National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mmcf mbbl powder

  1. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  2. ,"Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  3. ,"Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  4. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  5. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  6. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  7. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  8. ,"Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  9. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  10. ,"Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  11. ,"Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  12. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  13. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  14. ,"Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  15. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  16. ,"Alaska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska...

  17. ,"California Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  18. ,"Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  19. ,"Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  20. ,"Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  1. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  2. ,"Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  3. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  4. ,"Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  5. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  6. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  7. ,"Alaska Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  8. ,"Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  9. ,"Texas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  10. ,"Colorado Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  11. ,"Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  12. ,"Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  13. ,"Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  14. ,"Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  15. ,"California Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  16. ,"Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  17. ,"Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  18. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  19. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  20. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  1. ,"Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  2. ,"Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  3. ,"Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  4. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  5. ,"Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  6. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  7. ,"Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  8. ,"Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  9. ,"Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  10. ,"Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015"...

  11. ,"Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  12. ,"Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  13. ,"Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  14. ,"Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  15. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  16. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  17. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  18. ,"California Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  19. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  20. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  1. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  2. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  3. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  4. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  5. ,"Texas Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  6. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  7. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  8. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  9. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  10. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  11. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  12. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  13. ,"Montana Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  14. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  15. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  16. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  17. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  18. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  19. ,"Utah Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  20. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  1. ,"Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  2. ,"Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  3. ,"Texas Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9...

  4. ,"Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  5. ,"Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  6. Energetic powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  7. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  8. Powder dispersion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorenz, Heather M. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A powder dispersion method and apparatus comprising an air eductor and a powder dispensing syringe inserted into a suction connection of the air eductor.

  9. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  10. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  11. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Jersey Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  12. ,"New York Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  13. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  14. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  15. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  16. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  17. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  18. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  19. ,"New York Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  20. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  1. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  2. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  3. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota...

  4. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Jersey Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  5. ,"Alamo, TX Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Mexico (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alamo, TX Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Mexico (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data...

  6. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  7. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  8. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  9. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release...

  10. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9...

  11. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  12. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  13. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  14. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","930...

  15. ,"Detroit, MI Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Detroit, MI Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  16. Precision powder feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  17. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  18. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  19. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartzel, Lawrence W. (Dayton, OH); Kettling, George E. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  20. Powder River Pass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    as round wires are presented and discussed. Processes were developed to increase flux pinning in Nb3Sn by utilizing powder metallurgy techniques to introduce a heterogeneously homogenous distribution of nanoscale inclusions of candidate materials in Nb rod...

  1. Investigation of Soap Powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg, G.A.

    1913-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Investigation of Soap Powders 1913 by G. A. Bragg This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center for Digital... Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the School of Engineering of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science INVESTIGATION OF SOAP POWDERS. by G. A* Bragg. Presented...

  2. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  3. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  4. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  5. Method to blend separator powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  6. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  7. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  8. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  9. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  10. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  11. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  12. SSRL Powder Diffraction Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV6 Commercial8th Annual1-4

  13. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  14. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  15. Tungsten Powder Jet Update Ottone Caretta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    alternative tecnologies (solid & flowing powder targets) Must achieve cost estimate of target system so

  16. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  17. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94551 (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  18. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)"Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet

  19. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)"VolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click

  20. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click

  1. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab atVolume (MMcf)"

  2. ,"Montana Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name orVolume (MMcf)"

  3. ,"Mountain Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name orVolume (MMcf)"Natural

  4. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)"

  5. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)"

  6. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)"Volume

  7. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name

  8. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)"Monthly","10/2015"

  9. ,"Montana Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or

  10. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click

  11. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)"Monthly","10/2015"

  12. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"ClickMonthly","10/2015"

  13. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)"

  14. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-04-09

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

  15. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  16. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  17. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  18. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Titanium Powder for Feedstock Principal Investigator: Curt Lavender Presenter: Mark T. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory OVT 2008 DOE Peer Review February 28, 2008 This...

  19. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption ofNaturalVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click

  20. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. TotalVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at

  1. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom

  2. ,"California Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name

  3. ,"California Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet nameVolume

  4. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)" ,"ClickMonthly","10/2015"

  5. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at

  6. ,"Iowa Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name

  7. ,"Iowa Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet nameVolume

  8. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data"

  9. ,"Lower 48 States Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for

  10. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name orMonthly","10/2015"

  11. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"ClickMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release

  12. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"ClickMonthly","10/2015"

  13. ,"Midwest Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"ClickMonthly","10/2015"Natural Gas

  14. ,"Midwest Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"ClickMonthly","10/2015"Natural

  15. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data"

  16. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at

  17. ,"Mountain Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name orVolume

  18. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheetMonthly","10/2015"

  19. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release

  20. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click

  1. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet

  2. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume (MMcf)"Monthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"

  3. ,"South Central Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeMonthly","10/2015"Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

  4. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Base Gas (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015"Monthly","10/2015" - Base Gas (MMcf)"

  5. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015"Monthly","10/2015" - Base Gas (MMcf)"Working Gas

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Volume (MMcf)"

  7. ,"Utah Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Prime Supplier Sales VolumesPrices byUpcoming U.S.Volume (MMcf)"

  8. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Prime Supplier SalesVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or

  9. ,"Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Prime Supplier SalesVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click

  10. ,"Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Prime Supplier SalesVolume (MMcf)" ,"ClickVolume

  11. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Prime Supplier SalesVolume (MMcf)"

  12. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -LiquidsAnnual",2014LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

  13. ,"California Natural Gas LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet

  14. ,"California Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"Annual",2014

  15. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  16. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by...

  17. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive...

  18. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.

    1999-08-10

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.

  19. Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernenkil, Lakshman

    2008-01-01

    Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

  20. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  1. Powder Diffraction Crystallography Instructional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlinesPotential partnerships andSoftware

  2. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  3. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-10-21

    A strengthened, biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed, compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: Ni, Ag, Ag--Cu, Ag--Pd, Ni--Cu, Ni--V, Ni--Mo, Ni--Al, Ni--Cr--Al, Ni--W--Al, Ni--V--Al, Ni--Mo--Al, Ni--Cu--Al; and at least one fine metal oxide powder; the article having a grain size which is fine and homogeneous; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  6. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-04-24

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

  7. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

  8. AN INVESTIGATION OF A THERMOPLASTIC-POWDER METALLURGY PROCESS FOR THE FABRICATION OF POROUS NIOBIUM RODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordin, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF A THERMOPLASTIC- POWDER METALLURGY PROCESSINVESTIGATION OF A THERMOPLASTIC- POWDER METALLURGY PROCESSThe feasibility of using a thermoplastic-powder metallurgy

  9. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25,...

  10. Consolidation of aluminum 6061 powder by equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, John Montgomery

    1997-01-01

    Equal channel angular extrusion is a promising approach to obtaining full density in powder metallurgy applications. This method can impose large effective deformations through uniform shear strain. Aluminum alloy 6061 powder is used as a test...

  11. SIS a new SFF method based on powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asiabanpour, Bahram - Department of Engineering and Technology, Texas State University

    . This approach, used by SLS and 3D printing, is able to create thin and uniformly dense powder layers. Other

  12. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  13. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  15. Ignition of THKP and TKP pyrotechnic powders :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Erikson, William W; Highley, Aaron M.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    We have conducted Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) experiments on igniter/actuator pyrotechnic powders to characterize the reactive processes controlling the ignition and combustion behavior of these materials. The experiments showed a complex, interactive reaction manifold involving over ten reaction pathways. A reduced dimensionality reaction manifold was developed from the detailed 10-step manifold and is being incorporated into existing predictive modeling codes to simulate the performance of pyrotechnic powders for NW component development. The results from development of the detailed reaction manifold and reduced manifold are presented. The reduced reaction manifold has been successfully used by SNL/NM modelers to predict thermal ignition events in small-scale testing, validating our approach and improving the capability of predictive models.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  18. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  19. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  20. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Miquel, P.F.

    1997-07-22

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity. 24 figs.

  1. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Miquel, Philippe F. (Towson, MD)

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

  2. Full body powder antichip. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-17

    Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

  3. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 – 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  4. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  5. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015"Monthly","10/2015" - Base Gas (MMcf)"Working

  6. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  7. Scalable synthesis of nanoporous palladium powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Tran, Kim L.; Clift, W. Miles; Arslan Ilke; Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Ong, Markus D.; Fares, Stephen James

    2009-03-01

    Nanoporous palladium powders are synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrachloro complexes by ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20 and 30 C. Particle diameters are approximately 50 nm, and each particle is perforated by 3 nm pores, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for storage of hydrogen isotopes and electrical charge; producing them at large scales in a safe and efficient manner will help realize this. A slightly modified procedure also results in nanoporous platinum.

  8. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  9. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  10. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P. (Downers Grove, IL); Olszanski, Theodore W. (Justice, IL); Boquist, Carl W. (Chicago, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  11. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  12. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana (fig. PQ-1) is considered to be "clean coal." For the location

  13. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  14. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  15. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  16. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  17. Powder, Pomp, Power: Toward a Typology and Genealogy of Effeminacies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennen, Peter

    2001-04-01

    ~ , ------------------------- ~: .,:.• ,: •.•..~ .I'~.- POWDER, POMP, POWER: TOWARD A TYPOLOGY AND GENEALOGY OF EFFEMINACIES PETER HENNEN University ofMinnesota Ananalysisofsomeofthevaryinghistoricalandcross-cultural meaningsof effeminacyandtheirrelatianshiptohegemonicmasculinitypnnndeaunique...

  18. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  19. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  20. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N of the present work was to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of powder cylinder is thermally anchored to the coldhead of a single stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler, while

  1. Thermite powder ignition by localized microwaves Yehuda Meir, Eli Jerby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    Thermite powder ignition by localized microwaves Yehuda Meir, Eli Jerby Faculty of Engineering Keywords: Thermite Microwave heating Hotspots Thermal runaway Ignition a b s t r a c t This paper presents a new method to ignite pure thermite powder by low-power microwaves ($100 W). In this method

  2. Sinterable powders from laser driven reactions : final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, John Scarseth

    1981-01-01

    Extremely fine, uniform ceramic powders have been synthesized from Sil4 NH3 and C2H4 gas phase reactants that are heated by absorbing optical energy emitted from a C02 laser. Resulting Si, Si3N4 and SiC powders have been ...

  3. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    beam melting In this study, powder bed based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that...

  4. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U. (Ames, IA); McAvoy, Jon M. (Moline, IL); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Mi, Jia (Pittsburgh, PA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA)

    2003-03-18

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  5. Analysis of powder compaction process through equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaushik, Anshul

    2009-05-15

    A thermodynamic framework was presented for the development of powderconstitutive models. The process of powder compaction through Equal ChannelAngular Extrusion (ECAE) at room temperature was modeled using the finiteelement ...

  6. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  7. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wilkinson, A.P. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials

    1993-05-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f` for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high {Tc} superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, FeNi{sub 2}BO{sub 5}), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}, Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, GaCl{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}PO{sub 5}), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub l2}).

  8. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Wilkinson, A.P. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials)

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high [Tc] superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 3], FeNi[sub 2]BO[sub 5]), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6+x], Eu[sub 3]O[sub 4], GaCl[sub 2], Fe[sub 2]PO[sub 5]), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y[sub 3]Ga[sub 5]O[sub l2]).

  9. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  10. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  11. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  12. Powder Dropper | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlinesPotential partnerships

  13. Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinal designUltrafast Transformations inmixture ofHydrogen

  14. In vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of Mg/Ca composites produced by powder metallurgy q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of Mg/Ca composites produced by powder metallurgy q Y Biodegradation Cytotoxicity Powder metallurgy a b s t r a c t Mg/Ca (1 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.% Ca) composites were prepared from pure magnesium and calcium powders using the powder metallurgy method, aiming to enlarge

  15. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maginnis, Michael A. (Coker, AL); Robinson, David A. (Mobile, AL)

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  16. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amber Lynn Genau

    2004-12-19

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  17. AVLIS modified direct denitration: UO{sub 3} powder evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagle, O.D.; Davis, N.C.; Parchen, L.J.

    1994-02-01

    The evaluation study demonstrated that AVLIS-enriched uranium converted to UO{sub 3} can be used to prepare UO{sub 3} pellets having densities in the range required for commercial power reactor fuel. Specifically, the program has demonstrated that MDD (Modified Direct Denitration)-derived UO{sub 2} powders can be reduced to sinterable UO{sub 2} powder using reduction techniques that allow control of the final powder characteristics; the resulting UO{sub 2} powders can be processed/sintered using standard powder preparation and pellet fabrication techniques to yield pellets with densities greater than 96% TD; pellet microstructures appear similar to those of power reactor fuel, and because of the high final pellet densities, it is expected that they would remain stable during in-reactor operation; the results of the present study confirm the results of a similar study carried out in 1982 (Davis and Griffin 1992). The laboratory processes were selected on the basis that they could be scaled up to standard commercial fuel processing. However, larger scale testing may be required to establish techniques compatible with commercial fuel fabrication techniques.

  18. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  19. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Brownsboro, AL); Antony, Leo V. M. (Huntsville, AL); O'Dell, Scott (Arab, AL); Power, Chris (Guntersville, AL); Tabor, Terry (Huntsville, AL)

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  20. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

  1. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, S.; Graff, G.L.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering. 2 figs.

  2. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-07-15

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

  3. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viecelli, James A. (Orinda, CA); Wood, Lowell L. (Simi Valley, CA); Ishikawa, Muriel Y. (Livermore, CA); Nuckolls, John H. (Danville, CA); Pagoria, Phillip F. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  4. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  5. Consolidation of zirconium-based metallic glass powder by equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Jonathan Mark

    2002-01-01

    In this study, amorphous Zr??.?Nb?.?Cu??.?Ni??.?Al??.? (Vitreloy 106a) gas-atomized powder was consolidated by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). Several copper cans were filled with the powder, vacuum encapsulated ...

  6. Electrically insulating phosphate coatings for iron powder based electromagnetic core applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, William Rane

    2009-01-01

    Powdered metals, such as iron, are a common building block for electromagnetic cores. An iron powder was reacted with phosphoric acid to create a layer of iron phosphate on each particle. This electrically insulating ...

  7. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, James A. (Corrales, NM); Sipola, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications.

  8. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  9. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN explosive powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Dong; Sun Zhumei

    1996-05-01

    The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN (pentaerythrite tetranitrate) explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrum-detecting and recovery technique. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized PETN explosive powders are 44 {micro}m and 33%, respectively.

