the initiation and growth of fatigue cracks has been examined in metallic composite microstructures (consisting of hard and soft phases), with the objective of achieving maximum resistance to fatigue. Specifically, duplex ferritic-martensitic structures have been developed in AISI 1008 and 1015 mild steels to promote shielding without loss in strength. The shielding is developed primarily from crack deflection and resultant crack closure, such that unusually high long crack propagation resistance is obtained. It is found that the fatigue threshold ..delta..K/sub TH/ in AISI 1008 can be increased by more than 100 pct to over 20 MPa ..sqrt..m, without sacrifice in strength, representing the highest ambient temperature threshold reported for a metallic alloy to date. Similar but smaller increases are found in AISI 1015. The effect of the dual-phase microstructures on crack initiation and small crack (10 to 1000 ..mu..m) growth, however, is markedly different, characteristic of behavior influenced by the mutual competition of intrinsic and extrinsic (shielding) ''toughening'' mechanisms. Accordingly, the composite microstructures which appear to show the highest resistance to the growth of long cracks, show the lowest resistance to crack initiation and small crack growth. In general, dual-phase steels are found to display remarkable fatigue properties, with fatigue limits as high as 58 pct of the tensile strengths and fatigue thresholds in the range of 13 to 20 MPa..sqrt..m.

Shang, J.K.; Tzou, J.L.; Ritchie, R.O. (Materials and Chemical Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., and Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US))

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4) durability must not be compromised--binding agent should not react with the NAS product and binding agent should not create an unfavorable pH environment that may cause accelerated leaching. It is the goal of the present study to survey cementitious waste forms based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Ceramicrete, and hydroceramic binders by correlating waste loading, density and compressive strength and then determine if these binders affect the product performance in terms of the PCT response. This will be done by making a one-to-one comparison of the PCT response measured on granular NAS mineral product (mixed bed and fines products) with the PCT response of the monolithed NAS product in the different binders. Future studies may include, refining the above binders, and examining other binders. It is likely that binders formed from kaolin would be most compatible with the chemistry of the THOR{reg_sign} mineral waste form which is made by steam reforming of kaolin and sodium rich wastes. The economics of production on a large scale have yet to be investigated for any of the binders tested.

Jantzen, C

2006-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

77

ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In contrast, the variability study has significantly added value to the DWPF's qualification strategy. The variability study has evolved to become the primary aspect of the DWPF's compliance strategy as it has been shown to be versatile and capable of adapting to the DWPF's various and diverse waste streams and blending strategies. The variability study, which aims to ensure durability requirements and the PCT and chemical composition correlations are valid for the compositional region to be processed at the DWPF, must continue to be performed. Due to the importance of the variability study and its place in the DWPF's qualification strategy, it will also be discussed in this report. An analysis of historical data and Production Records indicated that the recommendation of the Six Sigma team to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and PCT performed with the qualification glass does not compromise the DWPF's current compliance plan. Furthermore, the DWPF should continue to produce an acceptable waste form following the remaining elements of the Glass Product Control Program; regardless of a sludge-only or coupled operations strategy. If the DWPF does decide to eliminate the characterization of pour stream samples, pour stream samples should continue to be collected for archival reasons, which would allow testing to be performed should any issues arise or new repository test methods be developed.

Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

78

SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of thermal history. All of the normalized boron releases were less than 1 g/L. While all of the targeted glass compositions were predictable with respect to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, a small number of the measured glass compositions were located outside of the lower prediction limit indicating poorer durability than what was actually measured. These unpredictable glasses were in the same lithium metaborate (LM) preparation block during the chemical analyses, which resulted in measured compositions that were not representative of the target compositions. A review of the data did not indicate a clear cause for the problem. Re-digestion and re-measurement of three glasses from this preparation block yielded glass compositions closer to the target values and predicted PCT responses within the PCCS model uncertainty. Therefore, it is believed that the glasses were correctly fabricated and the targeted compositions are closer representations of the true compositions. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable for the SB6/Frit 418 glass system. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable and/or acceptable with respect to the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the inclusion of ThO{sub 2} was shown to have minimal impact on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

79

On proton CT reconstruction using MVCT-converted virtual proton projections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe a novel methodology of converting megavoltage x-ray projections into virtual proton projections that are otherwise missing due to the proton range limit. These converted virtual proton projections can be used in the reconstruction of proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: Relations exist between proton projections and multispectral megavoltage x-ray projections for human tissue. Based on these relations, these tissues can be categorized into: (a) adipose tissue; (b) nonadipose soft tissues; and (c) bone. These three tissue categories can be visibly identified on a regular megavoltage x-ray computed tomography (MVCT) image. With an MVCT image and its projection data available, the x-ray projections through heterogeneous anatomy can be converted to the corresponding proton projections using predetermined calibration curves for individual materials, aided by a coarse segmentation on the x-ray CT image. To show the feasibility of this approach, mathematical simulations were carried out. The converted proton projections, plotted on a proton sinogram, were compared to the simulated ground truth. Proton stopping power images were reconstructed using either the virtual proton projections only or a blend of physically available proton projections and virtual proton projections that make up for those missing due to the range limit. These images were compared to a reference image reconstructed from theoretically calculated proton projections. Results: The converted virtual projections had an uncertainty of {+-}0.8% compared to the calculated ground truth. Proton stopping power images reconstructed using a blend of converted virtual projections (48%) and physically available projections (52%) had an uncertainty of {+-}0.86% compared with that reconstructed from theoretically calculated projections. Reconstruction solely from converted virtual proton projections had an uncertainty of {+-}1.1% compared with that reconstructed from theoretical projections. If these images are used for treatment planning, the average proton range uncertainty is estimated to be less than 1.5% for an imaging dose in the milligray range. Conclusions: The proposed method can be used to convert x-ray projections into virtual proton projections. The converted proton projections can be blended with existing proton projections or can be used solely for pCT reconstruction, addressing the range limit problem of pCT using current therapeutic proton machines.

Wang Dongxu; Mackie, T. Rockwell; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Morgridge Institute of Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Oncophysics Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANTS NEPA COMPLIANCE FORM  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

12 Recipient: County of Hidalgo, Texas 12 Recipient: County of Hidalgo, Texas ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANTS NEPA COMPLIANCE FORM Activities Determination/ Reviewer's Specific Instructions and Categorical Exclusion Rationale (Restrictions and Allowable Activity) Activity 1 - Sunset Park 85.1 Waste St ream Clause Efficient Ught Project **This NEPA determination applies to the LED light project only. Activity 2 - Hidalgo County, 85.1 Waste Stream Clause Pct 2 Multipurpose Building Historic Preservation Clause Renewable Energy Engineering Clause Component Activity 3 - Solar Power 85.1 Waste Stream Clause Retrofit of Multi-Purpose Historic Preservation Clause Facilities Engineering Clause Activity 4 - Energy Efficiency 85.1 Waste Stream Clause and Conservation Through Historic Preservation Clause

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mmtc pct" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Process Technology Programs section will routinely be performing various glass formulation and characterization tests in support of the Defense The Process Technology Programs section will routinely be performing various glass formulation and characterization tests in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other customers. Glass form development activities will include: batching, melting, grinding and heat treatments (isothermal and controlled cooling) of various waste forms with varying compositions. Subsequent testing and characterization activities will include: density, durability (e.g., PCT and VHT) and viscosity. A hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution will be used to clean platinum crucibles. Glass Fabrication and Testing Savannah River Site Aiken South Carolina TC - A - 2005 - 001, Rev.1 12Feb10 Andrew R. Grainger Digitally signed by Andrew R. Grainger DN: CN = Andrew R. Grainger, C = US, O =

82

Microsoft Word - 20.doc  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF SILICON AND ALUMINUM ADDITIONS ON THE OXIDATION THE EFFECT OF SILICON AND ALUMINUM ADDITIONS ON THE OXIDATION RESISTANCE OF LEAN CHROMIUM STAINLESS STEELS J. S. Dunning, D. E. Alman, and J. C. Rawers United States Department of Energy Albany Research Center 1450 Queen Avenue, SW Albany, OR 97321 ABSTRACT The effect of Si and Al additions on the oxidation of lean chromium austenitic stainless steels has been studied. A baseline composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo was selected to allow combined Si and Al additions of up to 5 wt. pct. in a fully austenitic alloy. The baseline composition was selected using a net Cr equivalent equation to predict the onset of /-ferrite formation in austenite. Cyclic oxidation tests in air for 1000 hours were carried out on alloys with Si only or combined Si and Al additions in the temperature

83

Energetics and efficiency of a molecular motor model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energetics and efficiency of a linear molecular motor model proposed by Mogilner et al. (Phys. Lett. 237, 297 (1998)) is analyzed from an analytical point of view. The model which is based on protein friction with a track is described by coupled Langevin equations for the motion in combination with coupled master equations for the ATP hydrolysis. Here the energetics and efficiency of the motor is addressed using a many body scheme with focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP). It is found that the EMP is reduced from about 10 pct in a heuristic description of the motor to about 1 per mille when incorporating the full motor dynamics, owing to the strong dissipation associated with the motor action.

Fogedby, Hans C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418 AND FRIT 702  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) in May 2011. To support qualification of SB7a, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to execute a variability study (VS) to assess the applicability of the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) durability models for the Frit 418-SB7a compositional region of interest. The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a compositional region of interest and acceptability of the SB7a glasses with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass in terms of durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To support programmatic objectives, twenty-eight SB7a glasses were selected based on the nominal sludge projections used to support the frit recommendation. Twenty-three of the SB7a VS glasses were based on the use of Frit 418, while 5 glasses were based on the use of Frit 702. Frit 702 was also identified as a viable candidate for SB7a, especially if SO{sub 4} concentrations are found to be higher than anticipated. Frit 702 has shown a higher SO{sub 4} retention capability as compared to Frit 418. With respect to acceptability, the PCT results of the SB7a-VS glasses are acceptable relative to the EA glass regardless of thermal history (quenched or canister centerline cooled) or compositional view (target or measured). More specifically, all of the SB7a glasses have normalized boron release values (NL [B]) less than 0.9 g/L as compared to the benchmark NL [B] value for EA of 16.695 g/L. With respect to the applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a VS compositional region of interest, all of the study glasses (based on target compositions) lie within the 95% confidence intervals of the model predictions. When model applicability is based on the measured compositions, all of the SB7a VS glasses are predictable with the exception of SB7aVS-02 and SB7aVS-06. Although the NL [B] values of these two glasses range from 0.66 to 0.73 g/L (considered very acceptable), the PCT responses are not considered predictable by the current durability models. The current durability models are conservative for these glasses since they are more durable than predicted by the models. These two glasses are extreme vertices (EV) based compositions coupled with Frit 418 at 36% WL and target the maximum Na{sub 2}O content (15.01 wt% Na{sub 2}O) of the SB7a VS glasses. Higher alkali glasses for which the model overpredicts the PCT response have been observed previously in the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) Phase 1 VS and the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) VS.

Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

85

Low Temperature Waste Immobilization Testing Vol. I  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is evaluating low-temperature technologies to immobilize mixed radioactive and hazardous waste. Three waste forms—alkali-aluminosilicate hydroceramic cement, “Ceramicrete” phosphate-bonded ceramic, and “DuraLith” alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer—were selected through a competitive solicitation for fabrication and characterization of waste-form properties. The three contractors prepared their respective waste forms using simulants of a Hanford secondary waste and Idaho sodium bearing waste provided by PNNL and characterized their waste forms with respect to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and compressive strength. The contractors sent specimens to PNNL, and PNNL then conducted durability (American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society [ANSI/ANS] 16.1 Leachability Index [LI] and modified Product Consistency Test [PCT]) and compressive strength testing (both irradiated and as-received samples). This report presents the results of these characterization tests.

Russell, Renee L.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Smith, D. E.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Telander, Monty R.; Pitman, Stan G.

2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

86

Review of ARAC's involvement in the Titan II missile accident  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) response to the Titan II accident near Damascus, Arkansas on 19 September 1980 entailed 12 personnel for periods ranging from 2 to 12 hours. The first call was a NEST Standby alert at 0415L (PCT), followed by a request for dispersal calculations at 0615L, personnel callout at 0630L, crude estimates of plausible source term scenarios at 0845-0900L, first model calculations at 1130L and final model calculations at 1500L. While several new firsts were recorded for ARAC, demonstrating expanded capabilities for NEST-type responses, time lines were very long, essential information was very scant to non-existent, and useful communication of final calculations to the accident site impossible. A detailed chronology is found in Appendix A and a list of acronyms and abbreviations is contained in Appendix B.

Sullivan, T.J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Final Report - Enhanced LAW Glass Property - Composition Models - Phase 1 VSL-13R2940-1, Rev. 0, dated 9/27/2013  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work are aimed at the development of enhanced LAW propertycomposition models that expand the composition region covered by the models. The models of interest include PCT, VHT, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This is planned as a multi-year effort that will be performed in phases with the objectives listed below for the current phase.  Incorporate property- composition data from the new glasses into the database.  Assess the database and identify composition spaces in the database that need augmentation.  Develop statistically-designed composition matrices to cover the composition regions identified in the above analysis.  Prepare crucible melts of glass compositions from the statistically-designed composition matrix and measure the properties of interest.  Incorporate the above property-composition data into the database.  Assess existing models against the complete dataset and, as necessary, start development of new models.

Kruger, Albert A.; Muller, I.; Gilbo, K.; Joseph, I.; Pegg, I. L.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

88

Final Report - Enhanced LAW Glass Property - Composition Models - Phase 1 VSL-13R2940-1, Rev. 0, dated 9/27/2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this work are aimed at the development of enhanced LAW propertycomposition models that expand the composition region covered by the models. The models of interest include PCT, VHT, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This is planned as a multi-year effort that will be performed in phases with the objectives listed below for the current phase. ? Incorporate property- composition data from the new glasses into the database. ? Assess the database and identify composition spaces in the database that need augmentation. ? Develop statistically-designed composition matrices to cover the composition regions identified in the above analysis. ? Prepare crucible melts of glass compositions from the statistically-designed composition matrix and measure the properties of interest. ? Incorporate the above property-composition data into the database. ? Assess existing models against the complete dataset and, as necessary, start development of new models.

Kruger, Albert A.; Muller, I.; Gilbo, K.; Joseph, I.; Pegg, I. L.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

89

Interim Models Developed to Predict Key Hanford Waste Glass Properties Using Composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past several years the amount of waste glass property data available in the open literature has increased markedly. We have compiled the data from over 2000 glass compositions, evaluated the data for consistency, and fit glass property models to portions of this database.[1] The properties modeled include normalized releases of boron (rB), sodium (rNa), and lithium (rLi) from glass exposed to the product consistency test (PCT), liquidus temperature (TL) of glasses in the spinel and zircon primary phase field, viscosity (?) at 1150°C (?1150) and as a function of temperature (?T), and molar volume (V). These models were compared to some of the previously available models and were found to predict the properties of glasses not used in model fitting better and covered broader glass composition regions than the previous ones. This paper summarizes the data collected and the models that resulted from this effort.

Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

2003-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

90

"Low-Li2O" Frits: Selecting Glasses that Support the Melt Rate Studies and Challenge the Current Durability Model  

SciTech Connect

During the progressive development of the cold cap model (as it applies to a potential melt rate predictive tool), the formation of an Al-Li-silicate phase was identified as an intermediate reaction phase that could possibly hinder melt rate for SB4. To test this theory, six glasses were designed (using Frit 320's composition as the baseline) to maintain a constant 20 wt% sum of alkali content (in frit) by varying Na{sub 2}O to Li{sub 2}O ratios. The Li{sub 2}O concentration ranged from 8 wt% down to 0% in either 2% or 1% increments with the differences being accounted for by an increase in Na{sub 2}O concentration. Although the primary objective of the ''lower Li{sub 2}O'' frits was to evaluate the potential for melt rate improvements, assessments of durability (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) were also performed. The results suggest that durable glasses can be produced with these ''lower Li{sub 2}O'' frits should it be necessary to pursue this option for improving melt rate. In addition to the series of glasses to support melt rate assessments, a series of frits were also developed to challenge the current durability model based on the limits proposed by Edwards et al. (2004). Although the ''new'' limits allow access into compositional regions of interest (i.e., higher alkali systems) which can improve melt rate and/or waste loading, there may still be ''additional'' conservatism. In this report, two series of glasses were developed to challenge the ''new'' durability limits for the SB4 system. In the first series, the total alkali of the Frit 320-based glasses (designed to support the melt rate program) was increased from 20 wt% to 21 wt% (in the frit), but the series also evaluated the possible impact of various Na{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}O mass ratio differences. The second series pushed the alkali limit in the frit even further with frits containing either 22 or 24 wt% total alkali as well as various Na{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}O mass ratios. The results of the PCT evaluation indicated that all of the ''higher alkali'' glasses are acceptable as defined by their NL [B]'s as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass (with a 16.695 g/L NL [B])--regardless of the compositional view (measured or target) or thermal heat treatment (quenched versus centerline canister cooled). The least durable glass (based on NL [B] and target compositions) was Low-Li-7 (quenched) with a NL [B] of 1.11 g/L. With the measured PCT responses being acceptable (i.e., all < 1.11 g/L), the results suggest additional conservatism exists within the current durability model even with the ''proposed'' limits. More specifically, the ''proposed'' limits still appear to restrict access to compositional regions of interest (higher alkali glasses) even though their measured PCT responses are acceptable.

Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

The effect of adding crystalline silicotitanate on the durability, liquidus, and viscosity of simulated high-level waste glasses at Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the results obtained for a limited variability study for glasses containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), Monosodium Titanate (MST), and either simulated Purex or HM sludge. Twenty-two glasses containing Purex sludge and three glasses containing HM sludge were fabricated and tested. The fabricated glasses were tested for durability using the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) and characterized by measuring the viscosity at 1,150 C and by determining an approximate, bounding liquidus temperature. The current models used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for predicting durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature were applied to all 25 glasses. The goal of this work was to identify any major problems from a glass perspective, within the scope of this effort, which could potentially preclude the use of CST at DWPF.

Harbour, J.R.

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

92

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2, in the solid state was studied by a combination of PCT, TGA/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Dehydrogenation of Mg(BH4)2 at 200 °C, results in the highly selective formation of magnesium triborane, Mg(B3H8)2. This process is reversible at 250 °C under 120 atm H2. Dehydrogenation at higher temperature, > 300 °C, produces a complex mixture of polyborane species. Solution phase 11B NMR spectra of the hydrolyzed decomposition products reveals the formation of the B3H8 anion, boric acid from hydrolysis of the unstable polyboranes (BnHx) (n = 3-11, x >8), and the closoborane B12H12 dianion as a minor product. A BH condensation mechanism involving metal hydride formation is proposed to explain the limited reversible hydrogen storage in magnesium borohydride.

Chong, Marina; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jalisatgi, Satish; Jensen, Craig M.

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

93

GE Appliances and Lighting Home Energy Solutions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GE Appliances and Lighting GE Appliances and Lighting Home Energy Solutions Introduction to Devices with Brillion(tm) Technology Portfolio of Products 3 GE Appliances and Lighting All Rights Reserved Brillion(tm) Suite of Home Energy Solutions Nucleus(tm) Smart Meter Other Devices Internet IHD Other Devices PCT Non-Meter Solution GE DRMS GEA Server 4 GE Appliances and Lighting All Rights Reserved Nucleus(tm) energy manager with Brillion(tm) technology Consumers can reduce electric usage by an average of 5% per year. 5 GE Appliances and Lighting All Rights Reserved GE Profile Appliances enabled with Brillion(tm) technology Delayed defrost during peak Delayed starts and temperature adjustments during peak Delayed start until off- peak Reduced energy usage 60%, DR- enabled Reduced wattage during peak When coupled with the Nucleus and a TOU

94

Innovative Vitrification for Soil Remediation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vortec has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of a technology demonstration program for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation.'' The principal objective of the program is to demonstrate the ability of a Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS) to remediate DOE contaminated soils and other waste forms containing TM RCRA hazardous materials, low levels of radionuclides and TSCA (PCB) containing wastes. The demonstration program will verify the ability of this vitrification process to produce a chemically stable glass final waste form which passes both TCLP and PCT quality control requirements, while meeting all federal and state emission control regulations. The demonstration system is designed to process 36 ton/day of as-received drummed or bulk wastes. The processing capacity equates to approximately 160 barrels/day of waste materials containing 30% moisture at an average weight of 450 lbs./barrel.