  10. Numerical simulations of dense clouds on steep slopes: Application to powder-snow avalanches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saramito, Pierre

    Numerical simulations of dense clouds on steep slopes: Application to powder-snow avalanches results. The interest of the results for powder- snow avalanches is discussed, concluding that two. Introduction A powder-snow avalanche is a dense cloud of suspended snow particles moving down a steep slope

  11. Fluidised powder t t t h las a new target technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Fluidised powder t t t h las a new target technology: The new rig is ready for take off!The new rig EUROnu-IDS meeting 2009 CERN March 2009 #12;Is there a `missing link' target technology? Increasing power Fluidised powder has some of the advantages of both solids and liquids #12;The powder loop #12;The new rig

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of the curing of powder coating films based on their tan()

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultrasonic characterization of the curing of powder coating films based on their tan() R. S. Pai was to establish a relationship between the mechanical properties of a powder coating, extracted using ultrasonic investigating powder coating films by employing transmission mode ultrasound to extract the dimen- sionless

  13. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  14. The oxidation-reduction kinetics of palladium powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munir, Z.A.; Coombs, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cyclic oxidation-reduction of submicrometer sized palladium powder was investigated over the temperature range 848 to 923 K. The total oxygen uptake decreased with increasing number of cycles as a consequence of sintering. Sintering was restricted to the reduction steps in these cycles. The relationships for the rate constants of the oxidation and reduction processes are, respectively, (1.04)10/sup 6/ exp(-(74.1)10/sup 3//RT), and (7.63)10/sup 12/ exp(-(207.9)10/sup 3//RT). The activation energies for the oxidation of palladium powder and the reduction of palladium oxide are 74.1 and 207.9 kJ mol/sup -1/, respectively.

  15. Integration algorithms of elastoplasticity for ceramic powder compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Penasa; A. Piccolroaz; L. Argani; D. Bigoni

    2014-04-24

    Inelastic deformation of ceramic powders (and of a broad class of rock-like and granular materials), can be described with the yield function proposed by Bigoni and Piccolroaz (2004, Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials. Int. J. Solids and Structures, 41, 2855-2878). This yield function is not defined outside the yield locus, so that 'gradient-based' integration algorithms of elastoplasticity cannot be directly employed. Therefore, we propose two ad hoc algorithms: (i.) an explicit integration scheme based on a forward Euler technique with a 'centre-of-mass' return correction and (ii.) an implicit integration scheme based on a 'cutoff-substepping' return algorithm. Iso-error maps and comparisons of the results provided by the two algorithms with two exact solutions (the compaction of a ceramic powder against a rigid spherical cup and the expansion of a thick spherical shell made up of a green body), show that both the proposed algorithms perform correctly and accurately.

  16. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  17. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J. (Kennewick, WA); Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Bontha, Jagannadha R. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  18. Standard specification for nuclear-grade zirconium oxide powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for zirconium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes, either entirely or partially of zirconia, for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  19. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  20. Titanium Sheet Fabricated from Powder for Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, William H; Muth, Thomas R; Chen, Wei; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Jolly, Brian C; Stone, Nigel; Cantin, G.M.D.; Barnes, John; Paliwal, Muktesh; Smith, Ryan; Capone, Joseph; Liby, Alan L; Williams, James C; Blue, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with Ametek and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory has evaluated three different methods for converting titanium hydride-dehydride (HDH) powder into thin gauge titanium sheet from a roll compacted preform. Methodologies include sintering, followed by cold rolling and annealing; direct hot rolling of the roll-compacted sheet; and hot rolling of multiple layers of roll compacted sheet that are encapsulated in a steel can. All three methods have demonstrated fully consolidated sheet, and each process route has the ability to produce sheet that meets ASTM B265 specifications. However, not every method currently provides sheet that can be highly formed without tearing. The degree of sintering between powder particles, post processing density, and the particle to particle boundary layer where compositional variations may exist, have a significant effect on the ability to form the sheet into useful components. Uniaxial tensile test results, compositional analysis, bend testing, and biaxial testing of the titanium sheet produced from hydride-dehydride powder will be discussed. Multiple methods of fabrication and the resulting properties can then be assessed to determine the most economical means of making components for industrial applications.

  1. Thermal analysis of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and development of a powder aging model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Sandstrom, Mary M; Giambra, Anna M; Archuleta, Jose G; Monroe, Deirde C

    2009-01-01

    We have applied a range of different physical and thermal analysis techniques to characterize the thermal evolution of the specific surface area of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders. Using atomic force microscopy we have determined that the mass transfer mechanism leading to powder coarsening is probably sublimation and redeposition of PETN. Using thermogravimetric analysis we have measured vapor pressures of PETN powders whose aging will be simulated in future work. For one specific powder we have constructed an empirical model of the coarsening that is fit to specific surface area measurements at 60 C to 70 C to provide predictive capability of that powder's aging. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectroscopy measurements highlight some of the thermal behavior of the powders and suggest that homologue-based eutectics and impurities are localized in the powder particles.

  2. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  3. Characterization of Hafnia Powder Prepared from an Oxychloride Sol Gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGilvery, Catriona M. [Imperial College, London; De Gendt, S [Imperial College, London; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; MacKenzie, M [Imperial College, London; Craven, A J [Imperial College, London; McComb, D W [Imperial College, London

    2011-01-01

    Hafnium containing compounds are of great importance to the semiconductor industry as a replacement for Si(O,N) with a high- gate dielectric. Whilst Hf is already being incorporated into working devices1, much is still to be understood about it. Here we investigate the crystallisation processes and chemistry of bulk HfO2 powders which will aid in interpretation of reactions and crystallisation events occurring in thin films used as gate dielectrics. Amorphous HfO2 powder was prepared via a sol-gel route using hafnium oxychloride (HfOCl2 xH2O) as a precursor. The powders were subjected to various heat treatments and analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis techniques. It was found that a large change in the crystallisation pathway occurred when the sample was heated in an inert environment compared with in air. Instead of the expected monoclinic phase (m-HfO2), tetragonal HfO2 (t-HfO2) also formed under these conditions and was observed up to temperatures of ~760 C. The t-HfO2 particles, which are less than 30nm in size, eventually transform into m-HfO2 on further heating. Possible mechanisms for the crystallisation of t-HfO2 are discussed. It is proposed that within this temperature range t-HfO2 is stabilised due to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the inert environment, forming by the reduction of HfIV to HfIII. As the crystal grows in size as the temperature increases there are too few oxygen vacancies left in the structure to continue stabilising the t-HfO2 phase and so transformation to m-HfO2 occurs.

  4. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

    1998-03-24

    A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

  5. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-15

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  6. Complex microwave conductivity of Na-DNA powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kitano; K. Ota; A. Maeda

    2006-08-01

    We report the complex microwave conductivity, $\\sigma=\\sigma_1-i\\sigma_2$, of Na-DNA powders, which was measured from 80 K to 300 K by using a microwave cavity perturbation technique. We found that the magnitude of $\\sigma_1$ near room temperature was much larger than the contribution of the surrounding water molecules, and that the decrease of $\\sigma_1$ with decreasing temperature was sufficiently stronger than that of the conduction of counterions. These results clearly suggest that the electrical conduction of Na-DNA is intrinsically semiconductive.

  7. Powder segregation during the filling of a simple die 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Larry Raymond

    1968-01-01

    of Shape Upon Segregation 14 Effect of Funnel Orifice Diameter and Die Diameter Upon Segregation 17 Flow Times of Atomized CuPbSn Powder With and Without Oil 27 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page. la Double Y hand-mixer lb Vertical Sampling Device, Zones A...~35 Mesh Lead System. QX vs Z Fines for Four Levels of Oil Content 26 The Effect of Oil Addition Upon Filtration of 325 Mesh CuPbSn Particles Through a 170 Mesh CuPbSn Matrix During Sieving, Z Filtering Per Second vs Time of Sieving in Seconds. A...

  8. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B. (Fremont, CA); Fares, Stephen J. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Kim L. (Livermore, CA); Langham, Mary E. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-04-17

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  9. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B; Fares, Stephen J; Tran, Kim L; Langham, Mary E

    2014-04-15

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  10. Powder River Energy Corporation (Montana) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC JumpPhono SolarPlexusJumpPowder River Energy

  11. Powder River Energy Corporation Smart Grid Project | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC JumpPhono SolarPlexusJumpPowder River

  12. Developments in Die Pressing Strategies for Low-Cost Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Weil, K. Scott; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrument was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.

  13. Strain and particle size of palladium powders by time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, A.C.; Conant, J.W.; Talcott, C.L.; David, M.A.; Vaninetti, J.; Goldstone, J.A.; Williams, A.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Roof, R.B.; Hitterman, R.L.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Faber, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined the strain and particle size for several samples of palladium powder by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction on two different diffractometers and by x-ray powder diffraction. The results are compared and found to be in fair agreement. The time-of-flight method gives good enough precision to reveal deficiencies in the simple models used for strain and particle size line broadening. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Method of preparing a powdered, electrically insulative separator for use in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Tom O. (Naperville, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, is compacted as layers onto an electrode to form an integral electrode structure and assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to its operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  15. Oxidation kinetics of calcium-doped palladium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S.; Kodas, T.T.; Hampden-Smith, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The oxidation kinetics of submicron Ca-containing Pd powders produced by spray pyrolysis were studied in the temperature range 600 to 675 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation of pure Pd powder had an activation energy of {approximately}230 kJ/mol in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% and 65 kJ/mol for oxidation > 70%. The activation energies for Pd particles containing 0.01 weight percent (w/o) and 0.4 w/o Ca in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% were {approximately}230 kJ/mol and {approximately}50 kJ/mol, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy suggested that the conversion of Pd to Pd{sup II}O (stoichiometric PdO) proceeds from the particle surface into the interior and not homogeneously throughout the particle. The predictions of a variety of models and rate laws (shrinking core, parabolic, cubic, logarithmic, and inverse logarithmic) were compared with the data. The comparison suggested a mechanism in which oxidation of pure Pd proceeds by chemisorption and diffusion of oxygen to form a substoichiometric oxide, followed by the conversion of substoichiometric PdO to Pd{sup II}O. Oxidation of pure Pd is then probably limited by the diffusion of oxygen through the substoichiometric PdO and/or Pd{sup II}O. The addition of Ca increased the oxidation resistance of Pd most likely by inhibiting oxygen diffusion through the metal oxide layers surrounding the Pd.

  16. Double helix boron-10 powder thermal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.

    2015-06-02

    A double-helix Boron-10 powder detector having intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency comparable to 36'' long, 2-in diameter, 2-bar Helium-3 detectors, and which can be used to replace such detectors for use in portal monitoring, is described. An embodiment of the detector includes a metallic plate coated with Boron-10 powder for generating alpha and Lithium-7 particles responsive to neutrons impinging thereon supported by insulators affixed to at least two opposing edges; a grounded first wire wound in a helical manner around two opposing insulators; and a second wire having a smaller diameter than that of the first wire, wound in a helical manner around the same insulators and spaced apart from the first wire, the second wire being positively biased. A gas, disposed within a gas-tight container enclosing the plate, insulators and wires, and capable of stopping alpha and Lithium-7 particles and generating electrons produces a signal on the second wire which is detected and subsequently related to the number of neutrons impinging on the plate.

  17. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  18. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  19. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dusek, J.

    1994-10-18

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice. 3 figs.

  20. Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngai, Samuel S. H

    2005-01-01

    A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

  1. A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave of sensors and probes (see, e.g., [9]) is very limited here because of high (up to hundreds degrees Celsius the development of suitable means of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of powder samples under microwave 978

  2. Simulations of Tungsten Powder Experiment at HiRadMat CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    solid spheres · Interphase drag force ­ Gidaspow · Heat transfer between phases ­ Hughmark · Gravity - y for experiment 1. Is force propagation through the powder negligible? 2. How severe is beam induced gas expansion by aerodynamic force applied by the escaping gas · It was postulated that a threshold exists for powder eruption

  3. Sinterable ceramic powders from laser heated gas phase reactions and rapidly solidified ceramic materials : annual report.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, John Scarseth

    1984-01-01

    CO[subscript 2] lasers have been employed to heat reactant gases to synthesize Si, Si[subscript 3] N[subscript 4] and SiC powders. The powders are small, uniform in size, nonagglomerated, highly pure and of controlled ...

  4. A Semi-Empirical Model Relating Flow Properties to Particle Contacts in Fine Binary Powder Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kojima, Takehiro; Elliott, James A.

    2014-08-20

    . For the smaller component of the 12 binary mixtures, a polymer powder composed of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) 13 microspheres (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was used without pre-treatment process. 14 The cumulative size distributions of the powders obtained...

  5. About contacts of adhesive, elasto-plastic, frictional powders Stefan Luding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    About contacts of adhesive, elasto-plastic, frictional powders Stefan Luding Multi Scale Mechanics with peculiar pressure dependence, for adhesive powders ­ due to the nonlinear dependence of the contact adhesion on the confining forces. Introduction Granular materials have various applications, involving geo

  6. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1995-10-31

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications. 4 figs.

  7. Synthesis of multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia powders and their enhanced thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Fengmei; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Hongfei; Liu, Xinling; Tang, Xiaoping; Luo, Hongjie

    2013-06-01

    Multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal-calcination process. The morphology, crystallinity, and microstructure of the products were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, and BET. A possible formation mechanism of the unique structure formed during hydrothermal processing was also investigated. The measured thermophysical results indicated that the prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.63–1.27 W m?¹ K?¹), good short-term high-temperature stability up to 1300 °C. The influence of the morphology and microstructure on their thermophysical properties was briefly discussed. The unique multi-hierarchical structure makes the prepared YSZ powders candidates for use in enhanced applications involving thermal barrier coatings. - Graphical abstract: There are many tiny pores and grain boundaries in the multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders,which greatly decrease the thermal conductivities of the YSZ powders. - Highlights: • Multi-hierarchical structured YSZ powders were successfully prepared. • The prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.63–1.27 W m?¹ K?¹). • Improved high-temperature stability had been achieved for the prepared YSZ powders. • The influence of the morphology on their thermophysical properties was explored.

  8. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications.

  9. Two methods for characterizing the compaction and ejection behavior of metal powders in a die 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sajdak, Richard James

    1969-01-01

    Diagram Showing, in General, the Effect of the Amount of Lubricant Admixed to Metal Powders on the Change in Powder Flow, Compact Properties and Conditions for Ejection Oie Set Photograph of Die Set 14 15 Test Set Up Showing Die Set, B. L. E. SR-4...

  10. "Ceramics and high-temperature composites, silicides" Oxidation of Stainless Steel Powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    "Ceramics and high-temperature composites, silicides" CHTC9 Oxidation of Stainless Steel Powder. To understand the corrosion behavior of a model 304L(p)-ZrO2(s) composite, a 304L stainless steel powder has stainless steel particles. In this domain a mechanism is proposed and the kp value is calculated both due

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Synthesis of WO3 catalytic powders: evaluation of photocatalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Synthesis of WO3 catalytic powders: evaluation of photocatalytic activity under NUV New York 2015 Abstract WO3 catalytic powders were successfully syn- thesized from tungstic acid-temperature hydrothermal treatment. WO3 crystallization process was completed with calcina- tion of the samples at 500

  12. Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder Metallurgy Produced Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Chen, Wei [ORNL; Lim, Yong Chae [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    ORNL undertook an investigation using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate, to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal / minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders, are critical to achieve equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

  13. Application and modeling of near-infrared frequency domain photon migration for monitoring pharmaceutical powder blending operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Tianshu

    2006-10-30

    ) Monte Carlo simulation for tracking photon trajectories within the powder bed. The simulation of photon migration in powder blend revealed that while both the isotropic scattering and absorption coefficients increased with the solid-volume fraction...

  14. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  15. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  16. Frequency domain photon migration measurements: a method to size powders and detect active pharmaceutical ingredients in blending operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrance, Sharnay Etasha

    2004-01-01

    information in pharmaceutical powders. FDPM measurements were used to characterize a system of single component powders at various particle sizes. The results reveal a linear increase in the FDPM-measured scattering coefficient as the inverse mean particle...

  17. Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

  18. Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

  19. Metastable phases in mechanically alloyed aluminum germanium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yvon, P.J.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    Aluminum and germanium form a simple eutectic system with no stable intermetallic phase, and limited mutual solubility. We report the formation of a metastable rhombohedral,{gamma}{sub 1} phase by mechanically alloying aluminum and germanium powders. This phase, which appears for compositions between 20 and 50 at. % germanium, has also been observed in rapidly quenched alloys, but there is disagreement as to its composition. By measuring the heat of crystallization as a function of composition, we determined the composition of the {gamma}{sub 1} phase to be Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30}. We also produced Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30} by arc melting the pure elements, followed by splat-quenching at a cooling rate in the range of 10{sup 8} K s{sup {minus}1}. This method produced two metastable phases, one of which was found to be the {gamma}{sub 1} phase obtained by mechanical alloying. The other was a monoclinic phase reported earlier in the literature as {gamma}{sub 2}.

  20. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.

    1992-09-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO[sub 3], containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590 C to 950 C in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O[sub 2] to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m[sup 2]/g. 2 figs.

  1. Numerical simulation of plasma heating of a composite powder particle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demetriou, M.D.; Lavine, A.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1999-07-01

    The use of fine composite powder particles (composed of a ceramic core and a metallic coating) in plasma spraying processes is desirable in developing thin film coatings that possess high abrasion as well as high fracture resistance. Quantitative knowledge of the thermal behavior of a composite particle in a plasma beam is essential in optimizing the process variables to achieve uniform melting of the coating material. In this work, a numerical model is developed to analyze the in-flight thermal behavior of a spherically symmetric WC-Co composite particle travelling in an argon arc-jet DC plasma under strongly unsteady plasma conditions. The model gives quantitative as well as qualitative information about the thermal response of the heated particle. The important features that are addressed are the temperature response of the particle; the history of the location of the melting and vaporization fronts; and the physical state of the particle at the end of its flight. For the conditions investigated, it was determined that the internal conduction resistance is negligible as compared to the net external resistance. However, the presence of the ceramic base was found to affect the transient heating process since its content in the particle composition determines the time constant of the process. Another interesting observation is that proper selection of the particle injection speed and injection location can be effective means for optimizing the heating process and achieving uniform melting of the coating material.

  2. Transient liquid-phase infiltration of a powder-metal skeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Adam Michael, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Transient Liquid-Phase Infiltration (TLI) is a new method for densifying a powder-metal skeleton that produces a final part of homogeneous composition without significant dimensional change, unlike traditional infiltration ...

  3. Spraying Powder Materials by the High-Enthalpy Laminar Plasma Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khutsishvili, M.; Kikvadze, L.

    2008-03-19

    One of the most promising engineering solutions of the problem of spraying powder materials is the proposed method of plasma spraying by the laminar plasma jet. Laminar plasma flow is characterized by small jet angle divergence; the powder particles are penetrated and accelerated mainly in the axial direction. The molten powder particles are transported almost to the surface of a treated work-piece inside the laminar plasma flow in an atmosphere of the plasma-forming gas with the acceleration on the entire transfer area, which leads to an increase in the particles velocity, a decrease of their oxidability, an increase in the powder deposition efficiency, density, adhesion strength with the surface to be coated.

  4. Porous Carbon Powders Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Sara E. Skrabalak and Kenneth S. Suslick*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Porous Carbon Powders Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Sara E. Skrabalak and Kenneth S to the destruction of (relatively) expensive templates. Here, we use ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP)6, after pyrolysis, the

  5. Combustion of Bulk 84% Fe/16% KCIO{sub 4} heat powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissen, M.; Guidotti, R.A.; Berry, B.

    1996-05-01

    Fe/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnic mixtures are used in thermal batteries to provide the heat necessary to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures of 550 to 600 C. This heat source is normally used as discs pressed from bulk powder. To evaluate the consequences associated with unexpected ignition of large amounts of heat powder, combustion of 84% Fe/16% KClO{sub 4} heat powders was conducted for various scenarios under controlled conditions and the response documented. Increasing amounts of heat powder--up to 8 lbs--were ignited in both unconfined and confined (sealed) containers in a remote area. The containers were thermocoupled and the resulting burning filmed with a standard video camera, high-speed (1,000 frames/s) film and video cameras, and an infrared video camera. A 20- minute video of the burning under the various conditions is presented.

  6. Coating Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Powder - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene NetworkNuclearDNP 20082 P r o jJ.Coal to Liquids3ArgonneWind

  7. Ames Laboratory-developed titanium powder processing gains international

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalWith PropaneNaturalTest YourProgramAmes Laboratorycustomer

  8. Simplified Electrode Formation using Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 UnlimitedShift EndShutdownSolar(SLMP®) Doping of Lithium

  9. TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback SystemGimbaled X-Ray Head (JournalSciTech ConnectSciTech

  10. TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback SystemGimbaled X-Ray Head (JournalSciTech

  11. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonfor DirectSciTech Connect Wall-touching kink

  12. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonfor DirectSciTech Connect Wall-touching kink(Technical Report)

  13. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowa Natural Gas UndergroundIowa

  14. QER - Comment of Powder River Energy Corporation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWest KentuckyRestorationThatThese arePoindexter installs

  15. Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    and distribute high-efficiency, high yield, low cost solar panels. The company is making green energy more and selenium. CIGS was chosen because of its high cell efficiency, high energy yield, and now with Solar Powder-powder that is mixed with a secret Solar Powder solvent to allow for liquid application. Solar Powder solar panels can

  16. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for use in electron beam melting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Peter, William H.; Lowe, Larry E.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Medina, Francisco; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Kirka, Michael M.

    2015-10-20

    In this study, powder bed based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that result in cost savings. However, currently there are no standards to determine the factors that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel 718 powders are chemically stable over a large number of cycles and their reuse time is limited by physical characteristics of powders such as flowability. Ti-6Al-4V, on the other hand, finds its reusemore »time governed by the oxygen pick up that occurs during and in between build cycles. The detailed results have been presented.« less

  17. Zero discharge organic coatings, powder paint - UV curable paint - E-coat. Volume 1. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, J.; Martin, D.R.; Spadafora, S.J.; Eng, A.T.; Stark, H.

    1995-06-01

    Zero Discharge Organic Coatings project developed powder paint, Ultraviolet (UV) curable paint, and electro- coating (E-coat) paint for military Applications. These technologies offer potential for high performance coatings with little or no volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions or hazardous waste generation. The ZDOC project focused on formulating non-toxic corrosion inhibitors into these coating technologies, and the applications development of powder coatings. Non-toxic replacements for traditional lead and chromate inhibitors were selected based on a previous NAWCADWAR investigation. Once incorporated, the performance of the coatings with and without inhibitors was compared. Also, the protective mechanisms of these inhibitors were studied. The applications development for powder coatings analyzed technologies to allow powder coating of non-conductive substrates and evaluated the use of IR energy to cure powder coatings. Inhibitors were successfully incorporated into electrocoatings and powder coatings, however corrosion performance results varied with coating formulation.

  18. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

  19. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

  20. Anomalous mass transport in Au/304 stainless steel powder under shock loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staudhammer, Karl P.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic deformation experiments on gold plated 304L stainless steel powders were undertaken using a axial symmetrical implosion geometry. These experiments utilized pressures of 0.08 to 1.0 Mbar and contained a symmetric radial melt region along the central axis of the sample holder. To understand the role of deformation in a porous material, the pressure, and temperature as well as the deformation heat and associated defects must be accounted for. Using a strain controllable shock loading design it was possible to separate and control independently strain and pressure. Thus enabling the ability to control the added heat from the deformation process undergoing compaction/consolidation of the powder. When the added heat of consolidation deformation exceeds the melt temperature of the 304 powders, a melt zone results that can consume large regions of the compact. It is within these regions that very high diffusion of gold into the powder occurs. These anomalous increases have been observed via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX measurements. Values exceeding 1200 m/sec have been measured and correlated to the powder sizes, size distribution and packing density, concomitant with sample container strains ranging from 2.0% to 26%.

  1. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore »and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  2. Commercial exploitation of nanophase powder formed with exploding wire technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    In this report, the region of the energy density under the uniform heating conditions, of the lower pressures of the gas environment and of the smaller wire diameter have been studied. Here, the theoretical investigations of exploding wire and powder formation processes are presented, the results of experimental investigations are discussed. It is demonstrated that exploding wire technique is able to produce nanophase powders of aluminum and iron oxides with the mean surface size of 30 nm or less at commercial quantities per hour and the cost of no more than $1,000 per kilogram. Here too, decisions for theoretical and technical activity during future program are recommended.

  3. MnO spin-wave dispersion curves from neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Andrew L.; Dove, Martin T.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Keen, David A.

    2007-02-15

    We describe a model-independent approach for the extraction of spin-wave dispersion curves from powder neutron total scattering data. Our approach is based on a statistical analysis of real-space spin configurations to calculate spin-dynamical quantities. The RMCPROFILE implementation of the reverse Monte Carlo refinement process is used to generate a large ensemble of supercell spin configurations from MnO powder diffraction data collected at 100 K. Our analysis of these configurations gives spin-wave dispersion curves for MnO that agree well with those determined independently using neutron triple-axis spectroscopic techniques.

  4. Conversion method of powder inelastic scattering data for one-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomiyasu, Dr. Keisuke; Fujita, Prof. Masaki; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Bewley, Robert I.; Bull, Dr. Martyn J.; Bennington, Dr. Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting dispersive magnetic excitations from inelastic neutron scattering data usually requires large single crystals. We present a simple yet powerful method for extracting such information from polycrystalline or powder data for one-dimensional systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this data treatment by extracting dispersion curves from powder inelastic neutron scattering data on the one-dimensional spin-half systems: CuGeO3 and Rb2Cu2Mo3O12. For many such materials it is not possible to grow sufficiently large crystals and this method offers a quick and efficient way to study their magnetic excitations.

  5. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1991-07-02

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product any be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  6. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenny, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omalete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1992-09-08

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  7. In-situ Formation of Ti Alloys via Powder Injection Molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a unique blend of powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock materials in which only a small volume fraction of binder (< 8%) is required; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and a solid aromatic solvent. Because of the nature of the decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder can be completely removed from the molded component during heat treatment. Here, we present results from an initial study on in-situ titanium alloy formation in near-net shape components manufactured by this novel PIM technique.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Components Fabricated by a New Powder Injection Molding Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Miller, Megan R.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weil, K. Scott

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a powder injection molding (PIM) binder system for titanium that employs naphthalene as the primary constituent to facilitate easy binder removal and mitigate problems with carbon contamination. In the study presented here, we examined densification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties in specimens formed by this process. In general, we found that we could achieve tensile strengths comparable to wrought titanium in the PIM-formed specimens, but that maximum elongation was less than expected. Chemical and microstructural analyses suggest that use of higher purity powder and further process optimization will lead to significant improvements in ductility.

  9. A new binder for powder injection molding titanium and other reactive metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, K. Scott; Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2006-06-26

    We have developed a new aromatic-based binder for powder injection molding (PIM) reactive metals, such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum. Because of careful selection of the binder constituents, thermal removal is readily accomplished at low temperatures and short-times via vacuum sublimation. In this way the binder can be cleanly extracted from the green part prior to sintering to minimize the amount of residual carbon left in the final component. Rheological measurements indicate that powder loadings in the PIM feedstock as high as 67 vol% could be achieved using the new binder system, while still maintaining low mixing torques and injection molding pressures.

  10. Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pink, Robert J. (Pocatello, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O.sub.2 gas wherein the O.sub.2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to from a very pure single phase product.

  11. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2

  12. Frictional powders: Ratcheting under periodic strain in 3D , C. T. David2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    of ratcheting was introduced in soil mechanics in order to describe the gradual accumulation of a small Physics of Materials, ETH Zürich, Switzerland ABSTRACT The mechanical response of grains under quasi characteristic of many soils and powders. The frequent use of non- cohesive, dry granular materials in foun

  13. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Properties of Activated Carbon Powders and Their Influence on Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION Properties of Activated Carbon Powders and Their Influence on Oxygen pages, 4 figures) #12;2 Figure S1: Example of RDE LSV data for bituminous coal based sample (B1: Example of K­L analysis for bituminous coal based sample (B1) where the slope of the line is used

  14. Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

  15. Luminescence dynamics and waveguide applications of europium doped gallium nitride powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipson, Michal

    of obtaining a powder form of RE doped GaN involve a combustion reaction15 or an ammonolysis of freeze onto the Si substrate, obtained using a HeCd laser 325 nm . A pulsed N2 laser 337.1 nm with 4 ns pulse

  16. 1 INTRODUCTION The plastic behavior of a certain powder or soil sam-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    1 INTRODUCTION The plastic behavior of a certain powder or soil sam- ple depends on the history in order to in- vestigate the elasto-plastic response of granular ma- terials. An alternative is obtained by the calculation of the interaction forces between parti- cles. This includes, e.g., plastic

  17. Structural and spectroscopic analyses of europium doped yttrium oxyfluoride powders prepared by combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakov, Nikifor; Guimarães, R. B.; Maciel, Glauco S.; Lozano B, W.