Hnat, James G.; Patten, John S.; Jetta, Norman W.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2002" Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2002" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_pri_sum_a_epg0_vrx_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_pri_sum_a_epg0_vrx_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 7:00:27 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices " "Sourcekey","NA1504_NUS_4","NA1504_SAL_4","NA1504_SAK_4","NA1504_SAZ_4","NA1504_SAR_4","NA1504_SCA_4","NA1504_SCO_4","NA1504_SCT_4","NA1504_SDE_4","NA1504_SDC_4","NA1504_SFL_4","NA1504_SGA_4","NA1504_SHI_4","NA1504_SID_4","NA1504_SIL_4","NA1504_SIN_4","NA1504_SIA_4","NA1504_SKS_4","NA1504_SKY_4","NA1504_SLA_4","NA1504_SME_4","NA1504_SMD_4","NA1504_SMA_4","NA1504_SMI_4","NA1504_SMN_4","NA1504_SMS_4","NA1504_SMO_4","NA1504_SMT_4","NA1504_SNE_4","NA1504_SNV_4","NA1504_SNH_4","NA1504_SNJ_4","NA1504_SNM_4","NA1504_SNY_4","NA1504_SNC_4","NA1504_SND_4","NA1504_SOH_4","NA1504_SOK_4","NA1504_SOR_4","NA1504_SPA_4","NA1504_SRI_4","NA1504_SSC_4","NA1504_SSD_4","NA1504_STN_4","NA1504_STX_4","NA1504_SUT_4","NA1504_SVT_4","NA1504_SVA_4","NA1504_SWA_4","NA1504_SWV_4","NA1504_SWI_4","NA1504_SWY_4"

96

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012,"6/30/1989" Annual",2012,"6/30/1989" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_pri_sum_a_epg0_vrx_pct_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_pri_sum_a_epg0_vrx_pct_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 7:00:26 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices " "Sourcekey","NA1504_NUS_4","NA1504_SAL_4","NA1504_SAK_4","NA1504_SAZ_4","NA1504_SAR_4","NA1504_SCA_4","NA1504_SCO_4","NA1504_SCT_4","NA1504_SDE_4","NA1504_SDC_4","NA1504_SFL_4","NA1504_SGA_4","NA1504_SHI_4","NA1504_SID_4","NA1504_SIL_4","NA1504_SIN_4","NA1504_SIA_4","NA1504_SKS_4","NA1504_SKY_4","NA1504_SLA_4","NA1504_SME_4","NA1504_SMD_4","NA1504_SMA_4","NA1504_SMI_4","NA1504_SMN_4","NA1504_SMS_4","NA1504_SMO_4","NA1504_SMT_4","NA1504_SNE_4","NA1504_SNV_4","NA1504_SNH_4","NA1504_SNJ_4","NA1504_SNM_4","NA1504_SNY_4","NA1504_SNC_4","NA1504_SND_4","NA1504_SOH_4","NA1504_SOK_4","NA1504_SOR_4","NA1504_SPA_4","NA1504_SRI_4","NA1504_SSC_4","NA1504_SSD_4","NA1504_STN_4","NA1504_STX_4","NA1504_SUT_4","NA1504_SVT_4","NA1504_SVA_4","NA1504_SWA_4","NA1504_SWV_4","NA1504_SWI_4","NA1504_SWY_4"

97

Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 115{degrees}C volume 1: Chapters 1-11  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Composition Variation study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g} ), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Analytical Results of DWPF Glass Sample Taken During Pouring of Canister S01913  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) (Macrobatch 3) in December 2001 as part of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 208. Macrobatch 3 consists of the contents of Tank 40 and Tank 8 in approximately equal proportions. A glass sample was obtained while pouring Canister S01913 and was sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells for characterization. This report contains observations of the glass sample, results for the density, the chemical composition, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the radionuclide results needed for the Production Record for Canister S01913. The following conclusions are drawn from this work: (1) The glass sample taken during the filling of canister S01913 received at SRNL weighed 33.04 grams and was dark and reflective with no obvious inclusions indicating the glass was homogeneous. (2) The results of the composition for glass sample S01913 are in good agreement ({+-} 15%) with the DWPF SME results for Batch Number 254, the SME Batch that was being fed to the melter when the sample was collected. (3) The calculated WDF was 2.58. (4) Acid dissolution of the glass samples may not have completely dissolved the noble metals rhodium and ruthenium. (5) The PCT results for the glass (normalized boron release of 1.18 g/L) indicate that it is greater than seven standard deviations more durable than the EA glass; thus, the glass meets the waste acceptance criterion for durability. (6) The measured density of the glass was 2.56 {+-} 0.03 g/cm{sup 3}.

Bannochie, C

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

Marra, J.; Billings, A.

2009-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

100

SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mmtc pct" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) showed little if any modification of the material after irradiation. Additional study in this area is needed. Chemical durability was briefly studied using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Most of the elements measured were retained by the ceramic waste forms, indicating good chemical durability. Cs, Mo, and Rb were released at somewhat higher rates as compared to the matrix components, although benchmark compositions and additional characterization are needed in order to qualify the PCT results.

Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

102

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results  

SciTech Connect

In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.

Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution conductivity, pH and analytical concentration measured as a function of time decrease exponentially. In some cases nitrate, sulfate, chloride and fluoride ion concentrations increased with time and processing temperature with respect to the reference sample. The increasing concentration of these ions was due to the lack of formation of crystalline phases that can incorporate them in their structures, especially cancrinite. Another plausible explanations for their increase was due to the continuous withdrawal of cations with time, for example sodium to form zeolites, thereby increase their concentrations.

Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Co. and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN, for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm-diameter welded steel pipes and one 22-cm PVC pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the test pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale, close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blastholes. Analyses found low pipe responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120 to 250 mm/s produced worst case strains that were about 25 pcts of the strains resulting from normal pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10 to 18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength. No pressurization failures or permanent strains occurred even at vibration amplitudes of 600 mm/s.

Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schultz, D.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Utilization of scrap preheating and substitute slag conditioners for electric-arc-furnace steelmaking. Report of Investigations/1987  

SciTech Connect

The preheating of continuously fed, fragmented ferrous scrap charges by furnace offgases and the utilization of substitutes for imported fluorspar to condition electric steelmaking slags were investigated. Three types of continuous scrap-charging procedures were investigated to determine electrical energy consumption in a 1-st (short ton) electric arc furnace. Cold and preheated scrap charges were continuously fed at rates averaging 37.5 and 43.7 lb. min, respectively. The feed rate varied appreciably from test to test owing to hangup of the scrap in the charge bin. Approximately 7 pct less electrical energy was consumed in melting scrap preheated to 840 to 1,110 F by furnace offgases than in melting cold scrap. Overall energy consumptions were 888 kW per h/st for cold scrap, 829 kW per h/st for preheated scrap, and 637 kW per h/st for conventional backcharged scrap. Stack gases from scrap preheating averaged 120 F and a flow rate of 1,615 standard cubic feet per meter (scfm) compared with 220 F and 1,302 scfm for cold-charged scrap.

Elger, G.W.; Nafziger, R.H.; Tress, J.E.; Hartman, A.D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS MADE FROM HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE (TANK SX-105, TANK AN-103, AND AZ-101/102) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMATION (FBSR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Hall, H.; Miller, D.; Missimer, D.; Nash, C.; Williams, F.

2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

107

Stacking fault energy decrease in austenitic stainless steels induced by hydrogen pairs formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decrease of the Stacking Fault Energy (SFE), induced by hydrogen in austenitic stainless steels, was always invoked to explain the formation of {epsilon}-martensite at room temperature during cathodic charging of hydrogen. Pontini and Hermida measured by XRD a reduction of 37 pct of the SPE of an AISI 304 steel at room temperature, in the presence of only 274 ppm of hydrogen. However, the nature of this phenomenon is still unknown. Recently, Obiol et a., using the Atoms Superposition and Electron Delocalization-Molecular Obital (ASED-MO) method, calculated the binding energy for H-H pair formation in the faulted zone of an FCC iron matrix. It was shown that, the H-H pair formation is more likely to occur along directions connecting octahedral interstices of the HCP stacking sequence and that are normal to the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes. The binding energy found was {minus}5.75 eV, being this value significantly larger than the corresponding one for vacuum: {minus}4.75 eV. In this work, an explanation of the SFE decrease is developed on the basis of this previous result.

Hermida, J.D. [C.A.C.-CNEA, San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales] [C.A.C.-CNEA, San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales; Roviglione, A. [Faculty de Ingenieria, Uba (Argentina). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Naval] [Faculty de Ingenieria, Uba (Argentina). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Naval

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 {+-} 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards.

J.R. Powell; M. Reich

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the surrogate glasses compared with their radioactive counterparts was 8.8%. The largest difference in NL

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

The activity of calcium in calcium-metal-fluoride fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard Gibbs energy of reaction Ca (1) + {und O} (mass pct, in Zr) = CaO (s) has been determined as follows by equilibrating molten calcium with solid zirconium in a CaO crucible: {Delta}G{degree} = {minus}64,300({+-}700) + 19.8({+-}3.5)T J/mol (1,373 to 1,623 K). The activities of calcium in the CaO{sub satd.}-Ca-MF{sub 2} (M: Ca, Ba, Mg) and CaO{sub satd.}-Ca-NaF systems were measured as a function of calcium composition at high calcium contents at 1,473 K on the basis of the standard Gibbs energy. The activities of calcium increase in the order of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, and MgF{sub 2} at the same calcium fraction of these fluxes. The observed activities are compared with those estimated by using the Temkin model for ionic solutions. Furthermore, the possibility of the removal of tramp elements such as tin, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead from carbon-saturated iron by using calcium-metal-fluoride fluxes is discussed.

Ochifuji, Yuichiro; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Sano, Nobuo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Non-Traditional In Situ Vitrification - A Technology Demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) sponsored a technology demonstration of non-traditional in situ vitrification (NTISV) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project team for this demonstration included MSE Technology Applications, Inc., Geosafe Corporation, and LANL. The technology demonstration involved the performance of two large-scale test melts. The first, referred to as the ''cold'' test, was performed on a simulated absorption bed that contained surrogate contaminants. The cold test was conducted in April 1999. The second demonstration, referred to as the ''hot'' test, took place at LANL's Material Disposal Area (MDA) V in April 2000. The hot test was conducted on a portion of an absorption bed that received radionuclide and metal-contaminated wastewater from a laundry facility and a research laboratory from the mid-1940s to the early 1960s. This paper presents the results of drilling and sampling following the hot test at LANL's MDA V. The objectives of the sample collection were to characterize the vitrified mass and the effects of the hot test on the surrounding bedrock. Glass samples were analyzed for total radionuclide and metal content by standard EPA methods, and leachable radionuclide and metal content using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Product Consistency Test (PCT) methods.