    2013-07-28

    A facile widely spread technique employed to produce low-cost high-yield oxide powders, combustion synthesis, was used to prepare yttrium oxyfluoride crystalline ceramic powders. The structure of the powders was analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement. Samples heat treated at 700 °C had a predominance of vernier orthorhombic Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} phase, while samples heat treated at 800 °C crystallized in stoichiometric rhombohedral YOF phase. The samples were doped with luminescent europium trivalent ions (Eu{sup 3+}) in different concentrations (1–15 wt.%) and Judd-Ofelt theory was used to probe the distortion from the inversion symmetry of the local crystal field and the degree of covalency between the rare-earth ion and the surrounding ligands. The luminescence lifetime was measured and the luminescence quantum efficiency (LQE) was estimated. We observed that Eu{sup 3+}:Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} samples presented higher LQE in spite of the larger local crystal field anisotropy found for Eu{sup 3+}:YOF samples.

  18. Underwater Explosive Shock Consolidation of Nanocomposite Pr2Fe14B/-Fe Magnetic Powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J. Ping

    to fabricate exchange-coupled Pr2Fe14B/-Fe nanocomposite bulk magnets, using explosively generated shock waves of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA 3 Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan Dynamic consolidation of powders was studied

  19. Neutron and gamma-ray cross-correlation measurements of plutonium oxide powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    Neutron and gamma-ray cross-correlation measurements of plutonium oxide powder S.D. Clarke a,Ã, M: Cross-correlation Plutonium oxide Special nuclear material Liquid scintillator MCNP-PoliMi a b s t r a c t For the first time, measurements of the time-dependent cross-correlation distributions of plutonium oxide have

  20. Combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate bioceramic powders A. Cu neyt Tas *,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate bioceramic powders A. CuÈ neyt Tas *,1 Department)2; Combustion synthesis; Hydroxyapatite 1. Introduction Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), the major), instead of water, as the precipitation medium. Self-propagating combustion synthesis (SPCS

  1. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  2. Evaluation of Dried Plum Powder in Meat Products Destined for Convenience and Foodservice Outlets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrill, Robert M.

    2011-08-08

    Antioxidant activity of dried plum powder (DPP) at 3% was compared to rosemary extract (RE) at 0.05% in turkey breakfast sausages which were stored under three aerobic conditions: raw refrigerated (RR; 6 degrees C), raw and precooked frozen (RF...

  3. FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PS FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  4. COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PN COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2 S, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  5. ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  6. DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  7. SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  8. Fabrication of metal matrix composite by semi-solid powder processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yufeng

    2012-11-28

    Various metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and electrical industries due to their capability and flexibility in improving the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of a component. However, current manufacturing technologies may suffer from insufficient process stability and reliability and inadequate economic efficiency and may not be able to satisfy the increasing demands placed on MMCs. Semi-solid powder processing (SPP), a technology that combines traditional powder metallurgy and semi-solid forming methods, has potential to produce MMCs with low cost and high efficiency. In this work, the analytical study and experimental investigation of SPP on the fabrication of MMCs were explored. An analytical model was developed to understand the deformation mechanism of the powder compact in the semi-solid state. The densification behavior of the Al6061 and SiC powder mixtures was investigated with different liquid fractions and SiC volume fractions. The limits of SPP were analyzed in terms of reinforcement phase loading and its impact on the composite microstructure. To explore adoption of new materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated as a reinforcing material in aluminum matrix using SPP. The process was successfully modeled for the mono-phase powder (Al6061) compaction and the density and density distribution were predicted. The deformation mechanism at low and high liquid fractions was discussed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the ceramic-metal powder mixture was understood, and the SiC loading limit was identified by parametric study. For the fabrication of CNT reinforced Al6061 composite, the mechanical alloying of Al6061-CNT powders was first investigated. A mathematical model was developed to predict the CNT length change during the mechanical alloying process. The effects of mechanical alloying time and processing temperature during SPP were studied on the mechanical, microstructural and compositional properties of the Al6061-CNT composites. A shear lag model was applied to predict the mechanical property (hardness) of the composite. This work demonstrated the promising potential of SPP in the fabrication of particle/fiber (nanotube) reinforced MMCs.

  9. Method of manufacturing aluminide sheet by thermomechanical processing of aluminide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Scorey, Clive (Cheshire, CT); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr.ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  10. Method of manufacturing aluminide sheet by thermomechanical processing of aluminide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleishhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2003-12-09

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  11. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical feasibility studies were performed to identify the most viable approaches to NNS preform fabrication using basic powder metallurgy mill product forms as the building blocks and advanced joining techniques including fusion and solid state joining to assemble these building blocks into efficient machining performs.

  12. Method of making polymer powders and whiskers as well as particulate products of the method and atomizing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U. (Ames, IA); McAvoy, Jon M. (Moline, IL); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Mi, Jia (Pittsburgh, PA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA)

    2001-01-09

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  13. Powder-based synthesis of nanocrystalline material components for structural application. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilyuschenko, A.F.; Ivashko, V.S.; Okovity, V.A. [Powder Metallurgy Research Inst., Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Hydroxiapate spray coatings and substrates for implant production as well as multilayered metal ceramic coatings from nanocrystalline materials are a subject of the investigation. The work aims at the improvement of quality of said objects. This study has investigated the processes of hydroxiapatite powder production. Sizes, shapes and relief of initial HA powder surface are analyzed using SEM and TEM. Modes of HA plasma spraying on a substrate from titanium and associated compositions of traditional and nanocrystalline structure are optimized. The quality of the sprayed samples are studied using X-ray phase analysis and metallographic analysis. The results of investigations of bioceramic coating spraying on titanium are theoretically generalized, taking into account obtained experimental data. The results of investigations of ion-beam technology are presented for spraying multilayered coatings consisting of alternating metal-ceramic layers of nanocrystalline structure.

  14. Effect of calcium modification on the microstructure and oxidation property of submicron spherical palladium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, S.; Sakurai, O.; Funakubo, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Mizutani, N. [Department of Inorganic Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Ca-modified spherical palladium particles were prepared from the mixed solution of Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Pure palladium powder and that modified with less than 55 ppm Ca were composed of single crystal particles. However, Ca addition of more than 550 ppm resulted in polycrystalline particles. Crystallite size of the particles decreased with the increase of Ca addition and changed dramatically at the addition of some hundred ppm. Ca additive did not form solid solution with palladium but formed CaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4} on the surface and grain boundary of the particles. 50 ppm{endash}1{percent} of Ca addition significantly reduced the oxidization of palladium powder. More addition of Ca resulted in excess oxidation due to the reaction between palladium and calcium oxide. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  15. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  16. Advancements in Ti Alloy Powder Production by Close-Coupled Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heidloff, Andy; Rieken, Joel; Anderson, Iver; Byrd, David

    2011-04-01

    As the technology for titanium metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) becomes more readily available, efficient Ti alloy fine powder production methods are required. An update on a novel close-coupled gas atomization system has been given. Unique features of the melting apparatus are shown to have measurable effects on the efficiency and ability to fully melt within the induction skull melting system (ISM). The means to initiate the melt flow were also found to be dependent on melt apparatus. Starting oxygen contents of atomization feedstock are suggested based on oxygen pick up during the atomization and MIM processes and compared to a new ASTM specification. Forming of titanium by metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) has been extensively studied with regards to binders, particle shape, and size distribution and suitable de-binding methods have been discovered. As a result, the visibility of Ti-MIM has steadily increased as reviews of technology, acceptability, and availability have been released. In addition, new ASTM specification ASTM F2885-11 for Ti-MIM for biomedical implants was released in early 2011. As the general acceptance of Ti-MIM as a viable fabrication route increases, demand for economical production of high quality Ti alloy powder for the preparation of Ti-MIM feedstock correspondingly increases. The production of spherical powders from the liquid state has required extensive pre-processing into different shapes thereby increasing costs. This has prompted examination of Ti-MIM with non-spherical particle shape. These particles are produced by the hydride/de-hydride process and are equi-axed but fragmented and angular which is less than ideal. Current prices for MIM quality titanium powder range from $40-$220/kg. While it is ideal for the MIM process to utilize spherical powders within the size range of 0.5-20 {mu}m, titanium's high affinity for oxygen to date has prohibited the use of this powder size range. In order to meet oxygen requirements the top size cut has traditionally been 45 {mu}m, and in some instances a bottom cut at +5 {mu}m is made to remove ultra-fine particles and reduce oxygen content. Predictably, use of irregular shaped or larger particle feedstock powder can reduce part quality as sintering shrinkage and part detail suffer. Thus, widespread production and technological use of Ti-MIM is limited due in large part to Ti alloy feedstock cost and availability, not MIM processing capability. Lower cost feedstock of fine, spherical Ti alloy powder with sufficient purity must be available in order to fully utilize the advantages of the Ti-MIM processing route allowing expansion of the market to small complex Ti parts in many high volume applications.

  17. A sol-powder coating technique for fabrication of yttria stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wattanasiriwech, Darunee . E-mail: darunee@mfu.ac.th; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Stevens, Ron

    2006-08-10

    Yttria stabilised zirconia has been prepared using a simple sol-powder coating technique. The polymeric yttria sol, which was prepared using 1,3 propanediol as a network modifier, was homogeneously mixed with nanocrystalline zirconia powder and it showed a dual function: as a binder which promoted densification and a phase modifier which stabilised zirconia in the tetragonal and cubic phases. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that the polymeric yttria sol which decomposed at low temperature into yttrium oxide could change the m {sup {yields}} t phase transformation behaviour of the zirconia, possibly due to the small particle size and very high surface area of both yttria and zirconia particles allowing rapid alloying. The sintered samples exhibited three crystalline phases: monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic, in which cubic and tetragonal are the major phases. The weight fractions of the individual phases present in the selected specimens were determined using quantitative Rietveld analysis.

  18. Apparatus for and method of producing monodisperse submicron polymer powders from solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noid, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Otaigbe, Joshua U. (Ames, IA); Barnes, Michael D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sumpter, Bobby G. (Knoxville, TN); Kung, Chung-Yi (Tuscon, AZ)

    2002-01-01

    This invention describes a method of producing polymer powders from solution in a compatible solvent using a new device referred to as a microdroplets on demand generator (MODG). The embodiment of this invention is the MODG apparatus and its relevance as a method to extensive application in materials science and technology. Proof of concept is demonstrated using poly(ethylene) glycol polymer microparticles generated with the MODG and captured in a microparticle levitation device.

  19. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shimoda, Kazuya [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Kondo, Sosuke [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 °C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  20. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08

    Work was done to study a hydride-dehydride method for producing uranium metal powder. Particle distribution analysis was conducted using digital microscopy and grayscale image analysis software. The particle size was found ...

  1. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Tape Casting TiC+Si Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Shin, Yongsoon; Luscher, Walter G.; Mansurov, Jirgal; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.

    2014-03-03

    This work discusses the latest developments in TiC + Si displacement reaction joining at PNNL based on new work to produce tape-cast powders for improved SiC-joints.

  2. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  3. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  4. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel [Dept. of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nám. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovc (Czech Republic); Paravanova, Gordana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcírnou 3685, 760 01 Zlín (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  5. Gas atomized precursor alloy powder for oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieken, Joel

    2011-12-13

    Gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was employed as a simplified method for producing precursor powders for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steels (e.g., Fe-Cr-Y-(Ti,Hf)-O), departing from the conventional mechanical alloying (MA) process. During GARS processing a reactive atomization gas (i.e., Ar-O{sub 2}) was used to oxidize the powder surfaces during primary break-up and rapid solidification of the molten alloy. This resulted in envelopment of the powders by an ultra-thin (t < 150 nm) metastable Cr-enriched oxide layer that was used as a vehicle for solid-state transport of O into the consolidated microstructure. In an attempt to better understand the kinetics of this GARS reaction, theoretical cooling curves for the atomized droplets were calculated and used to establish an oxidation model for this process. Subsequent elevated temperature heat treatments, which were derived from Rhines pack measurements using an internal oxidation model, were used to promote thermodynamically driven O exchange reactions between trapped films of the initial Cr-enriched surface oxide and internal Y-enriched intermetallic precipitates. This novel microstructural evolution process resulted in the successful formation of nano-metric Y-enriched dispersoids, as confirmed using high energy X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), equivalent to conventional ODS alloys from MA powders. The thermal stability of these Y-enriched dispersoids was evaluated using high temperature (1200°C) annealing treatments ranging from 2.5 to 1,000 hrs of exposure. In a further departure from current ODS practice, replacing Ti with additions of Hf appeared to improve the Y-enriched dispersoid thermal stability by means of crystal structure modification. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the dispersoids was found to depend strongly on the original rapidly solidified microstructure. To exploit this, ODS microstructures were engineered from different powder particle size ranges, illustrating microstructural control as a function of particle solidification rate. The consolidation of ultra-fine powders (dia. ? 5?m) resulted in a significant reduction in dispersoid size and spacing, consistent with initial scanning electron microscopy studies on as-atomized cross-sectioned particles that suggested that these powders solidified above the threshold velocity to effectively solute trap Y within the ?-(Fe,Cr) matrix. Interestingly, when the solidification velocity as a function of particle size was extracted from the aforementioned theoretical particle cooling curves, it could be offered as supporting evidence for these microstructure observations. Thermal-mechanical treatments also were used to create and evaluate the stability of a dislocation substructure within these alloys, using microhardness and TEM analysis of the alloy sub-grain and grain structure. Moreover, elevated temperature tensile tests up to 800°C were used to assess the initial mechanical strength of the ODS microstructure.

  6. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix A—MSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled “Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled “Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors” Appendix B—External presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix C—Fuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys” presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis by William Sames, Research Fellow, entitled “Uranium Metal Powder Production, Particle Dis

  7. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  8. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  9. What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

  10. X-Ray Powder Diffraction Study of Synthetic Palmierite, K{sub 2}Pb(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TISSOT JR.,RALPH G.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; SIPOLA,DIANA L.; VOIGT,JAMES A.

    2000-12-19

    Palmierite (K{sub 2}Pb(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}) has been prepared via a chemical synthesis method. Intensity differences were observed when X-ray powder data from the newly synthesized compound were compared to the published powder diffraction card (PDF) 29-1015 for Palmierite. Investigation of these differences indicated the possibility of preferred orientation and/or chemical inhomogeneity affecting intensities, particularly those of the basal (00{ell}) reflections. Annealing of the Palmierite was found to reduce the effects of preferred orientation. Electron microprobe analysis confirmed K:Pb:S as 2:1:2 for the annealed Palmierite powder. Subsequent least-squares refinement and Rietveld analysis of the annealed powder showed peak intensities very close to that of a calculated Palmierite pattern (based on single crystal data), yet substantially higher than many of the PDF 29-1015 published intensities. Further investigation of peak intensity variation via calculated patterns suggested that the intensity discrepancies between the annealed sample and those found in PDF 29-1015 were potentially due to chemical variation in the K{sub 2}Pb(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} composition. X-ray powder diffraction and crystal data for Palmierite are reported for the annealed sample. Palmierite is Trigonal/Hexagonal with unit cell parameters a = 5.497(1){angstrom}, c = 20.864(2) {angstrom}, space group R-3m (166), and Z = 3.

  11. Studies of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, G.W.; Melius, C.F.

    1987-12-01

    A gas flow apparatus has been constructed and used to study the isotopic exchange reaction occurring between the solid and gas phases in hydrogen (deuterium) gas flows directed through packed-powder beds of ..beta..-phase palladium deuteride (hydride). Spontaneous Raman light scattering is employed to obtain a real-time analysis of the isotopic composition of the gas (H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, HD) exiting from the bed. A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time-dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes occurring on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas-phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with the experimental measurements and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, good agreement is obtained for p approx. = 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of a values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  12. Magnetization and 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation of nanodiamond powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, E.M.; Fang, X.W.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Straszheim, W.E.; McCallum, R.W.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2008-02-15

    The bulk magnetization at temperatures of 1.8-400 K and in magnetic fields up to 70 kOe, the ambient temperature {sup 13}C NMR spin-lattice relaxation, T{sub 1,c}, and the elemental composition of three nanodiamond powder samples have been studied. The total magnetization of nanodiamond can be explained in terms of contributions from (1) the diamagnetic effect of carbon, (2) the paramagnetic effect of unpaired electrons present in nanodiamond grains, and (3) ferromagnetic-like and (4) superparamagnetic contributions from Fe-containing particles detected in spatially resolved energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Contributions (1) and (2) are intrinsic to nanodiamond, while contributions (3) and (4) arise from impurities naturally present in detonation nanodiamond samples. {sup 13}C NMR T{sub 1,c} relaxation would be unaffected by the presence of the ferromagnetic particles with the bulk magnetization of {approx} 0.01 emu/g at 300 K. Thus, a reduction of T{sub 1,c} by 3 orders of magnitude compared to natural and synthetic microdiamonds confirms the presence of unpaired electrons in the nanodiamond grains. The spin concentration in nanodiamond powder corresponds to {approx}30 unpaired electrons per {approx}4.6 nm diameter nanodiamond grain.

  13. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.

  14. A Fully Coupled Simulation and Optimization Scheme for the Design of 3D Powder Injection Molding Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayad, G.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C. [Femto-ST Institute/LMA, ENSMM, 26 Rue de l'Epitaphe, 25000 Besancon (France); Song, J. [Femto-ST Institute/LMA, ENSMM, 26 Rue de l'Epitaphe, 25000 Besancon (France); Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu (China); Liu, B. [Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu (China)

    2007-05-17

    The paper is concerned with optimization and parametric identification of Powder Injection Molding process that consists first in injection of powder mixture with polymer binder and then to the sintering of the resulting powders parts by solid state diffusion. In the first part, one describes an original methodology to optimize the injection stage based on the combination of Design Of Experiments and an adaptive Response Surface Modeling. Then the second part of the paper describes the identification strategy that one proposes for the sintering stage, using the identification of sintering parameters from dilatometer curves followed by the optimization of the sintering process. The proposed approaches are applied to the optimization for manufacturing of a ceramic femoral implant. One demonstrates that the proposed approach give satisfactory results.

  15. The influence of metallic particle size on the mechanical properties of PTFE-Al-W powder composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Cai; V. F. Nesterenko; K. S. Vecchio; E. B. Herbold; D. J. Benson; F. Jiang; J. W. Addiss; S. M. Walley; W. G. Proud

    2007-09-13

    The dynamic mechanical properties of reactive materials (e.g., high density mixtures of polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE), aluminum (Al) and tungsten (W) powders) can be tailored by changing the morphology of the particles and porosity. Cold isostatically pressed PTFE-Al-W powder composites with fine metallic particles and a higher porosity exhibited higher ultimate compressive strength than less porous composites having equivalent mass ratios with coarse W particles. The mesoscale force chains between the fine metallic particles are responsible for this unusual phenomenon. We observed macrocracks below the critical failure strain for the matrix and a competition between densification and fracture in some porous samples in dynamic tests.

  16. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brunson, Ronald R. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

  17. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Decomposition Studied via in Situ Low Temperature X-ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M; Rawn, Claudia J; Keffer, David J.; Mull, Derek L; Payzant, E Andrew; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are known to have a slowed decomposition rate at ambient pressure and temperatures below the melting point of ice termed self-preservation or anomalous preservation. As hydrate exothermically decomposes, gas is released and water of the clathrate cages transforms into ice. Two regions of slowed decomposition for methane hydrate, 180 200 K and 230 260 K, were observed, and the kinetics were studied by in situ low temperature x-ray powder diffraction. The kinetic constants for ice formation from methane hydrate were determined by the Avrami model within each region and activation energies, Ea, were determined by the Arrhenius plot. Ea determined from the data for 180 200 K was 42 kJ/mol and for 230 260 K was 22 kJ/mol. The higher Ea in the colder temperature range was attributed to a difference in the microstructure of ice between the two regions.

  18. Particle simulation of vibrated gas-fluidized beds of cohesive fine powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung Joon Moon; I. G. Kevrekidis; S. Sundaresan

    2006-08-09

    We use three-dimensional particle dynamics simulations, coupled with volume-averaged gas phase hydrodynamics, to study vertically vibrated gas-fluidized beds of fine, cohesive powders. The volume-averaged interstitial gas flow is restricted to be one-dimensional (1D). This simplified model captures the spontaneous development of 1D traveling waves, which corresponds to bubble formation in real fluidized beds. We use this model to probe the manner in which vibration and gas flow combine to influence the dynamics of cohesive particles. We find that as the gas flow rate increases, cyclic pressure pulsation produced by vibration becomes more and more significant than direct impact, and in a fully fluidized bed this pulsation is virtually the only relevant mechanism. We demonstrate that vibration assists fluidization by creating large tensile stresses during transient periods, which helps break up the cohesive assembly into agglomerates.

  19. Sol-gel preparation of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) powders and thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films. 3 figs.

  20. Novel pre-alloyed powder processing of modified alnico 8: Correlation of microstructure and magnetic properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, I. E.; Kassen, A. G.; White, E. M. H.; Zhou, L.; Tang, W.; Palasyuk, A.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-13

    Progress is reviewed on development of an improved near-final bulk magnet fabrication process for alnico 8, as a non-rare earth permanent magnet with promise for sufficient energy density and coercivity for electric drive motors. This study showed that alnico bulk magnets in near-final shape can be made by simple compression molding from spherical high purity gas atomized pre-alloyed powder. Dwell time at peak sintering temperature (1250°C) greatly affected grain size of the resulting magnet alloys. This microstructure transformation was demonstrated to be useful for gaining partially aligned magnetic properties and boosting energy product. While a route to increased coercivity wasmore »not identified by these experiments, manufacturability of bulk alnico magnet alloys in near-final shapes was demonstrated, permitting further processing and alloy modification experiments that can target higher coercivity and better control of grain anisotropy during grain growth.« less

  1. Reduction of the effect of preferred orientation in x-ray crystal powder samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nydegger, Raymond Russell

    1964-01-01

    of all other crystallites. Thus, when a crystalline powder is irradiated, the net result is a diffraction pattern formed by the coherently scattered radiation from a multitude of crystallites with every conceivable orientation. CA 77 j~~ PLAA'kS.... 72 0. 61 0. 58 Fisc?F 8. Earache or Qec~r Serro w' SEDGE. " 7i'u4' 0& EFF P& 7 OF P&EP&'X'FL~ ~+JEW'7AFi'&~A' 4 6o /so O', O 4~ so l ZO /0 0 0 DoCDbfr TW -5AA'P'L E J ZS 44 H+7A7ED O~c/CCA7 ED g ~ 0 g go go go go 6o S~~~~~ Servo (zp...

  2. Harold and Inge Marcus Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Fall 2010 Lubrication and Tool Wear in the Turning of Powdered Metal M2 Steel Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Lubrication and Tool Wear in the Turning of Powdered Metal M2 Steel Valve Seats Final Report Overview) cutting insert on M2 steel valve seats. Two parameters were collected in order to perform a statistical was to analyze tool wear and the effect of select lubricants in the turning operation of powdered M2 metal valve

  3. Process-based cost modeling of tool-steels parts by transient liquid-phase infiltration of powder-metal preforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barradas Martinez, Juan Alfredo, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) cost between these two processes was related mainly to their powder scrap rates, 15 % for the Pressing-TLI and 80% for the 3DP-TLI. The high scrap rate value of the 3DP process originates from the fact that powder ...

  4. "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering Technique and Related Shrinkage Control," Jack Zhou and Z. He, Journal of Materials and Design, Vol. 19, pp. 241-248, 1998.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jack

    "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering Technique and Related Shrinkage Control," Jack Zhou and Z. He TECHNIQUE AND RELATED SHRINKAGE CONTROL Jack G. Zhou and Zongyan He Department of Mechanical Engineering by the authors. It is an integration of three techniques: rapid prototyping, lost wax casting and powder

  5. [Rev 1.5 2003/07/03 for ``Powder Technology Handbook'' 3rd Ed.] V.21.7 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ichiki, Kengo

    [Rev 1.5 2003/07/03 for ``Powder Technology Handbook'' 3rd Ed.] V.21.7 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Kengo. By (1) or #12; [Rev 1.5 2003/07/03 for ``Powder Technology Handbook'' 3rd Ed.] (3), the self Technology Handbook'' 3rd Ed.] Then, the Stokes­Einstein relation is extended for dispersed systems as D s 0

  6. [Rev 1.5 2003/07/03 for "Powder Technology Handbook" 3rd Ed.] V.21.7 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ichiki, Kengo

    [Rev 1.5 2003/07/03 for "Powder Technology Handbook" 3rd Ed.] V.21.7 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Kengo. By (1) or #12;[Rev 1.5 2003/07/03 for "Powder Technology Handbook" 3rd Ed.] (3), the self Technology Handbook" 3rd Ed.] Then, the Stokes-Einstein relation is extended for dispersed systems as Ds 0

  7. Influence of temperature and photoexcitation density on the quantum efficiency of defect emission in ZnO powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    excitation power density on the efficiency of intrinsic defect emission in ZnO powders was characterized. This material system is potentially useful as an ultraviolet-photoexcited, white light phosphor under low-power.1063/1.2753540 Since the introduction of nitride-based white light emit- ting diodes LEDs in the mid-1990s, much

  8. Electrochemical characterization of thio sol-gel derived titanium sulfide (TiS{sub 2}) powders with unique morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriram, M.A.; Kumta, P.N. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A novel thio sol-gel process utilizing titanium alkoxide as the metal source has been used to synthesize TiS{sub 2} powders exhibiting uniquely different morphologies. The pure alkoxide and its partially modified form using benzene sulfonic acid (BSA) have been reacted with H{sub 2}S to yield a solid precursor. Upon heat treatment in flowing H{sub 2}S the precursors were converted to TiS{sub 2} exhibiting distinctly different morphologies. These powders have been characterized for their chemical stoichiometry (using X-ray diffraction). At the same time the sulfide was also prepared using conventional techniques involving the reaction of the individual elements in a sealed evacuated quartz ampoule at elevated temperatures of 500{degrees}C. The morphologies of both, the thio sol-gel derived and conventionally synthesized powders have been compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preliminary electrochemical tests were also performed by fabricating test cathodes of these materials and using them in {open_quotes}hockey puck{close_quotes} cells incorporating lithium as both the anode and the reference electrodes. These studies were conducted to analyze the effect of the different morphologies of the synthesized powders on their electrochemical performance.

  9. Argon Adsorption on MCM-41 Mesoporous Crystal Studied by In Situ Synchrotron Powder X-ray Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    -701, Korea, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, 1545 Route 22 East, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements at SPring-8. The diffraction intensity data is analyzed. The proposed method of interpretation of XRD data allows one to calculate the density ratio between the silica

  10. Carbon Powders Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis of Substituted Alkali Benzoates Sara E. Skrabalak and Kenneth S. Suslick*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Carbon Powders Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis of Substituted Alkali Benzoates Sara E Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) has been used to prepare carbon spheres from aqueous solutions direct hydro- carbon pyrolysis methods.15-18 While the former methods are potentially cost and scale

  11. Optical properties of undoped and Mg doped CuCrO{sub 2} powders synthesized by sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Bolloju, Satish [Department of Chemistry, BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar Village, Shamirpet Mandal, R.R.District, Hyderabad - 500 078 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this work, CuCrO{sub 2} was synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as a gelling agent. The different parameters like ratio of citric acid to metal ions, calcination temperature, and duration were studied. A green colored powder with particle size around 300 nm was formed at the calcination temperature of 800 °C for four hours duration. The increase in temperature has a profound impact on crystallite size and in turn effected the optical properties. Band gap of the obtained CuCrO{sub 2} has varied from 2.3 to 1.7 eV by increasing the temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C. Doping studies were performed by introducing Mg{sup 2+} ion to substitute Cr{sup 3+} in CuCrO{sub 2}. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM studies on 2% Mg doped samples indicated a clear formation of side phases. According to the X-ray powder patterns, the reflections from side phases were increasing with the increase in doping concentrations of Mg from 2 to 5%. The side phases were found to be MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and CuO. The band gap has decreased for doped samples in comparison to undoped one. In this paper, sol-gel synthesis and characterization by Xray powder diffraction, SEM studies and UV-Vis-Diffuse Reflectance spectra are presented.