Coel-Roback, B.; Springer, M.; Lowery, P.; Thompson, L.; Huddleston, G.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

112

Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses; LAWA44, LAWB45, and LAWC22. This data will be used for Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) simulations of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in July 2005. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali (Na+)-hydrogen (H+) ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) and product consistency (PCT) tests where used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses in order to determine a chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form. The majority of the thermodynamic data used in this data package were extracted from the thermody-namic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6, version 8.0. Because of the expected importance of 129I release from secondary waste streams being sent to IDF from various thermal treatment processes, parameter estimates for diffusional release and solubility-controlled release from cementitious waste forms were estimated from the available literature.

Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Saripalli, Prasad; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, P. F.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Reed, Lunde R.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Memo, "Incorporation of HLW Glass Shell V2.0 into the Flowsheets," to ED Lee, CCN: 184905, October 20, 2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efforts are being made to increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of vitrifying radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The compositions of acceptable and processable high-level waste (HL W) glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to reduce cost. A database of glass properties of waste glass and associated simulated waste glasses was collected and documented in PNNL 18501, Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume and glass property models were curve-fitted to the glass compositions. A routine was developed that estimates HL W glass volumes using the following glass property models: II Nepheline, II One-Percent Crystal Temperature (T1%), II Viscosity (11) II Product Consistency Tests (PCT) for boron, sodium, and lithium, and II Liquidus Temperature (TL). The routine, commonly called the HL W Glass Shell, is presented in this document. In addition to the use of the glass property models, glass composition constraints and rules, as recommend in PNNL 18501 and in other documents (as referenced in this report) were incorporated. This new version of the HL W Glass Shell should generally estimate higher waste loading in the HL W glass than previous versions.

Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

114

Evidence of surface paramagnetism in niobium and consequences for the superconducting cavity surface impedance.  

SciTech Connect

The presence of magnetic impurities in native niobium oxides have been confirmed by Point contact spectroscopy (PCT), SQUID magnetometry and Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). All niobium (Nb) samples displayed a small impurity contribution to the magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures which exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior, indicative of weakly coupled localized paramagnetic moments. By examining Nb samples with widely varying surface-to-volume ratios (rods, foils, wires, powders) it was found that the impurity contribution is correlated with surface area. Tunneling measurements which use the native oxide layers as barriers exhibit a zero-bias conductance peak which splits in a magnetic field >; 4T, consistent with the Appelbaum-Anderson model for spin flip tunneling. Viewed together the experiments strongly suggest that the native oxides of Nb are intrinsically defective, and consistently exhibit localized paramagnetic moments caused by oxygen vacancies in Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The computation of the surface impedance (R{sub s}) in presence of magnetic impurities in the Shiba approximation reveals the saturation at low temperature of R{sub s}, suggesting that magnetic impurities are responsible for the so-called residual resistance. These properties may have an impact on Nb based superconducting devices and shine a new light on the origin of the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME).

Prolier, T.; Kharitonov, M.; Pellin, M.; Zasadzinski, J.; Ciovati, G. (Materials Science Division); (Illinois Inst. Tech.); (Thomas Jefferson Lab.)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

FRIT SELECTION TO SUPPORT STEKLO METALLICHESKIE KONSTRUKTSII MELTER TESTING WITH SRNL FEEDS  

SciTech Connect

Four frits were developed for possible use in melter testing with V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute's Steklo Metallicheskie Konstruktsii (SMK) melter. The frits were selected using Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments of an array of frit formulations and two Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) flowsheets, one with the anticipated effect of the implementation of Al-dissolution and one without. Test glasses were fabricated in the laboratory to verify that the property and performance models used to select the frits were applicable to the frit/sludge systems of interest. Each of the four frits was tested with each of the two sludges at two different waste loadings, for a total of 16 test glasses. Each glass was both quenched and subjected to the canister centerline cooled (CCC) thermal profile. Samples of each glass were examined for crystallization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and durability using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The quenched version of each glass appeared amorphous by visual observations, although XRD results indicated a small amount of crystallization in four of the quenched glasses. Visual observations identified surface crystallization on the CCC versions of all 16 glasses. Three of the 35% waste loading (WL), CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite (a spinel) by XRD, and all of the 40% WL CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite. Nepheline was not observed in any of the test glasses, which is consistent with model predictions.

Fox, K; James Gillam, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2007-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

118

First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses  

SciTech Connect

A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0{sub 2},B{sub 2}O{sub 3},A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O,Li{sub 2}O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0[sub 2],B[sub 2]O[sub 3],A1[sub 2]O[sub 3], Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2], Na[sub 2]O,Li[sub 2]O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Single Phase Melt Processed Powellite (Ba,Ca) MoO{sub 4} For The Immobilization Of Mo-Rich Nuclear Waste  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO{sub 4} crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO{sub 4} and CaMoO{sub 4} were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In-situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 X 10{sup 13} Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m{sup 2}).

Brinkman, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fox, Kevin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Reppert, Jason [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crum, Jarrod [Paci fic Northwest National Laboratory , Richland, WA (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory , Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mmtc pct" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Introduction to hydrogen in alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Substitutional alloys, both those that form hydrides and those that do not, are discussed, but with more emphasis on the former than the latter. This overview includes the following closely related subjects: (1) the significant effects of substitutional solutes on the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) equilibria of metal-hydrogen systems, (2) the changes in thermodynamic properties resulting from differences in atom size and from modifications of electronic structure, (3) attractive and repulsive interactions between H and solute atoms and the effects of such interactions on the pressure dependent solubility for H, (4) H trapping in alloys of Group V metals and its effect on the terminal solubility for H (TSH), (5) some other mechanisms invoked to explain the enhancement (due to alloying) of the (TSH) in Group V metals, and (6) H-impurity complexes in alloys of the metals Ni, Co, and Fe. Some results showing that an enhanced TSH may ameliorate the resistance of a metal to hydrogen embrittlement are presented.

Westlake, D.G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Effects of temperature and humidity variations on the stability of coal mine roof rocks. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A high degree of correlation between strain developed in samples of roof rock and humidity changes was obtained in the laboratory. The strain developed across bedding planes was greater than strain developed parallel to bedding. In tests conducted underground, strain values were much lower and the data more scattered for similar humidity variations. Roof rock specimens reacted to a 10 pct change in humidity throughout a 7 to 10 day period before stabilizing, which seems to rule out daily humidity cycles as a factor in roof deterioration and indicates seasonal variations as a major cause. Very low annual temperature variations were recorded in active sections of the mine. At a 6 F annual variation developed strain would be only 10.5 microinches per inch, far below the strain magnitude for humidity variations and probably too low to be a factor in problems of roof deterioration. Laboratory strain tests on drill core samples were shown to be indicators of moisture sensitivity of roof rock, but neither chemical nor physical properties of the samples correlated with the strain data. (Portions of this document are not fully legible.)

Haynes, C.D.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

IMPACT OF URANIUM AND THORIUM ON HIGH TIO2 CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focused on the potential impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. All but one of the study glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which is typically found in DWPF-type glasses and had no practical impact on the durability of the glass. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the study glasses and the viscosities of the glasses were well predicted by the current DWPF models. No unexpected issues were encountered when uranium and thorium were added to the glasses with SCIX components.

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

124

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

Preliminary results from field testing an improved refractory material for slagging coal gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Slag attack of refractory materials used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers limits their service life to between 3 and 24 months. These gasifiers use coal, petroleum coke, or combinations of them as raw materials to produce chemicals, liquid fuel, and/or electricity; with future consideration being given to the use of other abundant, low cost feedstock such as biomass. The ash from these materials generate liquid slags during gasification at temperature between 1300 - 1575 C and pressures up to 1000 psi, leading to severe slag attack of a vessel lining and causing unacceptable gasifier reliability and on-line availability. To maximize refractory life and provide protection of the gasifier metal shell, the best liners have contained a minimum of 60-70 pct chromia in combination with alumina, alumina/zirconia, or magnesia. The Albany Research Center of DOE has developed a phosphate containing high chrome oxide refractory liner that indicates potential for increased service life over currently used materials. This new liner has been produced commercially by a refractory company and installed in a gasifier for performance evaluation. Refractory issues in slagging gasifiers, the development and properties of the phosphate containing high chrome oxide material, and the preliminary results from the plant trial of this material will be presented.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Development of improved performance refractory liner materials for slagging gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Refractory liners for slagging gasifiers used in power generation, chemical production, or as a possible future source of hydrogen for a hydrogen based economy, suffer from a short service life. These liner materials are made of high Cr2O3 and lower levels of Al2O3 and/or ZrO2. As a working face lining in the gasifier, refractories are exposed to molten slags at elevated temperature that originate from ash in the carbon feedstock, including coal and/or petroleum coke. The molten slag causes refractory failure by corrosion dissolution and by spalling. The Albany Research Center is working to improve the performance of Cr2O3 refractories and to develop refractories without Cr2O3 or with Cr2O3 content under 30 wt pct. Research on high Cr2O3 materials has resulted in an improved refractory with phosphate additions that is undergoing field testing. Results to date of field trials, along with research direction on refractories with no or low Cr2O3, will be discussed.

Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Powell, Cynthia; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Vitrification of Three Low-Activity Radioactive Waste Streams from Hanford  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a demonstration for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Incorporated (BNFL), the Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has produced and characterized three low-activity waste (LAW) glasses from Hanford radioactive waste samples. The three LAW glasses were produced from radioactive supernate samples that had been treated by the Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) at SRTC to remove most of the radionuclides. These three glasses were produced by mixing the waste streams with between four and nine glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to between 1120 and 1150 degrees C. Compositions of the resulting glass waste forms were close to the target compositions. Low concentrations of radionuclides in the LAW feed streams and, therefore, in the glass waste forms supported WPTS conclusions that pretreatment had been successful. No crystals were detected in the LAW glasses. In addition, all glass waste forms passed the leach tests that were performed. These included a 20 degrees C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that its stability may be rate dependent, therefore limiting the activity of the waste for which it can be employed. Overall, these preliminary results indicate good radiation damage tolerance for the crystalline ceramic materials. The PCT results showed that, for all of the waste forms tested, the normalized release values for most of the elements measured, including all of the lanthanides and noble metals, were either very small or below the instrument detection limits. Elevated normalized release values were measured only for Cs, Mo, and Rb. It is difficult to draw further conclusions from these data until a benchmark material is developed for the PCT with this type of waste form. Calcined, simulated CS/LN/TM High Mo waste without additives had relatively low normalized release values for Cs, Mo, and Rb. A review of the chemical composition data for this sample showed that these elements were well retained after the calcination. Therefore, it will be useful to further characterize the calcined material to determine what form these elements are in after calcining. This, along with single phase studies on Cs containing crystal structures such as hollandite, should provide insight into the most ideal phases to incorporate these elements to produce a durable waste form.

Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

129

IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION KT07-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the third in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility is also considered in the study. The KT07-series glasses were selected to evaluate any potential impacts of noble metals on their properties and performance. The glasses characterized thus far for the SCIX study have not included noble metals since they are not typically tracked in sludge batch composition projections. However, noble metals can act as nucleation sites in glass melts, leading to enhanced crystallization. This crystallization can potentially influence the properties and performance of the glass, such as chemical durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature. The noble metals Ag, Pd, Rh, and Ru were added to the KT07-series glasses in concentrations based on recent measurements of Sludge Batch 6, which was considered to contain a high concentration of noble metals. The KT04-series glasses were used as the baseline compositions. After fabrication, the glasses were characterized to determine their homogeneity, chemical composition, durability, and viscosity. Liquidus temperature measurements are also underway but were not complete at the time of this report. The liquidus temperature results for the KT07-series glasses, along with several of the earlier glasses in the SCIX study, will be documented separately. All of the KT07-series glasses, both quenched and slowly cooled, were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. Chemical composition measurements showed that all of the glasses met their targeted compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all of the glasses had chemical durabilities that were far better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass. The measured PCT responses were well predicted by the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS) durability models. The measured viscosity values for each KT07-series glass were acceptable for DWPF processing and were well predicted by the current PCCS model. Overall, the results show that the inclusion of relatively high concentrations of noble metals (in terms of expected values for a DWPF sludge batch) had no significant impact on the properties and performance of these glass compositions. There were no significant differences in the measured properties when compared to those of the KT04-series glasses, which did not contain noble metals. Liquidus temperature measurements are still underway and there may be an impact of the noble metals on those measurements. However, no adverse effects were noted in terms of crystallization after slow cooling. At the completion of these studies, all of the data generated will be reviewed with regard to the applicability of the DWPF PCCS models and recommendations will be made as to whether the validation ranges of the current models can be extended, or whether some or all of the models need to be refit to allow for the incorporation of the SCIX streams. As changes are made to the projected sludge compositions and the volume of the SCIX material, additional evaluations should be performed.

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

Development of Technologies on Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (10) Application to a Small District-Heating Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to use as a passive ECCS pump and also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. In order to develop a high reliability passive ECCS pump and a compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet as well as measure the velocity of steam jet using a laser Doppler velocimetry. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using a CFD code with the separate two-phase flow models. With regard to the simplified feed-water system, size of four-stage SI system is almost the same as the model SI that had done the steam and water test that pressures were same as that of current ABWR. The authors also conducted the hot water supply system test in the snow for a district heating. With regard to the SI core cooling system, the performance tests results showed that the low-pressure SI core cooling system will decrease the PCT to almost the same as the saturation temperature of the steam pressure in a pressure vessel. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant for not only an ABWR power plant but also a small PWR/ BWR for district heating system. (authors)

Tadashi Narabayashi; Yoichiro Shimadu; Toshiiro Murase; Masatoshi Nagai [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 16 weight percent CaCO{sub 3}. Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na{sub 2}S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na{sub 2}S, where it would be converted to Hg{sub 2}S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na{sub 2}S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury.

Cicero, C.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

133

Automotive storage of hydrogen using modified magnesium hydrides. Final report, March 1976-March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal hydrides can store more hydrogen per unit volume than normal high pressure or cryogenic techniques. Little energy is required to store the hydrogen in the hydride, and high stability at room temperature ensures low losses over long storage periods. Safety features of metal hydride storage are favorable. Because of its low weight and high hydrogen storage densities, modified magnesium hydride offers the greatest potential for automotive storage of hydrogen. Experimental and analytical work in this program has been directed toward the optimization of this storage system. Due to the relative stability of MgH/sub 2/, modifications of the MgMH/sub x/ (M = metal ion) have been made to decrease the dissociation temperature while retaining high hydrogen capacity. This parameter is crucial since vehicle exhaust will supply the thermal energy to dissociate the hydride in an automobile. System studies indicate that hydride dissociation temperature (T/sub D/) should be 200/sup 0/C to ensure uninterrupted fuel flow at all driving and idle conditions. From experimental data developed in this four task study, we conclude that alloys comprised of Mg, Cu and Ni have come closest to meeting the dissociation temperature goal. Small additions of rare-earth elements to the basic alloy also contribute to a reduction of T/sub D/. The best alloy developed in this program exhibits a T/sub D/ = 223/sup 0/C and a hydrogen capacity near four weight percent compared to a theoretical 7.65 percent for MgH/sub 2/. That alloy has been characterized for dissociation temperature, hydrogen capacity, kinetics, and P-C-T relationships. Dissociation temperature, hydrogen capacity and material cost are reported for each alloy tested in this program.

Rohy, D. A.; Nachman, J. F.; Hammer, A. N.; Duffy, T. E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF.

Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Develop improved metal hydride technology for the storage of hydrogen. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective was to develop commercially viable metal hydrides capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen for use with PEM fuel cells and hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (HICE) applications. Such alloys are expected to result in system capacities of greater than 2 wt.%, making metal hydride storage systems (MHSS`s) a practical means of supplying hydrogen for many consumer applications. ECD`s (Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.) past work on sputtered thin films of transition metal-based alloys led to the commercialization of it`s nickel/metal hydride batteries, and similar work on thin film Mg-based alloys demonstrated potential to achieve very high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities approaching 2,500 Wh/Kg and 2,500 Wh/M{sup 3} respectively. Under this 2-year cost shared project with the DOE, the authors have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up the Mg-based hydrides from thin film to bulk production without substantial loss of storage capacity. ECD made progress in alloy development by means of compositional and process modification. Processes used include Mechanical Alloying, Melt spinning and novel Gas Phase Condensation. It was showed that the same composition when prepared by melt-spinning resulted in a more homogeneous material having a higher PCT plateau pressure as compared to mechanical alloying. It was also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg-Al-Zn results in much higher plateau pressures, which is an important step towards reducing the desorption temperature. While significant progress has been made during the past two years in alloy development and understanding the relationship between composition, structure, morphology, and processing parameters, additional R and D needs to be performed to achieve the goals of this work.

Sapru, K.

1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

136

Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical power that commonly occur around 15:00 h. The working hours for these building are generally between 07:00 and 14:00 h and their peak demand exceeds 600 MW. The smart operation strategies implemented in these buildings included pre-closing treatment (PCT) between 13:00 and 14:00 h and time-of-day control (TDC) after 14:00 h. Also de-lamping was carried out in some of the buildings to readjust the higher than recommended illumination levels. This paper presents the achievements of implementing these smart operations strategies in Justice Palace Complex (JPC) as a case study. The peak load of this building was 3700 kW. The achievements are summarized as an all time saving of 22 kW by de-lamping, an additional saving of 27 kW through TDC of lighting, direct savings between 13:00 and 22:00 h by closing supply and return air fans of 52 air-handling units with a connected load 400 kW, and an additional saving of 550 kW during the same period by optimizing the cooling production and distribution. In conclusion project achieved an overall reduction in power demand of around 20% between 13:00 to 17:00 h and reduction ranging from 7% to 15% between 17:00 to 20:00 h.

Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

Arlin Olson

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

VARIABILITY STUDY TO DETERMINE THE SOLUBILITY OF IMPURITIES IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING, LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the development of a compositional envelope that describes the retention of various impurities in lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass for vitrification and immobilization of excess, defense-related plutonium. A limited amount of impurity data for the various plutonium sources is available and projections were made through analysis of the available information. These projections were used to define types and concentrations of impurities in the LaBS glass compositions to be fabricated and tested. Sixty surrogate glass compositions were developed through a statistically designed approach to cover the anticipated ranges of concentrations for several impurity species expected in the plutonium feeds. An additional four glass compositions containing actual plutonium oxide were selected based on their targeted concentrations of metals and anions. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory and shielded cells facility to determine the degree of retention of the impurity components, the impact of the impurities on the durability of each glass, and the degree of crystallization that occurred, both upon quenching and slow cooling. Overall, the LaBS glass system appears to be very tolerant of most of the impurity types and concentrations projected in the plutonium waste stream. For the surrogate glasses, the measured CuO, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, NiO, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations fell very close to their target values across the ranges of concentrations targeted in this study for each of these components. The measured CaO and PbO concentrations were consistently higher than the targeted values. The measured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were very close to the targets except for the one highest targeted value for each of these components. A solubility limit may have been approached in this glass system for K{sub 2}O and MgO. The measured Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations were well below their target values for all of the study glasses. This is likely due to volatilization of these species during melting of the glass batch. Note that the degree of volatilization that occurred in this crucible-scale study may differ from the full-scale melter. The measured HfO{sub 2} concentrations were below their target values for all of the surrogate glasses. It is likely that for HfO{sub 2}, the solubility limit in the glass was exceeded and some of the HfO{sub 2} batch material remained in the bottom of the crucibles after pouring the glasses. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that some crystalline HfO2 remained in some of the surrogate glasses with the lowest concentration of impurities. No other crystalline phases were identified. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all 60 of the surrogate glass compositions tested were very durable, regardless of thermal history, with the highest normalized release for boron being 0.041 g/L. The pH of the leachate solutions was generally lower than that of conventional waste glasses due to the lack of alkali in the LaBS glass, which likely impacted the PCT results. The normalized release rates for the elements measured were generally too small to attempt to correlate the results with the compositions of the test glasses. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure results showed that no hazardous metals were leached from the surrogate glasses in any measurable concentration. A plutonium-containing crystalline phase with a cross-shaped morphology was identified via SEM in the glasses fabricated with plutonium oxide. This phase was identified in a previous study of plutonium-bearing LaBS glasses and may provide an opportunity to intentionally crystallize some of the plutonium oxide into a highly insoluble form with an intrinsic neutron absorber. Additional work is necessary to better characterize the influence that this phase has on durability of the glass. The PCT results for the plutonium-containing LaBS glasses with impurities were si

Fox, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Charles Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; James Marra, J

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

139

IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. No unexpected issues were encountered when uranium and thorium were added to the glasses with SCIX components. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were not successful in preventing the formation of iron titanate crystals in the KT09-series glasses. Increased K{sub 2}O concentrations were successful in hindering the formation of iron titanates in some of the glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. However, this result did not apply to all of the CCC versions of the glasses, indicating a compositional dependence of this effect. In addition, high concentrations of K{sub 2}O have been shown to hinder the ability of the DWPF durability and viscosity models to predict the performance of these glasses. The usefulness of increased K{sub 2}O concentrations in preventing the formation of iron titanates may therefore be limited. Further characterization was not performed for the KT09-series glasses since the type of crystallization formed was the characteristic of interest for these compositions. All of the KT10-series glasses were XRD amorphous, regardless of heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements showed that the glasses met the targeted concentrations for each oxide. In general, the measured PCT responses of the KT10-series glasses were well predicted by the DWPF models. The measured, normalized release values for silicon for some of the glasses fell above the 95% confidence interval for the predicted values; however, the PCT responses for these glasses remain considerably lower than that of the benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The viscosities of the KT10-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. The next step in this study will be to compile all of the data developed and further compare the measured properties and performance with those predicted by the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. Recommendations will then be made as to which models, if any, may need to be modified in order to accommodate the material from SCIX into DWPF

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

140

IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. No unexpected issues were encountered when uranium and thorium were added to the glasses with SCIX components. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were not successful in preventing the formation of iron titanate crystals in the KT09-series glasses. Increased K{sub 2}O concentrations were successful in hindering the formation of iron titanates in some of the glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. However, this result did not apply to all of the CCC versions of the glasses, indicating a compositional dependence of this effect. In addition, high concentrations of K{sub 2}O have been shown to hinder the ability of the DWPF durability and viscosity models to predict the performance of these glasses. The usefulness of increased K{sub 2}O concentrations in preventing the formation of iron titanates may therefore be limited. Further characterization was not performed for the KT09-series glasses since the type of crystallization formed was the characteristic of interest for these compositions. All of the KT10-series glasses were XRD amorphous, regardless of heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements showed that the glasses met the targeted concentrations for each oxide. In general, the measured PCT responses of the KT10-series glasses were well predicted by the DWPF models. The measured, normalized release values for silicon for some of the glasses fell above the 95% confidence interval for the predicted values; however, the PCT responses for these glasses remain considerably lower than that of the benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The viscosities of the KT10-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. The next step in this study will be to compile all of the data developed and further compare the measured properties and performance with those predicted by the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. Recommendations will then be made as to which models, if any, may need to be modified in order to accommodate the material from SCIX into DWPF

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

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141

PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

142

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator  

SciTech Connect

A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

A method for permanent CO2 mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of mineral carbonation as a method for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. The research is part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the Office of Fossil Energy in DOE. Other participants in this Program include DOE?s Los Alamos National Laboratory and National Energy Technology Laboratory, Arizona State University, and Science Applications International Corporation. The research has focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC reacts a slurry of magnesium silicate mineral with supercritical CO2 to produce a solid magnesium carbonate product. To date, olivine and serpentine have been used as the mineral reactant, but other magnesium silicates could be used as well. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and consequently, these results may also be applicable to strategies for in-situ geological sequestration. Baseline tests were begun in distilled water on ground products of foundry-grade olivine. Tests conducted at 150 C and subcritical CO2 pressures (50 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to carbonate. Increasing the partial pressure of CO2 to supercritical (>73 atm) conditions, coupled with agitation of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, resulted in significant improvement in the extent of reaction in much shorter reaction times. A change from distilled water to a bicarbonate/salt solution further improved the rate and extent of reaction. When serpentine, a hydrated mineral, was used instead of olivine, extent of reaction was poor until heat treatment was included prior to the carbonation reaction. Removal of the chemically bound water resulted in conversion to carbonate similar to those obtained with olivine. Recent results have shown that conversions of nearly 80 pct are achievable after 30 minutes at test conditions of 155 C and 185 atm CO2 in a bicarbonate/salt solution. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be further improved. Future tests will examine additional pressure/temperature regimes, various pretreatment options,and solution modifications.

Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Nilsen, David N.; Rush, G.E.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

Johnson, F.

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

145

ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. (5) The measured density of the SB7a pour stream glass was 2.7 g/cm{sup 3}. (6) The Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios of the SB7a pour stream samples were in the range of 0.04-0.13, while the MFT sample glasses prepared by SRNL were in the range of 0.02-0.04.

Johnson, F.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. Acid stripping of leach vessels was performed to determine the concentration of the glass constituents that may have sorbed on the vessels during leach testing. Additionally, the leachate solutions were ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation.

Marra, J

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration for Conversion of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory into a Leach-Resistant Alkali Aluminosilicate Waste Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The patented THOR{sup R} fluidized-bed steam reforming (FBSR) technology was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) in the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), currently under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site.1 SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THOR{sup R} process at INTEC, an engineering-scale technology demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. This ESTD confirmed the efficacy of the THOR{sup R} FBSR process to convert the SBW into a granular carbonate-based waste form suitable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE authorized, as a risk reduction measure, the performance of an additional ESTD to demonstrate the production of an insoluble mineralized product, in the event that an alternate disposition path is required. The additional ESTD was conducted at the Hazen Research facility using the THOR{sup R} process and the same SBW simulant employed previously. An alkali aluminosilicate mineral product was produced that exhibited excellent leach resistance and chemical durability. The demonstration established general system operating parameters for a full-scale facility; provided process off-gas data that confirmed operation within regulatory limits; determined that the mineralized product exhibits superior leach resistance and durability, compared to Environmental Assessment (EA) and Low-activity Reference Material (LRM) glasses, as indicated by the Product Consistency Test (PCT); ascertained that Cs and Re (a surrogate for Tc) were non-volatile and were retained in the mineral product; and showed that heavy metals were converted into mineral forms that were not leachable, as determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. (authors)

Ryan, K.; Bradley Mason, J.; Evans, B.; Vora, V. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, Aiken, SC (United States); Olson, A. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

MATRIX 2 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL  

SciTech Connect

High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to generate supplemental validation data that could be used to determine the applicability of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model to expanded DWPF glass composition regions of interest based on higher WLs. Two specific flowsheets were used in this study to provide such insight: (1) Higher WL glasses (45 and 50%) based on future sludge batches that have (and have not) undergone the Al-dissolution process. (2) Coupled operations supported by the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), which increase the TiO{sub 2} concentration in glass to greater than 2 wt%. Glasses were also selected to address technical issues associated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, nepheline formation, and homogeneity issues for coupled operations. A test matrix of 28 glass compositions was developed to provide insight into these issues. The glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), TL measurement and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) TiO{sub 2} concentrations up to {approx} 3.5 wt% were retained in DWPF type glasses, where retention is defined as the absence of crystalline TiO{sub 2} (i.e., unreacted or undissolved) in the as-fabricated glasses. Although this TiO{sub 2} content does not bound the projected SWPF high output flowsheet (up to 6 wt% TiO{sub 2} may be required in glass), these data demonstrate the potential for increasing the TiO{sub 2} limit in glass above the current limit of 2 wt% (based strictly on retention or solubility). (2) For those study glasses that had very close compositional overlap with the model development and/or model validation ranges of the current DWPF TL model (except TiO{sub 2} and MgO concentrations), there was very little difference in the predicted and measured TL values. Even though the TiO{sub 2} concentrations were above the 2 wt% upper limit, the results indicate that the current T{sub L} model is applicable in this compositional region with TiO{sub 2} contents up to approximately 3.5 wt%. (3) As the target glass compositions diverge from the model development and validation ranges, the T{sub L} data suggest that the model under-predicted the measured values. These discrepancies imply that there are individual oxides or oxide combinations that need to be accounted for in the model. These oxides include B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, MnO, TiO{sub 2} and/or their combinations. More data would be required to fill in these anticipated DWPF compositional regions for higher WL glasses so that the model coefficients could be refit to account for these differences. (4) Based on PCT response of HWL-21 and HWL-22 (two glasses that were prone to nepheline formation) it appears that increasing the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in glass does not consistently suppress the formation of nepheline in glasses with higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or Na{sub 2}O content. Although the chemical durabilities of the quenched versions of these glasses were very acceptable, the canister centerline cooled (ccc) glasses exhibited a considerable decrease in durability and were found to contain nepheline via XRD. In fact, one of the glasses had a release that was 5 times greater than that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results suggest a need for a more fundamental understanding of the compositional and kinetic effects of nepheline formation in high WL glasses. (5) Data have been generated in support of the replacement of the homogeneity constraint with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or sum of alkali constraints for coupled o

Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

149

SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non-radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7a related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7a processing.

Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

150

SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

151

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER WASTE FORMS FOR SODIUM BEARING WASTE AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) processing of Sodium Bearing Waste simulants was performed in December 2006 by THOR{sup sm} Treatment Technologies LLC (TTT) The testing was performed at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) pilot plant facilities in Golden, CO. FBSR products from these pilot tests on simulated waste representative of the SBW at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) were subsequently transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and leach testing. Four as-received Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) granular/powder samples and four High Temperature Filter (HTF) powder samples were received by SRNL. FBSR DMR samples had been taken from the ''active'' bed, while the HTF samples were the fines collected as carryover from the DMR. The process operated at high fluidizing velocities during the mineralization test such that nearly all of the product collected was from the HTF. Active bed samples were collected from the DMR to monitor bed particle size distribution. Characterization of these crystalline powder samples shows that they are primarily Al, Na and Si, with > 1 wt% Ca, Fe and K. The DMR samples contained less than 1 wt% carbon and the HTF samples ranged from 13 to 26 wt% carbon. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the DMR samples contained significant quantities of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} startup bed. The DMR samples became progressively lower in starting bed alumina with major Na/Al/Si crystalline phases (nepheline and sodium aluminosilicate) present as cumulative bed turnover occurred but 100% bed turnover was not achieved. The HTF samples also contained these major crystalline phases. Durability testing of the DMR and HTF samples using the ASTM C1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT) 7-day leach test at 90 C was performed along with several reference glass samples. Comparison of the normalized leach rates for the various DMR and HTF components was made with the reference glasses and the Low Activity Waste (LAW) specification for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Vitrification Plant (WTP). Normalized releases from the DMR and HTF samples were all less than 1 g/m{sup 2}. For comparison, normalized release from the High-Level Waste (HLW) benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass for Si, Li, Na and B ranges from 2 to 8 g/m{sup 2}. The normalized release specification for LAW glass for the Hanford WTP is 2 g/m{sup 2}. The Toxicity Characteristic Leach Test (TCLP) was performed on DMR and HTF as received samples and the tests showed that these products meet the criteria for the EPA RCRA Universal Treatment Standards for all of the constituents contained in the starting simulants such as Cr, Pb and Hg (RCRA characteristically hazardous metals) and Ni and Zn (RCRA metals required for listed wastes).

Crawford, C; Carol Jantzen, C

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

152

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect

For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes (SBW). About 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as an immobilization step for SBW with a number of treatment and disposal options. A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate direct vitrification of INEEL's SBW. The objectives of this study were to show the feasibility of SBW vitrification, not a development of an optimum formulation. The waste composition is relatively high in sodium, aluminum, and sulfur. A specific composition and glass property restrictions, discussed in Section 2, were used as a basis for the development. Calculations based on first-order expansions of selected glass properties in composition and some general tenets of glass chemistry led to an additive (fit) composition (68.69 mass % SiO{sub 2}, 14.26 mass% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.31 mass% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3.08 mass% TiO{sub 2}, and 2.67 mass % Li{sub 2}O) that meets all property restrictions when melted with 35 mass % of SBW on an oxide basis, The glass was prepared using oxides, carbonates, and boric acid and tested to confirm the acceptability of its properties. Glass was then made using waste simulant at three facilities, and limited testing was performed to test and optimize processing-related properties and confirm results of glass property testing. The measured glass properties are given in Section 4. The viscosity at 1150 C, 5 Pa{center_dot}s, is nearly ideal for waste-glass processing in a standard liquid-fed joule-heated melter. The normalized elemental releases by 7-day PCT are all well below 1 g/m{sup 2}, which is a very conservative set point used in this study. The T{sub L}, ignoring sulfate formation, is less than the 1050 C limit. Based on these observations and the reasonable waste loading of 35 mass 0/0, the SBW glass was a prime candidate for further testing. Sulfate salt segregation was observed in all test melts formed from oxidized carbonate precursors. Melts fabricated using SBW simulants suggest that the sulfate-salt segregation seen in oxide and carbonate melts was much less of a problem. The cause for the difference is likely H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} fuming during the boil-down stage of wet-slurry processing. Additionally, some crucible tests with SBW simulant were conducted at higher temperatures (1250 C), which could increase the volatility of sulfate salts. The fate of sulfate during the melting process is still uncertain and should be the topic of future studies. The properties of the simulant glass confirmed those of the oxide and carbonate glass. Corrosion tests on Inconel 690 electrodes and K-3 refractory blocks conducted at INEEL suggest that the glass is not excessively corrosive. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend that a glass made of 35% SBW simulant (on a mass oxide and halide basis) and 65% of the additive mix (either filled or raw chemical) be used in demonstrating the direct vitrification of INEEL SBW. It is further recommended that a study be conducted to determine the fate of sulfate during glass processing and the tolerance of the chosen melter technology to sulfate salt segregation and corrosivity of the melt.

J.D. Vienna; M.J. Schweiger; D.E. Smith; H.D. Smith; J.V. Crum; D.K. Peeler; I.A. Reamer; C.A. Musick; R.D. Tillotson

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

154

VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 510 TO SUPPORT A SECOND TANK 40 DECANT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is currently being processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using Frit 510. The slurry pumps in Tank 40 are experiencing in-leakage of bearing water, which is causing the sludge slurry in Tank 40 to become dilute at a rapid rate. Currently, the DWPF is removing this dilution water by performing caustic boiling during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle. In order to alleviate prolonged SRAT cycle times, which may eventually impact canister production rates, the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) performed a 100K gallon supernate decant of Tank 40 in April 2008. SRNL performed a supplemental glass variability study to support the April 2008 100K gallon decant incorporating the impact of coupled operations (addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream). Recently LWO requested that SRNL assess the impact of a second decant (up to 100K gallon) to the Frit 510-SB4 system. This second decant occurred in June 2008. LWO provided nominal compositions on May 6, 2008 representing Tank 40 prior to the second decant, following the second decant, and the SB4 Heel prior to blending with Tank 51 to constitute SB5. Paper study assessments were performed for these options based on sludge-only and coupled operations processing (ARP addition), as well as possible Na{sub 2}O additions (via NaOH additions) to both flowsheets. A review of the ComProTM database relative to the compositional region defined by the projections after the second decant coupled with Frit 510 identified only a few glasses with similar glass compositions. These glasses were acceptable from a durability perspective, but did not sufficiently cover the new glass compositional region. Therefore, SRNL recommended that a supplemental variability study be performed to support the June 2008 Tank 40 decant. Glasses were selected for the variability study based on three sludge compositional projections (sludge-only, coupled and coupled + 2 wt% Na{sub 2}O) at waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF (32%, 35% and 38%). These nine glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses that were selected for this study satisfy the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) criteria and are deemed processable and acceptable for the DWPF, except for the SB4VS2-03 (sludge-only at 38% WL) target composition. This glass fails the T{sub L} criterion and would not be considered processable based on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability decisions. The durabilities of all of the study glasses (both quenched and ccc) are well below that of the normalized leachate for boron (NL [B]) of the reference EA glass (16.695 g/L) and are predictable using the current PCCS models. Very little variation exists between the NL [B] of the quenched and ccc versions of the glasses. There is some evidence of a trend toward a less durable glass as WL increases for some of the sludge projections. Frit 510 is a viable option for the processing of SB4 after a second Tank 40 decant with or without the addition of products from the ARP stream as well as the 2 wt% Na{sub 2}O addition. The addition of ARP had no negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses.

Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

155

Summary Report: Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined Fission Products  

SciTech Connect

Glass-ceramic waste form development began in FY 2010 examining two combined waste stream options: (1) alkaline earth (CS) + lanthanide (Ln), and (2) + transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by the uranium extraction (UREX+) separations process. Glass-ceramics were successfully developed for both options however; Option 2 was selected over Option 1, at the conclusion of 2010, because Option 2 immobilized all three waste streams with only a minimal decrease in waste loading. During the first year, a series of three glass (Option 2) were fabricated that varied waste loading-WL (42, 45, and 50 mass%) at fixed molar ratios of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali both at 1.75. These glass-ceramics were slow cooled and characterized in terms of phase assemblage and preliminary irradiation stability. This fiscal year, further characterization was performed on the FY 2010 Option 2 glass-ceramics in terms of: static leach testing, phase analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and irradiation stability (electron and ion). Also, a new series of glass-ceramics were developed for Option 2 that varied the additives: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-6 mass%), molar ratio of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali (1.75 to 2.25) and waste loading (50, 55, and 60 mass%). Lastly, phase pure powellite and oxyapatite were synthesized for irradiation studies. Results of this fiscal year studies showed compositional flexibility, chemical stability, and radiation stability in the current glass-ceramic system. First, the phase assemblages and microstructure of all of the FY 2010 and 2011 glass-ceramics are very similar once subjected to the slow cool heat treatment. The phases identified in these glass-ceramics were oxyapatite, powellite, cerianite, and ln-borosilicate. This shows that variations in waste loading or additives can be accommodated without drastically changing the phase assemblage of the waste form, thus making the processing and performance characteristics of the waste form more predictable/flexible. However, in the future, the glass phase still needs to be accurately characterized to determine the effects of waste loading and additives on the glass structure. Initial investigations show a borosilicate glass phase rich in silica. Second, the normalized concentrations of elements leached from the waste form during static leach testing were all below 0.6 g/L after 28d at 90 C, by the Product Consistency Test (PCT), method B. These normalized concentrations are on par with durable waste glasses such as the Low-Activity Reference Material (LRM) glass. The release rates for the crystalline phases (oxyapatite and powellite) appear to be lower (more durable) than the glass phase based on the relatively low release rates of Mo, Ca, and Ln found in the crystalline phases compared to Na and B that are mainly observed in the glass phase. However, further static leach testing on individual crystalline phases is needed to confirm this statement. Third, Ion irradiation and In situ TEM observations suggest that these crystalline phases (such as oxyapatite, ln-borosilicate, and powellite) in silicate based glass ceramic waste forms exhibit stability to 1000 years at anticipated doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy). This is adequate for the short lived isotopes in the waste, which lead to a maximum cumulative dose of {approx}7 x 10{sup 9} Gy, reached after {approx}100 yrs, beyond which the dose contributions are negligible. The cumulate dose calculations are based on a glass-ceramic at WL = 50 mass%, where the fuel has a burn-up of 51GWd/MTIHM, immobilized after 5 yr decay from reactor discharge.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.; Turo, Laura A.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