  12. Quanta FEG 200 *Always wear lint and powder free clean room gloves when reaching into the specimen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quanta FEG 200 *Always wear lint and powder free clean room gloves when reaching into the specimen. Lower the stage manually using the Z adjustments on the front door if necessary). e. Click the Pump and click the Pump button to pump to High Vacuum. To Start-up the System from Complete Shutdown 1) Push

  13. Aero-Sol-Gel (ASG) Reactor For Nano-Powder Synthesis G. Beaucage, J. Hyeon-Lee, D. J. Kohls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Aero-Sol-Gel (ASG) Reactor For Nano-Powder Synthesis G. Beaucage, J. Hyeon-Lee, D. J. Kohls-structured oxides where sol- gel reactions are carried out in aerosol droplets. This aero-sol-gel reactor (ASG-scale structure and high specific surface areas (100 to 700 m2 /g) [1, 2]. This aero-sol- gel reactor (ASG

  14. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377­416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures A.S. Mukasyana,Ã, A.S. Rogachevb a Department of Chemical Abstract This review considers a specific domain in combustion science, so-called discrete combustion waves

  15. Enhancing High Volume Fly Ash Concretes Using Fine Limestone Powder by Jussara Tanesi, Dale Bentz, and Ahmad Ardani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Enhancing High Volume Fly Ash Concretes Using Fine Limestone Powder by Jussara Tanesi, Dale Bentz of replacing 50 % or more of the portland cement in a conventional concrete with fly ash, producing a so-called high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete. While these mixtures typically perform admirably in the long term

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles by using WO{sub 3}/Zn/C powder mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoseinpur, Arman; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Marashi, Maryam Sadat

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nano particles of WC are synthesized by mechanochemical process. ? Zn was used to reduce WO{sub 3}. ? By removing ZnO from the milling products with an acid leaching, WC will be the final products. ? XRD results showed that the reduction reactions were completed after 36 h. ? TEM and SEM images showed that the morphology of produced powder is nearly spherical like. -- Abstract: In this research we introduce a new, facile, and economical system for fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) nano particle powder. In this system WO{sub 3}, Zn, and C have been ball-milled for several hours, which led to the synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles. The synthesized WC can successfully be separated from the ball-milled product by subjecting the product powder to diluted HCl for removing ZnO and obtaining WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the reduction of WO{sub 3} will be completed gradually by increasing milling time up to 36 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that after 36 h of milling the particle size of the fabricated powder is nano metric (about 20 nm). Results have shown that this system can surmount some main problems occurred in previous similar WC synthesizing systems. For example carbothermic reduction reactions, which lead to the synthesis of W{sub 2}C instead of WC, would not be activated because in this system reactions take place gradually.

  17. Groundwater availability and flow processes in the Williston and Powder River basins in the Northern Great Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Groundwater availability and flow processes in the Williston and Powder River basins Center, Cheyenne, WY 4 Office of Groundwater, Denver, CO 5 Oklahoma Water Science Center, Oklahoma City in Montana and Wyoming, provides an opportunity to study the water-energy nexus within a groundwater context

  18. A cost-effective process to prepare VO{sub 2} (M) powder and films with superior thermochromic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xiudi; Zhang, Hua; Chai, Guanqi; Sun, Yaoming; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Haoliang; Chen, Lihua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Gang

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Combining codeposition and short time post annealing, VO{sub 2} (M) with high quality and excellent phase transition performance is obtained. After mixing the VO{sub 2} powder with acrylic resin, the composite films deposited on glass show superior visible transmission and solar modulation, which can be used as an excellent candidate of low cost smart window in energy saving field. - Highlights: • The VO{sub 2} powder obtained by short time thermolysis method is high purity and crystallinity with superior phase transition performance. • The maximum decreasing efficiency of phase transition temperature is about ?30 K/at% with w = 0.4 at%. • After mixing VO{sub 2} powder with acrylic resin, the maximal visible transmission of the composite films is 48% and the transmission modulation at 2000 nm is 37.3% with phase transition temperature of 66.2 °C. • Though the phase transition performance is weakened by tungsten doping, the film prepared by 1.3 at% tungsten doped VO{sub 2} still show superior transmission modulation about 26.4%, which means that it is a potential candidate as smart windows. - Abstract: VO{sub 2} powder with superior phase transition performance was prepared by convenient thermolysis method. The results illustrated that VO{sub 2} powder show high purity and crystallinity. VO{sub 2} particles are transformed from cluster to quasi-sphere with the increase of annealing temperature. The DSC analysis proves that VO{sub 2} show superior phase transition performance around 68 °C. The phase transition temperature can be reduced to 33.5 °C by 1.8 at% tungsten doping. The maximum decreasing efficiency of phase transition temperature is about ?30 K/at% with w = 0.4 at%. After mixing VO{sub 2} powder with acrylic resin, the maximal visible transmission of the composite thin films on glass is 48% and the transmission modulation at 2000 nm is 37.3% with phase transition temperature of 66.2 °C. Though the phase transition performance is weakened by tungsten doping, the film prepared by 1.3 at% tungsten doped VO{sub 2} still show superior transmission modulation about 26.4% at 2000 nm, which means that it is a potential candidate as smart windows.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LARGE-BORE POWDER GUN FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, B.J.; Esparza, J.

    2009-12-28

    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5'' or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  20. A fogging and inerting system for pulverizers using Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacer, D.W.; Dickerson, B.L.; Singh, M. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Jackson, C.M. [NIPSCo Industries, Inc., Hammond, IN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is highly reactive and subject to spontaneous combustion. This paper describes a fogging and inerting system developed and installed to protect station personnel and the pulverizers of a 500 MW boiler recently converted to burn PRO coal. The system mitigates conditions conducive to fire by using water fogging and steam inerting in strategic areas of the pulverizers. With no provision to detect fires inside the pulverizer, the system is intended to prevent fire-producing conditions when a pulverizer is being started or stopped. The paper describes the rationale behind selection of the source of steam for inerting, including reliability considerations and variable flow and pressure complexities. The paper depicts the process used to design the demanding-duty steam control values, and to analyze and design the high pressure steam piping system and other piping system specialties. The paper also reports on the customized, redundant PLC-based control system designed with several reliability features including multiple outputs to the final devices, field wiring monitoring and three levels of control -- remote auto, remote manual and local manual.

  1. Developing of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Brian J; Esparza, James S

    2009-01-01

    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5-inches or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  2. Preparation of Cu and Fly Ash Composite by Powder Metallurgy Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, P. Y.; Lim, P. S.; Ng, M. C.; Zahi, S.; You, A. H.

    2011-03-30

    Cu and Fly Ash (FA) mixtures with different weight percentages were prepared. Pellets of the mixture powder were produced with the dimension of 17.7 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in height. These different composites were compacted at a constant pressure of 280 MPa. One of the selected weight percentages was then compacted to form into pellet and sintered at different temperatures which were at 900, 950 and 1000 deg. C respectively for 2 hours. Density of green pellet was measured before sintered in furnace. After sintering, all the pellets with different temperatures were re-weighed and sintered density were calculated. The densification of the green and sintered pellets was required to be measured as one of the parameter in selection of the best material properties. Porosity of the pellet shall not be ignored in order to analyze the close-packed particles stacking in the pellet. SEM micrograph had been captured to observe the presence of pores and agglomeration of particles in the sample produced.

  3. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Tape Casting TiC+Si Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Shin, Yongsoon; Luscher, Walter G.; Mansurov, Jirgal; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.

    2013-08-06

    The use of SiC composites in fusion environments likely requires joining of plates using reactive joining or brazing. One promising reactive joining method uses solid-state displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC. We continue to explore the processing envelope for this joint for the TITAN collaboration in order to produce optimal joints to undergo irradiation studies in HFIR. One noted feature of the joints produced using tape-calendared powders of TiC+Si has been the large void regions that have been apparently unavoidable. Although the produced joints are very strong, these voids are undesirable. In addition, the tapes that were made for this joining were produced about 20 years ago and were aging. Therefore, we embarked on an effort to produce some new tape cast powders of TiC and Si that could replace our aging tape calendared materials.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro ?-MnO? powders as a function of electrical resistance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hedden, Morgan; Francis, Nick; Haraldsen, Jason T.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Constantin, Costel

    2015-07-15

    Particle sizes of manganese oxide (?-MnO?) powders were modified by using a mortar and pestle ground method for period of times that varied between 15–60 min. Particle size versus ground time clearly shows the existence of a size-induced regime transition (i.e., regime I and II). Thermoelectric properties of ?-MnO? powders as a function of electrical resistance in the range of RP = 10 - 80? were measured. Based on the data presented, we propose a model for the ?-MnO? system in which nanometer-scale MnO? crystallites bond together through weak van der Waals forces to form larger conglomerates that span inmore »size from nanometer to micrometer scale.« less

  5. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro ?-MnO? powders as a function of electrical resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedden, Morgan; Francis, Nick; Haraldsen, Jason T.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Constantin, Costel

    2015-07-15

    Particle sizes of manganese oxide (?-MnO?) powders were modified by using a mortar and pestle ground method for period of times that varied between 15–60 min. Particle size versus ground time clearly shows the existence of a size-induced regime transition (i.e., regime I and II). Thermoelectric properties of ?-MnO? powders as a function of electrical resistance in the range of RP = 10 - 80? were measured. Based on the data presented, we propose a model for the ?-MnO? system in which nanometer-scale MnO? crystallites bond together through weak van der Waals forces to form larger conglomerates that span in size from nanometer to micrometer scale.

  6. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Sisson, W.G.; Brunson, R.R.

    1997-02-18

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity. 3 figs.

  7. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-10-15

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

  8. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D. (USGS, Denver, CO); Harbert, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam’s inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  9. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinski, Brian A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sams, James I. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Smith, Bruce D. [U.S. Geological Survey. Denver, CO (United States); Harbert, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  10. Anisotropic hot deformed magnets prepared from Zn-coated MRE-Fe-B ribbon powder (MRE?=?Nd?+?Y?+?Dy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, W; Zhou, L; Sun, K W; Dennis, K W; Kramer, M J; Anderson, I E; McCallum, R W

    2014-05-07

    Milled melt-spun ribbon flake of MRE-Fe-B coated with Zn coating using a vapor transport technique was found to have significant increase in coercivity without degrading the magnetization when the Zn thickness and heat treatment were optimized. Magnetic measurements show that 0.5–1?wt.?% Zn coating increases the coercivity about 1?kOe over the initial ribbon powder. After vacuum hot deformation (VHD), the VHD magnet with Zn coating of 0.5?wt.?% results in a nearly 3?kOe higher coercivity than an un-coated alloy magnet. An optimized VHD magnet with 0.5?wt.?% Zn coating obtains a coercivity of 11.2?kOe and (BH)max of 23.0 MGOe, respectively. SEM and TEM microstructures analysis demonstrates that the Zn coating on the surface of ribbon powder has diffused along the intergranular boundaries after the ribbon powder was annealed at 750?°C for 30?min or was hot deformed at 700–750?°C.

  11. Chemical Reduction of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4??Powders in Supercritical Sodium Ammonia Solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dias, Yasmin; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Haiqing; Lin, Feng; Lan, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4??powders are chemically reduced in supercritical sodium ammonia solutions from room temperature to 350°C. The crystallographic structure of the reduced powders is investigated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction. The atomic positions are maintained constant within experimental errors while temperature factors of all atoms increase significantly after the chemical treatments, especially of Nd/Ce atoms. The ammonothermally reduced Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4??powders show diamagnetic below 24?K which is contributed to the lower oxygen content and higher temperature factors of atoms in the treated compound. The ammonothermal method paves a new way to reduce oxides in supercritical solutions near room temperature.

  12. *Always wear lint and powder free clean room gloves when reaching into the specimen chamber to reduce leaving oils, dust, or other contaminants inside the chamber.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SX-100 *Always wear lint and powder free clean room gloves when reaching into the specimen chamber (off) on the small on/off box behind the monitors. 6) Wait 30 minutes to cool down the diffusion pump

  13. Chemical Reduction of Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4? ? Powders in Supercritical Sodium Ammonia Solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dias, Yasmin; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Haiqing; Lin, Feng; Lan, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4? ? powders are chemically reduced in supercritical sodium ammonia solutions from room temperature to 350°C. The crystallographic structure of the reduced powders is investigated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction. The atomic positions are maintained constant within experimental errors while temperature factors of all atoms increase significantly after the chemical treatments, especially of Nd/Ce atoms. The ammonothermally reduced Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4? ? powders show diamagnetic below 24?K which is contributed to the lower oxygen content and higher temperature factors of atoms in the treated compound.more »The ammonothermal method paves a new way to reduce oxides in supercritical solutions near room temperature. « less

  14. Subsurface cross section of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Powder River basin is one of the most actively explored Rocky Mountain basins for hydrocarbons, yet the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) rocks of this interval remain little studied. As a part of a program studying the evolution of sedimentary basins, approximately 3200 km of cross section, based on more than 50 combined geophysical and lithologic logs, have been constructed covering an area of about 200,000 km/sup 2/. The present-day basin is a Cenozoic structural feature located between the stable interior of the North American craton and the Cordilleran orogenic belt. At various times during the early Paleozoic, the basin area was not distinguishable from either the stable craton, the Williston basin, the Central Montana trough, or the Cordilleran miogeocline. Both deposition and preservation in the basin have been greatly influenced by the relative uplift of the Transcontinental arch. Shows of oil and dead oil in well cuttings confirm that hydrocarbons have migrated through at least parts of the basin's lower Paleozoic carbonate section. These rocks may have been conduits for long-distance migration of hydrocarbons as early as Late Cretaceous, based on (1) the probable timing of thermal maturation of hydrocarbon-source rocks within the basin area and to the west, (2) the timing of Laramide structural events, (3) the discontinuous nature of the reservoirs in the overlying, highly productive Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation, and (4) the under-pressuring observed in some Minnelusa oil fields. Vertical migration into the overlying reservoirs could have been through deep fractures within the basin, represented by major lineament systems. Moreover, the lower Paleozoic rocks themselves may also be hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tyson Valley Powder Farm - MO 11

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co - OHStarTracerlab Inc -Twin CitiesTyson

  16. Structural Studies of Al:ZnO Powders and Thin Films | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|SensitiveAprilPhoton SourceSuperconductorsSRS Structural

  17. An electroless approach to atomic layer deposition on noble metal powders.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563AbuseConnect Technicalof PDEsFermilabof(Conference) | SciTech

  18. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for use in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect(Conference) |(Patent) | SciTech Connect

  19. UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION OAK RIDGE TENNESSEE THE DIFFRACTION OF NEUTRONS BY CRYSTALLINE POWDERS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE:Administrationfollowing table

  20. Vacuum Attachment for Collection of Lithium Powder ---- Inventor(s) Hans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing systemVacancyVacancy-Induced

  1. Solution based temperature of Perovskite-type oxide films and powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHale, J.M. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Conventional solid state reactions are diffusion limited processes that require high temperatures and long reaction times to reach completion. In this work, several solution based methods were utilized to circumvent this diffusion limited reaction and achieve product formation at lower temperatures. The solution methods studied all have the common goal of trapping the homogeneity inherent in a solution and transferring this homogeneity to the solid state, thereby creating a solid atomic mixture of reactants. These atomic mixtures can yield solid state products through {open_quotes}diffusionless{close_quotes} mechanisms. The effectiveness of atomic mixtures in solid state synthesis was tested on three classes of materials, varying in complexity. A procedure was invented for obtaining the highly water soluble salt, titanyl nitrate, TiO(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, in crystalline form, which allowed the production of titanate materials by freeze drying. The freeze drying procedures yielded phase pure, nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} and the complete SYNROC-B phase assemblage after ten minute heat treatments at 600{degrees}C and 1100{degrees}C, respectively. Two novel methods were developed for the solution based synthesis of Ba{sub 2}YCu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10}. Thin and thick films of Ba{sub 2}YCu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} were synthesized by an atmospheric pressure, chemical vapor deposition technique. Liquid ammonia solutions of metal nitrates were atomized with a stream of N{sub 2}O and ignited with a hydrogen/oxygen torch. The resulting flame was used to coat a substrate with superconducting material. Bulk powders of Ba{sub 2}YCu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} were synthesized through a novel acetate glass method. The materials prepared were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, TGA, DTA, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements.

  2. Solution based synthesis of perovskite-type oxide films and powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHale, J.M. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional solid state reactions are diffusion limited processes that require high temperatures and long reaction times to reach completion. In this work, several solution based methods were utilized to circumvent this diffusion limited reaction and achieve product formation at lower temperatures. The solution methods studied all have the common goal of trapping the homogeneity inherent in a solution and transferring this homogeneity to the solid state, thereby creating a solid atomic mixture of reactants. These atomic mixtures can yield solid state products through diffusionless mechanisms. The effectiveness of atomic mixtures in solid state synthesis was tested on three classes of materials, varying in complexity. A procedure was invented for obtaining the highly water soluble salt, titanyl nitrate, TiO(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, in crystalline form, which allowed the production of titanate materials by freeze drying. The freeze drying procedures yielded phase pure, nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} and the complete SYNROC-B phase assemblage after ten minute heat treatments at 600 C and 1,100 C, respectively. Two novel methods were developed for the solution based synthesis of Ba{sub 2}YCu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10}. Thin and thick films of Ba{sub 2}YCu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} were synthesized by an atmospheric pressure, chemical vapor deposition technique. Liquid ammonia solutions of metal nitrates were atomized with a stream of N{sub 2}O and ignited with a hydrogen/oxygen torch. The resulting flame was used to coat a substrate with superconducting material. Bulk powders of Ba{sub 2}YCu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} were synthesized through a novel acetate glass method. The materials prepared were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, TGA, DTA, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements.

  3. A facile method for nickel catalyst immobilization on ultra fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T.; Wen, G.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Bai, H.W.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-07-15

    A pure nickel coating has been successfully plated on the surface of ultra fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles via a facile electroless plating method. Coating morphology and crystallite size can be tailored by pH values. Dense coating with the maximum crystallite size of 24 nm was obtained at pH 11.0 and porous coating with the minimum crystallite size of 15 nm was obtained at pH value 12.5. The plated powders have been demonstrated to be an effective catalyst for growing boron nitride nanotubes.

  4. Synthesis of nanostructured LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} powder by a Pechini-type polymerizable complex method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariappan, C.R.; Galven, C.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.-P.; Le Berre, F.; Bohnke, O. . E-mail: odile.bohnke@univ-lemans.fr

    2006-02-15

    The nanostructured NASICON-type LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (LTP) material has been synthesized by Pechini-type polymerizable complex method. The use of water-soluble ammonium citratoperoxotitanate (IV) metal complex instead of alkoxides as precursor allows to prepare monophase material. Thermal analyses have been carried out on the powder precursor to check the weight loss and synthesis temperature. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) has been performed on the LTP powder obtained after heating the powder precursor over a temperature range from 550 to 1050 deg. C for 2 h. By varying the molar ratio of citric acid to metal ion (CA/Ti) and citric acid to ethylene glycol (CA/EG), the grain size of the LTP powder could be modified. The formation of small and well-crystalline grains, in the order of 50-125 nm in size, has been determined from the XRD patterns and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 ?g/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 ?g. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 ?g. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  6. Process for production of solution-derived (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O.sub.3 thin films and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A simple and rapid process for synthesizing (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O.sub.3 precursor solutions and subsequent ferroelectric thin films and powders of the perovskite phase of these materials has been developed. This process offers advantages over standard methods, including: rapid solution synthesis (<10 minutes), use of commercially available materials, film production under ambient conditions, ease of lanthanum dissolution at high concentrations, and no heating requirements during solution synthesis. For lanthanum-doped ferroelectric materials, the lanthanum source can be added with total synthesis time less than 10 minutes. Films and powders are crystallized at approximately 650.degree. C. and exhibit ferroelectric properties comparable to films and powders produced by other techniques which require higher crystallization temperatures.

  7. Process for production of solution-derived (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12

    A simple and rapid process for synthesizing (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} precursor solutions and subsequent ferroelectric thin films and powders of the perovskite phase of these materials has been developed. This process offers advantages over standard methods, including: rapid solution synthesis (<10 minutes), use of commercially available materials, film production under ambient conditions, ease of lanthanum dissolution at high concentrations, and no heating requirements during solution synthesis. For lanthanum-doped ferroelectric materials, the lanthanum source can be added with total synthesis time less than 10 minutes. Films and powders are crystallized at approximately 650 C and exhibit ferroelectric properties comparable to films and powders produced by other techniques which require higher crystallization temperatures. 2 figs.

  8. Preparation history and analytical results for synroc powders: hollandite (SO3), nepheline (SO8), and synroc C (SO4, SO5, SO6, SO9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoenig, C.; Otto, R.; Bazan, C.; Rozsa, R.; Owens, J.; Lim, R.; Smith, G.

    1980-11-17

    In this paper, the calculated compositions for three categories of SYNROC powders are recorded and the process by which the powder mixtures are prepared prior to the final hot-pressing step for densification and mineralization is described. The three categories of SYNROC compositions described are: (I) Single phase, which includes the minerals hollandite (SO3) and nepheline (SO8)) (used for cesium leach-rate comparisons in support of our SYNROC D program); (II) SYNROC C three-phase minerals (SO4, SO5, and SO8), which include hollandite, zirconalite, and perovskite; and (III) SYNROC C two-phase minerals (SO9), which include only hollandite and zirconalite. The formulated compositions for all powder mixtures covered in this report are listed.

  9. An investigation on the influence of milling time and calcination temperature on the characterization of nano cerium oxide powder synthesized by mechanochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminzare, M.; Amoozegar, Z.; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of nanosized CeO{sub 2} was carried out using mechanochemical reactions plus sequential calcinations procedure. ? The effect of milling time and calcinations procedure on crystallite size and surface area of the as-synthesized powders was investigated. ? The extended milling times were exposed to result in the smaller crystallite size, and hence higher surface area for the as-synthesized powder. ? Higher calcinations temperatures, on the other hand, led to the as-synthesized powder with a larger crystallite size and therefore, lower surface area. ? Activation energy for nanocrystallite growth was calculated during the calcinations procedure and the aforementioned crystallite growth was found to be conducted in the light of interfacial reactions. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sized CeO{sub 2} powder was investigated via mechanochemical reactions between hydrate cerium chloride and sodium hydroxide as the starting materials. The process was followed by a subsequent calcination procedure. Characterization of as-synthesized powder was performed using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, Brunner–Emmett–Teller (BET) nitrogen gas absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analyzer (PSA). The precursors were milled for different milling times and then were subjected to different heat treatment procedure at variable temperatures from 100 to 700 °C. According to the results, milling time and calcination temperatures induce paramountal effects on crystallite size and surface area of as-synthesized powders. In addition, the average activation energy for the growth of nanocrystals during calcination was determined to be about 12.53 kJ/mol, suggesting the influence of interfacial reactions on the crystallite growth during the calcination procedure.

  10. Ergonomics - Using Ergonomics to Enhance Safe Production at a Surface Coal Mine - A Case Study with Powder Crews

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torma-Krajewski, J.; Wiehagen, W.; Etcheverry, A.; Turin, F.; Unger, R.

    2009-07-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck.

  11. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed.

  12. Observation of localized heating phenomena during microwave heating of mixed powders using in situ x-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabelström, N., E-mail: sabelstrom.n.aa@m.titech.ac.jp; Hayashi, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nagata, K. [Department of Conservation Science, Tokyo University of the Arts, 12-8 Ueno Park, Taito-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    In materials processing research using microwave heating, there have been several observations of various phenomena occurring known as microwave effects. One significant example of such a phenomenon is increased reaction kinetics. It is believed that there is a possibility that this might be caused by localized heating, were some reactants would attain a higher than apparent temperature. To examine whether such thermal gradients are indeed possible, mixed powders of two microwave non-absorbers, alumina and magnesia, were mixed with graphite, a known absorber, and heated in a microwave furnace. During microwave irradiation, the local temperatures of the respective sample constituents were measured using an in situ x-ray diffraction technique. In the case of the alumina and graphite sample, a temperature difference of around 100?°C could be observed.

  13. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  14. Neutron powder diffraction study of phase transitions in Sr{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, W.T. [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: w.fu@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Visser, D. [NWO-Physics, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Knight, K.S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); IJdo, D.J.W. [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    The phase transitions in Sr{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} at high temperature have been studied using high resolution time-of-flight powder neutron diffraction. The room temperature structure of Sr{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} is orthorhombic (Pccn), which can be derived from the tetragonal K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure by tilting the SnO{sub 6} octahedra along the tetragonal [100]{sub T}- and [010]{sub T}-axes with non-equal tilts. At the temperature of about 423K, it transforms to another orthorhombic structure (Bmab) characterized by the SnO{sub 6} octahedral tilt around the [110]{sub T}-axis. At still higher temperatures ({approx}573K) the structure was found to be tetragonal K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type (I4/mmm)

  15. The Potential of Fluidised Powder Target T h l i Hi h P A l tTechnology in High Power Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    The Potential of Fluidised Powder Target T h l i Hi h P A l tTechnology in High Power Accelerator in a few target systems using proton accelerator drivers Material Proton beam energy Power in target k 25000 5x10-9 s Chris Densham #12;Broken graphite targets / samples from existing accelerator

  16. New combustion synthesis technique for the production of (InxGa1-x)2O3 powders: Hydrazine/metal nitrate method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKittrick, Joanna

    New combustion synthesis technique for the production of (InxGa1-x)2O3 powders: Hydrazine. The combustion reaction occurred when heating the precursors between 150 and 200 °C in a closed vessel filled by a more typical combustion synthesis reaction between nitrates and a carbonaceous fuel at a higher

  17. Heterostructured Ceramic Powders for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production: Nanostructured TiO2 Shells Surrounding Microcrystalline (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    Heterostructured Ceramic Powders for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production: Nanostructured TiO2 Shells areas, but had the highest rates of photochemical hydrogen production from water/methanol solu- tions coatings. I. Introduction INTEREST in photochemical hydrogen production began sev- eral decades ago upon

  18. Flow of wet powder in a conical centrifugal filter--an analytical model A.F.M. Bizard, D.D. Symons n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Symons, Digby

    Flow of wet powder in a conical centrifugal filter--an analytical model A.F.M. Bizard, D.D. Symons 14 August 2011 Available online 25 August 2011 Keywords: Centrifugation Filtration Laminar flow the wall of the cone along a generator under centrifugal force, which also forces the fluid out of the cone

  19. Inferring orientation distributions in anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites from a single two-dimensional WAXS image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yves Meheust; Kenneth Dahl Knudsen; Jon Otto Fossum

    2006-02-01

    The wide-angle scattering of X-rays by anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites (nano-stacks) is addressed. Assuming that the orientation distribution probability function f of the nano-stacks only depends on the deviation of the crystallites' orientation from a fixed reference direction, we derive a relation providing f from the dependence of a given diffraction peak's amplitude on the azimuthal angle. The method is applied to two systems of Na-fluorohectorite (NaFH) clay particles, using synchrotron radiation and a WAXS setup with a two-dimensional detector. In the first system, which consists of dry-pressed NaFH samples, the orientation distribution probability function corresponds to a classical uniaxial nematic order. The second system is observed in bundles of polarized NaFH particles in silicon oil; in this case, the nanostacks have their directors on average in a plane normal to the reference direction, and f is a function of the angle between a nano-stack's director and that plane. In both cases, a suitable Maier-Saupe function is obtained for the distributions, and the reference direction is determined with respect to the laboratory frame. The method only requires one scattering image. Besides, consistency can be checked by determining the orientation distribution from several diffraction peaks independently.

  20. Comparison of NDA and DA measurement techniques for excess plutonium powders at the Hanford Site: Statistical design and heterogeneity testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welsh, T.L.; McRae, L.P.; Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Liebetrau, A.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, W.C. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States); Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Xiao, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative physical measurements are a n component of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear material m&guards verification regime. In December 1994, LA.FA safeguards were initiated on an inventory of excess plutonium powder items at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Vault 3, on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The material originl from the US nuclear weapons complex. The diversity of the chemical form and the heterogenous physical form of this inventory were anticipated to challenge the precision and accuracy of quantitative destructive analytical techniques. A sampling design was used to estimate the degree of heterogeneity of the plutonium content of a variety of inventory items. Plutonium concentration, the item net weight, and the {sup 240}Pu content were among the variables considered in the design. Samples were obtained from randomly selected location within each item. Each sample was divided into aliquots and analyzed chemically. Operator measurements by calorimetry and IAEA measurements by coincident neutron nondestructive analysis also were performed for the initial physical inventory verification materials and similar items not yet under IAEA safeguards. The heterogeneity testing has confirmed that part of the material is indeed significantly heterogeneous; this means that precautionary measures must be taken to obtain representative samples for destructive analysis. In addition, the sampling variability due to material heterogeneity was found to be comparable with, or greater than, the variability of the operator`s calorimetric measurements.