156

Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and Testing for DWPF High AI2O3 HLW Sludges, VSL-10R1670-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/20/10  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to develop and identify glass frit compositions for a specified DWPF high-aluminum based sludge waste stream that maximizes waste loading while maintaining high production rate for the waste composition provided by ORP/SRS. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale, vertical gradient furnace, and confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system. The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests. The DM100-BL was used for previous tests on HLW glass compositions that were used to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter. It was also used to process compositions with waste loadings limited by aluminum, bismuth, and chromium, to investigate the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition, to process glass formulations at compositional and property extremes, and to investigate crystal settling on a composition that exhibited one percent crystals at 963{degrees}C (i.e., close to the WTP limit). The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. The tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Specific objectives for the melter tests are as follows: Determine maximum glass production rates without bubbling for a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 19 (SB19). Demonstrate a feed rate equivalent to 1125 kg/m{sup 2}/day glass production using melt pool bubbling. Process a high waste loading glass composition with the simulated SRS SB19 waste and measure the quality of the glass product. Determine the effect of argon as a bubbling gas on waste processing and the glass product including feed processing rate, glass redox, melter emissions, etc.. Determine differences in feed processing and glass characteristics for SRS SB19 waste simulated by the co-precipitated and direct-hydroxide methods. The above tests were proposed based on previous tests for WTP in which there were few differences in the melter processing characteristics, such as processing rate and melter emissions, between precipitated and direct hydroxide simulants, even though there were differences in rheological properties. To the extent this similarity is found also for simulants for SRS HLW, the direct hydroxide methods may offer the potential for faster, simpler, and cheaper simulant production. There was no plan to match the yield stress and particle size of the direct hydroxide simulant to that of the precipitated simulant because that would have increased the preparation cost and complexity and defeated the purpose of the tests. These objectives were addressed by first developing a series of glass frits and then conducting a crucible scale study to determine the waste loading achievable for the waste composition and to select the preferred frit. Waste loadings were increased until the limits of a glass property were exceeded experimentally. Glass properties for evaluation included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity (including liquidus temperature and nepheline formation after canister centerline cooling (CCC) heat-treatment), gross glass phase separation, and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (PCT, ASTM-1285) response. Glass property limits were based upon the constraints used for DWPF process control.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

157

Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste stream options in terms of waste loading and/or decay time required before treatment. For Option 1, glass ceramics show an increase in waste loading of 15 mass % and reduction in decay time of 24 years. Decay times of {approx}50 years or longer are close to the expected age of the fuel that will be reprocessed when the modified open or closed fuel cycle is expected to be put into action. Option 2 shows a 2x to 2.5x increase in waste loading with decay times of only 45 years. Note that for Option 2 glass, the required decay time before treatment is only 35 years because of the waste loading limits related to the solubility of MoO{sub 3} in glass. If glass was evaluated for similar waste loadings as those achieved in Option 2 glass ceramics, the decay time would be significantly longer than 45 years. These glass ceramics are not optimized, but already they show the potential to dramatically reduce the amount of waste generated while still utilizing the proven processing technology used for glass production.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect

For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes (SBW). About 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as an immobilization step for SBW with a number of treatment and disposal options. A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate direct vitrification of INEEL's SBW. The objectives of this study were to show the feasibility of SBW vitrification, not a development of an optimum formulation. The waste composition is relatively high in sodium, aluminum, and sulfur. A specific composition and glass property restrictions, discussed in Section 2, were used as a basis for the development. Calculations based on first-order expansions of selected glass properties in composition and some general tenets of glass chemistry led to an additive (fit) composition (68.69 mass % SiO{sub 2}, 14.26 mass% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.31 mass% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3.08 mass% TiO{sub 2}, and 2.67 mass % Li{sub 2}O) that meets all property restrictions when melted with 35 mass % of SBW on an oxide basis, The glass was prepared using oxides, carbonates, and boric acid and tested to confirm the acceptability of its properties. Glass was then made using waste simulant at three facilities, and limited testing was performed to test and optimize processing-related properties and confirm results of glass property testing. The measured glass properties are given in Section 4. The viscosity at 1150 C, 5 Pa{center_dot}s, is nearly ideal for waste-glass processing in a standard liquid-fed joule-heated melter. The normalized elemental releases by 7-day PCT are all well below 1 g/m{sup 2}, which is a very conservative set point used in this study. The T{sub L}, ignoring sulfate formation, is less than the 1050 C limit. Based on these observations and the reasonable waste loading of 35 mass 0/0, the SBW glass was a prime candidate for further testing. Sulfate salt segregation was observed in all test melts formed from oxidized carbonate precursors. Melts fabricated using SBW simulants suggest that the sulfate-salt segregation seen in oxide and carbonate melts was much less of a problem. The cause for the difference is likely H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} fuming during the boil-down stage of wet-slurry processing. Additionally, some crucible tests with SBW simulant were conducted at higher temperatures (1250 C), which could increase the volatility of sulfate salts. The fate of sulfate during the melting process is still uncertain and should be the topic of future studies. The properties of the simulant glass confirmed those of the oxide and carbonate glass. Corrosion tests on Inconel 690 electrodes and K-3 refractory blocks conducted at INEEL suggest that the glass is not excessively corrosive. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend that a glass made of 35% SBW simulant (on a mass oxide and halide basis) and 65% of the additive mix (either filled or raw chemical) be used in demonstrating the direct vitrification of INEEL SBW. It is further recommended that a study be conducted to determine the fate of sulfate during glass processing and the tolerance of the chosen melter technology to sulfate salt segregation and corrosivity of the melt.

J.D. Vienna; M.J. Schweiger; D.E. Smith; H.D. Smith; J.V. Crum; D.K. Peeler; I.A. Reamer; C.A. Musick; R.D. Tillotson

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSHILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. Acid stripping of leach vessels was performed to determine the concentration of the glass constituents that may have sorbed on the vessels during leach testing. Additionally, the leachate solutions were ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation. Characterization of the quenched Pu Frit X glass prior to testing revealed that some crystalline plutonium oxide was present in the glass. The crystalline particles had a disklike morphology and likely formed via coarsening of particles in areas compositionally enriched in plutonium. Similar results had also been observed in previous Pu Frit B studies. Isothermal 1250 C heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses showed two different crystalline phases (PuO{sub 2} and Nd{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}), as well as a peak shift in the XRD spectra that is likely due to a solid solution phase PuO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} formation. Micrographs of this glass showed a clustering of some of the crystalline phases. Pu Frit X glass subjected to the can-in-canister heating profile also displayed the two PuO{sub 2} and Nd{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases from XRD analysis. Additional micrographs indicate crystalline phases in this glass were of varying forms (a spherical PuO{sub 2} phase that appeared to range in size from submicron to {approx}5 micron, a dendritic-type phase that was comprised of mixed lanthanides and plutonium, and a minor phase that contained Pu and Hf), and clustering of the phases was also observed.

Marra, J

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

160

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE I STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these components. In addition, recently studied HLW glasses with relatively high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions of 25 wt % or greater and nepheline discriminator values well below 0.62 have been shown to be free of nepheline crystallization upon quenching and slow cooling. Thus, the current nepheline discriminator equation also appears to be conservative for some HLW glass compositions. Refining the nepheline discriminator to include other important components and to reduce conservatism may provide access to high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration glass compositions for the DWPF, which could in turn allow access to higher waste loadings, decreased washing and improved waste throughput. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a series of HLW glass compositions based on a projected composition of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), the next sludge batch to be processed in the DWPF. The selected glass compositions all had nepheline discriminator values below the current limit of 0.62. They cover a range of locations on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diagram. They also include varying amounts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO to support an evaluation of the impact of these components on the propensity for nepheline crystallization. The results described in this report confirm that some conservatism exists in the current nepheline discriminator. Several glass compositions, particularly compositions that target higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations, were shown to be very durable (i.e., PCT responses that were more than an order of magnitude better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass) while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62. Increased concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increased concentrations of CaO were shown to improve durability responses and suppress the formation of nepheline. This provides incentive to revise the nepheline discriminator to reduce some of this conservatism and incorporate the influence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The revised nepheline discriminator could potentially change from a constant line on

Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

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161

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE I STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these components. In addition, recently studied HLW glasses with relatively high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions of 25 wt % or greater and nepheline discriminator values well below 0.62 have been shown to be free of nepheline crystallization upon quenching and slow cooling. Thus, the current nepheline discriminator equation also appears to be conservative for some HLW glass compositions. Refining the nepheline discriminator to include other important components and to reduce conservatism may provide access to high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration glass compositions for the DWPF, which could in turn allow access to higher waste loadings, decreased washing and improved waste throughput. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a series of HLW glass compositions based on a projected composition of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), the next sludge batch to be processed in the DWPF. The selected glass compositions all had nepheline discriminator values below the current limit of 0.62. They cover a range of locations on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diagram. They also include varying amounts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO to support an evaluation of the impact of these components on the propensity for nepheline crystallization. The results described in this report confirm that some conservatism exists in the current nepheline discriminator. Several glass compositions, particularly compositions that target higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations, were shown to be very durable (i.e., PCT responses that were more than an order of magnitude better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass) while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62. Increased concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increased concentrations of CaO were shown to improve durability responses and suppress the formation of nepheline. This provides incentive to revise the nepheline discriminator to reduce some of this conservatism and incorporate the influence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The revised nepheline discriminator could potentially change from a constant line on

Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

162

INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted following an analytical plan. A review of the individual oxides for each glass revealed that there were no errors in batching significant enough to impact the outcome of the study. A comparison of the measured compositions of the replicates indicated an acceptable degree of repeatability as the percent differences for most of the oxides were less than 5% and percent differences for all of the oxides were less than 10 wt%. Chemical durability was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All but two of the study glasses had normalized leachate for boron (NL [B]) values that were well below that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass. The two highest NL [B] values were for the CCC versions of glasses US-18 and US-27 (10.498 g/L and 15.962 g/L, respectively). Nepheline crystallization was identified by qualitative XRD in five of the US-series glasses. Each of these five glasses (US-18, US-26, US-27, US-37 and US-43) showed a significant increase in NL [B] values after the CCC heat treatment. This reduction in durability can be attributed to the formation of nepheline during the slow cooling cycle and the removal of glass formers from the residual glass network. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of each glass in the study was determined by both optical microscopy and XRD methods. The correlation coefficient of the measured XRD TL data versus the measured optical TL data was very good (R{sup 2} = 0.9469). Aside from a few outliers, the two datasets aligned very well across the entire temperature range (829 C to 1312 C for optical data and 813 C to 1310 C for XRD crystal fraction data). The data also correlated well with the predictions of a PNNL T{sub L} model. The correlation between the measured and calculated data had a higher degree of merit for the XRD crystal fraction data than for the optical data (higher R{sup 2} value of 0.9089 versus 0.8970 for the optical data). The SEM-EDS analysis of select samples revealed the presence of undissolved RuO{sub 2} in all glasses due to the low solubility of RuO{sub 2} in borosilicate glass. These

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z