  1. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-060-1670, City of Norwood, Norwood, Ohio. [Toner powder exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhe, R.L.; Bennett, D.

    1986-02-01

    Following a request from the Health Commissioner of Norwood, Ohio, employee exposure to toner powder used in Norwood Senior High Media Center photocopying machine was investigated. Personal and area air samples for total particulates were collected on preweighed filters and total sample weights determined. Indicator tube sampling was done for carbon monoxide and ozone. Medical interviews were conducted with three media center workers to elicit work related symptomatology. Exposure to total particulate ranged from less than the detection limit to 0.02 mg/m/sup 3/. Carbon monoxide and ozone were nondetectable. Two employees reported no symptoms associated with work. After operating the copy machine for 3 weeks, the third employee developed hives on both hands progressing to the earlobes and right cheek. Her condition improved on weekends. She also had a cough and shortness of breath when working with the duplicator. No positive response to patch testing was seen, but the employee developed cough, tearing eyes, and itching 2 hours after patch application. The authors conclude that one employee suffered an allergic reaction precipitated by materials inhaled in the duplicator area. It is recommended that this employee not use this machine, and improved ventilation be provided for the entire media center.

  2. Development of Powder Diffraction Analysis Tools for aNanocrystalline Specimen: An Emphasis upon NiTi (Nitinol)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, Erich; /Albion Coll. /SLAC

    2006-08-30

    Powder diffraction is a specialized technique whose investigatory limits are constrained by the scale of the crystallized substance being scanned versus the probe beam used. When disparate in scale, with the photon spot size larger than the crystal being probed, many are employed, the resulting diffraction image being cast from all possible incident angles, constructing {chi}-arcs containing information about the crystalline structure of the material under examination. Of particular interest to our collaboration is the structure of Nitinol, a superelastic Nickel-Titanium alloy, whose phase transformations and load bearing deformations can be studied by usage of diffraction, with wide sweeping biomedical uses. Analysis of this data is complicated by phase transformation and material fluorescence, which make difficult the computational modeling of the peaks within concentric {chi}-arcs. We endeavored to construct a series of computational tools (the amalgamation of them known as 2DPeakFinder) for refining and extracting this relevant data, toward the end of employing previously developed algorithms in the material's structural analysis. We succeeded to a large degree with the use of an iterative algorithm to navigate radial complexity of the signal and manage to retain a distinction between useful signal and superfluous background noise. The tools developed in this project are a small step in readily streamlining the analysis and physical modeling of a Nanocrystalline material's structural properties.

  3. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical waste water with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). One technology that was evaluated was powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to an activated-sludge system (PACT*). A viscous floating mass of mixed-liquor solids (VFMLS) developed in the PACT units and resulted in premature termination of the study. The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical waste water using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  4. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  5. Standard test method for the determination of uranium by ignition and the oxygen to uranium (O/U) atomic ratio of nuclear grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.2 This test method does not include provisions for preventing criticality accidents or requirements for health and safety. Observance of this test method does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all international, national, or federal, state and local regulations pertaining to possessing, shipping, processing, or using source or special nuclear material. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This test method also is applicable to UO3 and U3O8 powder.

  6. Zero discharge organic coatings, powder paint - UV curable paint - E-coat. Appendixes. Volume 2. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    ZDOC project funded under the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) includes an effort to evaluate and develop infrared curing techniques for powder coatings. IR curing is attractive because of increased throughput as compared to conventional thermal methods, and because it may offer certain advantages in specific applications. For example, IR curing might lead to less substrate heating, which is a concern with some high-performance materials (such as aluminum in heat-sensitive tempers) used in industry.

  7. Doping and electronic properties of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport from powder sources for scalable III–V photovoltaics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ritenour, Andrew J.; Boucher, Jason W.; DeLancey, Robert; Greenaway, Ann L.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2014-09-01

    We report the use of a simple close-spaced vapor transport technique for the growth of high-quality epitaxial GaAs films using potentially inexpensive GaAs powders as precursors. The free carrier type and density (1016 to 1019 cm–3) of the films were adjusted by addition of Te or Zn powder to the GaAs source powder. We show using photoelectrochemical and electron beam-induced current analyses that the minority carrier diffusion lengths of the n- and p-GaAs films reached ~3 ?m and ~8 ?m, respectively. Hall mobilities approach those achieved for GaAs grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, 1000–4200 cm2 V–1 s–1 for n-GaAsmore »and 50–240 cm V–1 s–1 for p-GaAs depending on doping level. We conclude that the electronic quality of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport is similar to that of GaAs made using conventional techniques and is thus sufficient for high-performance photovoltaic applications.« less

  8. Doping and electronic properties of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport from powder sources for scalable III–V photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritenour, Andrew J.; Boucher, Jason W.; DeLancey, Robert; Greenaway, Ann L.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2014-09-01

    We report the use of a simple close-spaced vapor transport technique for the growth of high-quality epitaxial GaAs films using potentially inexpensive GaAs powders as precursors. The free carrier type and density (1016 to 1019 cm–3) of the films were adjusted by addition of Te or Zn powder to the GaAs source powder. We show using photoelectrochemical and electron beam-induced current analyses that the minority carrier diffusion lengths of the n- and p-GaAs films reached ~3 ?m and ~8 ?m, respectively. Hall mobilities approach those achieved for GaAs grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, 1000–4200 cm2 V–1 s–1 for n-GaAs and 50–240 cm V–1 s–1 for p-GaAs depending on doping level. We conclude that the electronic quality of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport is similar to that of GaAs made using conventional techniques and is thus sufficient for high-performance photovoltaic applications.

  9. Apparatus for coating powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  10. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  11. Study of the microstructure of plasma sprayed coatings obtained from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–13TiO{sub 2} nanostructured and conventional powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Góral, A.; ?órawski, W.; Lity?ska-Dobrzy?ska, L.

    2014-10-15

    The microstructure of coatings obtained from nanostructured or conventional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–13TiO{sub 2} powders and deposited by plasma spraying technique on low-carbon steel was examined by transmission electron microscopy techniques. The dominating phase in both coatings was ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. It has been observed that the grains of ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grew in various shapes and sizes, that are particularly visible in the case of coating sprayed from nanostructured powder. The coatings obtained from the fully melted conventional powders exhibited a typical lamellar microstructure, into which the strips of TiO{sub 2} phase were extended. The microstructure of coatings produced from agglomerates of nanostructured particles also revealed the regions consisting of partially melted ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders surrounded by the net-like structure formed from fully melted oxides that improved the coating properties. Along with the observed morphology diversity some changes in the chemical composition on the cross sections of obtained coatings have been also noticed. - Highlights: • Plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–13TiO{sub 2} coatings reveal diversity of microstructure. • Microstructure of conventional coating was formed from fully melted crushed powders. • Nanostructured coating contains completely and partially melted initial agglomerates.

  12. A versatile elevated-pressure reactor combined with an ultrahigh vacuum surface setup for efficient testing of model and powder catalysts under clean gas-phase conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morfin, Franck; Piccolo, Laurent [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)] [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-09-15

    A small-volume reaction cell for catalytic or photocatalytic testing of solid materials at pressures up to 1000 Torr has been coupled to a surface-science setup used for standard sample preparation and characterization under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The reactor and sample holder designs allow easy sample transfer from/to the UHV chamber, and investigation of both planar and small amounts of powder catalysts under the same conditions. The sample is heated with an infrared laser beam and its temperature is measured with a compact pyrometer. Combined in a regulation loop, this system ensures fast and accurate temperature control as well as clean heating. The reaction products are automatically sampled and analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or gas chromatography (GC). Unlike previous systems, our GC apparatus does not use a recirculation loop and allows working in clean conditions at pressures as low as 1 Torr while detecting partial pressures smaller than 10{sup ?4} Torr. The efficiency and versatility of the reactor are demonstrated in the study of two catalytic systems: butadiene hydrogenation on Pd(100) and CO oxidation over an AuRh/TiO{sub 2} powder catalyst.

  13. Rietveld Analysis of X-ray Powder Diffraction Patterns as a Potential Tool for the Identification of Impact-deformed Carbonate Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huson, Sarah A.; Foit, Franklin F.; Watkinson, A. J.; Pope, Michael C.

    2009-11-01

    Previous X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that shock deformed carbonates and quartz have broader XRD patterns than those of unshocked samples. Entire XRD patterns, single peak profiles and Rietveld refined parameters of carbonate samples from the Sierra Madera impact crater, west Texas, unshocked equivalent samples from 95 miles north of the crater and the Mission Canyon Formation of southwest Montana and western Wyoming were used to evaluate the use of X-ray powder diffraction as a potential tool for distinguishing impact deformed rocks from unshocked and tectonically deformed rocks. At Sierra Madera dolostone and limestone samples were collected from the crater rim (lower shock intensity) and the central uplift (higher shock intensity). Unshocked equivalent dolostone samples were collected from well cores drilled outside of the impact crater. Carbonate rocks of the Mission Canyon Formation were sampled along a transect across the tectonic front of the Sevier and Laramide orogenic belts. Whereas calcite subjected to significant shock intensities at the Sierra Madera impact crater can be differentiated from tectonically deformed calcite from the Mission Canyon Formation using Rietveld refined peak profiles, weakly shocked calcite from the crater rim appears to be indistinguishable from the tectonically deformed calcite. In contrast, Rietveld analysis readily distinguishes shocked Sierra Madera dolomite from unshocked equivalent dolostone samples from outside the crater and tectonically deformed Mission Canyon Formation dolomite.

  14. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  15. Active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining powder metallurgically made stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, L.; Haenninen, H.; Paro, J.; Kauppinen, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of both TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining stainless steels made by powder metallurgy in low and high cutting speed ranges, respectively, have been investigated. Abrasive wear mechanisms, fatigue-induced failure, and adhesive and diffusion wear mechanisms mainly affected the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools at cutting speeds below 35 m/min, between 35 and 45 m/min, and over 45 m/min, respectively. Additionally, fatigue-induced failure was active at cutting speeds over 45 m/min in the low cutting speed range when machining powder metallurgically made duplex stainless steel 2205 and austenitic stainless steel 316L. In the high cutting speed range, from 100 to 250 m/min, fatigue-induced failure together with diffusion wear mechanism, affected the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining both 316L and 2205 stainless steels. It was noticed that the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools used in the low cutting speed range when machining 2205 steel was longer than that when machining 316L steel, whereas the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools used in the high cutting speed range when machining 316L steel was longer than that when machining 2205 steel.

  16. Cooperative upconversion luminescence in Tb{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} powders prepared by combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakov, Nikifor, E-mail: nikifor.gomez@univasf.edu.br [PG - Ciência dos Materiais, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, 48902-300 Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Vieira, Simone A. [PG - Ciência dos Materiais, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, 48902-300 Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Renato B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Maciel, Glauco S., E-mail: glauco@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Frequency upconversion (UC) luminescence via cooperative energy transfer (CET) process between pairs of Yb{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions was investigated in Tb{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystalline ceramic powders prepared by combustion synthesis. Surface morphology and structure of the powders were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Photoluminescence experiments were performed in Tb{sup 3+}-singly doped samples using ultraviolet light (?=255 nm) and in Tb{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+} co-doped samples using a near-infrared (NIR) diode laser (?=975 nm). Upon excitation with the NIR diode laser, UC luminescence with an intense emission band centered at ?549 nm, corresponding to the 4f intraband {sup 5}D{sub 4}?{sup 7}F{sub 5} transition of Tb{sup 3+}, along with less intense emission bands at ?490, ?590 and ?620 nm, corresponding to other {sup 5}D{sub 4}?{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions, was detected. The CET rate was estimated by analyzing the dynamics of UC luminescence with rate equations model of the electronic populations. -- Graphical Abstract: Left: Cooperative upconversion luminescence spectra of three powder samples prepared by combustion synthesis. Right: The SEM image of the powder showing that it consists of agglomerated flake-like shaped particles of various sizes. Full scale bar is 20 ?m. Highlights: • Yttrium orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) powders were prepared by combustion synthesis. • Cooperative upconversion is observed for the first time in Tb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}. • Energy transfer and back-transfer rates between Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} pairs were estimated.

  17. Lithium cobalt(II) pyrophosphate, Li[subscript 1.86]CoP[subscript 2]O[subscript 7], from synchrotron X-ray powder data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hui; Upreti, Shailesh; Chernova, Natasha A.; Whittingham, M.Stanley

    2015-10-15

    Structure refinement of high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction data of the title compound gave the composition Li{sub 1.865}CoP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which is also verified by the ICP measurement. Two Co sites exist in the structure: one is a CoO{sub 5} square pyramid and the other is a CoO{sub 6} octahedron. They share edges and are further interconnected through P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups, forming a three-dimensional framework, which exhibits different kinds of intersecting tunnels containing Li cations and could be of great interest in Li ion battery chemistry. The structure also exhibits cation disorder with 13.5% Co residing at the lithium (Li1) site. Co seems to have an average oxidation state of 2.135, as obtained from the strutural stochiometry that closely supports the magnetic susceptibility findings.

  18. "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering With Room Temperature Polymer Infiltration," Z. He, Y. Kim, M. Kokkengada and J. G. Zhou, Proceedings of the Tenth Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jack

    methods used in rapid tooling such as high temperature caused cracks, distortion, shrinkage and poor as in RapidSteel) or casting the mixture of metal powder and polymer binder (such as in Keltool, NCC Tooling will have a linear shrinkage of 2%-5%. The shrinkage depends mainly on two factors. First is the temperature

  19. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    entirely from steam-induced heavy oil production in Cali-from Venezuela’s extra-heavy oil reached about 0.6 Mbbl/d inliquid fuels. Heavy and extra-heavy oil are very viscous and

  20. ,"AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of

  1. ,"AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption ofNatural Gas Underground Storage Volume

  2. ,"AGA Producing Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption ofNatural Gas Underground Storage

  3. ,"AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption ofNatural Gas Underground StorageNatural Gas

  4. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption ofNatural

  5. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total

  6. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.

  7. ,"East Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next ReleaseTotal StocksNatural Gas

  8. ,"East Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next ReleaseTotal StocksNatural

  9. ,"Eastern Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next ReleaseTotal

  10. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next

  11. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015"

  12. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"

  13. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release

  14. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolume

  15. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolumeMonthly","10/2015"

  16. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolumeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015"

  17. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015"

  18. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Residential Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release

  19. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release

  20. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"